A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617
Borges, Juliana Pereira; Lessa, Marcos Adriano
Background Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions. PMID:25830711
Brown, David K.
Depicts a useful participatory exercise in teaching Erving Goffman's dramaturgical sociology by drawing upon his essay about embarrassment and social organization. Argues the need to devise new ways to involve students in sociological theorists' insights. (Author/KDR)
Wakaizumi, Kenta; Kondo, Takashige; Hamada, Yusuke; Narita, Michiko; Kawabe, Rui; Narita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Moe; Kato, Shigeki; Senba, Emiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamanaka, Akihiro
Background Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia. Methods In the present study, we developed a protocol of treadmill exercise, which was able to recover pain threshold under partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice, and investigated involvement of the dopaminergic reward network in exercise-induced hypoalgesia. To temporally suppress a neural activation during exercise, a genetically modified inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor, hM4Di, was specifically expressed on dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. Results The chemogenetic-specific neural suppression by Gi-DREADD system dramatically offset the effect of exercise-induced hypoalgesia in transgenic mice with hM4Di expressed on the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Additionally, anti-exercise-induced hypoalgesia effect was significantly observed under the suppression of neurons projecting out of the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens as well. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens is involved in the anti-nociception under low-intensity exercise under a neuropathic pain-like state. PMID:27909152
Chieffi, Sergio; Messina, Giovanni; Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Esposito, Maria; Monda, Vincenzo; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino
In the present article, we provide a brief review of current knowledge regarding the effects induced by physical exercise on hippocampus. Research involving animals and humans supports the view that physical exercise, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and function, improves cognition, and regulates mood. These beneficial effects depend on the contribute of more factors including the enhancement of vascularization and upregulation of growth factors. Among these, the BDNF seems to play a significant role. Another putative factor that might contribute to beneficial effects of exercise is the orexin-A. In support of this hypothesis there are the following observations: (1) orexin-A enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and function and (2) the levels of orexin-A increase with physical exercise. The beneficial effects of exercise may represent an important resource to hinder the cognitive decline associated with the aging-related hippocampal deterioration and ameliorate depressive symptoms. PMID:28261108
Meyer, C. D., Jr.
The objective was to try to develop a useful numerical algorithm for the Drazin inverse and to analyze the numerical aspects of the applications of the Drazin inverse relating to the study of homogeneous Markov chains and systems of linear differential equations with singular coefficient matrices. It is felt that all objectives were accomplished with a measurable degree of success.
Bahraseman, Hg; Hassani, K; Khosravi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Espino, Dm; Fatouraee, N; Kazemi-Saleh, D
Computational simulations have the potential to aid understanding of cardiovascular hemodynamics under physiological conditions, including exercise. Therefore, blood hemodynamic parameters during different heart rates, rest and exercise have been investigated, using a numerical method. A model was developed for a healthy subject. Using geometrical data acquired by echo-Doppler, a two-dimensional model of the chamber of aortic sinus valsalva and aortic root was created. Systolic ventricular and aortic pressures were applied as boundary conditions computationally. These pressures were the initial physical conditions applied to the model to predict valve deformation and changes in hemodynamics. They were the clinically measured brachial pressures plus differences between brachial, central and left ventricular pressures. Echocardiographic imaging was also used to acquire different ejection times, necessary for pressure waveform equations of blood flow during exercise. A fluid-structure interaction simulation was performed, using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian mesh. During exercise, peak vorticity increased by 14.8%, peak shear rate by 15.8%, peak cell Reynolds number by 20%, peak leaflet tip velocity increased by 47% and the blood velocity increased by 3% through the leaflets, whereas full opening time decreased by 11%. Our results show that numerical methods can be combined with clinical measurements to provide good estimates of patient-specific hemodynamics at different heart rates.
The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long
Amaral, S L; Papanek, P E; Greene, A S
Results from our laboratory have suggested a pathway involving angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis induced by electrical stimulation. The present study investigated if similar mechanisms underlie the angiogenesis induced by short-term exercise training. Seven days before training and throughout the training period, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either captopril or losartan in their drinking water. Rats underwent a 3-day treadmill training protocol. The tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested under anesthesia and lightly fixed in formalin (vessel density) or frozen in liquid nitrogen (VEGF expression). In controls, treadmill training resulted in a significant increase in vessel density in all muscles studied. However, the angiogenesis induced by exercise was completely blocked by either losartan or captopril. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF expression was increased in the exercised control group, and both losartan and captopril blocked this increase. The role of VEGF was directly confirmed using a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. These results confirm the role of angiotensin II and VEGF in angiogenesis induced by exercise.
Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah
A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups with different physical activity levels. The height and weight of respondents were measured using the Seca weighing balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular regions, and suprailiac regions of each respondent were measured using Harpenden skinfold calipers. Percentage body fat was calculated as the sum of the four measurements of skinfold thickness. The results showed that the mean (± SD) BMIs in the athlete, exercise, and sedentary groups were 22.6 ± 2.9, 23.4 ± 3.5, and 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.029.9) and obese (BMI ³ 30.0) subjects was 21.7% in the athlete group, 29.9% in the exercise group, and 47.5% in the sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower than in the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities, have lower BMIs and percentage body fat values compared to sedentary people. Therefore, to prevent obesity, all individuals are encouraged to perform regular physical activity, particularly sports activities.
This study examines whether student performance predictors in a numerically based lecture course are similar to those for the web version of the same course. A numerically based course involves quantitative concepts and requires mathematical calculations. Data were collected from students taking a financial management class at a medium sized state…
Rindom, Emil; Vissing, Kristian
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion. Recent findings suggest specific upstream exercise-induced mechano-sensitive myocellular signaling pathways to converge on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), to influence MPS. This may e.g. implicate mechanical activation of signaling through a diacylglycerol kinase (DGKζ)-phosphatidic acid (PA) axis or implicate integrin deformation to signal through a Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2)-Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) axis. Moreover, since initiation of translation is reliant on mRNA, it is also relevant to consider potentially mechanosensitive signaling pathways involved in muscle myofibrillar gene transcription and whether some of these pathways converge with those affecting mTORC1 activation for MPS. In this regard, recent findings suggest how mechanical stress may implicate integrin deformation and/or actin dynamics to signal through a Ras homolog gene family member A protein (RhoA)-striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) axis or implicate deformation of Notch to affect Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling through a small mother of decapentaplegic (Smad) axis. PMID:27909410
Rindom, Emil; Vissing, Kristian
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion. Recent findings suggest specific upstream exercise-induced mechano-sensitive myocellular signaling pathways to converge on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), to influence MPS. This may e.g. implicate mechanical activation of signaling through a diacylglycerol kinase (DGKζ)-phosphatidic acid (PA) axis or implicate integrin deformation to signal through a Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2)-Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) axis. Moreover, since initiation of translation is reliant on mRNA, it is also relevant to consider potentially mechanosensitive signaling pathways involved in muscle myofibrillar gene transcription and whether some of these pathways converge with those affecting mTORC1 activation for MPS. In this regard, recent findings suggest how mechanical stress may implicate integrin deformation and/or actin dynamics to signal through a Ras homolog gene family member A protein (RhoA)-striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) axis or implicate deformation of Notch to affect Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling through a small mother of decapentaplegic (Smad) axis.
... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...
Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki
Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes, a source of lactate as a neuronal energy source, decreases during prolonged exercise with hypoglycemia. However, brain glycogen dynamics during exercise without hypoglycemia remain unknown. Since intense exercise increases brain noradrenaline and serotonin as known inducers for brain glycogenolysis, we hypothesized that brain glycogen decreases with intense exercise not accompanied by hypoglycemia. To test this hypothesis, we employed a well-established acute intense exercise model of swimming in rats. Rats swam for fourteen 20 s bouts with a weight equal to 8 % of their body mass and were sacrificed using high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation to inactivate brain enzymes for accurate detection of brain glycogen and monoamines. Intense exercise did not alter blood glucose, but did increase blood lactate levels. Immediately after exercise, brain glycogen decreased and brain lactate increased in the hippocampus, cerebellum, cortex, and brainstem. Simultaneously, serotonin turnover in the hippocampus and brainstem mutually increased and were associated with decreased brain glycogen. Intense swimming exercise that does not induce hypoglycemia decreases brain glycogen associated with increased brain lactate, implying an importance of glycogen in brain energetics during intense exercise even without hypoglycemia. Activated serotonergic regulation is a possible underlying mechanism for intense exercise-induced glycogenolysis at least in the hippocampus and brainstem.
Lampropoulou, Sofia; Nowicky, Alexander V
The aim of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the numerical rating scale (0-10 NRS) for rating perception of effort during isometric elbow flexion in healthy people. 33 individuals (32 ± 8 years) participated in the study. Three re-test measurements within one session and three weekly sessions were undertaken to determine the reliability of the scale. The sensitivity of the scale following 10 min isometric fatiguing exercise of the elbow flexors as well as the correlation of the effort with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the flexor muscles were tested. Perception of effort was tested during isometric elbow flexion at 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% MVC. The 0-10 NRS demonstrated an excellent test-retest reliability [intra class correlation (ICC) = 0.99 between measurements taken within a session and 0.96 between 3 consecutive weekly sessions]. Exploratory curve fitting for the relationship between effort ratings and voluntary force, and underlying EMG showed that both are best described by power functions (y = ax ( b )). There were also strong correlations (range 0.89-0.95) between effort ratings and EMG recordings of all flexor muscles supporting the concurrent criterion validity of the measure. The 0-10 NRS was sensitive enough to detect changes in the perceived effort following fatigue and significantly increased at the level of voluntary contraction used in its assessment (p < 0.001). These findings suggest the 0-10 NRS is a valid and reliable scale for rating perception of effort in healthy individuals. Future research should seek to establish the validity of the 0-10 NRS in clinical settings.
Geng, Xiao; Zhao, Honglin; Zhang, Shumiao; Li, Juan; Tian, Fei; Feng, Na; Fan, Rong; Jia, Min; Guo, Haitao; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Jincheng; Chen, Wensheng; Pei, Jianming
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise training elicited a cardioprotective effect against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) via the κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR)-mediated signaling pathway. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, the moderate intensity exercise (ME) group, the high intensity exercise (HE) group, and the acute exercise (AE) group. For the exercise training protocols, the rats were subjected to one week of adaptive treadmill training, while from the second week, the ME and HE groups were subjected to eight weeks of exercise training, and the AE group was subjected to three days of adaptive treadmill training and one day of vigorous exercise. After these protocols, the three exercise training groups were divided into different treatment groups, and the rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Changes in infarct size and serum cTnT (cardiac troponin T) caused by I/R were reduced by exercise training. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction caused by I/R was also alleviated by exercise training. These effects of exercise training were reversed by nor-BNI (a selective κ-OR antagonist), Compound C (a selective AMPK inhibitor), Akt inhibitor and L-NAME (a non-selective eNOS inhibitor). Expression of κ-OR and phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and eNOS were significantly increased in the ME, HE and AE groups. These findings demonstrated that the cardioprotective effect of exercise training is possibly mediated by the κ-OR-AMPK-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.
Li, Juan; Tian, Fei; Feng, Na; Fan, Rong; Jia, Min; Guo, Haitao; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Jincheng; Chen, Wensheng; Pei, Jianming
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise training elicited a cardioprotective effect against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) via the κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR)-mediated signaling pathway. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, the moderate intensity exercise (ME) group, the high intensity exercise (HE) group, and the acute exercise (AE) group. For the exercise training protocols, the rats were subjected to one week of adaptive treadmill training, while from the second week, the ME and HE groups were subjected to eight weeks of exercise training, and the AE group was subjected to three days of adaptive treadmill training and one day of vigorous exercise. After these protocols, the three exercise training groups were divided into different treatment groups, and the rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Changes in infarct size and serum cTnT (cardiac troponin T) caused by I/R were reduced by exercise training. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction caused by I/R was also alleviated by exercise training. These effects of exercise training were reversed by nor-BNI (a selective κ-OR antagonist), Compound C (a selective AMPK inhibitor), Akt inhibitor and L-NAME (a non-selective eNOS inhibitor). Expression of κ-OR and phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and eNOS were significantly increased in the ME, HE and AE groups. These findings demonstrated that the cardioprotective effect of exercise training is possibly mediated by the κ-OR-AMPK-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:28301473
Lammers, Gerwen; van Duijnhoven, Noortje T L; Hoenderop, Joost G; Horstman, Astrid M; de Haan, Arnold; Janssen, Thomas W J; de Graaf, Mark J J; Pardoel, Elisabeth M; Verwiel, Eugène T P; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopman, Maria T E
Physical inactivity and exercise training result in opposite adaptations of vascular structure. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these adaptations are not completely understood. We used a unique study design to examine both vascular characteristics of the superficial femoral artery (using ultrasound) and gene expression levels (from a muscle biopsy) in human models for physical deconditioning and exercise training. Initially, we compared able-bodied control subjects (n = 6) with spinal cord-injured individuals (n = 8) to assess the effects of long-term deconditioning. Subsequently, able-bodied control subjects underwent short-term lower limb deconditioning using 3 weeks of unilateral limb suspension. Spinal cord-injured individuals were examined before and after 6 weeks of functional electrical stimulation exercise training. Baseline femoral artery diameter and hyperaemic flow were lower after short- and long-term deconditioning and higher after exercise training, whilst intima-media thickness/lumen ratio was increased with short- and long-term deconditioning and decreased with exercise training. Regarding gene expression levels of vasculature-related genes, we found that groups of genes including the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway, transforming growth factor β1 and extracellular matrix proteins were strongly associated with vascular adaptations in humans. This approach resulted in the identification of important genes that may be involved in vascular adaptations after physical deconditioning and exercise.
Hu, Xiaofei; Duan, Zhigui; Hu, Hui; Li, Guolin; Yan, Siyu; Wu, Jinfeng; Wang, Jun; Yin, Dazhong; Xie, Qingji
To screen target proteins of oxidative stress which mediate the effects of exercise on preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the methods for selecting carbonylated proteins were modified, and carbonylated proteins were profiled. The results showed that treadmill training reduced oxidative stress and the levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG). The changes in IHTG showed a significant positive correlation with oxidative stress as indicated by malondialdehyde level. Further results from proteomics illustrated that 17 functional proteins were susceptible to oxidative modification, and exercise protected three proteins from carbonylation. The latter three proteins may serve as both direct target proteins of oxidative stress and mediators contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise. In particular, a long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL) which was a key enzyme in lipid metabolism was not carbonylated and with higher activities in exercise group. These findings indicate that this modified technique is practical and powerful in selecting carbonylated proteins. Long-term treadmill training is effective in ameliorating oxidative stress and preventing the accumulation of IHTG. Among the 17 target proteins of oxidative modification, three proteins contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. Preventing ACADL from carbonylation may be involved in the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NAFLD improvement.
Raley, R Kelly; Sullivan, M Kate
This research explores white-black differences in adolescent heterosexual romantic involvement and how these differences are shaped by social context. We find that, parallel to patterns of marriage in adulthood, Non-Hispanic white girls are more likely to be in a romantic relationship than African American girls. This is particularly true when we focus on heterosexual romantic relationships formed with schoolmates. Among boys, African Americans are more likely to be romantically involved than Non-Hispanic whites. We investigate the contribution of two broad types of social-demographic factors to these race-ethnic differences, population composition and normative climate. We develop theory about why being a numerical minority should lead to lower levels of relationship formation, especially when interracial relationships are rare. Results support the population composition hypotheses but not the idea that race-ethnic differences arise because of differences in normative climate.
Rongen, G A; van Dijk, J P; van Ginneken, E E; Stegeman, D F; Smits, P; Zwarts, M J
This study was performed to test two hypotheses: (1) ischaemic preconditioning (development of tolerance to ischaemia) influences muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) during repeated ischaemic isometric exercise and (2) the increase in MFCV to supranormal levels during recovery from ischaemic exercise is caused by activation of Na+−K+-ATPase. For this purpose, MFCV was measured with surface electromyography (sEMG) during repeated ischaemic isometric exercise of the brachioradial muscle (2 min at 30 % of maximal voluntary contraction). The involvement of ischaemic preconditioning was tested by changing the duration of ischaemia and by intra-arterial infusion of adenosine (brachial artery, 50 μg min−1 dl−1). The role of Na+−K+-ATPase was explored using ouabain (0.2 μg min−1 dl−1). During the exercise, MFCV decreased from 4.4 ± 0.2 m s−1 to 3.7 ± 0.2 m s−1 (P < 0.01, n = 13). Similar reductions in MFCV were observed during repeated exercise, irrespective of the reperfusion time (10 min vs. 18 min) or duration of the ischaemia (2 vs. 10 min). However, initial MFCV gradually increased for each subsequent contraction when contractions were repeated at 10 min intervals (4.4 ± 0.2 m s−1vs. 4.9 ± 0.2 m s−1 for the first and fourth contraction respectively; P < 0.01; n = 13). This increase was not observed when contractions were performed at 18 min intervals, nor when additional ischaemia was applied. Intra-arterial adenosine did not affect MFCV. Intra-arterial ouabain did not affect the reduction in MFCV during exercise but completely prevented the increase in MFCV during recovery: from 4.7 ± 0.2 m s−1 to 5.2 ± 0.2 m s−1vs. 4.5 ± 0.1 m s−1 to 4.5 ± 0.1 m s−1 in the absence and presence of ouabain respectively (P < 0.05 for ouabain effect; n = 6). In conclusion, ischaemic preconditioning is not involved in changes in MFCV during repeated ischaemic isometric exercise. The increase in MFCV during recovery from repeated ischaemic
Soddell, J. A.; Seviour, R. J.
Describes an exercise which uses a computer program (written for Commodore 64 microcomputers) that accepts data obtained from identifying bacteria, calculates similarity coefficients, and performs single linkage cluster analysis. Includes a program for simulating bacterial cultures for students who should not handle pathogenic microorganisms. (JN)
Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.
Effective numerical treatment of multicomponent viscous flow problems involving the advection of sharp interfaces between materials of differing physical properties requires correction techniques to prevent spurious diffusion and dispersion. We develop a particular algorithm, based on modern shock-capture techniques, employing a two-step nonlinear method. The first step involves the global application of a high-order upwind scheme to a hyperbolic advection equation used to model the distribution of distinct material components in a flow field. The second step is corrective and involves the application of a global filter designed to remove dispersion errors that result from the advection of discontinuities (e.g., material interfaces) by high-order, minimally dissipative schemes. The filter introduces no additional diffusion error. Nonuniform viscosity across a material interface is allowed for by the implementation of a compositionally weighted-inverse interface viscosity scheme. The combined method approaches the optimal accuracy of modern shock-capture techniques with a minimal increase in computational time and memory. A key advantage of this method is its simplicity to incorporate into preexisting codes be they finite difference, element, or volume of two or three dimensions.
Casares, R.; Marino-Tapia, I.
Coastal lagoons are subjected to physical forces that make them vulnerable to climate change and human intervention. The karstic geology along the coastal zone of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, forces groundwater to discharge in the sea and coastal lagoons through underground conduits that can form small but numerous and scattered underwater springs. These freshwater inputs, along with other physical forces like ocean tides and meteorological events, can have a significant effect on the circulation and residence times in coastal lagoons. Climate change consequences such as sea level rise and changing rain patterns, as well as the increasing human impact, can cause or aggravate certain environmental effects. Since coastal lagoons provide important environmental services there is a need to understand and have predictive capability to simulate the transport processes and the forces acting on them. The present study was carried out in the coastal lagoon of Celestun, located at NW Yucatan Peninsula, a region of karstic geology. The aim of this research is to understand the barotropic hydrodynamic functioning of this shallow system, taking into account the oceanographical, meteorological and hydrological forcing. Emphasis is made on the residence times in different parts of the lagoon, and the effects of freshwater inputs. For the detailed understanding of the processes the hydrodynamic numerical model DELFT3D was implemented. The model was validated with data gathered on the field during two intensive oceanographic campaigns, which included installation of CTDs and acoustic current meters at strategic sites distributed in the system, and detailed bathymetric measurements using an echosounder coupled with a differential GPS on board of a motorboat. In order to improve model performance a sensitivity analysis to the main variables involved in the model was carried out, among them: the size of the grid cells, grid depth, time step, friction coefficients, boundary conditions
Vogel, Stephan E; Grabner, Roland H; Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S; Ansari, Daniel
How are numerical and non-numerical magnitudes processed in the brain? Brain imaging research, primarily using comparison paradigms (i.e. judging which of two magnitudes is larger), has provided strong evidence demonstrating that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a key region for processing both numerical (e.g. Arabic numerals, arrays of dots) and non-numerical magnitudes (e.g. height, brightness). These studies have suggested that there is both activation overlap and segregation in the brain regions involved in processing different dimensions of magnitude. In the present functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, we extended this line of investigation by probing the brain mechanisms underlying the mapping of numerical (Arabic numerals) and non-numerical magnitudes (brightness levels) onto a number line. Consistent with previous studies the present results revealed that number and brightness estimation was associated with overlapping activation within right lateralized areas of the posterior IPS. In addition, the contrast between number and brightness estimation revealed that bilateral anterior regions of the IPS are specifically involved in the process of estimating the position of symbolic numbers onto a number line. Furthermore, we found a significant influence of landmark reference points (0, 50 and 100) on brain activation in the right IPS for number estimation only. No regions were found to be specifically associated with brightness estimation. The results of this study reveal that the estimation of both numerical and non-numerical magnitude are associated with the engagement of a right lateralized magnitude system, but that symbolic number estimation is associated with additional engagement of bilateral regions of the anterior IPS.
Ribisl, Paul M.
If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…
We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.
The local viscous-inviscid interaction field generated by a wall temperature jump on a flat plate in supersonic flow and on the windside of a Reusable Launch Vehicle in hypersonic flow is studied in detail by both a Navier-Stokes numerical code and an analytical triple-deck model. Treatment of the rapid heat transfer changes both upstream and downstream of the jump is included. Closed form relationships derived from the triple-deck theory are presented. The analytically predicted pressure and heating variations including upstream influence are found to be in generally good agreement with the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) predictions. These analyses not only clarify the interactive physics involved but also are useful in preliminary design of thermal protection systems and as an insertable module to improve CFD code efficiency when applied to such small-scale interaction problems. The analyses only require conditions at the wall and boundary-layer edge which are easily extracted from a baseline, constant wall temperature, CFD solution.
Hawley, John A; Hargreaves, Mark; Joyner, Michael J; Zierath, Juleen R
Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis provoking widespread perturbations in numerous cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by or are a response to the increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscles. To meet this challenge, multiple integrated and often redundant responses operate to blunt the homeostatic threats generated by exercise-induced increases in muscle energy and oxygen demand. The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses, and recent discoveries offer perspectives on the mechanisms by which muscle "communicates" with other organs and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on health and performance.
Puchert, Malte; Adams, Volker; Linke, Axel; Engele, Jürgen
The chemokine CXCL12 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, not only promote developmental myogenesis, but also muscle regeneration. CXCL12 chemoattracts CXCR4-positive satellite cells/blood-borne progenitors to the injured muscle, promotes myoblast fusion, partially with existing myofibers, and induces angiogenesis in regenerating muscles. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration are in part identical to those involved in muscular adaptation to intensive physical exercise. These similarities now prompted us to determine whether physical exercise would impact the CXCL12 system in skeletal muscle. We found that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are upregulated in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats that underwent a four-week period of constrained daily running exercise on a treadmill. Double-staining experiments confirmed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are predominantly expressed in MyHC-positive muscle fibers. Moreover, these training-dependent increases in CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression also occurred in rats with surgical coronary artery occlusion, implying that the muscular CXCL12 system is still active in skeletal myopathy resulting from chronic heart failure. Expression of the second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, which presumably acts as a scavenger receptor in muscle, was not affected by training. Attempts to dissect the molecular events underlying the training-dependent effects of CXCL12 revealed that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis activates anabolic mTOR-p70S6K signaling and prevents upregulation of the catabolic ubiquitin ligase MurF-1 in C2C12 myotubes, eventually increasing myotube diameters. Together, these findings point to a pivotal role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in exercise-induced muscle maintenance and/or growth.
Raber, Margaret; Swartz, Maria C; Santa Maria, Diane; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Tom; Li, Rhea; Chandra, Joya
Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of becoming overweight or obese due to treatment effects and/or post-treatment behaviors. Parents are key agents influencing child diet and physical activity (PA), which are modifiable risk factors for obesity. A systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was undertaken to evaluate current interventions that include diet and PA elements for CCS to determine if and to what extent parents were included, and whether parent involvement had a significant effect on behavioral outcomes or adiposity. A total of 2,386 potential articles were reviewed and 25 individual studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Parental involvement was classified into three categories and varied across studies, although most had indirect or no parental involvement. The studies that included direct parental involvement showed positive outcomes on a variety of measures suggesting that increasing parental involvement in interventions for CCS may be one way to promote long-term lifestyle changes for pediatric cancer patients. However, additional research directly addressing parental involvement in obesity prevention and treatment among CCS is warranted.
In this article, the author considers a student exercise that involves determining the exact and numerical solutions of a particular differential equation. He shows how a typical student solution is at variance with a numerical solution, suggesting that the numerical solution is incorrect. However, further investigation shows that this numerical…
This research inspects the allocation of involvement load to the evaluation component of the involvement load hypothesis, examining how three typical approaches to evaluation (cloze-exercises, sentence-writing, and composition-writing) promote word learning. The results of this research were partially consistent with the predictions of the…
Wankel, Leonard M.
Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factors affecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)
laser photographs and high -speed X-ray photography. Computational results of both hydrocodes were compared to each other. * 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15...data to test the predictive capability of the hydrocodes and to compare the results of one code to the other. High -speed photographs of some of the...numerically sinmulating the impacts with high fidelity hydrocode calculations that incorporate the appropriate material equations of state and material models
Minicozzi, V.; Morante, S.
The high-sociological impact of neurodegenerative diseases (like Alzheimer disease, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Parkinson disease, etc.) has renewed the interest of researchers in the study of misfolding processes and in particular of the rôle played by metals in plaque formation as their unbalanced concentration can be regarded as a possible concurrent cause of protein aggregation. Metals are essential players in many of the fundamental activities of cells. Storing, metabolism, and trafficking of metals through the cellular membrane and within the cytoplasm are mediated by many proteins via well-tuned mechanisms because of the toxicity of free ions. In this review article, we summarize the results of the most recent experimental and numerical investigations aimed at understanding the possible rôle of Cu in stabilizing the Prion protein structure and in the formation of protein polymers.
Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.
The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)
Wang Jianguo; Cai Libing; Zhu Xiangqin; Wang Yue; Xuan Chun
With the development of high power microwave (HPM) technology, the power and pulse duration of the HPM source increase substantially, the breakdown of the dielectric window of the HPM source feed has been becoming the major factor of limiting the transmission and radiation of HPM. This paper presents an electrostatic particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo collisions method for simulating the breakdown on HPM dielectric surface and establishes a physical model of HPM dielectric surface breakdown involving outgassing. The breakdown process including the main physical mechanisms, such as the field emission, multipactor, outgassing, and collision of gas ionization, is simulated. The influence of outgassing on the dielectric window breakdown is studied by simulating the breakdown with different outgassing speeds. The similarity between the dc and HPM dielectric surface breakdown is discussed.
Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad
Background Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). Results The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05). Conclusions The
Fantegrossi, William E; Xiao, Wendy R; Zimmerman, Sarah M
We have developed a novel, low-cost device designed to monitor and modulate locomotor activity in murine subjects. This technology has immediate application to the study of effects of physical exercise on various neurobiological endpoints, and will also likely be useful in the study of psychomotor sensitization and drug addiction. Here we demonstrate the capacity of these devices to establish locomotor activity as an operant response reinforced by food pellet presentations, and show that schedules of reinforcement can reliably control this behavior. Importantly, these data show that varying degrees of increased locomotor activity (in other words, "exercise") can be elicited and maintained in mice by manipulating the schedule of reinforcement. Our findings argue that the present technology might reduce the imposition of stress and motivational bias inherent in more traditional procedures for establishing exercise in laboratory rodents, while allowing for true random assignment to experimental groups. As interest in physical exercise as a modulating factor in numerous clinical conditions continues to grow, technologies like the one proposed here are likely to become critical in conducting future experiments along these lines.
Weiss, Claus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Kinscherf, Ralf; Hack, Volker; Luther, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Bärtsch, Peter
In healthy individuals, prolonged intensive physical exercise leads to an activation of blood coagulation that results in the formation of thrombin and fibrin. This study investigated whether oxidative stress during intensive physical exercise induces tissue factor (TF) via activation of the redox-responsive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Twelve young men performed a standardized 1-h maximal run on a treadmill that gave rise to significant increases of markers of thrombin and fibrin formation. The ratio of intracellular reduced to oxidized glutathione as measured by HPLC decreased from 23.3 +/- 10.7 to 14.2 +/- 6.5 (P < 0.05), indicating the generation of free radicals during exercise. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays from nuclear extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that exercise testing increased NF-kappaB (p50/p65) binding activity to a NF-kappaB consensus sequence by 105 +/- 68% (P < 0.01) but did not affect NF-kappaB (p65/c-Rel) binding to a nonconsensus-kappaB-like site present in the TF promoter. Consistently, there was no exercise-induced increase in TF expression as demonstrated by TF-specific immunofluorescence staining and ELISA. Thus selective activation of NF-kappaB (p50/p65) during intensive physical exercise does not result in the expression of TF, suggesting that the TF-dependent pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells does not account for exercise-induced formation of thrombin and fibrin.
Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina
Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a sedentary life is dramatically increasing worldwide. Researchers have searched for molecular mechanisms explaining the health benefits of regular exercise for decades and it is well established that exercise alters the gene expression pattern in multiple tissues. However, until recently it was unknown that regular exercise can modify the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in humans. This review will focus on recent progress in the field of regular exercise and epigenetics.
Ngo Sock, Emilienne Tudor; Mayer, Gaétan; Lavoie, Jean-Marc
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three weeks of rosuvastatin (Ros) treatment alone and in combination with voluntary training (Tr) on expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism (LDLR, PCSK9, LRP-1, SREBP-2, IDOL, ACAT-2 and HMGCR) in the liver of eight week-old ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Sprague Dawley rats were Ovx or sham-operated (Sham) and kept sedentary for 8 weeks under a standard diet. Thereafter, rats were transferred for three weeks in running wheel cages for Tr or kept sedentary (Sed) with or without Ros treatment (5mg/kg/day). Six groups were formed: Sham-Sed treated with saline (Sal) or Ros (Sham-Sed-Sal; Sham-Sed-Ros), Ovx-Sed treated with Sal or Ros (Ovx-Sed-Sal; Ovx-Sed-Ros), Ovx trained treated with Sal or Ros (Ovx-Tr-Sal; Ovx-Tr-Ros). Ovx-Sed-Sal rats depicted higher (P < 0.05) body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, and liver TC content compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. In contrast, mRNA levels of liver PCSK9, LDLR, LRP-1 as well as plasma PCSK9 concentrations and protein levels of LRP-1 were reduced (P < 0.01) in Ovx-Sed-Sal compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. However, protein levels of LDLR increased (P < 0.05) in Ovx-Sed-Sal compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. Treatment of Ovx rats with Ros increased (P < 0.05) mRNA and protein levels of LRP-1 and PCSK9 but not mRNA levels of LDLR, while its protein abundance was reduced at the level of Sham rats. As a result, plasma LDL-C was not reduced. Exercise alone did not affect the expression of any of these markers in Ovx rats. Overall, Ros treatment corrected Ovx-induced decrease in gene expression of markers of cholesterol metabolism in liver of Ovx rats, but without reducing plasma LDL-C concentrations. Increased plasma PCSK9 levels could be responsible for the reduction of liver LDLR protein abundance and the absence of reduction of plasma LDL-C after Ros treatment. PMID:27442011
Fatone, Lorella; Recchioni, Maria Cristina; Zirilli, Francesco
In this paper we propose a highly parallelizable numerical method for time dependent acoustic scattering problems involving realistic smart obstacles hit by incoming waves having wavelengths small compared with the characteristic dimension of the obstacles. A smart obstacle is an obstacle that when hit by an incoming wave tries to pursue a goal circulating on its boundary a pressure current. In particular we consider obstacles whose goal is to be undetectable and we refer to them as furtive obstacles. These scattering problems are modelled as optimal control problems for the wave equation. We validate the method proposed to solve the optimal control problem considered on some test problems where a "smart" simplified version of the NASA space shuttle is hit by incoming waves with small wavelengths compared to its characteristic dimension. That is we consider test problems with ratio between the characteristic dimension of the obstacle and wavelength of the time harmonic component of the incoming wave up to approximately one hundred. The website: http://www.econ.univpm.it/recchioni/w14 contains animations and virtual reality applications showing some numerical experiments relative to the problems studied in this paper.
Endurance exercise training induces an increase in the respiratory capacity of muscle, resulting in an increased capacity to generate ATP as well as improved efficiency of muscle contraction. Such adaptations are largely the result of a coordinated genetic response that increases mitochondrial proteins, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and the exercise- and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter GLUT4, and shifts the contractile and regulatory proteins to their more efficient isoforms. In recent years a number of the transcriptional regulators involved in this genetic response have been identified and these factors can be classified into two different groups. The first group comprises transcription factors such as nuclear respiratory factors (NRF) 1 and 2 and PPAR alpha that bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The second group, referred to as transcriptional co-activators, alter transcription without directly binding to DNA. The PPAR gamma co-activator (PGC) family of proteins have been identified as the central family of transcriptional co-activators for induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1 alpha is activated by exercise, and is sufficient to produce the endurance phenotype through direct interactions with NRF-1 and PPAR alpha, and potentially NRF-2. Furthering the understanding of the activation of PGC proteins following exercise has implications beyond improving athletic performance, including the possibility of providing targets for the treatment of frailty in the elderly, obesity and diseases such as mitochondrial myopathies and diabetes.
Tamma, Kumar K.; Namburu, Raju R.
Numerical simulations are presented for hyperbolic heat-conduction problems that involve non-Fourier effects, using explicit, Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin FEM formulations as the principal computational tool. Also employed are smoothing techniques which stabilize the numerical noise and accurately predict the propagating thermal disturbances. The accurate capture of propagating thermal disturbances at characteristic time-step values is achieved; numerical test cases are presented which validate the proposed hyperbolic heat-conduction problem concepts.
Burthem, J; Brereton, M; Ardern, J; Hickman, L; Seal, L; Serrant, A; Hutchinson, C V; Wells, E; McTaggart, P; De la Salle, B; Parker-Williams, J; Hyde, K
We report the results of a pilot study assessing the use of digital 'virtual slides' in haematological quality assessment. Conducted together with the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for General Haematology, the study involved 166 separate participants, using the format of a typical assessment exercise. The results revealed substantial concordance of observations made using digital slides with those reported in previous glass slide surveys that used identical cases. Participant feedback strongly supported the use of electronic slides in teaching and assessment roles. Our results suggest roles for this new electronic resource in external quality assessment (EQA), education and continuing professional development.
Rammsayer, Thomas H; Verner, Martin
Perceived duration has been shown to be positively related to task-irrelevant, nontemporal stimulus magnitude. To account for this finding, Walsh's (2003) A Theory of Magnitude (ATOM) model suggests that magnitude of time is not differentiated from magnitude of other nontemporal stimulus characteristics and collectively processed by a generalized magnitude system. In Experiment 1, we investigated the combined effects of stimulus size and numerical quantity, as two nontemporal stimulus dimensions covered by the ATOM model, on duration judgments. Participants were required to reproduce the duration of target intervals marked by Arabic digits varying in physical size and numerical value. While the effect of stimulus size was effectively moderated by target duration, the effect of numerical value appeared to require attentional resources directed to the numerical value in order to become effective. Experiment 2 was designed to further elucidate the mediating influence of attention on the effect of numerical value on duration judgments. An effect of numerical value was only observed when participants' attention was directed to digit value, but not when participants were required to pay special attention to digit parity. While the ATOM model implies a common metrics and generalized magnitude processing for time, size, and quantity, the present findings provided converging evidence for the notion of two qualitatively different mechanisms underlying the effects of nontemporal stimulus size and numerical value on duration judgments. Furthermore, our data challenge the implicit common assumption that the effect of numerical value on duration judgments represents a continuously increasing function of digit magnitude.
Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Verner, Martin
Perceived duration has been shown to be positively related to task-irrelevant, nontemporal stimulus magnitude. To account for this finding, Walsh's (2003) A Theory of Magnitude (ATOM) model suggests that magnitude of time is not differentiated from magnitude of other nontemporal stimulus characteristics and collectively processed by a generalized magnitude system. In Experiment 1, we investigated the combined effects of stimulus size and numerical quantity, as two nontemporal stimulus dimensions covered by the ATOM model, on duration judgments. Participants were required to reproduce the duration of target intervals marked by Arabic digits varying in physical size and numerical value. While the effect of stimulus size was effectively moderated by target duration, the effect of numerical value appeared to require attentional resources directed to the numerical value in order to become effective. Experiment 2 was designed to further elucidate the mediating influence of attention on the effect of numerical value on duration judgments. An effect of numerical value was only observed when participants' attention was directed to digit value, but not when participants were required to pay special attention to digit parity. While the ATOM model implies a common metrics and generalized magnitude processing for time, size, and quantity, the present findings provided converging evidence for the notion of two qualitatively different mechanisms underlying the effects of nontemporal stimulus size and numerical value on duration judgments. Furthermore, our data challenge the implicit common assumption that the effect of numerical value on duration judgments represents a continuously increasing function of digit magnitude. PMID:27191941
Weinlander, Kenneth M.; Hall, David J.
Personalized medicine refers to medical care that involves genetically screening patients for their likelihood to develop various disorders. Commercial genome screening only involves identifying a consumer's genotype for a few single nucleotide polymorphisms. A phenotype (such as an illness) is greatly influenced by three factors: genes, gene…
Weiss, B.H.; Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. . Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )
The second Federal Field Exercise (FFE-2) was held in conjunction with the 1988 full participation exercise at the Zion nuclear power plant. This three-day exercise focused on the evaluation of the Federal Response plan and the numerous interfaces of the Federal agencies with the offsite authorities and the utility. Because of the many unique aspects of this exercise and the large number of participants, the planning effort for this exercise was considerably more involved than routine exercises. This paper provides a discussion of the process of developing such an exercise (i.e., the decisions, organization, resources, documents, and staffing that were necessary) plus the lessons learned from the FFE-2 that might be applied to other emergency response exercises.
Hudson, A S R; Kunstetter, A C; Damasceno, W C; Wanner, S P
Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training.
Hudson, A.S.R.; Kunstetter, A.C.; Damasceno, W.C.; Wanner, S.P.
Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training. PMID:27191606
exercises to test preparedness to perform its homeland defense and civil support missions. GAO was asked to assess the extent to which NORTHCOM is (1...3) using lessons learned and corrective actions to improve preparedness , and (4) integrating its exercises with the National Exercise Program...ability to provide civil support capabilities. NORTHCOM has a systematic lessons learned and corrective action program to improve preparedness , but
Ma, Chao; Wang, Hong; Macnish, Andrew J; Estrada-Melo, Alejandro C; Lin, Jing; Chang, Youhong; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong
The woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia has remarkable tolerance to desiccation. Pyro-sequencing technology permitted us to analyze the transcriptome of M. flabellifolia during both dehydration and rehydration. We identified a total of 8287 and 8542 differentially transcribed genes during dehydration and rehydration treatments respectively. Approximately 295 transcription factors (TFs) and 484 protein kinases (PKs) were up- or down-regulated in response to desiccation stress. Among these, the transcript levels of 53 TFs and 91 PKs increased rapidly and peaked early during dehydration. These regulators transduce signal cascades of molecular pathways, including the up-regulation of ABA-dependent and independent drought stress pathways and the activation of protective mechanisms for coping with oxidative damage. Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation. Secondary metabolism may participate in the desiccation tolerance of M. flabellifolia as indicated by increases in transcript abundance of genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation. During rehydration, the transcriptome is also enriched in transcripts of genes encoding TFs and PKs, as well as genes involved in photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.
Hartmann, S; Bung, P
Controversial findings in numerous studies involving physiological and endocrinological parameters indicate that physical exercise during pregnancy is complex and somewhat poorly understood. But despite this reservation, it is safe to say that on the basis of the current state of scientific research in this area, physical exercise is to be recommended during pregnancy so long as women are aware of potential dangers and contraindications. Due to thermoregulatory advantages, the beneficials effects of immersion and its joint protective character "aquatic exercise" can be highly recommended during pregnancy. Psychologically speaking, physical exercise offers a variety of benefits such as the encouragement of cooperation and competition which can be experienced as fun and gratifying. The physiological and psychological benefits of physical exercise are not only available to healthy women, but have also proven to be valuable for the prevention and treatment of illnesses such as gestational diabetes. The activation of large groups of muscles allow for an improved glucose utilization by simultaneously increasing insulin sensitivity.
... Center Research Great Expectations Post navigation ← Previous Next → Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...
Jutzi, Martin; Benz, Willy; Michel, Patrick
In this paper, we extend our Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) impact code to include the effect of porosity at a sub-resolution scale by adapting the so-called P-alpha model. Many small bodies in the different populations of asteroids and comets are believed to contain a high degree of porosity and the determination of both their collisional evolution and the outcome of their disruption requires that the effect of porosity is taken into account in the computation of those processes. Here, we present our model and show how porosity interfaces with the elastic-perfectly plastic material description and the brittle fracture model generally used to simulate the fragmentation of non-porous rocky bodies. We investigate various compaction models and discuss their suitability to simulate the compaction of (highly) porous material. Then, we perform simple test cases where we compare results of the simulations to the theoretical solutions. We also present a Deep Impact-like simulation to show the effect of porosity on the outcome of an impact. Detailed validation tests will be presented in a next paper by comparison with high-velocity laboratory experiments on porous materials [Jutzi et al., in preparation]. Once validated at small scales, our new impact code can then be used at larger scales to study impacts and collisions involving brittle solids including porosity, such as the parent bodies of C-type asteroid families or cometary materials, both in the strength- and in the gravity-dominated regime.
Budde, Henning; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Sergio; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Wegner, Mirko
The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the different neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents and to provide additional explanations to this well written systematic review. This commentary highlights the effects of exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a crucial role in MDD. We address the questions of whether age and different exercise intensities may provide additional information on the neurobiological effects of acute or chronic exercise on MDD. Previous findings clearly suggest that the etiology of MDD is complex and multifaceted, involving numerous neurobiological systems, which are additionally influenced by these two factors.
Vainshtein, Anna; Hood, David A
The merits of exercise on muscle health and well-being are numerous and well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying the robust adaptations induced by exercise, particularly on mitochondria, are less clear and much sought after. Recently, an evolutionary conserved cellular recycling mechanism known as autophagy has been implicated in the adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. A basal level of autophagy is constantly ongoing in cells and tissues, ensuring cellular clearance and energy homeostasis. This pathway can be further induced, as a survival mechanism, by cellular perturbations, such as energetic imbalance and oxidative stress. During exercise, a biphasic autophagy response is mobilized, leading to both an acute induction and a long-term potentiation of the process. Posttranslational modifications arising from upstream signaling cascades induce an acute autophagic response during a single bout of exercise by mobilizing core autophagy machinery. A transcriptional program involving the regulators Forkhead box O, transcription factor EB, p53, and peroxisome proliferator coactivator-1α is also induced to fuel sustained increases in autophagic capacity. Autophagy has also been documented to mediate chronic exercise-induced metabolic benefits, and animal models in which autophagy is perturbed do not adapt to exercise to the same extent. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field of autophagy and exercise. We specifically highlight the molecular mechanisms activated during acute exercise that lead to a prolonged adaptive response.
Schneider, Kristin L.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Handschin, Barbara; Panza, Emily; Bakke, Susan; Liu, Qin; Blendea, Mihaela; Ockene, Ira S.; Ma, Yunsheng
Background The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression is associated with poor glycemic control. Exercise has been shown to improve mood and glycemic control, but individuals with comorbid T2DM and depression are disproportionately sedentary compared to the general population and report more difficulty with exercise. Behavioral activation, an evidence-based depression psychotherapy, was designed to help people with depression make gradual behavior changes, and may be helpful to build exercise adherence in sedentary populations. This pilot randomized clinical trial will test the feasibility of a group exercise program enhanced with behavioral activation strategies among women with comorbid T2DM and depression. Methods/Design Sedentary women with inadequately controlled T2DM and depression (N=60) will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: exercise or usual care. Participants randomized to the exercise condition will attend 38 behavioral activation-enhanced group exercise classes over 24 weeks in addition to usual care. Participants randomized to the usual care condition will receive depression treatment referrals and print information on diabetes management via diet and physical activity. Assessments will occur at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-months following randomization. The goals of this pilot study are to demonstrate feasibility and intervention acceptability, estimate the resources and costs required to deliver the intervention and to estimate the standard deviation of continuous outcomes (e.g., depressive symptoms and glycosylated hemoglobin) in preparation for a fully-powered randomized clinical trial. Discussion A novel intervention that combines exercise and behavioral activation strategies could potentially improve glycemic control and mood in women with comorbid type 2 diabetes and depression. Trial registration NCT01024790 PMID:21765864
Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L; Handschin, Barbara; Panza, Emily; Bakke, Susan; Liu, Qin; Blendea, Mihaela; Ockene, Ira S; Ma, Yunsheng
BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression is associated with poor glycemic control. Exercise has been shown to improve mood and glycemic control, but individuals with comorbid T2DM and depression are disproportionately sedentary compared to the general population and report more difficulty with exercise. Behavioral activation, an evidence-based depression psychotherapy, was designed to help people with depression make gradual behavior changes, and may be helpful to build exercise adherence in sedentary populations. This pilot randomized clinical trial will test the feasibility of a group exercise program enhanced with behavioral activation strategies among women with comorbid T2DM and depression. METHODS/DESIGN: Sedentary women with inadequately controlled T2DM and depression (N=60) will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: exercise or usual care. Participants randomized to the exercise condition will attend 38 behavioral activation-enhanced group exercise classes over 24 weeks in addition to usual care. Participants randomized to the usual care condition will receive depression treatment referrals and print information on diabetes management via diet and physical activity. Assessments will occur at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-months following randomization. The goals of this pilot study are to demonstrate feasibility and intervention acceptability, estimate the resources and costs required to deliver the intervention and to estimate the standard deviation of continuous outcomes (e.g., depressive symptoms and glycosylated hemoglobin) in preparation for a fully-powered randomized clinical trial. DISCUSSION: A novel intervention that combines exercise and behavioral activation strategies could potentially improve glycemic control and mood in women with comorbid type 2 diabetes and depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01024790.
Lyakhovsky, V. D.
We propose a new algorithm for the character expansion of tensor products of finite-dimensional irreducible representations of simple Lie algebras. The algorithm produces valid results for the algebras B 3, C 3, and D 3. We use the direct correspondence between Weyl anti-invariant functions and multivariate second-kind Chebyshev polynomials. We construct the triangular trigonometric polynomials for the algebra D 3.
Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.
In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…
Mills, Brett D.; And Others
This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…
Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn
This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…
Jayewardene, Avindra F; Mavros, Yorgi; Reeves, Anneliese; Hancock, Dale P; Gwinn, Tom; Rooney, Kieron B
Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) movement into skeletal muscle involves a highly mediated process in which lipid rafts are utilized in the cellular membrane, involving numerous putative plasma membrane-associated LCFA transport proteins. The process of LCFA uptake and oxidation is of particular metabolic significance both at rest and during light to moderate exercise. A comprehensive systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to investigate whether exercise alters protein and/or gene expression of putative LCFA transport proteins. There were 31 studies meeting all eligibility criteria, of these 13 utilized an acute exercise protocol and 18 examined chronic exercise adaptations. Seventeen involved a study design incorporating an exercise stimulus, while the remaining 14 incorporated a combined exercise and diet stimulus. Divergent data relating to acute exercise, as well as prolonged exercise training (≥3 weeks), on protein content (PC) response was identified for proteins CD36, FABPpm and CAV1. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) data did not always correspond to functional PC, supporting previous suggestions of a disconnect due to potentially limiting factors post gene expression. The large array of study designs, cohorts, and primary dependent variables within the studies included in the present review elucidate the complexity of the interaction between exercise and LCFA transport proteins. Summary of the results in the present review validate the need for further targeted investigation within this topic, and provide an important information base for such research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1671-1687, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stickland, Michael K.; Butcher, Scott J.; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Bhutani, Mohit
The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance. PMID:23213518
Noland, Robert C
The increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and fatty liver disease has provided increasingly negative connotations toward lipids. However, it is important to remember that lipids are essential components supporting life. Lipids are a class of molecules defined by their inherent insolubility in water. In biological systems, lipids are either hydrophobic (containing only polar groups) or amphipathic (possess polar and nonpolar groups). These characteristics lend lipids to be highly diverse with a multitude of functions including hormone and membrane synthesis, involvement in numerous signaling cascades, as well as serving as a source of metabolic fuel supporting energy production. Exercise can induce changes in the lipid composition of membranes that effect fluidity and cellular function, as well as modify the cellular and circulating environment of lipids that regulate signaling cascades. The purpose of this chapter is to focus on lipid utilization as metabolic fuel in response to acute and chronic exercise training. Lipids utilized as an energy source during exercise include circulating fatty acids bound to albumin, triglycerides stored in very-low-density lipoprotein, and intramuscular triglyceride stores. Dynamic changes in these lipid pools during and after exercise are discussed, as well as key factors that may be responsible for regulating changes in fat oxidation in response to varying exercise conditions.
Abbott, Marcia J; Turcotte, Lorraine P
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been studied extensively and postulated to be a target for the treatment and/or prevention of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been deemed a beneficial treatment for obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, exercise is a feasible method to combat high-fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AMPK-α2 activity is required to gain beneficial effects of exercise training with high-fat feeding. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK-α2 dominant-negative (DN) male mice were fed standard diet (SD), underwent voluntary wheel running (TR), fed HFD, or trained with HFD (TR + HFD). By week 6, TR, irrespective of genotype, decreased blood glucose and increased citrate synthase activity in both diet groups and decreased insulin levels in HFD groups. Hindlimb perfusions were performed, and, in WT mice with SD, TR increased insulin-mediated palmitate uptake (76.7%) and oxidation (>2-fold). These training-induced changes were not observed in the DN mice. With HFD, TR decreased palmitate oxidation (61-64%) in both WT and DN and increased palmitate uptake (112%) in the WT with no effects on palmitate uptake in the DN. With SD, TR increased ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype. With HFD, TR reduced JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 expression in WT, and CD36 expression in both DN and WT. These data suggest that low AMPK-α2 signaling disrupts, in part, the exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following HFD.
Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson
The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol.
Luttrell, Meredith J.; Halliwill, John R.
Why should we study the recovery from exercise as a discrete phenomenon from exercise itself? We identify three distinct (but not mutually exclusive) rationales that drive the need to investigate the physiology of recovery from exercise. (1) Some individuals are at a heightened risk of clinical outcomes in the immediate post-exercise period; thus the potential negative outcomes of this “vulnerable state” must be weighed against the numerous benefits of exercise training, and may be mitigated to reduce risk. (2) Many of the signaling mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of exercise training remain amplified during the exercise recovery period, and may present a “window of opportunity” that can be exploited by interventions to enhance the beneficial adaptations to exercise training, especially in clinical populations. (3) On an individual level, exercise recovery responses may provide investigators with a “crystal ball” ability to predict future clinical outcomes even in apparently healthy individuals. In short, the physiology of recovery is a multi-faceted and complex process, likely involving systems and pathways that are distinct from the physiology of exercise itself. For these reasons, it merits ongoing study. PMID:26257656
Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik
The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542
Koelwyn, Graeme J.; Wennerberg, Erik; Demaria, Sandra; Jones, Lee W.
Pharmacologic manipulation of the immune system is emerging as a viable and robust treatment for some cancer patients. Exercise-induced modulation of the immune system may be another adjunctive strategy for inhibiting tumor initiation and progression. In healthy individuals, exercise has been shown to modulate a number of cell subsets involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge pertaining to exercise modulation of the inflammation-immune axis in cancer. The current evidence suggests that exercise may be a promising adjunctive strategy that can favorably alter numerous components of the immune system, which, in turn, may modulate tumorigenesis. However, many important knowledge gaps are evident. To this end, we propose a framework to guide future research efforts investigating the immune effects of exercise in cancer. PMID:26676894
Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro
Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.
Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, M C
The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients.
Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC
The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393
... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...
... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...
... To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. The part of your body including your ... bone. Kegel exercises are designed to make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold ...
... also can help prevent exercise headaches. References Cutrer FM, et al. Cough, exercise, and sex headaches. Neurology ... aspx?bookid=690. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Cutrer FM. Exertional headaches. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...
... minutes at a time throughout your day. Remember: exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none.How ... The cost might give you an incentive to exercise on a regular basis.Benefits of regular exerciseReduces your risk of heart disease, ...
Schmitt, Natalie Crohn
In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…
... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...
Boerstoel, J. W.
A framework is provided for numerical accuracy assessment. The purpose of numerical flow simulations is formulated. This formulation concerns the classes of aeronautical configurations (boundaries), the desired flow physics (flow equations and their properties), the classes of flow conditions on flow boundaries (boundary conditions), and the initial flow conditions. Next, accuracy and economical performance requirements are defined; the final numerical flow simulation results of interest should have a guaranteed accuracy, and be produced for an acceptable FLOP-price. Within this context, the validation of numerical processes with respect to the well known topics of consistency, stability, and convergence when the mesh is refined must be done by numerical experimentation because theory gives only partial answers. This requires careful design of text cases for numerical experimentation. Finally, the results of a few recent evaluation exercises of numerical experiments with a large number of codes on a few test cases are summarized.
... CAAHEP). High school students interested in postsecondary exercise physiology programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is ...
Huet, C; Lemosquet, A; Clairand, I; Rioual, J B; Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F
Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. This dose distribution can be assessed by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. Physical dosimetric reconstruction can be achieved using experimental or numerical techniques. This article presents the laboratory-developed SESAME--Simulation of External Source Accident with MEdical images--tool specific to dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents through numerical simulations which combine voxel geometry and the radiation-material interaction MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code. The experimental validation of the tool using a photon field and its application to a radiological accident in Chile in December 2005 are also described.
Parto, Parham; O'Keefe, James H.; Lavie, Carl J.
Background: Debatably, the most commonly prescribed lifestyle modification for cardiovascular health involves daily exercise training (ET) and physical activity. Exercise has numerous known health benefits on blood pressure, lipid profile, weight loss, and glucose metabolism. However, controversy exists regarding the link between excessive endurance ET and harmful cardiac effects. Methods: We review the current literature and discuss the numerous known adverse effects of endurance ET on cardiac function. Results: Excessive endurance ET may negatively affect cardiac anatomy, play a role in osteoarthritis and coronary artery disease development, and increase the risks of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion: More ET may not always be better when it comes to endurance ET, and optimal ET dosing regimens are clearly needed. PMID:27660580
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Exercises. 350.9 Section 350.9... Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy Administrator for the..., must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1 of appropriate...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...
Earhart, Gammon M; Falvo, Michael J
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative movement disorder. PD was originally attributed to neuronal loss within the substantia nigra pars compacta, and a concomitant loss of dopamine. PD is now thought to be a multisystem disorder that involves not only the dopaminergic system, but other neurotransmitter systems whose role may become more prominent as the disease progresses (189). PD is characterized by four cardinal symptoms, resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, all of which are motor. However, PD also may include any combination of a myriad of nonmotor symptoms (195). Both motor and nonmotor symptoms may impact the ability of those with PD to participate in exercise and/or impact the effects of that exercise on those with PD. This article provides a comprehensive overview of PD, its symptoms and progression, and current treatments for PD. Among these treatments, exercise is currently at the forefront. People with PD retain the ability to participate in many forms of exercise and generally respond to exercise interventions similarly to age-matched subjects without PD. As such, exercise is currently an area receiving substantial research attention as investigators seek interventions that may modify the progression of the disease, perhaps through neuroprotective mechanisms.
Edelmann, F; Grabs, V; Halle, M
Exercise training in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) is a recommended and broadly accepted treatment strategy that is an integral part of an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. There is ample scientific evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) improves exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. This is due to an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, neurohumoral activation, skeletal muscle structure and function as well as a decrease in inflammatory markers. The largest randomized, controlled HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) demonstrated that exercise training results in a modest improvement of all-cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF, depending on adequate compliance. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Besides compliance, efficacy of exercise training is dependent on the intensity and type of exercise. Resistance and high intensity endurance training in addition to a standard aerobic exercise seem to be superior in improving the clinical status of HF patients. In the future, individualized exercise programs will help to improve long-term adherence to exercise training.
Schenck-Hamlin, William J.; And Others
The 35 exercises presented in this paper have been designed to simulate real-life experiences involving the process of persuasion and to enhance understanding of the persuasive process. Among the aspects of the persuasive process dealt with are the identification of persuasive events, emotive language, language intensity, source credibility,…
... of a Good Thing? We all know the benefits of exercise, and it seems that everywhere we turn, we ... stress. So how can something with so many benefits have the potential to cause ... out because it's fun or it makes them feel good, but exercise can become a compulsive habit when it is ...
... eating . Compulsive exercise behavior can grow out of student athletes' demanding practice schedules and their quest to ... negative image of themselves and feel worthless. Their social and academic lives may suffer as they ... and abandons responsibilities to make more time for exercise seems to ...
Simão, Roberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Figueiredo, Tiago; Dias, Ingrid; Willardson, Jeffrey M
Resistance training (RT) is now an integral component of a well rounded exercise programme. For a correct training prescription, it is of the utmost importance to understand the interaction among training variables, such as the load, volume, rest interval between sets and exercises, frequency of sessions, exercise modality, repetition velocity and, finally, exercise order. Sports medicine research has indicated that exercise order is an important variable that affects both acute responses and chronic adaptations to RT programmes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to analyse and discuss exercise order with relevance to acute responses (e.g. repetition performance) and also the expression of chronic adaptable characteristics (e.g. maximal strength and hypertrophy). To accomplish this purpose, the Scielo, Science Citation Index, National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus™ and CINAHL® databases were accessed to locate previously conducted original scientific investigations. The studies reviewed examined both acute responses and chronic adaptations with exercise order as the experimental variable. Generally, with relevance to acute responses, a key finding was that exercise order affects repetition performance over multiple sets, indicating that the total repetitions, and thus the volume, is greater when an exercise is placed at the beginning of an RT session, regardless of the relative amount of muscle mass involved. The pre-exhaustion method might not be an effective technique to increase the extent of neuromuscular recruitment for larger muscle groups (e.g. pectoralis major for the bench press) when preceded by a single-joint movement (e.g. pec-deck fly). With relevance to localized muscular endurance performance, oxygen consumption and ratings of perceived exertion, the limited amount of research conducted thus far indicates that exercise order does not appear to impact the acute expression of these variables. In terms of chronic
The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases. The present study suggests that exercise improves brain functions and prevents decline of cognition across the lifespan. Understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of exercise on brain functions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27807514
Long, Littleton, Ed.
This collection focuses on writing exercises, both expository and creative, as well as areas of adjacent concern. The book is divided into nine major sections: prewriting; diction; theme, thesis, and paragraph; style; ideas for whole papers and special topics; description; research; the short story; and rewriting. The exercises deal with such…
Senchina, David S; Kohut, Marian L
Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system known as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence involves cellular and molecular alterations that impact both innate and adaptive immunity, leading to increased incidences of infectious disease morbidity and mortality as well as heightened rates of other immune disorders such as autoimmunity, cancer, and inflammatory conditions. While current data suggests physical activity may be an effective and logistically easy strategy for counteracting immunosenescence, it is currently underutilized in clinical settings. Long-term, moderate physical activity interventions in geriatric populations appear to be associated with several benefits including reduction in infectious disease risk, increased rates of vaccine efficacy, and improvements in both physical and psychosocial aspects of daily living. Exercise may also represent a viable therapy in patients for whom pharmacological treatment is unavailable, ineffective, or inappropriate. The effects of exercise impact multiple aspects of immune response including T cell phenotype and proliferation, antibody response to vaccination, and cytokine production. However, an underlying mechanism by which exercise affects numerous cell types and responses remains to be identified. Given this evidence, an increase in the use of physical activity programs by the healthcare community may result in improved health of geriatric populations. PMID:18044072
Díaz, J I; Hidalgo, A; Tello, L
We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge-Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration.
Díaz, J. I.; Hidalgo, A.; Tello, L.
We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge–Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration. PMID:25294969
Hartmann, George C.
This paper investigates why the 12-note scale, having equal intervals, seems to be the best representation of scales constructed from purely harmonic intervals. Is it possible that other equal temperament scales with more or less than 12 notes would serve just as well? The investigation is done by displaying the difference between a set of harmonic notes and scales with equal intervals having n notes per octave. The difference is small when n is equal to 12, but also when n equals 19 and 29. The number density of notes per unit frequency intervals is also investigated.
... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...
George, James D.; Paul, Samantha L.; Hyde, Annette; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.
This study sought to develop a regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]) based on submaximal treadmill exercise (EX) and non-exercise (N-EX) data involving 116 participants, ages 18-65 years. The EX data included the participants' self-selected treadmill speed (at a level grade) when exercise heart rate first reached…
Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien
Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.
McInnis, K J
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade in the USA. This is despite an estimated 50 million Americans who try to lose weight each year. The increasing prevalence of obesity is particularly alarming due to the numerous health implications associated with this condition, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer, and various musculoskeletal conditions. The economic impact of treating illnesses associated with obesity has been estimated to be US$40 billion in the USA. Dieting is largely ineffective in maintaining initial weight loss as numerous studies suggest the majority of dieters regain all lost weight with 3-5 years. On, the other hand, regular exercise has been shown to be one of the best predictors of successful weight maintenance. Moreover, studies indicate that improved fitness through regular physical activity reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for overweight individuals even if they remain overweight. Providing advice about exercise to overweight or obese individuals requires explicit information about the frequency, intensity, duration, and type of physical activity that should be performed. The ultimate goal for the exercising obese patient is to make a life-long commitment to achieving reasonable energy expenditure through routine physical activity.
Har, Jason; Tamma, K. K.
The focus in Part 1 of this exposition is strictly restricted to holonomic-sceleronomic systems, and the applications of interest are elastodynamics, which are routinely encountered in a wide class of structural dynamics problems in engineering. Restricting attention to these considerations, new and different perspectives and equivalences are described which deal with finite element space discretization aspects employing three distinctly different frameworks with scalar formalism. It encompasses the Lagrangian mechanics, the Hamiltonian mechanics, and as an alternative, the framework with a built-in measurable quantity based on the Total Energy. Historically, traditional practices routinely employ the weighted residual method or equivalently the principle of virtual work in dynamics for developing finite element formulations. In contrast, the present developments stem from Hamilton's law of varying action (HLVA) as a starting point and involve distinctly different scalar descriptive functions (the Lagrangian [ℒ( q , [qdot] ) : TQ →ℝ], the Hamiltonian [ℋ( p , q ) : T* Q →ℝ], or the Total Energy [ℰ( q , [qdot] ):TQ →ℝ]). These developments naturally embody the weak form in space and the statement of the weighted residual in time. Complicated structural dynamical systems such as a rotating bar and the Timoshenko beam are particularly shown here simply for illustration. In Part 2, we describe the satisfaction of conservation properties of the fully discretized equations of motion in space and time with particular attention to the Total Energy framework (in contrast to the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian), primarily because it is very natural and is computationally attractive and meaningful to conducting the time discretization  process. Instead of starting from the continuous form of representations, the particular focus is upon directly employing the discrete formulations for enabling algorithmic designs for the class of LMS methods for linear
Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others
Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)
Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew
The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.
This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.
... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Exercise Is Wise KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Exercise Is ... exercise, strength training, and flexibility training. continue Aerobic Exercise Like other muscles, the heart enjoys a good ...
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise A A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...
... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...
... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...
... Training Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Ask a Question Find a Doctor ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...
... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...
Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897
Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.
Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)
An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.
SIRT1-related inhibition of pro-inflammatory responses and oxidative stress are involved in the mechanism of nonspecific low back pain relief after exercise through modulation of Toll-like receptor 4.
Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Kao, Chung-Lan; Ma, Hsin-I; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Chin-Tien; Liu, Ding-Hao; Chen, Po-Yin; Tsai, Kun-Ling
Low back pain is a common clinical problem that causes disability and impaired quality of life. While the reason behind low back pain was largely considered to be of musculoskeletal origin, the contribution of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress could never be overlooked. Exercise has been proven to be an effective approach to treat low back pain. However, the mechanism of the exercise effect on the inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress is still largely unknown. In this study, we revealed that exercise intervention reduces Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) pathway and enhances Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in low back pain patients. We also confirmed that exercise up-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, PPAR-γ coactivator-1 and FoxOs family proteins and also increases the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in patients with low back pain. Furthermore, we found that exercise intervention attenuates the oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and p53 expression in patients with low back pain. This study demonstrates that exercise intervention improves low back pain symptoms through regulation of the SIRT1 axis with repression of oxidative stress and TLR-4 inhibition.
Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold
The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.
Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.
Numerous studies have revealed the beneficial effects of regular exercise across a variety of mental health measures. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the role of aerobic exercise, less is known about the role of resistance exercise (i.e., strength training) in mental health outcomes. Resistance exercise includes a broad group of procedures that evoke repeated muscle action against resistances above those encountered in daily life. A growing body of literature has identified anxiolytic effects of resistance exercise in human populations after both single-bout sessions and long-term training. This research has shown that resistance training at a low-to-moderate intensity (<70% 1 repetition maximum) produces the most reliable and robust decreases in anxiety. Importantly, anxiolytic effects have been observed across a diverse range of populations and dependent measures. These findings provide support for the use of resistance exercise in the clinical management of anxiety. PMID:25071694
Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Salotti, Emilio; Tavolaro, Alba; Baronti, Maria E; Giannese, Domenico; Cupisti, Adamasco
Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a) involvement of exercise professionals, b) real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c) individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal "exercise team" for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular), nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.
Goold, Vernell C.
Numerical control (a technique involving coded, numerical instructions for the automatic control and performance of a machine tool) does not replace fundamental machine tool training. It should be added to the training program to give the student an additional tool to accomplish production rates and accuracy that were not possible before. (HD)
Kimmel, Allan J.
Describes five in-class exercises for use in consumer behavior classes that encourage student involvement in group and class discussions, promote student interest in course material, and stimulate critical thinking. Explains that the exercises can be adapted for other related courses and are equally successful with students of varying abilities.…
Bersted, Chris T.
A classroom/laboratory exercise has been used to introduce college students to factorial research designs, differentiate between interpretations for experimental and quasi-experimental variables, and exemplify application of laboratory research methods to test practical questions (advertising claims). The exercise involves having randomly divided…
Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.
There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.
Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa
Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…
Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.
Michelini, Lisete C; Stern, Javier E
It is now well established that brain plasticity is an inherent property not only of the developing but also of the adult brain. Numerous beneficial effects of exercise, including improved memory, cognitive function and neuroprotection, have been shown to involve an important neuroplastic component. However, whether major adaptive cardiovascular adjustments during exercise, needed to ensure proper blood perfusion of peripheral tissues, also require brain neuroplasticity, is presently unknown. This review will critically evaluate current knowledge on proposed mechanisms that are likely to underlie the continuous resetting of baroreflex control of heart rate during/after exercise and following exercise training. Accumulating evidence indicates that not only somatosensory afferents (conveyed by skeletal muscle receptors, baroreceptors and/or cardiopulmonary receptors) but also projections arising from central command neurons (in particular, peptidergic hypothalamic pre-autonomic neurons) converge into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the dorsal brainstem, to co-ordinate complex cardiovascular adaptations during dynamic exercise. This review focuses in particular on a reciprocally interconnected network between the NTS and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is proposed to act as a pivotal anatomical and functional substrate underlying integrative feedforward and feedback cardiovascular adjustments during exercise. Recent findings supporting neuroplastic adaptive changes within the NTS-PVN reciprocal network (e.g. remodelling of afferent inputs, structural and functional neuronal plasticity and changes in neurotransmitter content) will be discussed within the context of their role as important underlying cellular mechanisms supporting the tonic activation and improved efficacy of these central pathways in response to circulatory demand at rest and during exercise, both in sedentary and in trained individuals. We hope this review will stimulate
... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...
Jaspers, Richard T; Zillikens, M Carola; Friesema, Edith C H; delli Paoli, Giuseppe; Bloch, Wilhelm; Uitterlinden, André G; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities. In recent years signal transduction pathways related to exercise and fasting/food withdrawal in muscle have been intensively studied, both in animals and in humans. Combining fasting/food withdrawal with exercise in animals as well as in humans causes changes unlike those seen during fasting/food withdrawal or exercise alone, which favor repair of muscle over autophagy. In addition, compounds that mimic exercise have been studied in combination with exercise or fasting/food withdrawal. This review addresses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the individual and combined effects of fasting/food withdrawal, endurance or resistance exercise, and their mimetics, in muscle vs other organs in rodents and humans, and highlights which combinations may improve metabolic disorders.-Jaspers, R. T., Zillikens, M. C., Friesema, E. C. H., delli Paoli, G., Bloch, W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Goglia, F., Lanni, A., de Lange, P. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations.
Foreman, Jo Ann
Four exercises to help students get ready for class activities are presented. The exercises are designed to develop skills in listening and following directions, awareness and retention, giving directions, and office problem solving. The exercises involve paper and pencil, newspaper articles, and office problem situations. (MF)
activities with the Safety Program. (2) Notifying the Exercise Safety Director of all fire@ involving government prcperty and equipment and for... Exercise Safety Director to the organization or activity conc- erned. o _ . _ . - : : , _ : ... .. ... .. . - _ . . .. . , ... .. .. ... ... . . ..7 memo...Nr 1, Exercise Desert Rocc4.WIVn’d VIII, 17 May 57 (Contd) (4) The officer in charge of the activity shall, within ten days after receiving the
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...
Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...
McGee, Sean L; Walder, Ken R
An acute bout of exercise is sufficient to induce changes in skeletal muscle gene expression that are ultimately responsible for the adaptive responses to exercise. Although much research has described the intracellular signaling responses to exercise that are linked to transcriptional regulation, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are only just emerging. This review will provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and what is known in the context of exercise. Additionally, we will explore potential interactions between metabolism during exercise and epigenetic regulation, which serves as a framework for potential areas for future research. Finally, we will consider emerging opportunities to pharmacologically manipulate epigenetic regulators and mechanisms to induce aspects of the skeletal muscle exercise adaptive response for therapeutic intervention in various disease states.
Career exploration typically involves the investigation of personal factors: interests, aptitudes, values, and personal style. This digest outlines one counseling method, pattern identification exercise (PIE). PIE starts with past experiences and identifies personal patterns which are relevant to career decisions. A premise of PIE is that…
Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul
Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.
When a person's kidneys fail, hemodialysis (HD) is the most common treatment modality. With a growing number of patients requiring this life-sustaining treatment, and with evidence illustrating the significant physical dysfunction of this population, encouraging exercise is essential. The use of intradialytic exercise, as a novel and efficient use of time during HD, is well established in Australia and some European nations; however, it is slower to start in North America. While a large number of small studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and safe delivery of intradialytic exercise training for patients with end-stage kidney disease, intradialytic exercise is rarely delivered as standard of care. It is of utmost importance for health care staff to overcome barriers and bring theory into practice. Included in this report are current recommendations from governing bodies, expert opinion, as well as established policies and procedures from a successful intradialytic exercise program in Canada.
Gale, Jesse; Wells, Anthony P; Wilson, Graham
Regular exercise is a healthy lifestyle choice with numerous benefits to general health. Ophthalmologists may face questions of the benefits or risks of exercise to eyes. Here the effects of acute exertion and regular physical activity on ocular physiology and disease are reviewed. Intraocular pressure is transiently reduced by dynamic exercise. For the great majority of patients exercise is beneficial to the eyes by reducing risk of central retinal vein occlusion and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and by improving control of systemic hypertension and diabetes. Ophthalmologists should be advocates of regular exercise with appropriate eye protection.
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... To build up bone density, the exercise must make your muscles pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: ...
Differences among individuals in exercise performance are determined by a range of environmental and genetic factors. Since 2008, numerous studies in the genetics of exercise performance have been published and a set of significant results have been obtained. In this review, we analyze the research results in physical activity, muscular strength and endurance from reputable papers selected based on these following aspects: sample size, quality of phenotype measurements, quality of the exercise program or physical activity exposure, study design, adjustment for experimental testing and quality of genotyping. We also review the progress of these three research fields and suggest new directions to future research.
Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...
... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...
Report on Models for Educational Assessment Involving Multiple-Choice and Free Response Exercises. Open-Ended Exercises in Secondary School Science Assessment. Project 2.4: Quantitative Models To Monitor the Status and Progress of Learning and Performance and Their Antecedents.
Bock, R. Darrell; And Others
In preparation for a study of essay questions and other forms of open-ended exercises in the California Golden State Examination for biology, the functioning of open-ended biology items in another examination was explored. The Golden State Examination program offers honors credit to students who wish to qualify for admission to programs in…
small compact robust effective exercise devices for the next generation of space vehicles. It is becoming increasingly apparent that high intensity exercise is required for maintenance of fitness and functional capability and so future hardware will need to be developed, tested and implemented that allow for a wide variety of exercise, at high intensity while likely involving low mass, volume and power. There are many unanswered issues related to the minimum number and type of exercise devices required for exploration, optimizing exercise prescriptions for these devices, whether a treadmill is absolutely required, and even whether any single countermeasure can adequately protect muscle, bone, cardiovascular and sensorimotor function.
Convertino, Victor A.
A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other
In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…
Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.
adverse response to exercise. Our research demonstrates that 3000 mg·d-1 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation minimizes the severe, delayed-onset muscle soreness that results from strenuous eccentric strength exercise. This information, along with a plethora of information showing that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has other health benefits, demonstrates that a readily available over the counter nutritional supplement (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids) reduces delayed-onset soreness caused by strenuous strength exercise. This information has obvious relevance to athletic populations but also to other groups such as physical therapy patients and newly admitted cardiac rehabilitation patients, as muscle soreness, if left unchecked, can slow the progress in adapting to a new exercise program. Furthermore, as inflammation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis if numerous diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, it is likely prudent for individuals to use inflammation-attenuating interventions, such as omega-3 supplementation, to keep inflammatory responses to physical activity at a minimum. PMID:24150614
Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.
For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.
Parrott, David L; Huang, Li; Fischer, Andreas M
Pattern recognition receptors represent a first line of plant defense against pathogens. Comparing the flag leaf transcriptomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) near-isogenic lines varying in the allelic state of a locus controlling senescence, we have previously identified a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase gene (LRR-RLK; GenBank accession: AK249842), which was strongly upregulated in leaves of early-as compared to late-senescing germplasm. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this gene codes for a subfamily XII, non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) LRR-RLK. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a two-fold reduction of transcript levels as compared to controls. Transcriptomic comparison of leaves from untreated plants, from plants treated with virus only without any plant sequences (referred to as 'empty virus' control), and from plants in which AK249842 expression was knocked down identified numerous genes involved in pathogen defense. These genes were strongly induced in 'empty virus' as compared to untreated controls, but their expression was significantly reduced (again compared to 'empty virus' controls) when AK249842 was knocked down, indicating that their expression partially depends on the LRR-RLK investigated here. Expression analysis, using datasets from BarleyBase/PLEXdb, demonstrated that AK249842 transcript levels are heavily influenced by the allelic state of the well-characterized mildew resistance a (Mla) locus, and that the gene is induced after powdery mildew and stem rust infection. Together, our data suggest that AK249842 is a barley pattern recognition receptor with a tentative role in defense against fungal pathogens, setting the stage for its full functional characterization.
Norris, A. C.
Discusses the design of computational exercises useful for a course in numerical methods for chemists. Some of the exercises make use of available programs while others require the student to write programs incorporating numerical routines. The emphasis throughout is on the use of numerical methods to solve chemical problems. (Author)
Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R
Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity.
Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity.
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.
High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…
Morrison, William G.
In this article, the author describes an exercise in which two pricing problems (product bundling and the sharing of digital information goods) can be understood using the same analytical approach. The exercise allows students to calculate the correct numerical answers with relative ease, while the teaching plan demonstrates the importance of the…
Koltyn, Kelli F.; Brellenthin, Angelique G.; Cook, Dane B.; Sehgal, Nalini; Hillard, Cecilia
The purpose of this study was to examine opioid and endocannabinoid mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Fifty-eight men and women (mean age = 21 yrs) completed three sessions. During the first session, participants were familiarized with the temporal summation of heat pain and pressure pain protocols. In the exercise sessions, following double-blind administration of either an opioid antagonist (50 mg naltrexone) or placebo, participants rated the intensity of heat pulses and indicated their pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and ratings (PPR) before and after 3 minutes of submaximal isometric exercise. Blood was drawn before and after exercise. Results indicated circulating concentrations of two endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as well as related lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), N-docsahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA), and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) increased significantly (p < 0.05) following exercise. PPT increased significantly (p < 0.05) while PPR decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following exercise. Also, temporal summation ratings were significantly lower (p < 0.05) following exercise. These changes in pain responses did not differ between placebo or naltrexone conditions (p > 0.05). A significant association was found between EIH and DHEA. These results suggest involvement of a non-opioid mechanism in EIH following isometric exercise. PMID:25261342
Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)
Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.
Reliable thermodynamic databases for rock forming minerals are essential for petrological and geodynamic studies. While the available databases (1-3) represent laudable efforts, none seems to be completely satisfactory. We show inter-comparison of phase diagrams computed from different databases and also their comparisons with experimental phase diagrams in complex systems. The results show good agreement and also significant disagreements in some P-T-X regimes; resolution of these disagreements via new experimental and thermodynamic data is needed to sort out the problems and make further progress. Two of the main challenges in the development of databases (4) seem to be (a) appropriate formulation of an EoS for solids that is suitable for studies of Earth and planetary interiors and (b) relatively simple formulations of thermodynamic mixing properties of mantle minerals that perform well within the compositional space of interest. While work on EoS formulation continues, we present a semi-empirical numerical approach that creates a consistent set of material properties (α, K, Cp, Cv) up to very high P-T conditions by satisfying certain physical constraints. Adequate experimental data are not available to constrain the mixing properties of several minerals that would be valid over the compositional range of interest in the natural environments. We have, thus, pursued an alternative approach on the basis of physical and crystal-chemical data. It is found that combination of elastic mixing energy, incorporating the effect of multi-atom interactions (5, 6), and crystal-field (CF) energy of mixing provide enthalpy of mixing in binary solid solutions that are in good agreement with experimental and calorimetric data. The CF-splitting vs. composition in a solid solution involving transition metal ion may be approximated by a semi-empirical relation using mean metal-oxygen bond-distance when such data are not available from spectroscopic studies. We also discuss the
Pearson, Michael M.; Barnes, John W.; Onken, Marina H.
This article follows the development of a sales management in-basket exercise for use in the classroom. The authors have computerized the exercise and added features to allow for additional and more quantitative input from the students. The exercise has evolved and been tested in numerous classroom situations. The computerized in-basket exercise…
Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...
... third component of well-rounded exercise. Check out yoga as one way to stay flexible. You can ... Sports and Exercise Safety Stretching Dynamic Stretching (Video) Yoga Welcome Home Yoga (Video) Study Break Yoga (Video) ...
Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)
... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...
... underlying chronic asthma as the cause of symptoms. Exercise challenge tests An additional test that enables your ... to take daily for long-term control. Pre-exercise medications Your doctor may prescribe a drug that ...
... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...
... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...
Anton, Stephen D; Hida, Azumi; Mankowski, Robert; Layne, Andrew; Solberg, Lawrence; Mainous, Arch G; Buford, Thomas W
Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition that involves loss of muscle mass and function, which affects virtually everyone as they age, and can lead to frailty and ultimately disability. In growing recognition of the importance of both muscle strength and muscle mass relative to body size in contributing to functional decline, recent definitions have now incorporated grip strength and a correction for body mass as part of the key criteria that define sarcopenia. With this new definition, a much larger population of older adults are now at risk of sarcopenia. In the present article, we reviewed the literature for studies which tested the effects of diet or exercise interventions on changes in lean mass and/or functional outcomes in individuals with either sarcopenia and/or frailty and identified 19 clinical trials. There were a few key findings. First, dietary interventions involving protein supplementation improved functional and/or strength outcomes in a few trials, however, other dietary approaches were less effective. Exercise interventions and combined diet and exercise interventions produced consistent improvements in lower body muscle strength but had less consistent effects on walking speed and grip strength. Lifestyle interventions not involving calorie restriction generally did not induce significant changes in body composition. There were a limited number of trials in which participants with sarcopenia were specifically targeted, and thus there is an important need for more research to determine the appropriate types of intervention approaches for the high risk population of sarcopenic older adults.
Duke, Charles R., Ed.
Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…
Petriz, Bernardo A; Gomes, Clarissa P; Rocha, Luiz A O; Rezende, Taia M B; Franco, Octávio L
Exercise research has always drawn the attention of the scientific community because it can be widely applied to sport training, health improvement, and disease prevention. For many years numerous tools have been used to investigate the several physiological adaptations induced by exercise stimuli. Nowadays a closer look at the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic pathways and muscular and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise are among the new trends in exercise physiology research. Considering this, to further understand these adaptations as well as pathology attenuation by exercise, several studies have been conducted using molecular investigations, and this trend looks set to continue. Through enormous biotechnological advances, proteomic tools have facilitated protein analysis within complex biological samples such as plasma and tissue, commonly used in exercise research. Until now, classic proteomic tools such as one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used as standard approaches to investigate proteome modulation by exercise. Furthermore, other recently developed in gel tools such as differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and gel-free techniques such as the protein labeling methods (ICAT, SILAC, and iTRAQ) have empowered proteomic quantitative analysis, which may successfully benefit exercise proteomic research. However, despite the three decades of 2-DE development, neither classic nor novel proteomic tools have been convincingly explored by exercise researchers. To this end, this review gives an overview of the directions in which exercise-proteome research is moving and examines the main tools that can be used as a novel strategy in exercise physiology investigation.
Beyene, Nahon M.
The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space
all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The
Senior secondary students cover numerical integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…
Baker, John G.
Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.
Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)
The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.
... hand. When and what you eat can be important to how you feel when you exercise, whether it's a casual workout or training for a competition. Consider these eating and exercise tips. If you exercise in the morning, get up early enough to finish breakfast at least one hour before your workout. Be ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College A A A What's in this ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...
National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…
Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others
The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…
In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.
... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles ... better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They' ...
Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald
This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…
Greene, Michael B.
Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…
Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise.
fisica matematica . ABSTRACT - We consider a new method for the numerical solution both of non- linear systems of equations and of cornplementauity... Matematica , Serie V11 Volume 9 , Roma (1989), 521-543 An Inexact Continuous Method for the Solution of Large Systems of Equations and Complementarity...34 - 00185 Roma - Italy APPENDIX 2 A Quadratically Convergent Method for Unear Programming’ Stefano Herzel Dipartimento di Matematica -G. Castelnuovo
Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth
Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vigorous exercise pregnancy were used. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: With proper attention to risk stratification and surveillance, exercise is safe for the mother and fetus. Benefits of exercise in pregnancy include reduction in Cesarean section rates, appropriate maternal and fetal weight gain, and managing gestational diabetes. Exercise as a means of preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression cannot be reliably supported. Overall, the current evidence suffers from a lack of rigorous study design and compliance with physical activity interventions. Conclusion: Research thus far has been unable to consistently demonstrate proposed benefits of exercise in pregnancy, such as preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression. However, moderate- and high-intensity exercise in normal pregnancies is safe for the developing fetus and clearly has several important benefits. Thus, exercise should be encouraged according to the woman’s preconception physical activity level. PMID:26502446
Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Hillman, Charles
Scientific evidence based on neuroimaging approaches over the last decade has demonstrated the efficacy of physical activity improving cognitive health across the human lifespan. Aerobic fitness spares age-related loss of brain tissue during aging, and enhances functional aspects of higher order regions involved in the control of cognition. More active or higher fit individuals are capable of allocating greater attentional resources toward the environment and are able to process information more quickly. These data are suggestive that aerobic fitness enhances cognitive strategies enabling to respond effectively to an imposed challenge with a better yield in task performance. In turn, animal studies have shown that exercise has a benevolent action on health and plasticity of the nervous system. New evidence indicates that exercise exerts its effects on cognition by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. An important instigator in the molecular machinery stimulated by exercise is brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. Recent studies show that exercise collaborates with other aspects of lifestyle to influence the molecular substrates of cognition. In particular, select dietary factors share similar mechanisms with exercise, and in some cases they can complement the action of exercise. Therefore, exercise and dietary management appear as a noninvasive and effective strategy to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders.
Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zheng, Jie-Jiao; Yu, Zhuo-Wei; Bi, Xia; Lou, Shu-Jie; Liu, Jing; Cai, Bin; Hua, Ying-Hui; Wu, Mark; Wei, Mao-Ling; Shen, Hai-Min; Chen, Yi; Pan, Yu-Jian; Xu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Pei-Jie
Objective To review the effects of core stability exercise or general exercise for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Summary of Background Data Exercise therapy appears to be effective at decreasing pain and improving function for patients with chronic LBP in practice guidelines. Core stability exercise is becoming increasingly popular for LBP. However, it is currently unknown whether core stability exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise in patients with chronic LBP. Methods Published articles from 1970 to October 2011 were identified using electronic searches. For this meta-analysis, two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating core stability exercise versus general exercise for the treatment of patients with chronic LBP. Data were extracted independently by the same two individuals who selected the studies. Results From the 28 potentially relevant trials, a total of 5 trials involving 414 participants were included in the current analysis. The pooling revealed that core stability exercise was better than general exercise for reducing pain [mean difference (−1.29); 95% confidence interval (−2.47, −0.11); P = 0.003] and disability [mean difference (−7.14); 95% confidence interval (−11.64, −2.65); P = 0.002] at the time of the short-term follow-up. However, no significant differences were observed between core stability exercise and general exercise in reducing pain at 6 months [mean difference (−0.50); 95% confidence interval (−1.36, 0.36); P = 0.26] and 12 months [mean difference (−0.32); 95% confidence interval (−0.87, 0.23); P = 0.25]. Conclusions Compared to general exercise, core stability exercise is more effective in decreasing pain and may improve physical function in patients with chronic LBP in the short term. However, no significant long-term differences in pain severity were observed between patients who engaged in core stability
Hemez, Francois M.
This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.
Kirtane, M V
Adaptation, habitution and compensation are the mechanisms involved in rehabilitation of vertigo patients. In Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT), patients are advised to perform a series of maneuvers involving head, eye and body movements which stimulate the in-built adaptive mechanisms. Cawthorne and Cooksey were the first to describe adaptation exercises, which are further modified. Norre has designed VRT test battery of specific exercises. Drug treatment used along with VRT should not interfere with the compensation mechanism. Anti-vertigo drug Betahistine has been shown to hasten the compensation and hence is suitable for use with VRT.
Kohut, M L; McCann, D A; Russell, D W; Konopka, D N; Cunnick, J E; Franke, W D; Castillo, M C; Reighard, A E; Vanderah, E
Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and/or by beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults age 64 were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment (CARDIO) or a flexibility/strength exercise treatment (FLEX) 3 days/week, 45 min/day for 10 months. A subgroup of subjects treated with non-selective beta(1)beta(2) adrenergic antagonists were included to evaluate the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptor adaptations as mediators of an exercise-induced change in inflammation. The inflammatory mediators [C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-18] and the psychosocial factors (depression, perceived stress, optimism, sense of coherence, and social support) were measured pre- and post-intervention. The CARDIO treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 compared to the FLEX treatment (significant treatment x time interaction, p<.05), whereas TNFalpha declined in both groups (main effect of time, p=.001). However, several psychosocial factors (depression, optimism, and sense of coherence) improved in both groups suggesting that the reduction of CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 in the CARDIO group was not mediated by improvements in psychosocial scores. With respect to the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptors, both CARDIO subjects treated with beta-adrenergic antagonists and those who were not treated with those medications demonstrated similar reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, IL-18, and TNFalpha. In summary, we have observed that an aerobic exercise intervention can significantly reduce serum inflammatory mediators, but beta-adrenergic receptors
Pagnotti, Gabriel M.; Styner, Maya
Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone – a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk – mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise
Liontos, Lynn Balster
Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…
Lee, Yang-Im; Trim, Peter; Upton, Julia; Upton, David
Exercises, drills, or simulations are widely used, by governments, agencies and commercial organizations, to simulate serious incidents and train staff how to respond to them. International cooperation has led to increasingly large-scale exercises, often involving hundreds or even thousands of participants in many locations. The difference between…
Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others
A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)
Lawson, Timothy J.
Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)
Butts, Frank; Anderson, Gene
An outline is given of an exercise program for older adults which is designed to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Brief descriptions are provided of exercises progressing from modest tone-ups for flexibility to activities involving mildly strenuous physical efforts such as jogging, bicycling, and hiking. Suggestions are offered for…
Hirth, Christopher J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.
Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of Exercise Sandals results in a number of positive clinical outcomes. However, little research has been conducted to determine their efficacy objectively. Our purposes were to determine the effect of Exercise Sandals on lower leg electromyography (EMG) during activities in the Exercise Sandals and to compare EMG associated with Exercise Sandals with traditional lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Design and Setting: Two within-subjects, repeated-measures designs were used to identify differences in lower extremity EMG: (1) between activities with and without Exercise Sandals and (2) between Exercise Sandals activities and traditional rehabilitation activities. All data were collected in the Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen subjects involved in rehabilitation using Exercise Sandals for at least 2 weeks within the year before data collection. Measurements: Mean EMG amplitudes from the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were measured during single-leg stance, side stepping, and “high knees,” all performed with and without the Exercise Sandals, as well as single-leg stance on a foam surface and T-band kicks in the sagittal and frontal planes. Results: Exercise Sandals increased lower leg EMG activity, particularly in the ankle invertors and evertors. Also, activities involving the Exercise Sandals resulted in EMG activity similar to or exceeding that associated with traditional ankle-rehabilitation exercises. Conclusions: These results, coupled with the fact that Exercise Sandals are used in a functional closed kinetic chain manner, suggest that they are an effective means of increasing lower extremity muscle activity. PMID:14608427
Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L
Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.
Exercise has a beneficial effect on metabolic parameters affecting cardiovascular risk, such as lipids and blood glucose, and is a key component in both the prevention and the management of type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control improves with both aerobic and resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes, but no glycaemic benefit is seen in type 1 diabetes. This probably results from glucose fluctuations commonly seen with exercise. Low and moderate intensity exercise are generally associated with a fall in blood glucose, and high intensity exercise can be associated with a rise in blood glucose. Trial evidence is suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk with exercise, although evidence from prospective, randomised controlled trials is certainly not conclusive.
Civitarese, Anthony E; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Russell, Aaron P; Ravussin, Eric; Schrauwen, Patrick
Ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise may blunt the stimulation of fat oxidative pathways by raising plasma insulin and glucose concentrations and lowering plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, thereby causing a marked shift in substrate oxidation. We investigated the effects of a single 2-h bout of moderate-intensity exercise on the expression of key genes involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism with or without glucose ingestion in seven healthy untrained men (22.7 +/- 0.6 yr; body mass index: 23.8 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2); maximal O(2) consumption: 3.85 +/- 0.21 l/min). Plasma FFA concentration increased during exercise (P < 0.01) in the fasted state but remained unchanged after glucose ingestion, whereas fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) was higher in the fasted state vs. glucose feeding (P < 0.05). Except for a significant decrease in the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (P < 0.05), glucose ingestion during exercise produced minimal effects on the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization. However, glucose ingestion resulted in a decrease in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation (CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, uncoupling protein 3, and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase-alpha(2); P < 0.05). In conclusion, glucose ingestion during exercise decreases the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism rather than increasing genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
Zimmer, P; Bloch, W
During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.
Loerch, Linda H.
This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.
Work, Janis A.
Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)
Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris
The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the meaning of exercise in the lives of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and describe the motivational basis that contributed to their exercise involvement. Twelve adults with MS (10 females, 2 males) between the ages of 32 and 56 years were interviewed. Analysis of transcribed interviews used an inductive approach. Three major themes emerged from thematic analysis of the qualitative data: exercising to maintain function and health, enhanced exercise self-efficacy, and feelings of hope and optimism. Findings were interpreted within the conceptual framework of self-efficacy and a disability-only social context.
Adolph, Stephen C.
I describe a group exercise that I give to my undergraduate biostatistics class. The exercise involves analyzing a series of 200 consecutive basketball free-throw attempts to determine whether there is any evidence for sequential dependence in the probability of making a free-throw. The students are given the exercise before they have learned the…
Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney
Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY... safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood Canal, WA that... of the maritime public during the exercise and will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Joint Operations Exercise, Lake Michigan... vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan due to a joint operations exercise involving the Department of... surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the exercise. DATES: This rule is...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal... temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Department of Defense exercise in Hood Canal, WA that... public during the exercise. The zone will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal... temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood Canal... the safety of the maritime public during the exercise and will do so by prohibiting any person...
Taunton, Jack E.; McCargar, Linda
Diabetes control involves the appropriate balance of exercise, diet, and medication. Regular exercise has many benefits for people with diabetes. Physicians can educate patients about ways to regulate and monitor blood glucose before, during, and after workouts. Patients need to understand the effects of exercise and diet on insulin requirements.…
Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart; Spriet, Lawrence L
Caffeine can improve exercise performance when it is ingested at moderate doses (3-6 mg/kg body mass). Caffeine also has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS), and it is now recognized that most of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine is accomplished through the antagonism of the adenosine receptors, influencing the dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. Adenosine and dopamine interact in the brain, and this might be one mechanism to explain how the important components of motivation (i.e. vigor, persistence and work output) and higher-order brain processes are involved in motor control. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with 'attention'. Through this neurochemical interaction, caffeine improves sustained attention, vigilance, and reduces symptoms of fatigue. Other aspects that are localized in the CNS are a reduction in skeletal muscle pain and force sensation, leading to a reduction in perception of effort during exercise and therefore influencing the motivational factors to sustain effort during exercise. Because not all CNS aspects have been examined in detail, one should consider that a placebo effect may also be present. Overall, it appears that the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine reside in the brain, although more research is necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms through which the CNS effect is established.
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. DO NOT hold your breath. Balance Exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...
... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...
... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...
Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille
Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.
Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S
Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence.
Yuan, Ti-Fei; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Paes, Flávia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza
Microbiota is a set of microorganisms resident in gut ecosystem that reacts to psychological stressful stimuli, and is involved in depressed or anxious status in both animals and human being. Interestingly, a series of studies have shown the effects of physical exercise on gut microbiota dynamics, suggesting that gut microbiota regulation might act as one mediator for the effects of exercise on the brain. Recent studies found that gut microbiota dynamics are also regulated by metabolism changes, such as through physical exercise or diet change. Interestingly, physical exercise modulates different population of gut bacteria in compared to food restriction or rich diet, and alleviates gut syndromes to toxin intake. Gut microbiota could as well contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cognition and emotion, either directly through serotonin signaling or indirectly by modulating metabolism and exercise performance.
Hureau, Thomas J; Romer, Lee M; Amann, Markus
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance. We highlight findings from studies supporting the existence of a 'critical threshold of peripheral fatigue', a previously proposed hypothesis based on the idea that a negative feedback loop operates to protect the exercising limb muscle from severe threats to homeostasis during whole-body exercise. While the threshold theory remains to be disproven within a given task, it is not generalisable across different exercise modalities. The 'sensory tolerance limit', a more theoretical concept, may address this issue and explain exercise tolerance in more global terms and across exercise modalities. The 'sensory tolerance limit' can be viewed as a negative feedback loop which accounts for the sum of all feedback (locomotor muscles, respiratory muscles, organs, and muscles not directly involved in exercise) and feedforward signals processed within the central nervous system with the purpose of regulating the intensity of exercise to ensure that voluntary activity remains tolerable.
Fadel, Paul J; Raven, Peter B
After considerable debate and key experimental evidence, the importance of the arterial baroreflex in contributing to and maintaining the appropriate neural cardiovascular adjustments to exercise is now well accepted. Indeed, the arterial baroreflex resets during exercise in an intensity-dependent manner to continue to regulate blood pressure as effectively as at rest. Studies have indicated that the exercise resetting of the arterial baroreflex is mediated by both the feedforward mechanism of central command and the feedback mechanism associated with skeletal muscle afferents (the exercise pressor reflex). Another perhaps less appreciated neural mechanism involved in evoking and maintaining neural cardiovascular responses to exercise is the cardiopulmonary baroreflex. The limited information available regarding the cardiopulmonary baroreflex during exercise provides evidence for a role in mediating sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure responses. In addition, recent investigations have demonstrated an interaction between cardiopulmonary baroreceptors and the arterial baroreflex during dynamic exercise, which contributes to the magnitude of exercise-induced increases in blood pressure as well as the resetting of the arterial baroreflex. Furthermore, neural inputs from the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors appear to play an important role in establishing the operating point of the arterial baroreflex. This symposium review highlights recent studies in these important areas indicating that the interactions of four neural mechanisms (central command, the exercise pressor reflex, the arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary baroreflex) are integral in mediating the neural cardiovascular adjustments to exercise.
He, Congcong; Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth
We recently identified physical exercise as a newly defined inducer of autophagy in vivo. Exercise induced autophagy in multiple organs involved in metabolic regulation, such as muscle, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. To study the physiological role of exercise-induced autophagy, we generated mice with a knock-in nonphosphorylatable mutation in BCL2 (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) (BCL2 AAA) that are defective in exercise- and starvation-induced autophagy but not in basal autophagy. We found that BCL2 AAA mice could not run on a treadmill as long as wild-type mice, and did not undergo exercise-mediated increases in skeletal glucose muscle uptake. Unlike wild-type mice, the BCL2 AAA mice failed to reverse high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance after 8 weeks of exercise training, possibly due to defects in signaling pathways that regulate muscle glucose uptake and metabolism during exercise. Together, these findings suggested a hitherto unknown important role of autophagy in mediating exercise-induced metabolic benefits. In the present addendum, we show that treadmill exercise also induces autophagy in the cerebral cortex of adult mice. This observation raises the intriguing question of whether autophagy may in part mediate the beneficial effects of exercise in neurodegeneration, adult neurogenesis and improved cognitive function.
Pearlman, Sarah; Rebelein, Robert P.
In this article, the authors outline a classroom exercise involving goldsmiths designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of how banks create money. This concept is important to macroeconomics and money and banking courses, yet students frequently struggle with it, largely due to the nonphysical nature of deposits and reserves.…
Fischer, Solomon; Gluck, Paul
We physics teachers are forever in search of real-life applications of the theoretical concepts we teach. In mechanics we often utilize vehicle motion exercises, yet most textbook problems involving these are rather tame and deal with constant acceleration. What often captures the imagination of students is the actual performance of cars they…
Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…
... Read on to find out why. Core exercises train the muscles in your pelvis, lower back, hips ... manner that involves maintaining a stable trunk can train and strengthen several of your muscles, including your ...
Raven, P. B.
Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative
Rowland, Thomas W.
This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…
Stuhr, Robyn M.
Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…
... to make sure that the asthma unrelated to exercise is well controlled. For many children this means the regular ... for using an inhaler. If the asthma is well controlled but your child still has problems during or after exercise, let your child’s doctor know. The following are ...
Dangardt, Frida J; McKenna, William J; Lüscher, Thomas F; Deanfield, John E
Physical activity and exercise have been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality, as well as all-cause mortality, both in the general population and in patients with various forms of cardiovascular disease. Increasing amounts of exercise are associated with incremental reductions in mortality, but considerable benefits have been found even with a low level of exercise. Exercise is beneficial for most individuals, but risks exist. Exercise is associated with reduced long-term morbidity and mortality, but acute exercise can transiently increase the risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Although tragic, these events are very rare, and even to some extent preventable with screening programmes. Low-intensity physical activity is important and beneficial to all individuals, including those with a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. In individuals who are physically fit and who do not have genetic predisposition to, or signs of, cardiovascular disease, the greater the intensity and amount of exercise, the greater the health benefits. Nevertheless, effective strategies to encourage exercise in the population are lacking. A sustained increase in physical activity is likely to require more than individual advice, and needs to include urban planning and possibly even legislation.
... before beginning a new exercise program. Benefits of Exercise for Post-Menopausal Women Helps prevent osteoporosis by keeping bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy. Reduces the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases by increasing heart and respiratory rates. Keeps your ...
Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R
Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.
Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl
Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…
Forrest, Lauren N.; Smith, April R.; Fussner, Lauren M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Clerkin, Elise M.
Objectives ”Fast” (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; “slow” (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. Design We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Method Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Results Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Conclusion Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence. PMID:26195916
Ahlskog, J Eric
Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive, with dementia and medication-refractory motor problems common reasons for late-stage nursing-home placement. Increasing evidence suggests that ongoing vigorous exercise/physical fitness may favorably influence this progression. Parkinsonian animal models reveal exercise-related protection from dopaminergic neurotoxins, apparently mediated by brain neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity (predicted from in vitro studies). Similarly, exercise consistently improves cognition in animals, also linked to enhanced neuroplasticity and increased neurotrophic factor expression. In these animal models, immobilization has the opposite effect. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate at least some of this exercise benefit. In humans, exercise increases serum BDNF, and this is known to cross the blood-brain barrier. PD risk in humans is significantly reduced by midlife exercise, documented in large prospective studies. No studies have addressed whether exercise influences dementia risk in PD, but exercised patients with PD improve cognitive scores. Among seniors in general, exercise or physical fitness has not only been associated with better cognitive scores, but midlife exercise significantly reduces the later risk of both dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Finally, numerous studies in seniors with and without dementia have reported increased cerebral gray matter volumes associated with physical fitness or exercise. These findings have several implications for PD clinicians. (1) Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged. (2) PD physical therapy programs should include structured, graduated fitness instruction and guidance for deconditioned patients with PD. (3) Levodopa and other forms of dopamine replenishment therapy should be utilized to achieve the maximum capability and motivation for patients to maintain fitness.
Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique
Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals.
Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose
Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise.
Goodyear, Laurie J.
Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial function, increases mitochondrial biogenesis, and increases the expression of glucose transporter proteins and numerous metabolic genes. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. PMID:25434013
series of conceptually distinct one-time exercises . The most obvious parts of this activity take place during the run of an exercise , but a great deal of...important preparatory activity takes place before the exercise , and much of the analysis and synthesis for the final evaluation must be done...of people performing the same types of activities are involved in both. Ihe simulated environment within which most exercises are conducted, however
Schuld, E.P.; Cruff, D.F.
A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program.
Wilson, Thad E; Dyckman, Damian J; Ray, Chester A
Exercise-induced increases in skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) are similar between isometric handgrip (IHG) and leg extension (IKE) performed at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). However, the precise effect of exercise intensity and level of fatigue on this relationship is unclear. This study tested the following hypotheses: 1) exercise intensity and fatigue level would not affect the magnitude of exercise-induced increase in SSNA between IHG and IKE, and 2) altering IHG muscle mass would also not affect the magnitude of exercise-induced increase in SSNA. In protocol 1, SSNA (peroneal microneurography) was measured during baseline and during the initial and last 30 s of isometric exercise to volitional fatigue in 12 subjects who randomly performed IHG and IKE bouts at 15, 30, and 45% MVC. In protocol 2, SSNA was measured in eight subjects who performed one-arm IHG at 30% MVC with the addition of IHG of the contralateral arm in 10-s intervals for 1 min. Exercise intensity significantly increased SSNA responses during the first 30 s of IHG (34+/-13, 70+/-11, and 92+/-13% change from baseline) and IKE (30+/-17, 69+/-12, and 76+/-13% change from baseline) for 15, 30, and 45% MVC. During the last 30 s of exercise to volitional fatigue, there were no significant differences in SSNA between exercise intensities or limb. SSNA did not significantly change between one-arm and two-arm IHG. Combined, these data indicate that exercise-induced increases in SSNA are intensity dependent in the initial portion of isometric exercise, but these differences are eliminated with the development of fatigue. Moreover, the magnitude of exercise-induced increase in SSNA responses is not dependent on either muscle mass involved or exercising limb.
Mason, Katelyn E; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Maaty, Walid S; Reeves, Benjamin D; Grieco, Paul A; Bothner, Brian; Fischer, Andreas M
Senescence is the last developmental phase of plant tissues, organs and, in the case of monocarpic senescence, entire plants. In monocarpic crops such as barley, it leads to massive remobilization of nitrogen and other nutrients to developing seeds. To further investigate this process, a proteomic comparison of flag leaves of near-isogenic late- and early-senescing barley germplasm was performed. Protein samples at 14 and 21 days past anthesis were analyzed using both two-dimensional gel-based and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based ('shotgun') proteomic techniques. This approach identified >9000 barley proteins, and one-third of them were quantified. Analysis focused on proteins that were significantly (p < 0.05; difference ≥1.5-fold) upregulated in early-senescing line '10_11' as compared to late-senescing variety 'Karl', as these may be functionally important for senescence. Proteins in this group included family 1 pathogenesis-related proteins, intracellular and membrane receptors or co-receptors (NBS-LRRs, LRR-RLKs), enzymes involved in attacking pathogen cell walls (glucanases), enzymes with possible roles in cuticle modification, and enzymes involved in DNA repair. Additionally, proteases and elements of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were upregulated in line '10_11', suggesting involvement of nitrogen remobilization and regulatory processes. Overall, the proteomic data highlight a correlation between early senescence and upregulated defense functions. This correlation emerges more clearly from the current proteomic data than from a previously performed transcriptomic comparison of 'Karl' and '10_11'. Our findings stress the value of studying biological systems at both the transcript and protein levels, and point to the importance of pathogen defense functions during developmental leaf senescence.
Freitas, Saulo; Silva, Arlindo; Benedetti, Angela; Grell, Georg; Members, Wgne; Zarzur, Mauricio
The Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WMO, http://www.wmo.int/pages/about/sec/rescrosscut/resdept_wgne.html) has organized an exercise to evaluate the impact of aerosols on NWP. This exercise will involve regional and global models currently used for weather forecast by the operational centers worldwide and aims at addressing the following questions: a) How important are aerosols for predicting the physical system (NWP, seasonal, climate) as distinct from predicting the aerosols themselves? b) How important is atmospheric model quality for air quality forecasting? c) What are the current capabilities of NWP models to simulate aerosol impacts on weather prediction? Toward this goal we have selected 3 strong or persistent events of aerosol pollution worldwide that could be fairly represented in current NWP models and that allowed for an evaluation of the aerosol impact on weather prediction. The selected events includes a strong dust storm that blew off the coast of Libya and over the Mediterranean, an extremely severe episode of air pollution in Beijing and surrounding areas, and an extreme case of biomass burning smoke in Brazil. The experimental design calls for simulations with and without explicitly accounting for aerosol feedbacks in the cloud and radiation parameterizations. In this presentation we will summarize the results of this study focusing on the evaluation of model performance in terms of its ability to faithfully simulate aerosol optical depth, and the assessment of the aerosol impact on the predictions of near surface wind, temperature, humidity, rainfall and the surface energy budget.
Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D
Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229
Berzosa, C; Gómez-Trullén, E M; Piedrafita, E; Cebrián, I; Martínez-Ballarín, E; Miana-Mena, F J; Fuentes-Broto, L; García, J J
Optimal levels of membrane fluidity are essential for numerous cell functions including cell growth, solute transport and signal transduction. Since exercise enhances free radical production, our aim was to evaluate in healthy male subjects the effects of an acute bout of maximal and submaximal exercise on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity and its possible relation to the oxidative damage overproduction due to exercise. Subjects (n = 34) performed three cycloergometric tests: a continuous progressive exercise, a strenuous exercise until exhaustion and an acute bout of exercise at an intensity corresponding to 70% of maximal work capacity for 30 min. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after these exercises. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) concentrations and carbonyl content of plasmatic proteins were used as an index of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. Exercise produced a dramatic drop in the erythrocyte membrane fluidity as compared to resting time, but this was not accompanied by significant changes in the plasmatic MDA and 4-HDA concentrations. The highest erythrocyte membrane rigidity was detected immediately after strenuous exercise until exhaustion was performed. Protein carbonyl levels were higher after exhaustive exercises than at rest. Continuous progressive and strenuous exercises until exhaustion, but not submaximal workload, resulted in a significant enhanced accumulation of carbonylated proteins in the plasma. These findings are consistent with the idea that exercise exaggerates oxidative damage, which may contribute, at least partially, to explain the rigidity in the membrane of the erythrocytes due to acute exercise.
Löllgen, H; Dirschedl, P; Fahrenkrog, U
Actual situation: There is a great variety of exercise programs (formerly called protocols) used in daily routine and general practice. Exercise programs vary with increments, step-duration, speed and grade, although standard recommendations have been published recently. In the USA, the Bruce program is widely accepted, although some criticism has been published. Comparing different exercise programs it is obvious, that maximal values (VO2, heart rate etc.) are only moderately affected by the program, but submaximal values are strongly influenced by the methodological procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of the different exercise testing procedures will be presented. As we need some standardized exercise programs to avoid "free-style ergometry", recommendations may be based on the following assumptions: Exercise testing should not be too short nor too long (10-12 min total test time), work rate increments should be intermediate (adapted to physical fitness), work rate steps should be about 2 min or an individualized ramp test should be used. Exercise test programs have to be selected according to the patient's fitness, to the disease or function to be studied, and to the laboratory setting. Standardization is strongly recommended.
Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix
Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981
Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise.
Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)
The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.
Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J
Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.
Daniel, Michael; And Others
The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…
Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.
The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs.
Sman, Amy D; Hackett, Daniel; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Fornusek, Ché; Menezes, Manoj P; Burns, Joshua
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a slowly progressive hereditary degenerative disease and one of the most common neuromuscular disorders. Exercise may be beneficial to maintain strength and function for people with CMT, however, no comprehensive evaluation of the benefits and risks of exercise have been conducted. A systematic review was completed searching numerous electronic databases from earliest records to February 2015. Studies of any design including participants of any age with confirmed diagnosis of CMT that investigated the effects of exercise were eligible for inclusion. Of 13,301 articles identified following removal of duplicates, 11 articles including 9 unique studies met the criteria. Methodological quality of studies was moderate, sample sizes were small, and interventions and outcome measures used varied widely. Although the majority of the studies identified changes in one or more outcome measurements across exercise modalities, the majority were non-significant, possibly due to Type II errors. Significant effects described included improvements in strength, functional activities, and physiological adaptations following exercise. Despite many studies showing changes in strength and function following exercise, findings of this review should be met with caution due to the few studies available and moderate quality of evidence. Well-powered studies, harmonisation of outcome measures, and clearly described interventions across studies would improve the quality and comparability of the evidence base. The optimal exercise modality and intensity for people with CMT as well as the long-term safety of exercise remain unclear.
Murphy, B A; Wagner, A L; McGlynn, O F; Kharazyan, F; Browne, J A; Elliott, J A
Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated 24-h oscillations that coordinate numerous aspects of mammalian physiology, metabolism and behaviour. The existence of a molecular circadian clock in equine skeletal muscle has previously been demonstrated. This study investigates how the circadian 24-h expression of exercise-relevant genes in skeletal muscle is influenced by a regular exercise regime. Mid-gluteal, percutaneous muscle biopsies were obtained over a 24-h period from six Thoroughbred mares before and after an 8-week exercise programme. Real-time qPCR assays were used to assess the expression patterns of core clock genes ARNTL, PER2, NR1D1, clock-controlled gene DBP, and muscle genes MYF6, UCP3, VEGFA, FOXO1, MYOD1, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, FBXO32 and PDK4. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between circadian time and exercise for muscle genes MYF6, UCP3, MYOD1 and PDK4. A significant effect of time was observed for all genes with the exception of VEGFA, where a main effect of exercise was observed. By cosinor analysis, the core clock genes, ARNTL (P <0.01) and NR1D1 (P <0.05), showed 24-h rhythmicity both pre- and post-exercise, while PER2 expression was rhythmic post-exercise (P <0.05) but not pre-exercise. The expression profiles of muscle genes MYOD1 and MYF6 showed significant fits to a 24-h cosine waveform indicative of circadian rhythmicity post-exercise only (P <0.01). This study suggests that the metabolic capacity of muscle is influenced by scheduled exercise and that optimal athletic performance may be achieved when exercise times and competition times coincide.
... a Vestibular Disorder Family Support Network Desorden Vestibular/Vértigo - En Español הפרעות ... What is a Home VRT program? During vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT), home exercises ...
Hawley, John A; Maughan, Ronald J; Hargreaves, Mark
The past 25 years have witnessed major advances in our knowledge of how exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation, and how muscle "cross-talk" with other organs is a mechanism by which physical activity exerts its beneficial effects on "whole-body" health. However, during the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries, scientific debate in the field of exercise metabolism centered on questions related to the sources of energy for muscular activity, diet-exercise manipulations to alter patterns of fuel utilization, as well as the factors limiting physical work capacity. Posing novel scientific questions and utilizing cutting-edge techniques, the contributions made by the great pioneers of the 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries laid the foundation on which much of our present knowledge of exercise metabolism is based and paved the way for future discoveries in the field.
... many types of exercise. Biking, running, tai chi, yoga , Pilates, dance , weight training, non-contact boxing, qi gong and more all have been shown to have positive effects on symptoms for people with Parkinson’s. Researchers in ...
... Heart disease - treadmill References Balady GJ, Morise AP. Exercise testing. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...
... do a push-up or swing across the monkey bars at the playground? Those are exercises that ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...
Hand and Finger Exercises Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds. Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...
me expand on this thesis just a bit. My contention is that in every exercise, even the ones like Wintex- Cimex which are supposed to test the logistics...Wintex- Cimex and Gallant Eagle, occur every other year and in the off-year there is a complimentary FTX. Addit-ionally, there is usually one big CPX...spares calculations, and other logistics concerns. 3-2 Observation and Participation The researcher observed the winter exercise known as Wintex- Cimex
NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N
The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961
Bye, P T; Farkas, G A; Roussos, C
The question of respiratory factors limiting exercise has been examined in terms of possible limitations arising from the function of gas exchange, the respiratory mechanics, the energetics of the respiratory muscles, or the development of respiratory muscle fatigue. Exercise capacity is curtailed in the presence of marked hypoxia, and this is readily observed in patients with chronic airflow limitation and interstitial lung disease and in some athletes at high intensities of exercise. In patients with interstitial lung disease, gas exchange abnormality--partly the result of diffusion disequilibrium for oxygen transfer--occurs during exercise despite abnormally high ventilations. In contrast, in certain athletes arterial hypoxemia has been documented during heavy exercise, apparently as a result of relative hypoventilation. During strenuous exercise the maximum expiratory flow volume curves are attained both by patients with chronic airflow limitation and by normal subjects, in particular when they breathe dense gas, so that a mechanical constraint is imposed on further increases in ventilation. Similarly, the force velocity characteristics of the inspiratory muscles may also impose a constraint to further increases in inspiratory flows that affects the ability to increase ventilation. In addition, the oxygen cost of maintaining high ventilations is large. Analysis of results from blood flow experiments reveal a substantial increase in blood flow to the respiratory muscles during exercise, with the result that oxygen supply to the rest of the body may be lessened. Alternatively, high exercise ventilations may not be sustained indefinitely owing to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue that results in hypoventilation and reduced arterial oxygen tension.
Naeije, Robert; Chesler, N
The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.
Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo
The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.
Zigmond, Michael J; Cameron, Judy L; Hoffer, Barry J; Smeyne, Richard J
Although a good deal is known about the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and information is emerging about its cause, there are no pharmacological treatments shown to have a significant, sustained capacity to prevent or attenuate the condition. However, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that physical exercise can provide this much needed treatment, and studies of animal models of the dopamine deficiency associated with the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease further support this hypothesis. Thus, in our collaborative research efforts, we seek to understand the biological basis for exercise-induced protection in order to assist in the development of a safe and clinically effective intervention based on increased physical activity. In addition, we recognize that some individuals cannot or will not engage in physical exercise, and believe that mechanistic studies of exercise-induced protection will provide insights into the development of drugs that could emulate its effects. Using toxins that induce a deficiency of dopamine, we have affirmed that physical exercise can reduce behavioral and neurobiological deficits induced by such toxins, and suggest that these neuroprotective effects are likely to involve the activation of signaling cascades by neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor.
Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (≥35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial. PMID:21519508
Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (≥35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial.
Faisal, Azmy; Beavers, Keith R; Hughson, Richard L
Circadian rhythm has an influence on several physiological functions that contribute to athletic performance. We tested the hypothesis that circadian rhythm would affect blood pressure (BP) responses but not O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) kinetics during the transitions to moderate and heavy cycling exercises. Nine male athletes (peak Vo(2): 60.5 ± 3.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed multiple rides of two different cycling protocols involving sequences of 6-min bouts at moderate or heavy intensities interspersed by a 20-W baseline in the morning (7 AM) and evening (5 PM). Breath-by-breath Vo(2) and beat-by-beat BP estimated by finger cuff plethysmography were measured simultaneously throughout the protocols. Circadian rhythm did not affect Vo(2) onset kinetics determined from the phase II time constant (τ(2)) during either moderate or heavy exercise bouts with no prior priming exercise (τ(2) moderate exercise: morning 22.5 ± 4.6 s vs. evening 22.2 ± 4.6 s and τ(2) heavy exercise: morning 26.0 ± 2.7 s vs. evening 26.2 ± 2.6 s, P > 0.05). Priming exercise induced the same robust acceleration in Vo(2) kinetics during subsequent moderate and heavy exercise in the morning and evening. A novel finding was an overshoot in BP (estimated from finger cuff plethysmography) in the first minutes of each moderate and heavy exercise bout. After the initial overshoot, BP declined in association with increased skin blood flow between the third and sixth minute of the exercise bout. Priming exercise showed a greater effect in modulating the BP responses in the evening. These findings suggest that circadian rhythm interacts with priming exercise to lower BP during exercise after an initial overshoot with a greater influence in the evening associated with increased skin blood flow.
Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter
Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength
This report is to be used in planning radiological emergency exercises to test the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Plan (FRMAP). Although developed for this specific purpose, the document also contains material that may be useful for planning other types of exercises. This report describes the types of exercises that might be used, the steps in planning and conducting the exercises, and the special considerations required for exercises to test the FRMAP. FRMAP exercises typically involve several federal and state agencies. General and specific objectives that could guide these exercises, as well as the possible activities of all the participants - players, controllers, and evaluators - are discussed. The resources that each participating federal agency might provide during an exercise are listed.
Cahill, Lindsay S; Steadman, Patrick E; Jones, Carly E; Laliberté, Christine L; Dazai, Jun; Lerch, Jason P; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G
Physical exercise, besides improving cognitive and mental health, is known to cause structural changes in the brain. Understanding the structural changes that occur with exercise as well as the neuroanatomical correlates of a predisposition for exercise is important for understanding human health. This study used high-resolution 3D MR imaging, in combination with deformation-based morphometry, to investigate the macroscopic changes in brain structure that occur in healthy adult mice following four weeks of voluntary exercise. We found that exercise induced changes in multiple brain structures that are involved in motor function and learning and memory including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex, olivary complex, inferior cerebellar peduncle and regions of the cerebellum. In addition, a number of brain structures, including the hippocampus, striatum and pons, when measured on MRI prior to the start of exercise were highly predictive of subsequent exercise activity. Exercise tended to normalize these pre-existing differences between mice.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min
The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.
Mottola, Michelle F; Artal, Raul
Pregnancy is characterized by physiological, endocrine and metabolic adaptations creating a pseudo-diabetogenic state of progressive insulin resistance. These adaptations occur to sustain continuous fetal requirements for nutrients and oxygen. Insulin resistance develops at the level of the skeletal muscle, and maternal exercise, especially activity involving large muscle groups improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We discuss the maternal hormonal and metabolic changes associated with a normal pregnancy, the metabolic dysregulation that may occur leading to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the consequences to mother and fetus. We will then examine the acute and chronic (training) responses to exercise in the non-pregnant state and relate these alterations to maternal exercise in a low-risk pregnancy, how exercise can be used to regulate glucose tolerance in women at risk for or diagnosed with GDM. Lastly, we present key exercise guidelines to help maintain maternal glucose regulation and suggest future research directions.
Stone, Audrey J; Kaufman, Marc P
The exercise pressor reflex contributes to increases in cardiovascular and ventilatory function during exercise. These reflexive increases are caused by both mechanical stimulation and metabolic stimulation of group III and IV afferents with endings in contracting skeletal muscle. Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have an augmented exercise pressor reflex. Recently, an animal model of PAD was established which allows further investigation of possible mechanisms involved in this augmented reflex. Earlier studies have identified ASIC3 channels, bradykinin receptors, P2X receptors, endoperoxide receptors, and thromboxane receptors as playing a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats. This review focuses on recent studies using a rat model of PAD in order to determine possible mechanisms contributing to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in patients with this disease.
Convertino, Victor A.
Conventional endurance exercise training that involves daily workouts of 1-2 hr duration during exposure to microgravity has not proven completely effective in ameliorating postexposure orthostatic hypotension. Single bouts of intense exercise have been shown to increase plasma volume and baroreflex sensitivity in ambulatory subjects through 24 hr postexercise and to reverse decrements in maximal oxygen uptake and syncopal episodes following exposure to simulated microgravity. These physiological adaptations to acute intense exercise were opposite to those observed following exposure to microgravity. These results suggest that the 'exercise training' stimulus used to prevent orthostatic hypotension induced by microgravity may be specific and should be redefined to include single bouts of maximal exercise which may provide an acute effective countermeasure against postflight hypotension.
Giacco, Stefano R. Del; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon
The terms ‘exercise-induced asthma’ (EIA) and ‘exercise-induced bronchoconstriction’ (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals as shown by epidemiological studies. EIA and EIB have a high prevalence also in elite athletes, especially within endurance type of sports, and an athlete's asthma phenotype has been described. However, the occurrence in elite athletes shows that EIA/EIB, if correctly managed, may not impair physical activity and top sports performance. The pathogenic mechanisms of EIA/EIB classically involve both osmolar and vascular changes in the airways in addition to cooling of the airways with parasympathetic stimulation. Airways inflammation plays a fundamental role in EIA/EIB. Diagnosis and pharmacological management must be carefully performed, with particular consideration of current anti-doping regulations, when caring for athletes. Based on the demonstration that the inhaled asthma drugs do not improve performance in healthy athletes, the doping regulations are presently much less strict than previously. Some sports are at a higher asthma risk than others, probably due to a high environmental exposure while performing the sport, with swimming and chlorine exposure during swimming as one example. It is considered very important for the asthmatic child and adolescent to master EIA/EIB to be able to participate in physical activity on an equal level with their peers, and a precise early diagnosis with optimal treatment follow-up is vital in this aspect. In addition, surprising recent preliminary evidences offer new perspectives for moderate exercise as a potential therapeutic
Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura
The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used
Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A
Sustained isometric contraction of skeletal muscle causes an increase in blood pressure, due to an increase in cardiac output and an increase in total peripheral resistance-brought about by an increase in sympathetically-mediated vasoconstriction. Both central command and reflex inputs from metaboreceptors in the contracting muscles have been shown to contribute to this sympathetically mediated increase in blood pressure. Occluding the blood supply and trapping the metabolites in the contracted muscle (post-exercise ischaemia) has shown that, while heart rate returns to baseline following exercise, the increase in MSNA and blood pressure persists in the absence of central command-sustained by peripheral inputs. Post-exercise ischaemia activates group III and IV muscle afferents, which are also activated during noxious stimulation. Indeed, post-exercise ischaemia is painful, so what is the role of pain in the increase in blood pressure? Intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline causes a deep dull ache, not unlike that produced by post-exercise ischaemia, and we have shown that this can cause a sustained increase in MSNA and blood pressure. We have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of the brain to identify the cortical and subcortical sites involved in the sensory processing of muscle pain, and in the generation of the autonomic responses to muscle pain, produced either by post-exercise ischaemia or intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline. During static hand-grip exercise there were parallel increases in signal intensity in the contralateral primary motor cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei and cerebellar cortex that ceased at the end of the exercise, reflecting the start and end of central command. Progressive increases during the contraction phase occurred in the contralateral insula, as well as the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, and continued during the period of post-exercise ischaemia. Decreases in signal intensity occurred in the
González-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro
The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to differentquestionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, motivation types, and exercise dependence. The results of multiple mediation analysis revealed that ego-involving climate and perceived competence positively predicted exercise dependence in a directed and mediated manner through introjected and external regulation. Gender and age did not moderate the analyzed relationships. These results allow us to better understand the motivational process explaining exercise dependence, demonstrating the negative influence of the ego-involving climate in the context of exercise.
Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana
Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities.
Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo
Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life.
Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V
Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.
Baker, K; McAlindon, T
Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.
Peirce, N. S.
Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. PMID:10378067
Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.
Bell, P G; McHugh, M P; Stevenson, E; Howatson, G
Recently, cherries and cherry products have received growing attention within the literature with regard to their application in both exercise and clinical paradigms. Reported to be high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity, cherries and their constituents are proposed to provide a similar but natural alternative akin to over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or analgesics. Within exercise paradigms, concern has been raised with regard to the use of products, which inhibit such inflammatory or oxidative actions, because of the possibility of the blunting of physiological training adaptations. Despite this, numerous scenarios exist both within exercise and clinical populations where a goal of optimal recovery time is more important than physiological adaptation. This review critically evaluates and discusses the use of cherries as a supplementation strategy to enhance recovery of muscle function, inhibit exercise-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain primarily; furthermore, the potential application of cherries to clinical populations is discussed.
Rogers, M. J. B.; Hrovat, K.; Moskowitz, M. E.
Numerous types of exercise equipment have flown on manned space flights to evaluate and maintain crew members' physical condition while on orbit. Vibrations associated with the use of some exercise equipment cause concern among microgravity scientists who are usually looking for a quiescent environment in which to run their experiments. We discuss the impact of aerobic (bicycle ergometer, treadmill) and non-aerobic (resistance devices) exercise on the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Orbiters and the Mir Space Station. In general, characteristic vibration disturbances due to ergometer exercise show the pedalling frequency at 2.5 to 3 Hz and the crew members' body rocking side-to-side at about half the pedalling frequency. For treadmill exercise, the footfall frequency on the treadmill platform can be clearly seen in the 1 to 2 Hz range, along with upper harmonics. The use of resistance exercise devices does not typically cause vibrations. Several vibration isolation systems used on the Orbiters and planned for the International Space Station are introduced. Finally, the responses of specific experiments to exercise vibrations are outlined.
North America has about two million survivors of breast cancer, but little informed advice is available regarding a return to exercise and sports once a course of medical treatment for the disease ends. The lack of research involving the post-treatment phase means physicians tend to err on the side of caution when advising patients about resuming exercise. This may change, because scientists in British Columbia are testing the belief that women recovering from breast cancer should avoid vigorous exercise. The research is a collaborative effort in which several medical specialties are represented. Images p970-a p971-a PMID:8837548
Mendoza, Nicolás; De Teresa, Carlos; Cano, Antonio; Godoy, Débora; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lapotka, Maryna; Llaneza, Placido; Manonelles, Pedro; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ocón, Olga; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Laura; Vélez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael
Physical inactivity not only places women's health at risk during menopause, but also increases menopausal problems. Abundant evidence links habitual physical exercise (PE) to a better status on numerous health indicators and better quality of life and to the prevention and treatment of the ailments that typically occur from mid-life onwards. We can infer that PE is something more than a lifestyle: it constitutes a form of therapy in itself. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to PE and menopause (Spanish Menopause Society, Spanish Cardiology Society, Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing of and methods of exercise, based on the best evidence available.
Haas, Tara L; Lloyd, Pamela G; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12 to 15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50% to 1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking approximately five times per week, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Preclinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a lifestyle pattern that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations is the most desirable and beneficial.
Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270
Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.
The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.
Baltaci, Saltuk Bugra; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim
Although it is recommended for a healthy lifestyle, moderate exercise is known to lead to oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle injury. Hence there are efforts to develop dietary strategies to counter the oxidative stress caused by physical activity. Recently, there has been an interest in the capability of resveratrol (RES) to modulate physical performance and prevent oxidative stress. Despite the inconsistency among reports regarding the topic, it has been suggested that RES delays fatigue by hindering lipid peroxidation. It is hypothesized that RES administration produces favorable effects on hepatic cell rejuvenation, exerts a regulatory effect on glucose metabolism, and preserves liver glycogen reserves that are diminished during physical activity. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the association between RES and exercise. The aim of the current review is to interpret the association between RES and exercise. PMID:27882212
Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; AlMahameed, Soufian
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the least recognized and understood complication of peripheral neuropathy. However, because of its potential adverse effects including sudden death, CAN is one of the most important forms of autonomic neuropathies. CAN presents with different clinical manifestations including postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, fluctuation of blood pressure and heart rate, arrhythmia, and increased risk of myocardial infarction. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of cardiac involvement in certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy, hereditary neuropathies, and amyloid neuropathy are examined in detail.
Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, R. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; Seidler, R. D.
Long duration spaceflight microgravity results in cephalad fluid shifts and deficits in posture control and locomotion. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on Earth using head down tilt bed rest (HDBR). HDBR serves as a spaceflight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. Preliminary results from our prior 70 days HDBR studies showed that HDBR is associated with focal gray matter (GM) changes and gait and balance deficits, as well as changes in brain functional connectivity. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers we investigated whether exercise reduces the effects of HDBR on GM, functional connectivity, and motor performance. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise on brain health. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention during HDBR could potentially mitigate the effects of HDBR on the central nervous system. Eighteen subjects were assessed before (12 and 7 days), during (7, 30, and 70 days) and after (8 and 12 days) 70 days of 6-degrees HDBR at the NASA HDBR facility in UTMB, Galveston, TX, US. Each subject was randomly assigned to a control group or one of two exercise groups. Exercise consisted of daily supine exercise which started 20 days before the start of HDBR. The exercise subjects participated either in regular aerobic and resistance exercise (e.g. squat, heel raise, leg press, cycling and treadmill running), or aerobic and resistance exercise using a flywheel apparatus (rowing). Aerobic and resistance exercise intensity in both groups was similar, which is why we collapsed the two exercise groups for the current experiment. During each time point T1-weighted MRI scans and resting state functional connectivity scans were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. Focal changes over time in GM density were assessed using voxel based morphometry (VBM8) under SPM. Changes in resting state functional connectivity was assessed
Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan
This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances.
Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.
Some obese individuals do not get cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or certain cancers associated with obesity. These healthy obese individuals exercise regularly and reduce circulating levels of inflammatory mediators which are associated with the complications of obesity. Bloated white adipocytes located in ectopic locations such as the liver, produce these inflammatory mediators. Exercise, by reducing the excess storage of fat in these bloated fat cells, reduces the levels of circulating inflammatory mediators. The processes of gathering and creating new energy-rich substances, storing energy, and consuming energy-rich substances, and the specific contribution of several hormones to this process, are reviewed.
de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S
Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.
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Chen, Xi; Li, Lihui; Guo, Jianmin; Zhang, Lingli; Yuan, Yu; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun
This study examined the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) and determined the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in exercise-induced osteogenesis. Three-month-old male SAMP6 mice were randomly assigned to different speeds of treadmill running exercise representing low, medium and high intensity, with the duration of five and nine weeks, respectively. We showed that medium-intensity exercise had positive effects on skeletal health, including BMD and bone strength, and the efficacy was higher than that of low-intensity exercise. Interestingly, high-intensity exercise can maintain or even increase bone strength, despite its negative effects on bone mass. Nine weeks of exercise was superior to 5 weeks of exercise, particularly for low-intensity exercise. Furthermore, these effects of exercise-induced osteogenesis are accompanied by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the positive effects of exercise on osteoporosis prevention are intensity and duration-dependent, and may involve the regulation of Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:27661008
Chen, Xi; Li, Lihui; Guo, Jianmin; Zhang, Lingli; Yuan, Yu; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun
This study examined the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) and determined the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in exercise-induced osteogenesis. Three-month-old male SAMP6 mice were randomly assigned to different speeds of treadmill running exercise representing low, medium and high intensity, with the duration of five and nine weeks, respectively. We showed that medium-intensity exercise had positive effects on skeletal health, including BMD and bone strength, and the efficacy was higher than that of low-intensity exercise. Interestingly, high-intensity exercise can maintain or even increase bone strength, despite its negative effects on bone mass. Nine weeks of exercise was superior to 5 weeks of exercise, particularly for low-intensity exercise. Furthermore, these effects of exercise-induced osteogenesis are accompanied by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the positive effects of exercise on osteoporosis prevention are intensity and duration-dependent, and may involve the regulation of Wnt signaling pathways.
NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Ph.D., NASA Lead Exercise Physiology Scientist, about the SPRINT exercise program used by the crew members aboard the Inter...
Heath, Earl J.; And Others
Evaluated with a total of 60 primary-grade children was the effectiveness in improving ocular motor control of three training programs: the Bender proprioceptive facilitative feedback exercises, the Marsden ball program, and perceptual exercises. (DB)
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000141.htm Kegel exercises - self-care To use the sharing features on ... move up and down. How to do Kegel Exercises Once you know what the movement feels like, ...
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Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen
Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.
Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Investigating the response to exercise in a non-exercised muscle may help to determine the clinical usefulness of lower-body exercise interventions for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Methods In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess input–output curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the extensor carpi radialis muscle in twelve healthy individuals following a single session of moderate stationary biking. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene would affect the response of these measures to exercise. Results We observed significant increases in ICF and decreases in SICI following exercise. No changes in LICI were detected, and no differences were observed in input–output curves following exercise, or between BDNF groups. Conclusions The current results demonstrate that the modulation of intracortical excitability following aerobic exercise is not limited to those muscles involved in the exercise, and that while exercise does not directly modulate the excitability of motor neurons, it may facilitate the induction of experience-dependent plasticity via a decrease in intracortical inhibition and increase in intracortical facilitation. These findings indicate that exercise may create favourable conditions for adaptive plasticity in M1 and may be an effective adjunct to
Masi, Laureane Nunes; Serdan, Tamires Duarte Afonso; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine; Silveira, Leonardo Dos Reis; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Curi, Rui; Gorjão, Renata; Hirabara, Sandro Massao
Gene expression control by microRNAs (miRs) is an important mechanism for maintenance of cellular homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions as well as in response to different stimuli including nutritional factors and exercise. MiRs are involved in regulation of several processes such as growth and development, fuel metabolism, insulin secretion, immune function, miocardium remodeling, cell proliferation, differenciation, survival, and death. These molecules have also been proposed to be potential biomarkers and/or therapeutical targets in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. MiRs are released by most cells and potentially act on intercellular communication to borderer or distant cells. Various studies have been performed to elucidate the involvement of miRs in exercise-induced effects. The aims of this review are: 1) to bring up the main advances for the comprehension of the mechanisms of action of miRs; 2) to present the main results on miR involvement in physical exercise; 3) to discuss the physiological effects of miRs modified by exercise. The state of the art and the perspectives on miRs associated with physical exercise will be presented. Thus, this review is important for updating recent advances and driving further strategies and studies on the exercise-related miR research.
guide the play of the exercise so as to obtain maximum training benefit for all participants. b. Control and monitor aggressor guerrilla activities , c...loaders, CW radio communication with deployed detachment. (2) Brief Exercise Director on guerrilla activities , (3) Advise Exercise Director on...Maneuver, Field Exercises , Simulated War Games, Training Encampments and other similar activities . c. AR 37-20, Administrative Control of Appropriations
One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.
THIS WORKBOOK WAS DEVELOPED IN A CURRICULUM PROJECT, DESCRIBED IN VT 004 454, TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE LEARN BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF MECHANICS AND TECHNOLOGY BY MEANS OF A SERIES OF APTITUDE TRAINING EXERCISES. IT IS THE LAST OF FOUR BOOKS WHICH PRESENT 30 EXERCISES DESIGNED FOR 30 CLASS PERIODS. THE EXERCISES ARE SIMILAR TO APTITUDE TEST…
Robertson, Edwin M; Takacs, Adam
Exercise can improve human cognition. A mechanistic connection between exercise and cognition has been revealed in several recent studies. Exercise increases cortical excitability and this in turn leads to enhanced memory consolidation. Together these studies dovetail with our growing understanding of memory consolidation and how it is regulated through changes in motor cortical excitability.
Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank
The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.
Arterberry, Christopher M.
Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…
... an hour of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and joints Sleep better at night As kids spend more time ...
Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.
In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…
Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.
This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…
Katch, Victor L.
This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…
Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main types and each type is different. Doing them all will give you more benefits. Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. Brisk walking or jogging, dancing, swimming, ...
Blair, Steven N.
Data on the dose-response gradient for the relation of physical activity or physical fitness to health and function are reviewed, refuting the idea that physical activity programs are either exercise for health or for fitness and suggesting that the key factor is the total energy expenditure of the activity. (SM)
Gani, Federica; Selvaggi, Lucia; Roagna, Davide
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kind of exercise, although jogging is the most frequently reported. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema, gastrointestinal and laryngeal symptoms and signs of angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the finding of an elevated serum histamine level during experimentally-induced attacks and by cutaneous degranulation of mast cells with elevated serum tryptase after attacks. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even aspecific sensitivity to food has been reported and such cases are called "food-dependent EIA". Many foods are implicated but particularly wheat, vegetables, crustacean. Another precipitating factor includes drugs intake (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), climate variations and menstrual cycle factors. Treatment of an attack should include all the manoeuvres efficacious in the management of conventional anaphylactic syndrome, including the administration of epinephrine and antihistamines. Prevention of the attacks may be achieved with the interruption of the exercise at the appearance of the first premonitory symptoms. To prevent the onset of EIA it is also suitable to delay the exercise practice after at least 4-6 hours from the swallowing of food.
Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith
Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…
Miller, Margaret A.
Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…
Trivedi, Madhukar H; Greer, Tracy L; Grannemann, Bruce D; Chambliss, Heather O; Jordan, Alexander N
The use of augmentation strategies among patients with major depression is increasing because rates of complete remission with standard antidepressant monotherapy are quite low. Clinical and neurobiological data suggest that exercise may be a good candidate for use as an augmentation treatment for depression. This pilot study examined the use of exercise to augment antidepressant medication in patients with major depression. Seventeen patients with incomplete remission of depressive symptoms began a 12-week exercise program while continuing their antidepressant medication (unchanged in type or dose). Individual exercise prescriptions were calculated based on an exercise dose consistent with currently recommended public health guidelines. The exercise consisted of both supervised and home-based sessions. The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (IDS-SR30) were used to assess symptoms of depression on a weekly basis. Intent-to-treat analyses yielded significant decreases on both the HRSD17 (5.8 points, p < 0.008) and IDS-SR30 (13.9 points, p < 0.002). For patients who completed the study (n = 8), HRSD17 scores decreased by 10.4 points and IDS-SR30 scores decreased by 18.8 points. This study provides preliminary evidence for exercise as an effective augmentation treatment for antidepressant medication. This is a lower-cost augmentation strategy that has numerous health benefits and may further reduce depressive symptoms in partial responders to antidepressant treatment. Practical tips on how practitioners can use exercise to enhance antidepressant treatment are discussed. Longer-term use of exercise is also likely to confer additional health benefits for this population.
Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike
An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin. Accordingly, neural strategies controlling eccentric contractions also differ with a greater, and possibly distinct, cortical activation observed despite an apparently lower activation at the level of the motor unit. The characteristics of eccentric contractions are associated with several acute physiological responses to eccentrically-emphasised exercise. Differences in neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal and anabolic signalling responses during, and following, an eccentric exercise bout have frequently been observed in comparison to concentric exercise. Subsequently, the high levels of muscular strain with such exercise can induce muscle damage which is rarely observed with other contraction types. The net result of these eccentric contraction characteristics and responses appears to be a novel adaptive signal within the neuromuscular system.
Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, André
Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures.
Cox, A J; Pyne, D B; Cox, G R; Callister, R; Gleeson, M
Most studies investigating the effects of acute carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on post-exercise cytokine responses have involved fasted athletes. This study characterised the effects of acute CHO beverage ingestion preceded by consumption of a CHO-containing pre-exercise meal. Sixteen highly-trained male cyclists/triathletes (age: 30.6 +/- 5.6 y; V O (2max): 64.8 +/- 4.7 ml . kg . min (-1) [mean +/- SD]) undertook two cycle ergometry trials involving randomised consumption of a 10 % CHO beverage (15 mL . kg (-1) . hr (-1)) or water (H (2)O). Trials were undertaken 2 h after a breakfast providing 2.1 g CHO . kg (-1) body mass (BM) (48 kJ . kg (-1) BM) and consisted of 100 min steady state cycle ergometry at 70 % V O (2max) followed by a time trial of approximately 30 min duration. Blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 1 h post-exercise for measurement of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-1ra. Time-trial performance was not substantially different between CHO and H (2)O trials (4.5 %, p = 0.42). Neither IL-6 nor IL-8 responses were substantially reduced in the CHO compared to the H (2)O trial. There was a substantial reduction in IL-10 (32 %, p = 0.05) and IL-1ra (43 %, p = 0.02) responses at 1 h post-exercise with CHO compared to H (2)O ingestion. In conclusion, the previously shown attenuating effects of CHO ingestion during exercise on cytokine responses appear reduced when athletes consume a CHO-containing pre-exercise meal.
Schneider, Margaret; Schmalbach, Priel
Background Little information exists as to the exercise intensity that adolescents enjoy and whether identifiable subgroups of adolescents will choose higher-intensity exercise. Methods Healthy adolescents (N = 74; mean age = 11.09) completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test, a moderate-intensity exercise task, and an exercise task at an intensity that felt “good”. Heart rate (HR), work rate (WR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed every 3 minutes. Results During the “feels good” task, adolescents exercised at a HR recognized as beneficial for cardiovascular health (Mean HR = 66-72% of HR at VO2peak). Adolescents who experienced a positive affective shift during the moderate-intensity task engaged in higher-intensity exercise during the “feels-good” task as compared to those whose affective response to moderate-intensity exercise was neutral or negative (76% of peak HR vs. 70% of peak HR, p < .01).There was no difference between groups in RPE. Conclusions Adolescents tend to select an exercise intensity associated with fitness benefits when afforded the opportunity to choose an intensity that feels good. An identified subgroup engaged in higher-intensity exercise without a commensurate perception of working harder. Encouraging adolescents to exercise at an intensity that feels “good” may increase future exercise without sacrificing fitness. PMID:24770461
Vina, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gambini, Juan; Ingles, Marta; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen
Scientific evidence links physical activity to several benefits. Recently, we proposed the idea that exercise can be regarded as a drug. As with many drugs, dosage is of great importance. However, to issue a public recommendation of physical activity in aging is not an easy task. Exercise in the elderly needs to be carefully tailored and individualized with the specific objectives of the person or group in mind. The beneficial effects of exercise in two of the main age-related diseases, sarcopenia and Alzheimer's Disease, are dealt with at the beginning of this report. Subsequently, dosage of exercise and the molecular signaling pathways involved in its adaptations are discussed. Exercise and aging are associated with oxidative stress so the paradox arises, and is discussed, as to whether exercise would be advisable for the aged population from an oxidative stress point of view. Two of the main redox-sensitive signaling pathways altered in old skeletal muscle during exercise, NF-κB and PGC-1α, are also reviewed. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to the age-associated diseases in which exercise is contraindicated. Finally, we address the option of applying exercise mimetics as an alternative for disabled old people. The overall denouement is that exercise is so beneficial that it should be deemed a drug both for young and old populations. If old adults adopted a more active lifestyle, there would be a significant delay in frailty and dependency with clear benefits to individual well-being and to the public's health.
Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.
Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114
Che, Fa-Yun; Yuan, Quan; Kalinina, Elena; Fricker, Lloyd D
Carboxypeptidase E is a major enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous neuroendocrine peptides. Previously, we developed a technique for the isolation of neuropeptide-processing intermediates from mice that lack carboxypeptidase E activity (Cpe fat/fat mice) due to a naturally occurring point mutation. In the present study, we used a differential labeling procedure with stable isotopic tags and mass spectrometry to quantitate the relative changes in a number of hypothalamic peptides in Cpe fat/fat mice in two different paradigms that each cause an approximately 10% decrease in body mass. One paradigm involved a 2-day fast under normal sedentary conditions (i.e. standard mouse cages); the other involved giving mice access to an exercise wheel for 4 weeks with free access to food. Approximately 50 peptides were detected in both studies, and over 80 peptides were detected in at least one of the two studies. Twenty-eight peptides were increased >50% by food deprivation, and some of these were increased by 2- to 3-fold. In contrast, only three peptides were increased >50% in the group with exercise wheels, and many peptides showed a slight 15-30% decrease upon exercise. Approximately one-half of the peptides detected in both studies were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Peptides found to be elevated by food deprivation but not exercise included a number of fragments of proenkephalin, prothyrotropin-releasing hormone, secretogranin II, chromogranin B, and pro-SAAS. Taken together, the differential regulation of these peptides in the two paradigms suggests that the regulation is not due to the lower body weight but to the manner in which the paradigms achieved this lower body weight.
Shephard, R J
Specific nutritional benefits of regular exercise include the control of obesity and its complications, the improvement of blood lipid profile, the optimization of micro-nutrient intake and the assurance of a maximum quality-adjusted life-expectancy. While epidemiologists interpret various weight for height ratios in terms of obesity, such data can be misleading, particularly in older people (where an accumulation of fat is masked by lean tissue loss). Skinfold calipers provide a more unequivocal index of the amount and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Arguments against the treatment of obesity by exercise include the large energy yield of fat, the potential for compensating changes of resting metabolism, and an inherently high "set-point" of fat stores in the obese. Exercise cannot achieve rapid fat loss, but it has several advantages over other types of treatment, including the positive nature of the prescription, the associated elevation of mood and suppression of appetite, the conservation of lean tissue, and the establishment of an improved lifestyle. Moreover, blood pressure is reduced, insulin needs are decreased in the diabetic, and favourable changes of lipid profile are observed. Total cholesterol levels are not affected by exercise if body mass is held constant, but (provided a weekly threshold of exercise is exceeded) there is an increase of HDL cholesterol, particularly HDL-2 cholesterol. The intake of vitamins and most other micronutrients is increased by a high daily energy expenditure. Frank anaemia is not common in athletes, but a low iron saturation may be an indication for dietary supplements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Heinonen, O J
Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine
Pescatello, Linda S; Franklin, Barry A; Fagard, Robert; Farquhar, William B; Kelley, George A; Ray, Chester A
Hypertension (HTN), one of the most common medical disorders, is associated with an increased incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Lifestyle modifications are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HTN, with exercise being an integral component. Exercise programs that primarily involve endurance activities prevent the development of HTN and lower blood pressure (BP) in adults with normal BP and those with HTN. The BP lowering effects of exercise are most pronounced in people with HTN who engage in endurance exercise with BP decreasing approximately 5-7 mm HG after an isolated exercise session (acute) or following exercise training (chronic). Moreover, BP is reduced for up to 22 h after an endurance exercise bout (e.g.postexercise hypotension), with greatest decreases among those with highest baseline BP. The proposed mechanisms for the BP lowering effects of exercise include neurohumoral, vascular, and structural adaptations. Decreases in catecholamines and total peripheral resistance, improved insulin sensitivity, and alterations in vasodilators and vasoconstrictors are some of the postulated explanations for the antihypertensive effects of exercise. Emerging data suggest genetic links to the BP reductions associated with acute and chronic exercise. Nonetheless, definitive conclusions regarding the mechanisms for the BP reductions following endurance exercise cannot be made at this time. Individuals with controlled HTN and no CVD or renal complications may participated in an exercise program or competitive athletics, but should be evaluated, treated and monitored closely. Preliminary peak or symptom-limited exercise testing may be warranted, especially for men over 45 and women over 55 yr planning a vigorous exercise program (i.e. > or = 60% VO2R, oxygen uptake reserve). In the interim, while formal evaluation and management are taking place, it is reasonable for the majority of patients to begin moderate intensity
Naderi, Alireza; Earnest, Conrad P; Lowery, Ryan P; Wilson, Jacob M; Willems, Mark E T
Many sports involve repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. High-intensity exercise is compromised, however, by the early onset of exercise-induced fatigue. Metabolic by-products, ion dysbalance and amount of phosphocreatine are considered the main peripheral causes of fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Intake of nutritional ergogenic aids is commonplace to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise by offsetting the potential mechanisms of fatigue. Creatine, probably one of the best known nutritional aids to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise, has convincingly substantiated its ergogenic potential. Although multi-ingredient supplements are now common, the justification for effectiveness is mostly based on observations with single intake of those ingredients. In this narrative review, the main focus is on the evidence of the effect of co-ingestion of ergogenic aids on performance of high intensity exercise for which the single intake has shown beneficial effects on high-intensity performance.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Yu-Jung; Chen, Tai-Ting; Hung, Tsung-Min
This study examined the behavioral and neuroelectrical impacts of a coordinative exercise intervention with different exercise intensities on executive function in kindergarten children. Participants underwent the Eriksen flanker test before and after an exercise program that involved 35-min sessions twice per week for 8 weeks, with either low or moderate intensity. Our findings revealed that exercise intervention, regardless of intensity, resulted in shorter reaction times and higher response accuracy in both congruent and incongruent trials, with incongruent trials receiving a larger benefit from exercise compared with congruent trials. Additionally, neuroelectrical activation demonstrated greater P3 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise in both trials. These results suggest that coordinative exercise may specifically benefit prefrontal-dependent tasks in the immature brain state of kindergarten children by increasing the allocation of attentional resources and enhancing the efficiency of neurocognitive processing.
Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh; Izaddoustdar, Farzad; Korogyi, Adam S.; Wang, Qiongling; Farman, Gerrie P.; Yang, FengHua; Yang, Wallace; Dorian, David; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Tuomi, Jari M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Cox, Brian; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Dorian, Paul; Backx, Peter H.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia that, for unknown reasons, is linked to intense endurance exercise. Our studies reveal that 6 weeks of swimming or treadmill exercise improves heart pump function and reduces heart-rates. Exercise also increases vulnerability to AF in association with inflammation, fibrosis, increased vagal tone, slowed conduction velocity, prolonged cardiomyocyte action potentials and RyR2 phosphorylation (CamKII-dependent S2814) in the atria, without corresponding alterations in the ventricles. Microarray results suggest the involvement of the inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, in exercised-induced atrial remodelling. Accordingly, exercise induces TNFα-dependent activation of both NFκB and p38MAPK, while TNFα inhibition (with etanercept), TNFα gene ablation, or p38 inhibition, prevents atrial structural remodelling and AF vulnerability in response to exercise, without affecting the beneficial physiological changes. Our results identify TNFα as a key factor in the pathology of intense exercise-induced AF. PMID:25598495
Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.
Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.
Saklofske, Donald H; Austin, Elizabeth J; Rohr, Betty A; Andrews, Jac J W
The associations of personality and self-report emotional intelligence (EI) with attitudes to exercise and self-reported exercise behaviour were investigated in a sample of 497 Canadian undergraduates. A positive attitude to exercise was negatively associated with Neuroticism and uncorrelated with other personality traits and EI. Exercise behaviour was positively associated with Extraversion and EI and negatively associated with Neuroticism. Structural equation modelling indicated that EI mediated the relationship between personality and exercise behaviour. The interpretation of this result in terms of EI having some properties of a coping style is discussed.
Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P
As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.
Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B
This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.
Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E
Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.
Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail
There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise.
Convertino, V. A.
Exercise represents the primary countermeasure used during spaceflight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels following prolonged spaceflight. As human spaceflight exposures increase in duration, assessment and development of various effective exercise-based protective procedures become paramount. This must involve improvement in specific countermeasure prescription as well as development of additional approaches that will allow space travelers greater flexibility and medical safety during long flights. Effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiological stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity and understanding of how specific combinations of exercise characteristics e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, mode) can mimic these stimuli and affect the overall process of adaptation to microgravity. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments. Future attention must be directed to improving exercise compliance while minimizing both crew time and the impact of the exercise on life-support resources.
Paradiso, Michele; Pietrosanti, Stefano; Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria
The heart rate can be effectively used as a measure of the exercise intensity during long duration cycle-ergometer exercises: precisely controlling the heart rate (HR) becomes crucial especially for athletes or patients with cardiovascular/obesity problems. The aim of this letter is to experimentally show how the nonlocal and nonswitching nonlinear control that has been recently proposed in the literature for the HR regulation in treadmill exercises can be effectively applied to cycle-ergometer exercises at constant cycling speed. The structure of the involved nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in cycle-ergometer exercises is mathematically inspired by the structure of a recently identified and experimentally validated nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in treadmill exercises: the role played by the treadmill speed is played here by the work load while the zero speed case for the treadmill exercise is here translated into the cycling operation under zero work load. Experimental results not only validate the aforementioned nonlinear model but also demonstrate the effectiveness--in terms of precise HR regulation--of an approach which simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design. The possibility of online modifying the HR reference on the basis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is also suggested and experimentally motivated.
McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Nuzzo, James L; Cavill, Michael J; Triplett, N Travis
The purpose of this investigation was to compare 4 different methods of calculating volume when comparing resistance exercise protocols of varying intensities. Ten Appalachian State University students experienced in resistance exercise completed 3 different resistance exercise protocols on different days using a randomized, crossover design, with 1 week of rest between each protocol. The protocols included 1) hypertrophy: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (90-second rest periods); 2) strength: 11 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM (5-minute rest periods); and 3) power: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% 1RM (3-minute rest periods). The volume of resistance exercise completed during each protocol was determined with 4 different methods: 1) volume load (VL) (repetitions [no.] x external load [kg]); 2) maximum dynamic strength volume load (MDSVL) (repetitions [no.] x [body mass--shank mass (kg) + external load (kg)]); 3) time under tension (TUT) (eccentric time +milliseconds] + concentric time +milliseconds]); and 4) total work (TW) (force [N] x displacement [m]). The volumes differed significantly (p , 0.05) between hypertrophy and strength in comparison with the power protocol when VL and MDSVL were used to determine the volume of resistance exercise completed. Furthermore, significant differences in TUT existed between all 3 resistance exercise protocols. The TW calculated was not significantly different between the 3 protocols. These data imply that each method examined results in substantially different values when comparing various resistance exercise protocols involving different levels of intensity.
Salem 98 was the largest nuclear power plant post-plume phase exercise since the 1993 FRMAC-93 exercise at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Nebraska. Salem 98 was a 3 Day exercise, held on May 5--7, 1998, involving participation by the States of New Jersey and Delaware and associated State and county agencies. Public Service Electric and Gas was the host utility and Salem County the host county. Federal participation included the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, US department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, the American Nuclear Insurers participated, adding a dimension to the exercise not experienced often enough. This was a stand-alone post-plume phase exercise, which took place 2 months after the evaluated plume phase exercise held on March 3, 1998, also including participation by various Federal agencies. This exercise demonstrated the positive working relationship among utility, State, county, and Federal responders in response to a postulated major nuclear power plant emergency with significant offsite consequences.
Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark
The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population.
Steinbacher, Peter; Eckl, Peter
It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise. PMID:25866921
Bernardi, Caren; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Nardin, Patrícia; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Vizueti, Adriana Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Bobermin, Larissa; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Jaqueline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto
Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day) for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry) and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy. PMID:23401802
Einstein's equations of general relativity are prime candidates for numerical solution on supercomputers. There is some urgency in being able to carry out such simulations: Large-scale gravitational wave detectors are now coming on line, and the most important expected signals cannot be predicted except numerically. Problems involving black holes are perhaps the most interesting, yet also particularly challenging computationally. One difficulty is that inside a black hole there is a physical singularity that cannot be part of the computational domain. A second difficulty is the disparity in length scales between the size of the black hole and the wavelength of the gravitational radiation emitted. A third difficulty is that all existing methods of evolving black holes in three spatial dimensions are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. I will describe the ideas that are being introduced in numerical relativity to deal with these problems, and discuss the results of recent calculations of black hole collisions.
Tanzman, E. A.; Nieves, L. A.; Decision and Information Sciences
The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate the Argonne Distance Tabletop Exercise (DISTEX) method. DISTEX is intended to facilitate multi-organization, multi-objective tabletop emergency response exercises that permit players to participate from their own facility's incident command center. This report is based on experience during its first use during the FluNami 2007 exercise, which took place from September 19-October 17, 2007. FluNami 2007 exercised the response of local public health officials and hospitals to a hypothetical pandemic flu outbreak. The underlying purpose of the DISTEX method is to make tabletop exercising more effective and more convenient for playing organizations. It combines elements of traditional tabletop exercising, such as scenario discussions and scenario injects, with distance learning technologies. This distance-learning approach also allows playing organizations to include a broader range of staff in the exercise. An average of 81.25 persons participated in each weekly webcast session from all playing organizations combined. The DISTEX method required development of several components. The exercise objectives were based on the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Target Capabilities List. The ten playing organizations included four public health departments and six hospitals in the Chicago area. An extent-of-play agreement identified the objectives applicable to each organization. A scenario was developed to drive the exercise over its five-week life. Weekly problem-solving task sets were designed to address objectives that could not be addressed fully during webcast sessions, as well as to involve additional playing organization staff. Injects were developed to drive play between webcast sessions, and, in some cases, featured mock media stories based in part on player actions as identified from the problem-solving tasks. The weekly 90-minute webcast sessions were discussions among the playing organizations that were
Bareiss, E. H.
Numerical technique increases the efficiencies of the numerical methods involving Toeplitz matrices by reducing the number of multiplications required by an N-order Toeplitz matrix from N-cubed to N-squared multiplications. Some efficient algorithms are given.
Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas
We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)
Merghani, Ahmed; Malhotra, Aneil; Sharma, Sanjay
Exercise confers a plethora of health benefits that are well documented, whereas physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The dose of physical activity required to achieve these benefits is relatively modest and equates to jogging at a pace of 15min per mile for 20-30min daily. In the current era, most athletes engage in a volume and intensity of exercise that is at least 5-10-fold greater than the general recommendations for physical activity. Such practice is evidenced by the fact that many sportsmen have achieved athletic feats that were considered impossible only 2 decades ago. Numerous studies in retired athletes have consistently shown a reduced incidence of heart disease and an increased longevity of life. Occasionally, however, intense exercise is associated with sudden deaths in athletes harboring quiescent yet potentially sinister cardiac diseases. Despite the visibility afforded by such catastrophes, the reputation of exercise remains unscathed because most deaths can be accounted for by an underlying cardiac abnormality where exercise is a mere trigger for a fatal arrhythmia rather than the actual cause of death. More recently, there have been an emerging number of reports suggesting that intense exercise may have an adverse impact on an otherwise normal heart. This article will review the morbidity and mortality associated with sport and pose the question whether one can have "too much of a good thing."
Qutubuddin, Abu; Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X; Towne, Alan; Carne, William
Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study.
Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X.; Towne, Alan; Carne, William
Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study. PMID:23853722
King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E
Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.
Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul
Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living.
Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271
Paluska, Scott A
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.
Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I
Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.
One means to uncover common attitudes toward aging and older adults is to perform content analyses of popular print media forms such as newspapers, magazines, and even greeting cards. This active learning activity involves small groups of undergraduate students replicating, in a limited way, elements of a published research study on the messages conveyed by age-related birthday cards. In the exercise, each group of students is asked to analyze a set of 15 different birthday cards and to share qualitative and quantitative findings with classmates before submitting a written "discussion section" on their results to the instructor. The author demonstrates how this exercise, because it is aligned with key course learning outcomes as well as with coursework preceding and following the activity, is integrated into the overall learning environment of the course. Comments on student findings, the potential benefits of and modifications to the exercise, and the transferability of the exercise to other course contexts are also provided.
Deslandes, Andréa; Moraes, Helena; Ferreira, Camila; Veiga, Heloisa; Silveira, Heitor; Mouta, Raphael; Pompeu, Fernando A M S; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Laks, Jerson
The relationship between physical activity and mental health has been widely investigated, and several hypotheses have been formulated about it. Specifically, during the aging process, physical exercise might represent a potential adjunctive treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment, helping delay the onset of neurodegenerative processes. Even though exercise itself might act as a stressor, it has been demonstrated that it reduces the harmful effects of other stressors when performed at moderate intensities. Neurotransmitter release, neurotrophic factor and neurogenesis, and cerebral blood flow alteration are some of the concepts involved. In this review, the potential effects of exercise on the aging process and on mental health are discussed, concerning some of the recent findings on animal and human research. The overwhelming evidence present in the literature today suggests that exercise ensures successful brain functioning.
Cejudo, Pilar; Bautista, Juan; Montemayor, Teodoro; Villagómez, Rafael; Jiménez, Luis; Ortega, Francisco; Campos, Yolanda; Sánchez, Hildegard; Arenas, Joaquín
Patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM) usually suffer from exercise intolerance due to their impaired oxidative capacity and physical deconditioning. We evaluated the effects of a 12-week supervised randomized rehabilitation program involving endurance training in patients with MM. Twenty MM patients were assigned to a training or control group. For three nonconsecutive days each week, patients combined cycle exercise at 70% of their peak work rate with three upper-body weight-lifting exercises performed at 50% of maximum capacity. Training increased maximal oxygen uptake (28.5%), work output (15.5%), and minute ventilation (40%), endurance performance (62%), walking distance in shuttle walking test (+95 m), and peripheral muscle strength (32%-62%), and improved Nottingham Health Profile scores (21.47%) and clinical symptoms. Control MM patients did not change from baseline. Results show that our exercise program is an adequate training strategy for patients with mitochondrial myopathy.
Mann, Theresa; Lamberts, Robert Patrick; Lambert, Michael Ian
stimulus than training prescribed as a %VO2max. However, many of these theoretical advantages of threshold-related exercise prescription have yet to be directly demonstrated. On a practical level, the use of threshold-related exercise prescription has distinct disadvantages compared to the use of %VO2max or %HRmax. Thresholds determined from single incremental tests cannot be assumed to be accurate in all individuals without verification trials. Verification trials would involve two or three additional laboratory visits and would add considerably to the testing burden on both the participant and researcher. Threshold determination and verification would also involve blood lactate sampling, which is aversive to some participants and has a number of intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation. Threshold measurements also tend to show higher day-to-day variation than VO2max or HRmax. In summary, each method of prescribing relative exercise intensity has both advantages and disadvantages when both theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account. It follows that the most appropriate method of relative exercise intensity prescription may vary with factors such as exercise intensity, number of participants, and participant characteristics. Considering a method's limitations as well as advantages and increased reporting of individual exercise responses will facilitate accurate interpretation of findings and help to identify areas for further study.
Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin
The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness
Dishman, Rod K; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Booth, Frank W; Cotman, Carl W; Edgerton, V Reggie; Fleshner, Monika R; Gandevia, Simon C; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F; Levin, Barry E; Moran, Timothy H; Russo-Neustadt, Amelia A; Salamone, John D; Van Hoomissen, Jacqueline D; Wade, Charles E; York, David A; Zigmond, Michael J
Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including motor learning in the spinal cord. These adaptations in the central nervous system have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity, cancer, depression, the decline in cognition associated with aging, and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, ischemic stroke, and head and spinal cord injury. Chronic voluntary physical activity also attenuates neural responses to stress in brain circuits responsible for regulating peripheral sympathetic activity, suggesting constraint on sympathetic responses to stress that could plausibly contribute to reductions in clinical disorders such as hypertension, heart failure, oxidative stress, and suppression of immunity. Mechanisms explaining these adaptations are not as yet known, but metabolic and neurochemical pathways among skeletal muscle, the spinal cord, and the brain offer plausible, testable mechanisms that might help explain effects of physical activity and exercise on the central nervous system.
Convertino, Victor A.
The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.
Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.
Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.
Hoffman, Nolan J
The application of global "-omics" technologies to exercise has introduced new opportunities to map the complexity and interconnectedness of biological networks underlying the tissue-specific responses and systemic health benefits of exercise. This review will introduce major research tracks and recent advancements in this emerging field, as well as critical gaps in understanding the orchestration of molecular exercise dynamics that will benefit from unbiased omics investigations. Furthermore, significant research hurdles that need to be overcome to effectively fill these gaps related to data collection, computation, interpretation, and integration across omics applications will be discussed. Collectively, a cross-disciplinary physiological and omics-based systems approach will lead to discovery of a wealth of novel exercise-regulated targets for future mechanistic validation. This frontier in exercise biology will aid the development of personalized therapeutic strategies to improve athletic performance and human health through precision exercise medicine.
de Andrade, Flávio Maciel Dias; Pedrosa, Rodrigo Pinto
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common clinical condition, with a variable and underestimated prevalence. OSA is the main condition associated with secondary systemic arterial hypertension, as well as with atrial fibrillation, stroke, and coronary artery disease, greatly increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is not tolerated by all OSA patients and is often not suitable in cases of mild OSA. Hence, alternative methods to treat OSA and its cardiovascular consequences are needed. In OSA patients, regular physical exercise has beneficial effects other than weight loss, although the mechanisms of those effects remain unclear. In this population, physiological adaptations due to physical exercise include increases in upper airway dilator muscle tone and in slow-wave sleep time; and decreases in fluid accumulation in the neck, systemic inflammatory response, and body weight. The major benefits of exercise programs for OSA patients include reducing the severity of the condition and daytime sleepiness, as well as increasing sleep efficiency and maximum oxygen consumption. There are few studies that evaluated the role of physical exercise alone for OSA treatment, and their protocols are quite diverse. However, aerobic exercise, alone or combined with resistance training, is a common point among the studies. In this review, the major studies and mechanisms involved in OSA treatment by means of physical exercise are presented. In addition to systemic clinical benefits provided by physical exercise, OSA patients involved in a regular, predominantly aerobic, exercise program have shown a reduction in disease severity and in daytime sleepiness, as well as an increase in sleep efficiency and in peak oxygen consumption, regardless of weight loss. PMID:28117479
Melancon, M O; Lorrain, D; Dionne, I J
Reductions in central serotonin activity with aging might be involved in sleep-related disorders in later life. Although the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on sleep are not new, sleep represents a complex recurring state of unconsciousness involving many lines of transmitters which remains only partly clear despite intense ongoing research. It is known that serotonin released into diencephalon and cerebrum might play a key inhibitory role to help promote sleep, likely through an active inhibition of supraspinal neural networks. Several lines of evidence support the stimulatory effects of exercise on higher serotonergic pathways. Hence, exercise has proved to elicit acute elevations in forebrain serotonin concentrations, an effect that waned upon cessation of exercise. While adequate exercise training might lead to adaptations in higher serotonergic networks (desensitization of forebrain receptors), excessive training has been linked to serious brain serotonergic maladaptations accompanied by insomnia. Dietary supplementation of tryptophan (the only serotonin precursor) is known to stimulate serotonergic activity and promote sleep, whereas acute tryptophan depletion causes deleterious effects on sleep. Regarding sleep-wake regulation, exercise has proved to accelerate resynchronization of the biological clock to new light-dark cycles following imposition of phase shifts in laboratory animals. Noteworthy, the effect of increased serotonergic transmission on wake state appears to be biphasic, i.e. promote wake and thereafter drowsiness. Therefore, it might be possible that acute aerobic exercise would act on sleep by increasing activity of ascending brain serotonergic projections, though additional work is warranted to better understand the implication of serotonin in the exercise-sleep axis.
Rodgers, Wendy M; Blanchard, Chris M; Sullivan, Michael J L; Bell, Gordon J; Wilson, Phil M; Gesell, Joanne G
The purpose of this research was to examine the psychological adaptations to two different exercise prescriptions. The dependent variables were three types of self-efficacy: task (for elemental aspects of the behavior); coping (for exercising under challenging circumstances); and scheduling (for arranging one's time commitments to exercise regularly). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two 12-week exercise prescriptions: a higher-intensity, shorter-duration condition (about 70 percent VO(2max), n = 21) and a lower-intensity, longer-duration condition (about 50 percent VO(2max), n = 23). The two conditions were equated for total work output (by manipulation of duration) in megajoules. The two exercise conditions produced similar aerobic fitness gains. Thus, the results regarding self-efficacy are not confounded by differential physical effects of the exercise prescriptions. Both groups were found to increase in task self-efficacy. The higher-intensity, shorter-duration group, however, showed an overall advantage in terms of coping (F[1,41] = 10.48, p< .002), and a group by time interaction was found for scheduling self-efficacy (F[2,39] = 3.81, p< .03) in favor of the higher-intensity, shorter-duration group. The motivational implications of the exercise prescriptions are discussed in terms of self-efficacy theory. It is concluded that it is important to consider not only the physical fitness implications of exercise prescription, but also the motivational implications. It is suggested that characteristics of the exercise bouts may influence motivation for subsequent physical activity involvement.
Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.
The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management
Skriver, Kasper; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Pingel, Jessica; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Kiens, Bente; Nielsen, Jens Bo
We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory and skill acquisition. Thirty-two healthy young male subjects were randomly allocated into either an exercise or control group. Following either an intense bout of cycling or rest subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after practice. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and lactate were analyzed at baseline, immediately after exercise or rest and during motor practice. The exercise group showed significantly better skill retention 24h and 7 days after acquisition. The concentration of all blood compounds increased significantly immediately after exercise and remained significantly elevated for 15 min following exercise except for BDNF and VEGF. Higher concentrations of norepinephrine and lactate immediately after exercise were associated with better acquisition. Higher concentrations of BDNF correlated with better retention 1 h and 7 days after practice. Similarly, higher concentrations of norepinephrine were associated with better retention 7 days after practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1h as well as 24 h and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory.
Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J
Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine.
Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred
To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.
Nakano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Haruka; Wada, Takeshi; Koga, Nobuyoshi
This paper reports on a learning program designed for high school chemistry classes that involves laboratory exercises using household oxygen bleaches. In this program, students are taught the chemistry of oxygen bleaches through a stepwise inquiry using laboratory exercises organized with different pedagogical intents. Through comparative…
Exercise is generally accepted to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the adaptations occurring during exercise are not well understood. The Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway adapts cells to elevated ROS. We tested...
Wilson, E. R.; Leslie, A. D.
In this paper we present a field-based practical exercise that allows students in forestry, ecology and natural resources to develop their understanding of forest stand dynamics. The exercise involves measurement of key tree growth parameters in four even-aged, single-species plantation stands of different age but occupying sites with similar soil…
This exercise is designed to illustrate the concept of a region and, more specifically, the subconcept of regionalization by involving students in working with facts and statistics available in the "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce 1971, 2001). The exercise supports the national…
Lawrence Univ., Appleton, WI. Dept. of Sociology.
This series of population exercises for undergraduate use aims at bringing the student to the realization that he is a population actor and that his attitudes, values, and behavior are the raw material of population analysis. The following exercises engage the student by personal involvement and by case study approach in the use of demographic…
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, WA... proposing to establish a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood Canal, WA. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public during these...
Coward, H. Roberts
Procedures for the operation of the Political-Military Exercise (PME) are detailed in this handbook as a means of involving political science students in the actual dynamics of international policy-making decisions through the PME game experience. Two basic designs for operating the simulation exercise are presented with a discussion of the format…
Sinclair, Thomas R.; Johnson, Marty
This manual describes 14 hands-on exercises for middle school introductory biology courses that are designed to allow all students to be involved in self-discoveries about life and plant life in particular. The exercises were developed to supplement normal classroom activities by allowing students to initiate ongoing projects to investigate the…
Kearney, Jay T.
The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…
Berryman, Cynthia L.
The use of exercises and games in teaching the process of public speaking provides a novel and effective approach for teacher and student. This paper justifies a process orientation to public-speaking instruction and offers practical exercises, games, and activities for teaching the major rhetorical aspects involved in the process of public…
Gonzalez-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro
The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to different questionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic…
Spirduso, Waneen W.
Exercise may postpone the deterioration in response speed that generally appears in the motor system of the aging by maintaining the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the brain. Exercise may also ameliorate symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Results of laboratory studies involving animals and rats are reported. (Author/PP)
Auster, Carol J.
Describes a class exercise that attempts to alleviate student anxiety and fear of learning statistics. Explains that the exercise focuses on concepts associated with probability sampling theory and sampling distribution through the use of M and M's candy. Describes the four steps involved and additional considerations. (CMK)
Kaminski, Lois Anne
Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral
Liang, Yuan-bo; Wu, Yue; Li, Si-zhen; Sun, Lan-ping; Wang, Ning-li
In the 1960s, it had been observed that physical exercises could reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma. However, the effect of IOP reduction varied with exercise type and intensity, as well as the duration after exercise. Difference of lowering the IOP in glaucoma patients and healthy people were also observed. The mechanisms of reducing the IOP by exercise were very complicated and believed to be associated with the lower concentration of norepinephrine, the rising of colloid osmotic pressure, the co-action of nitric oxide and endothelin after exercise, and also related to the gene polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.
Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Xueying
This study compared the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RES) on glycemic homeostasis to isotime sprint interval exercise (SIE) using a within-subjects design. Nineteen nondiabetic males (age: 23.3 ± 0.7 yrs; height: 173.1 ± 1.2 cm; weight: 79.1 ± 4.8 kg; % fat: 22.5 ± 2.5%) were studied. RES involved nine exercises of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-RM using a 2 : 2 s tempo and was interspersed with a one-minute recovery; SIE involved four 30 s' all-out cycling effort interspersed with four minutes of active recovery. Plasma glucose and insulin in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were assessed 12 h after exercise. In comparison to a no exercise control trial (CON), the area under curve (AUC) of plasma glucose was reduced with both RES and SIE (P < 0.05), while insulin AUC was only reduced with RES. Cederholm, Gutt, Matsuda, and HOMA indices were improved (P < 0.05) following RES compared to CON. Corresponding changes following SIE were only found in Cederholm and Gutt indices (P < 0.05). No difference was found in plasma variables and indices between RES and SIE (P > 0.05). Such findings suggest that the RES may represent a potential alternative to the SIE in the development of time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategies for improving diabetes risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:28349072
Zając, Adam; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Maszczyk, Adam; Gołaś, Artur; Lngfort, Józef
Resistance exercise is a popular form of conditioning for numerous sport disciplines, and recently different modes of strength training are being evaluated for health benefits. Resistance exercise differs significantly in nature, and several variables determine the direction and range of adaptive changes that occur in the muscular and skeletal system of the body. Some modes of resistance training can also be effective in stimulating the cardiovascular system. These variables include exercise selection (general, specific, single or multi joint, dynamic, explosive), type of resistance (free weights, variable resistance, isokinetics), order of exercise (upper and lower body or push and pull exercises), and most of all the training load which includes intensity expressed as % of 1RM, number of repetitions, number of sets and the rest interval between sets. Manipulating these variables allows for specific adaptive changes which may include gains in muscle mass, muscle strength or muscle endurance. It has been well established that during resistance exercise fatigue occurs, regardless of the volume and intensity of work applied. The peripheral mechanisms of fatigue have been studied and explained in more detail than those related to the CNS. This review is an attempt to bring together the latest knowledge regarding fatigue, both peripheral and central, during resistance exercise. The authors of this review concentrated on physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying fatigue in exercises performed with maximal intensity, as well as those performed to exhaustion with numerous repetitions and submaximal load. PMID:26839616
Background Exercises are increasingly common tools used by the health sector and other sectors to evaluate their preparedness to respond to public health threats. Exercises provide an opportunity for multiple sectors to practice, test and evaluate their response to all types of public health emergencies. The information from these exercises can be used to refine and improve preparedness plans. There is a growing body of literature about the use of exercises among local, state and federal public health agencies in the United States. There is much less information about the use of exercises among public health agencies in other countries and the use of exercises that involve multiple countries. Results We developed and conducted 12 exercises (four sub-national, five national, three sub-regional) from August 2006 through December 2008. These 12 exercises included 558 participants (average 47) and 137 observers (average 11) from 14 countries. Participants consistently rated the overall quality of the exercises as very good or excellent. They rated the exercises lowest on their ability to identifying key gaps in performance. The vast majority of participants noted that they would use the information they gained at the exercise to improve their organization’s preparedness to respond to an influenza pandemic. Participants felt the exercises were particularly good at raising awareness and understanding about public health threats, assisting in evaluating plans and identifying priorities for improvement, and building relationships that strengthen preparedness and response across sectors and across countries. Participants left the exercises with specific ideas about the most important actions that they should engage in after the exercise such as improved planning coordination across sectors and countries and better training of health workers and response personnel. Conclusions These experiences suggest that exercises can be a valuable, low-burden tool to improve emergency
Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.
Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.
We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…
Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.
It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…
Wilson, Douglas M.C.; Ciliska, Donna; Singer, Joel; Williams, Kimberly; Alleyne, Julia; Lindsay, Elizabeth
This trial took 22 volunteer family physicians and randomly exposed some to training intervention and some to no training to study the effect on frequency and quality of exercise prescription to ambulatory adults. During the 6 weeks after training, the trained physicians addressed the issue of exercise with 35.3% of patients. The untrained physicians discussed exercise with only 8.6% of their patients. PMID:21221270
activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also
Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin
Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the
Ayán, C; Martín, V
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease characterized by a variety of symptoms, especially fatigue, pain and reduced quality of life. Physical exercise is a useful tool for improving cardiovascular fitness, reducing metabolic abnormalities and fatigue and improving quality of life. However, very few studies have focused on the relationship between SLE and physical exercise. This paper reviews the main SLE symptoms that can be alleviated by exercising, as well as the results of studies seeking to analyse the exercise capacity and physical training possibilities of SLE patients. Considerations for future research are also discussed.
Carbohydrates (CHO) are a key source of energy for contracting skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise and fatigue during such exercise often coincides with CHO depletion. Our current understanding of the importance of CHO for exercise metabolism has its foundations in classic studies in the early 20th century by Scandinavian physiologists and Bengt Saltin contributed significantly to that tradition. This brief review summarizes our contemporary understanding of key aspects of muscle glycogen and glucose metabolism during exercise, through the lens of seminal studies by Bengt Saltin.
Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)
O'Neill, Hayley M
AMPK is an evolutionary conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated during exercise. Pharmacological activation of AMPK promotes glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity; processes that are reduced in obesity and contribute to the development of insulin resistance. AMPK deficient mouse models have been used to provide direct genetic evidence either supporting or refuting a role for AMPK in regulating these processes. Exercise promotes glucose uptake by an insulin dependent mechanism involving AMPK. Exercise is important for improving insulin sensitivity; however, it is not known if AMPK is required for these improvements. Understanding how these metabolic processes are regulated is important for the development of new strategies that target obesity-induced insulin resistance. This review will discuss the involvement of AMPK in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism (glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and insulin sensitivity).
Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.
Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244
da Silva, Paula Grazielle Chaves; Domingues, Daniel Desidério; de Carvalho, Litia Alves; Allodi, Silvana; Correa, Clynton Lourenço
We carried out a qualitative review of the literature on the influence of forced or voluntary exercise in Parkinson's Disease (PD)-induced animals, to better understand neural mechanisms and the role of neurotrophic factors (NFs) involved in the improvement of motor behavior. A few studies indicated that forced or voluntary exercise may promote neuroprotection, through upregulation of NF expression, against toxicity of drugs that simulate PD. Forced training, such as treadmill exercise and forced-limb use, adopted in most studies, in addition to voluntary exercise on a running wheel are suitable methods for NFs upregulation.
Alonso-Frech, Fernando; Sanahuja, Juan Juni; Rodriguez, Amelia Mendoza
Experimental research has produced evidence in recent years underlying the beneficial effects that exercise can have in preventing and deceleration of the development of Parkinson disease. These beneficial effects are exerted through various mechanisms such as neuroprotection, neurotransmission, plasticity, neurogenesis, homeostasis, and neurotrophic factors. Studies on clinical application at an early stage are still scarce, although some results are encouraging. There are still many questions to determine the most suitable type of exercise (forced/voluntary), the time of its implementation, the duration, and the combination of strategies. Nonconventional therapies can play an important role in addition to exercise, and are so numerous that they could be adapted to the circumstances of patients, although there is no evidence to date that they could have a neuroprotective effect.
Carter, R; Peavler, M; Zinkgraf, S; Williams, J; Fields, S
Shortness of breath is a chief complaint of many individuals with cardiopulmonary diseases. Exercise testing is often used to help differentiate cardiac from pulmonary involvement. In assessing pulmonary dysfunction during exercise it is essential to know the point at which ventilatory limitation will occur. Numerous authors have presented regression equations based on the FEV1 for predicting either MVV or VEmax. Resting pulmonary function studies were obtained from 53 patients with COPD. Symptom-limited maximal exercise testing was completed on a cycle ergometer using increments of 10 watts/min. Each regression equation for predicting MVV or VEmax was then applied to the data set. Results showed that the FEV1 correlated with the measured VEmax (r = .81) as did PEF (r = .81), MVV (r = .78), IC (r = .78), DCO (r = .68), VA (r = .67), VE (r = .65) and FVC (r = .64). Single post-bronchodilator FEV1 measurements ranged from 0.56 to 1.64 L (mean 1.0 L) while VEmax ranged from 16 to 78 L/min (mean 37.69 L/min). The equation VEmax = 37.5 X FEV1 was the most robust equation found in the literature for predicting VEmax in this sample. This equation was not statistically different from the line of identity when predicted VEmax was plotted against the measured VEmax. The intercept was 0.91 with a slope of 0.98. In addition, this equation had a smaller mean square error in predicting VEmax than those of the other equations investigated.
Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)
An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.
Kakoyianni-Doa, Fryni; Tziafa, Eleni; Naskos, Athanasios
The Exercise, an Exercise generator in the SOURCe project, is a tool that complements the properties and functionalities of the SOURCe project, which includes the search engine for the Searchable Online French-Greek parallel corpus for the UniveRsity of Cyprus (SOURCe) (Kakoyianni-Doa & Tziafa, 2013), the PENCIL (an alignment tool)…
Williams, M A
The prescription of exercise, either as a part of a formal exercise training program or as a means to increase physical activity in general, has been and will remain a primary component of cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programming. Wherever possible, this prescription should be based on a recent exercise test that documents the cardiac patient's functional capacity, cardiac and hemodynamic responses to exercise, and signs and symptoms associated with exertion. Clearly the prescription of exercise and suggestions for increasing levels of physical activity must be based on accepted principles of exercise physiology and expected training responses. Nonetheless, the art of exercise prescription should guarantee flexible methodologies to meet the specific needs of each individual patient. Although the patient must accept ultimate responsibility for participation, the clinician bears the burden of continually attempting to reinforce the importance of increasing caloric expenditure and motivating patients to initiate and commit to long-term participation in a safe and appropriately designed program of exercise and increasing physical activity.
Jaurigue, Jerson Jalandoni
This descriptive study determined the exercise motivation and exercise attribution of recreational athletes in one of the major cities in Panay Island. A total of 75 purposively selected respondents who are regular members in a particular club for at least a year and have finished at least a college degree participated in the study. To gather data…
Hoggard, Patrick E.
While most prepared exercises for ethics in science programs--including an excellent AAAS video series--present a complete account of the relevant facts, a role-playing exercise is described here in which the participants are provided with differing reports of events. The exercise is based on a true case involving a student who was convicted of…
Connes, Philippe; Machado, Roberto; Hue, Olivier; Reid, Harvey
Sickle cell anemia (SCA or SS homozygous sickle cell disease) is an inherited blood disorder caused by single nucleotide substitution in the β-globin gene that renders their hemoglobin (HbS) much less soluble than normal hemoglobin (HbA) when deoxygenated. The polymerization of HbS upon deoxygenation is the basic pathophysiologic event leading to RBC sickling, hemolysis, vasoocclusion and ultimately to chronic organ damage. The metabolic changes imposed by exercise may initiate sickling and vaso-occlusive episodes. Further, in patients with SCA, exercise limitation may be related to anemia or chronic complications such as pulmonary vascular disease, congestive heart failure and chronic parenchymal lung disease. Few studies have investigated the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with SCA during either symptom-limited maximal exercise test on cyclo-ergometer or during a six minute walk test. Therefore, patients are advised to start exercise slowly and progressively, to maintain adequate hydration during and after exercise, to avoid cold exposure or sudden change in temperature, and to avoid sports associated with mechanical trauma. There are, however, lack of evidence to allow practitioners to prescribe an exercise program for patients with SCA, and individuals are usually encouraged to exercise on a symptom-limited basis. Finally, this review will also highlight the basic principles that are often used for exercise practice and could be used for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in patients with sickle cell anemia.
Paterson, David J
One hundred years ago in this journal, Krogh and Lindhard published a seminal paper highlighting the importance of the brain in the control of breathing during exercise. This symposium report reviews the historical developments that have taken place since 1913, and attempts to place the detailed neurocircuitry thought to underpin exercise hyperpnoea into context by focusing on key structures that might form the command network. With the advent of enhanced neuroimaging and functional neurosurgical techniques, a unique window of opportunity has recently arisen to target potential circuits in humans. Animal studies have identified a priori sites of interest in mid-brain structures, in particular the subthalamic locomotor region (subthalamic nucleus, STN) and the periaqueductal grey (PAG), which have now been recorded from in humans during exercise. When all data are viewed in an integrative manner, the PAG, in particular the lateral PAG, and aspects of the dorsal lateral PAG, appear to be key communicating circuitry for ‘central command’. Moreover, the PAG also fulfils many requirements of a command centre. It has functional connectivity to higher centres (dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) and the basal ganglia (in particular, the STN), and receives a sensory input from contracting muscle, but, importantly, it sends efferent information to brainstem nuclei involved in cardiorespiratory control. PMID:23918772
... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...
Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...
Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail
Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.
Gould, Douglas W; Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; Watson, Emma L; Viana, João L; Smith, Alice C
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and muscle wasting, arising from numerous factors associated with declining renal function and lifestyle factors. Exercise has the ability to impact beneficially on the comorbidities associated with CKD and is accepted as an important intervention in the treatment, prevention and rehabilitation of other chronic diseases, however, the role of exercise in CKD is overlooked, with the provision of rehabilitation programmes well behind those of cardiology and respiratory services. Whilst there is now a large evidence base demonstrating the efficacy and safety of exercise training interventions in patients receiving dialysis, and this is now becoming incorporated into clinical guidelines for treatment of dialysis patients, there is a paucity of research evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. Despite this, existing studies indicate that exercise can improve physical functioning and impact positively on the mediators of co-morbid diseases and upstream factors associated with progression of renal disease. Although preliminary evidence appears positive, more research is required to identify the best modes, frequency and intensities of exercise in order to optimise exercise prescription in pre-dialysis CKD patients. This review summarizes what is known about the main effects of exercise in pre-dialysis CKD patients, discusses the potential of exercise in the rehabilitation and treatment of disease and highlights the need for further research.
Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki
Patients with type 2 diabetes have impaired exercise capacity. While numerous factors are known to contribute to impaired exercise capacity, the role of lung function remains unclear. We conducted the present study to investigate the influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was carried out in 31 male patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications or cardiopulmonary diseases. Patients with abnormal spirometry results such as a percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) < 80% and/or a ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to FVC (FEV1/FVC) < 70% were excluded from the study. We used the percentage of predicted maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max) as an index of exercise capacity. The correlations between %VO2max and lung function and other factors known to be associated with impaired exercise capacity were then assessed. Univariate analysis revealed %VO2max correlated significantly with percentage of predicted FEV1 (%FEV1), duration of type 2 diabetes, regular exercise habits, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In a multivariate analysis, %FEV1 and regular exercise habits were found to be independent determinants of %VO2max. A mild reduction in %FEV1, which may be a complication of diabetes, is associated with impaired exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. When evaluating spirometric values in patients with type 2 diabetes, a reduction in %FEV1 should be noted even when both %FVC and FEV1/FVC are within normal limits.
Nishimune, Hiroshi; Stanford, John A; Mori, Yasuo
Physical activity plays an important role in preventing chronic disease in adults and the elderly. Exercise has beneficial effects on the nervous system, including at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Exercise causes hypertrophy of NMJs and improves recovery from peripheral nerve injuries, whereas decreased physical activity causes degenerative changes in NMJs. Recent studies have begun to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise. These mechanisms involve Bassoon, neuregulin-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 4, Homer, and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1. For example, NMJ denervation and active zone decreases have been observed in aged NMJs, but these age-dependent degenerative changes can be ameliorated by exercise. In this review we assess the effects of exercise on the maintenance and regeneration of NMJs and highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these exercise effects.
Zierath, Juleen R; Wallberg-Henriksson, Harriet
The health-promoting benefits of exercise have been recognized for centuries, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms for the acute and chronic adaptive response to a variety of physical activities remain incompletely described. This Perspective will take a forward view to highlight emerging questions and frontiers in the ever-changing landscape of exercise biology. The biology of exercise is complex, highly variable, and involves a myriad of adaptive responses in multiple organ systems. Given the multitude of changes that occur in each organ during exercise, future researchers will need to integrate tissue-specific responses with large-scale omics to resolve the integrated biology of exercise. The ultimate goal will be to understand how these system-wide, tissue-specific exercise-induced changes lead to measurable physiological outcomes at the whole-body level to improve health and well-being.
Hamilton, Gilian F; Rhodes, Justin S
Regular exercise broadly enhances physical and mental health throughout the lifespan. Animal models have provided us with the tools to gain a better understanding of the underlying biochemical, physiological, and morphological mechanisms through which exercise exerts its beneficial cognitive effects. One brain region in particular, the hippocampus, is especially responsive to exercise. It is critically involved in learning and memory and is one of two regions in the mammalian brain that continues to generate new neurons throughout life. Exercise prevents the decline of the hippocampus from aging and ameliorates many neurodegenerative diseases, in part by increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis but also by activating a multitude of molecular mechanisms that promote brain health. In this chapter, we first describe some rodent models used to study effects of exercise on the brain. Then we review the rodent work focusing on the mechanisms behind which exercise improves cognition and brain health in both the normal and the diseased brain, with emphasis on the hippocampus.
King, James A; Wasse, Lucy K; Stensel, David J; Nimmo, Myra A
Since its discovery in 1999, ghrelin has been implicated in a multiplicity of physiological activities. Most notably, ghrelin has an important influence on energy metabolism and after the identification of its potent appetite stimulating effects ghrelin has been termed the 'hunger hormone'. Exercise is a stimulus which has a significant impact on energy homeostasis and consequently a substantial body of research has investigated the interaction between exercise and ghrelin. This narrative review provides an overview of research relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on circulating ghrelin (acylated, unacylated and total). To enhance study comparability, the scope of this review is limited to research undertaken in adult humans and consequently studies involving children and animals are not discussed. Although there is significant ambiguity within much of the early research, our review suggests that acute exercise transiently interferes with the production of acylated ghrelin. Furthermore, the consensus of evidence indicates that exercise training does not influence circulating ghrelin independent of weight loss. Additional research is needed to verify and extend the available literature, particularly by uncovering the mechanisms governing acute exercise-related changes and characterising responses in other populations such as females, older adults, and the obese.
So, Ji H.; Huang, Chao; Ge, Minyan; Cai, Guangyao; Zhang, Lanqiu; Lu, Yisheng; Mu, Yangling
Hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout adult life and plays an important role in learning and memory. Although the influence of physical exercise on neurogenesis has been intensively studied, there is controversy in regard to how the impact of exercise may vary with its regime. Less is known about how distinct exercise paradigms may differentially affect the learning behavior. Here we found that, chronic moderate treadmill running led to an increase of cell proliferation, survival, neuronal differentiation, and migration. In contrast, intense running only promoted neuronal differentiation and migration, which was accompanied with lower expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and erythropoietin. In addition, the intensely but not mildly exercised animals exhibited a lower mitochondrial activity in the dentate gyrus. Correspondingly, neurogenesis induced by moderate but not intense exercise was sufficient to improve the animal’s ability in spatial pattern separation. Our data indicate that the effect of exercise on spatial learning is intensity-dependent and may involve mechanisms other than a simple increase in the number of new neurons. PMID:28197080
Mattson, Mark P
This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte phenotype of an endurance runner, setting him/her apart from all other primates. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the competitive advantages conferred by exercise capacity in youth can also provide a survival benefit beyond the reproductive period. These mechanisms include up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress, disposing of damaged proteins and organelles, and enhancing bioenergetics. Particularly fascinating are the signaling mechanisms by which endurance running changes the structure and functional capabilities of the brain and, conversely, the mechanisms by which the brain integrates metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioral responses to exercise. As an emerging example, I highlight the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mediator of the effects of exercise on the brain, and BDNF's critical role in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular responses to endurance running. A better understanding of such 'healthspan-extending' actions of endurance exercise may lead to new approaches for improving quality of life as we advance in the coming decades and centuries.
Moore, Robert D; Romine, Mathew W; O'connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D
Although anecdotal reports suggest that information processing and decision making is impaired immediately following prolonged periods of physical activity, results obtained from laboratory studies of exercise-induced fatigue have been inconsistent. Fatigue effects may be task specific and related to the time of post-exercise testing. The present study examined the effects on adults' performance of two cognitive tasks that differed in processing demands over an 80-min period of fatigue. Thirty young adult men and women were randomly assigned to either an exercise group and completed a 60-min bout of cycle ergometry at 90% ventilatory threshold or a control group and rested for 60 min. Following interventions, each participant completed a simple and complex version of a visual perceptual discrimination test, a 40-min memory-based vigilance test and a repetition of the visual perceptual discrimination tests. Those who exercised evidenced significant decrements in performance on complex perceptual-discrimination tasks compared to participants who rested. The response time of exercisers during a memory-demanding vigilance test were significantly slower than those of participants who rested; however, detection performance did not differ between groups neither was there a decrease in target detection across the vigil. The effects of exercise-induced fatigue may be task specific, with greater effects on perceptual tasks, which involve relatively automatic processing, compared to effortful memory-based tasks.
Mattson, Mark P.
This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte phenotype of an endurance runner, setting him/her apart from all other primates. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the competitive advantages conferred by exercise capacity in youth can also provide a survival benefit beyond the reproductive period. These mechanisms include up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress, disposing of damaged proteins and organelles, and enhancing bioenergetics. Particularly fascinating are the signaling mechanisms by which endurance running changes the structure and functional capabilities of the brain and, conversely, the mechanisms by which the brain integrates metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioral responses to exercise. As an emerging example, I highlight the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mediator of the effects of exercise on the brain, and BDNF s critical role in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular responses to endurance running. A better understanding of such healthspan-extending actions of endurance exercise may lead to new approaches for improving quality of life as we advance in the coming decades and centuries. PMID:22394472
Ellingson, Laura D.; Stegner, Aaron J.; Schwabacher, Isaac J.; Koltyn, Kelli F.; Cook, Dane B.
To begin to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of exercise for chronic pain, we assessed the influence of exercise on brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia (FM). Complete data were collected for nine female FM patients and nine pain-free controls (CO) who underwent two functional neuroimaging scans, following exercise (EX) and following quiet rest (QR). Brain responses and pain ratings to noxious heat stimuli were compared within and between groups. For pain ratings, there was a significant (p < 0.05) Condition by Run interaction characterized by moderately lower pain ratings post EX compared to QR (d = 0.39–0.41) for FM but similar to ratings in CO (d = 0.10–0.26), thereby demonstrating that exercise decreased pain sensitivity in FM patients to a level that was analogous to pain-free controls. Brain responses demonstrated a significant within-group difference in FM patients, characterized by less brain activity bilaterally in the anterior insula following QR as compared to EX. There was also a significant Group by Condition interaction with FM patients showing less activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex following QR as compared to post-EX and CO following both conditions. These results suggest that exercise appeared to stimulate brain regions involved in descending pain inhibition in FM patients, decreasing their sensitivity to pain. Thus, exercise may benefit patients with FM via improving the functional capacity of the pain modulatory system. PMID:26927193
Bryan, Angela; Hutchison, Kent E.; Seals, Douglas R.; Allen, David L.
Objective Physical inactivity contributes to as many as 250,000 premature deaths per year (R. R. Pate et al., 1995). The authors’ objective was to test a transdisciplinary model of the ways in which genetic variants, physiological factors, and psychological factors are thought to influence exercise with 64 healthy, regular exercisers. Design In a within-subjects design, psychological and physiological responses to exercise were compared with responses to a sedentary activity. Main Outcome Measures The authors measured affective state, perceived exertion, heart rate, and temperature change in response to moderate exercise versus sedentary activity. They also quantified genotypes on a single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Results and Conclusions The data show a relation between increases in positive affective states and acute exercise behavior, as opposed to a sedentary control. The BDNF gene moderated the effect of exercise on mood, heart rate, and perceived exertion. Physiological factors were, in turn, related to mood response, and mood response was a significant correlate of motivation to exercise in the future and of current exercise behavior. The model has potential as a framework for the basic study of the genetic, physiological, and psychological processes involved with voluntary exercise and as a tool for the applied examination of tailored exercise interventions and their efficacy for different subsets of individuals. PMID:17209695
Lavizzo-Mourey, R.; Cox, C.; Strumpf, N.; Edwards, W. F.; Lavizzo-Mourey, R.; Stinemon, M.; Grisso, J. A.
Older African Americans are less likely to exercise compared with their white counterparts. Few studies have examined the facilitating factors and barriers to exercise among older African Americans living in urban communities. This study represented the first phase of a program to develop an exercise intervention in an urban community. Qualitative research was conducted to identify culturally determined attitudes that could be useful in designing an effective exercise program. Five focus groups involving 38 persons from a variety of settings were facilitated by trained professionals. Transcripts were analyzed to identify themes and contrasts among group participants. Contrary to the expectations of the investigative team, focus-group participants: (1) uniformly preferred group exercises compared with exercising at home, (2) rejected walking as a feasible option because of safety concerns, and (3) expressed limited interest in using weights or Eastern exercises such as Tai Chi. Concepts and goals of exercise differed according to the physical capabilities of the participants. The analysis of these focus-group discussions provided valuable insights with regard to the development of our community-based exercise-intervention protocol. These findings may be important in designing effective exercise programs for older African Americans in urban settings. PMID:11800276
Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; de Moura, Anselmo Gomes; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas
Measuring skin temperature (TSK) provides important information about the complex thermal control system and could be interesting when carrying out studies about thermoregulation. The most common method to record TSK involves thermocouples at specific locations; however, the use of infrared thermal imaging (IRT) has increased. The two methods use different physical processes to measure TSK, and each has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the mean skin temperature (MTSK) measurements using thermocouples and IRT in three different situations: pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise. Analysis of the residual scores in Bland-Altman plots showed poor agreement between the MTSK obtained using thermocouples and those using IRT. The averaged error was -0.75 °C during pre-exercise, 1.22 °C during exercise and -1.16 °C during post-exercise, and the reliability between the methods was low in the pre- (ICC = 0.75 [0.12 to 0.93]), during (ICC = 0.49 [-0.80 to 0.85]) and post-exercise (ICC = 0.35 [-1.22 to 0.81] conditions. Thus, there is poor correlation between the values of MTSK measured by thermocouples and IRT pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise, and low reliability between the two forms of measurement.
Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John
Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.
Cooney, Joe; And Others
This book contains group instructional exercises designed to help older workers who are new to America make a satisfactory and satisfying adjustment to work in America. The plans present information and strategies for dealing with cultural issues that need to be addressed prior to active involvement in employment or training. They are designed for…
White, Sue W.; Landis, Larry M.
Three guiding principles provide the planner of aquatic exercise programs with a model that helps to ensure an effective program: principles of resource availability and allocation; the principle of fit, which involves matching instructor leadership style with program objectives; and the principle of attitude and perception modification. (IAH)
Exercise physiology seems to be a course that students love or hate. Many physical education students and others involved in the related areas of health, teaching, recreation, dance, athletic training, fitness, and motor learning and development find this course a requirement at some point in their curriculum. Inquiry-based learning is an…
Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…
Minorsky, Peter V.; Willing, R. Paul
Presents a fun, inexpensive, and pedagogically useful laboratory exercise that involves indoor studies of the dispersal properties of the winged fruits (samaras) of boxelder trees. Engages students in the process of hypothesis testing, experimental design, and data analysis as well as introducing students to important concepts related to…
Coombs, Gary; Sarason, Yolanda
The Culture Circles exercise involves pairs of students in describing their cultural background, customs, and role models and then describing these things from the point of view of a different cultural background. Debriefing discussions examine what is culture, whether people choose their identity, and the discomfort of difference. (SK)
Puignou, L.; Llaurado, M.
An experimental exercise on analytical proficiency studies in collaborative trials is proposed. This practical provides students in advanced undergraduate courses in chemistry, pharmacy, and biochemistry, with the opportunity to improve their quality assurance skills. It involves an environmental analysis, determining the concentration of a…
Cooper, Christopher B
The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.
Tomporowski, Phillip D
Physical activity is purported to promote children's brain health and enhance mental development (1). Three studies were selected for review because of their focus on issues that challenge translational research applications in exercise pediatric science. While some disagreement exists concerning the definition of translational research, most suggest that translational interventions focus on the uptake, implementation, and sustainability of research findings within standard care (2). Translational researchers typically highlight differences that exist between efficacy experiments, which provide evidence that a specific intervention works, and effectiveness experiments, which show that the intervention will reap benefits under real-world conditions. Results obtained from laboratory-based efficacy studies that have examined the relation between exercise and cognition led researchers (3,4) and policy makers to consider the importance of physical activity in school settings. Large-scale studies that assess the impact of various types of school based physical activity intervention on children's cognitive and academic performance have begun. The initial results have been uneven and suggestive of a lack of benefit for children in authentic school settings. Before drawing such conclusions, however, it will be important for researchers and practitioners to recognize the methodological and measurement issues that challenge attempts to employ laboratory methodologies to academic settings.
Schroeder, Noah D.
, they were given support in the form of narrated animated solution videos followed by a new version of the question set. On mastering a skill, students moved on to the next skill level. Students mastered all provided skill levels and then took a post-test. Those clinical trials demonstrated that students can use provided solutions to quickly progress through successive levels of mastery exercises and that mastery-style exercises had a larger impact on the post-test than traditional multi-try immediate feedback homework exercises. Following these strong results, mastery-style exercises were implemented over an entire semester in an introductory course, replacing the existing homework. Participation was much poorer than in the clinical experiments due to frustration with the difficulty of the provided exercises. As a result the implementation had a comparatively small impact on student performance. Frustrated students circumvented the system by ignoring provided solutions and skipping assessments, choosing instead to cycle through the provided versions until they could reattempt an already seen version of an assessment. A follow-up implementation covering a single week had a larger impact on a quiz, yet students were still frustrated with the exercises and displayed behaviors similar to those seen in the semester-long implementation. Moving forward, frustration must be overcome to return participation to levels seen in the clinical trials. A preliminary development mode is suggested to ensure proper calibration of difficulty to student skills. Other changes involving how the mechanics of the system work as well as how its benefits are communicated to students are also suggested. If frustration is overcome and participation increases, the incredible potential of mastery-inspired exercises can be realized. Mastery is a powerful addition to physics instruction.
Reglinski, John; Graham, Duncan; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gibson, Lorraine T.
An exercise is organized to reinforce the fundamental rules of coordination chemistry through a biological study of metalloproteins. The work, which is divided into four well-defined activities, involves a major application of computer databases to address chemical problems.
Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T
Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.
Crawford, Elizabeth Outlaw; Heaton, Emily T.; Heslop, Karen; Kixmiller, Kassandra
Families' involvement in their children's science learning at home has numerous benefits, especially when they support children's self-initiated investigations. In a position statement on parental involvement in science education, the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2009) stresses the role of parents in the daily reinforcement of…
Segal, R.; Zwaal, C.; Green, E.; Tomasone, J.R.; Loblaw, A.; Petrella, T.
Background Development of this guideline was undertaken by the Exercise for People with Cancer Guideline Development Group, a group organized by Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc). The purpose of the guideline was to provide guidance for clinicians with respect to exercise for patients living with cancer, focusing on the benefits of specific types of exercise, recommendations about screening requirements for new referrals, and safety concerns. Methods Consistent with the pebc’s standardized approach, a systematic search was conducted for existing guidelines, and systematic literature searches were performed in medline and embase for both systematic reviews and primary literature. Content and methodology experts performed an internal review, which was followed by an external review by targeted experts and intended users. Results The search identified three guidelines, eighteen systematic reviews, and twenty-nine randomized controlled trials with relevance to the topic. The present guideline provides recommendations for the duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise appropriate for people living with cancer. It also provides recommendations for pre-exercise assessment, safety concerns, and delivery models. Conclusions There is sufficient evidence to show that exercise provides benefits in quality of life and muscular and aerobic fitness for people with cancer both during and after treatment, and that it does not cause harm. The present guideline is intended to support the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology’s Canadian physical activity guidelines. The recommendations are intended for clinicians and institutions treating cancer patients in Ontario, and for policymakers and program planners involved in the delivery of exercise programs for cancer patients. PMID:28270724
Sato, Yuzo; Nagasaki, Masaru; Kubota, Masakazu; Uno, Tomoko; Nakai, Naoya
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to be regarded as essential in all fields of medical sciences and practical medicine. In the field of diabetes and exercise, among the epidemiological studies of physical exercise, recent mega-trials such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the U.S. have shown that lifestyle intervention programs involving diet and/or exercise reduce the progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes. In studies examining the endocrinological and metabolic effects of exercise, it has been demonstrated that physical exercise promotes the utilization of blood glucose and free fatty acids in muscles and lowers blood glucose levels in well-controlled diabetic patients. Long-term, mild, regular jogging increases the action of insulin in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism without influencing body mass index or maximal oxygen uptake. A significant correlation has been observed between delta MCR (Deltainsulin sensitivity) and the average number of steps performed in a day. Our recent data suggested that the improved effectiveness of insulin that occurs as a result of physical exercise is attributable, at least in part, to increases in GLUT4 protein, IRS1 and PI3-kinase protein in skeletal muscle. As a prescription for exercise, aerobic exercise of mild to moderate intensity, including walking and jogging, 10-30 min a day, 3-5 days a week, is recommended. Resistance training of mild intensity with the use of light dumbbells and stretch cords should be combined in elderly individuals who have decreased muscle strength. An active lifestyle is essential in the management of diabetes, which is one of typical lifestyle-related diseases.
Myburgh, Kathryn H
Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.
In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)
Dishman, Rod K.
Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…
Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.
Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…
Munger, E. S.; And Others
The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…
Rarick, G. Lawrence
Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…
Pollock, Michael L.; And Others
Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…
Batt, Mark E; Tanji, Jeffrey; Börjesson, Mats
Aging is characterized by increasing muscle loss, physical inactivity and frailty. Physical inactivity is known to be associated with increased incidence of obesity and many life-threatening chronic conditions. We know that exercise, through many factors including antiinflammatory effects and enhanced fitness, can help prevent and treat many chronic diseases as well as help maintain independent living. We set out to demonstrate the utility of regular exercise in this potentially vulnerable age group in both the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases. The benefits, risks and recommendations for physical activity are discussed with an emphasis on practical advice for safe exercise in the context of established international guidelines. These guidelines typically state that 150 min per week of moderate aerobic intensity exercise should be achieved with some additional whole-body strength training and balance work. Individual risk assessment should be undertaken in a way to enable safe exercise participation to achieve maximum benefit with minimum risk. The risk assessment, subsequent advice and prescription for exercise should be personalized to reflect individual fitness and functional levels as well as patient safety. Newer and potentially exciting benefits of exercise are discussed in the areas of neuroscience and inflammation where data are suggesting positive effects of exercise in maintaining memory and cognition as well as having beneficial antiinflammatory effects.
Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R
The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.
Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu
[Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers. PMID:28356634
Ju, Sung-Kwang; Yoo, Won-Gyu
[Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.
Pravettoni, Valerio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood. One of the best-characterized types of FDEIAn is that due to ω5-gliadin of wheat, though cases of FDEIAn after wheat ingestion by sensitization to wheat lipid transfer protien (LTP) are described. Some pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EIAn have been hypothesized, such as increase/alteration in gastrointestinal permeability, alteration of tissue transglutaminase promoting IgE cross-linking, enhanced expression of cytokines, redistribution of blood during physical exercise leading to altered mast-cell degranulation, and also changes in the acid–base balance. Nevertheless, until now, none of these hypotheses has been validated. The diagnosis of EIAn and FDEIAn is achieved by means of a challenge, with physical exercise alone for EIAn, and with the assumption of the suspected food followed by physical exercise for FDEIAn; in cases of doubtful results, a double-blind placebo-controlled combined food–exercise challenge should be performed. The prevention of this particular kind of anaphylaxis is the avoidance of the specific trigger, ie, physical exercise for EIAn, the assumption of the culprit food before exercise for FDEIAn, and in general the avoidance of the recognized cofactors. Patients must be supplied with an epinephrine autoinjector, as epinephrine has been clearly recognized as the first-line intervention for anaphylaxis. PMID:27822074
Holmes, Philip V; Reiss, Jenny I; Murray, Patrick S; Dishman, Rod K; Spradley, Jessica M
Our laboratory has previously reported that chronic, voluntary exercise diminishes seizure-related behaviors induced by convulsant doses of kainic acid. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that exercise exerts this protective effect through a mechanism involving suppression of glutamate release in the hippocampal formation. Following three weeks of voluntary wheel running or sedentary conditions, rats were injected with 10 mg/kg of kainic acid, and hippocampal glutamate was measured in real time using a telemetric, in vivo voltammetry system. A separate experiment measured electroencephalographic (EEG) activity following kainic acid treatment. Results of the voltammetry experiment revealed that the rise in hippocampal glutamate induced by kainic acid is attenuated in exercising rats compared to sedentary controls, indicating that the exercise-induced protection against seizures involves regulation of hippocampal glutamate release. The findings reveal the potential benefit of regular exercise in the treatment and prevention of seizure disorders and suggest a possible neurobiological mechanism underlying this effect.
EXERCISE (PHYSIOLOGY), *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), (* PHYSICAL FITNESS, EXERCISE (PHYSIOLOGY)), MEASUREMENT, MOTOR REACTIONS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), GREAT BRITAIN
Wasfy, Meagan M; Baggish, Aaron L
There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice.
Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.
Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.
Youngstedt, Shawn D
Historically, perhaps no daytime behavior has been more closely associated with better sleep than exercise. The assumption that exercise promotes sleep has also been central to various hypotheses about the functions of sleep. Hypotheses that sleep serves an energy conservation function, a body tissue restitution function, or a temperature down-regulation function all have predicted a uniquely potent effect of exercise on sleep because no other stimulus elicits greater depletion of energy stores, tissue breakdown, or elevation of body temperature, respectively. Exercise offers a potentially attractive alternative or adjuvant treatment for insomnia. Sleeping pills have a number of adverse side effects and are not recommended for long-term use, partly on the basis of a significant epidemiologic association of chronic hypnotic use with mortality. Other behavioral/cognitive treatments are more effective for chronic insomnia treatment, but difficult and costly to deliver. By contrast, exercise could be a healthy, safe, inexpensive, and simple means of improving sleep.
Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald
This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction.
Mattos, Fernanda de; Leite, Neiva; Pitta, Arthur; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce
Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of aquatic exercise programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving aquatic exercises for individuals with OA were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. 296 studies were found and twelve were selected: six studies comparing water-based exercises with land-based exercise, and six comparing water-based exercise groups with the control group. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, aerobic, balance, flexibility and stretching exercises. Duration of the program, weekly frequency, intensity and progression varied between studies. Beneficial effects of aquatic exercise were found on physical function. However, only two of five studies that assessed muscle strength observed positive effect of aquatic exercise. Although it is difficult to compare studies and establish guidelines for the standardized protocol formulation, it was observed that water-based exercises can be effective on improving physical function and increasing muscle strength, since they are well-structured, with exercise intensity and overload controlled.
Mattos, Fernanda de; Leite, Neiva; Pitta, Arthur; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce
Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of Aquatic Exercise Programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving Aquatic Exercises for individuals with OA were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. 296 studies were found and twelve were selected: six studies comparing water-based exercises with land-based exercise, and six comparing water-based exercise groups with the control group. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, aerobic, balance, flexibility and stretching exercises. Duration of the program, weekly frequency, intensity and progression varied between studies. Beneficial effects of aquatic exercise were found on physical function. However, only two of five studies that assessed muscle strength observed positive effect of aquatic exercise. Although it is difficult to compare studies and establish guidelines for the standardized protocol formulation, it was observed that water-based exercises can be effective on improving physical function and increasing muscle strength, since they are well-structured, with exercise intensity and overload controlled.
Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho-p47(phox) levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47(phox)-gp91(phox) interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise.
Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho–p47phox levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47phox–gp91phox interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise. PMID:27471471
GHIANI, CRISTINA A.; YING, ZHE; DE VELLIS, JEAN; GOMEZ-PINILLA, FERNANDO
To successfully grow, neurons need to overcome the effects of hostile environments, such as the inhibitory action of myelin. We have evaluated the potential of exercise to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the central nervous system for axonal growth. In line with the demonstrated ability of exercise to increase the regenerative potential of neurons, here we show that exercise reduces the inhibitory capacity of myelin. Cortical neurons grown on myelin from exercised rats showed a more pronounced neurite extension compared with neurons grown on poly-D-lysine, or on myelin extracted from sedentary animals. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a kinase involved in neurite outgrowth, was found to be increased in cortical neurons grown on exercise-myelin and in the lumbar spinal cord enlargement of exercised animals. Exercise significantly decreased the levels of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a potent axonal growth inhibitor, suggesting that downregulation of MAG is part of the mechanism through which exercise reduces growth inhibition. It is known that exercise elevates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) spinal cord levels and that BDNF acts to overcome the inhibitory effects of myelin. Accordingly, we blocked the action of BDNF during exercise, which suppressed the exercise-related MAG decrease. Protein kinase A (PKA) has been related to the ability of BDNF to overcome growth inhibition; in agreement, we found that exercise increased PKA levels and this effect was reverted by blocking BDNF. Overall, these results show that exercise promotes a permissive cellular environment for axonal growth in the adult spinal cord requiring BDNF action. PMID:17497667
Experimental slicks with various surface properties were generated in the North Sea as part of the MARSEN (Maritime Remote Sensing ) exercise. The one...with remote sensing instrumentation. Because of the numerous effects of surface films on air-sea interfacial processes, these experiments were designed...information was obtained on the influence of sea surface films on the interpretation of signals received by remote sensing systems. Criteria for the
Some possible neurophysiological, biochemical, and pharmacological pathways affecting the state of contractility if airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) are described. No unifying hypothesis can be set forth at this time. Indeed, it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of EIB is a reflection of the numerous biochemical loci in smooth muscle cells that could be affected by the various metabolic changes accompanying heavy exertion.
Bacinello, Anna Rita; Biffis, Enrico; Millossovich, Pietro
In this paper we describe an algorithm based on the Least Squares Monte Carlo method to price life insurance contracts embedding American options. We focus on equity-linked contracts with surrender options and terminal guarantees on benefits payable upon death, survival and surrender. The framework allows for randomness in mortality as well as stochastic volatility and jumps in financial risk factors. We provide numerical experiments demonstrating the performance of the algorithm in the context of multiple risk factors and exercise dates.
Angius, Luca; Hopker, James; Mauger, Alexis R.
The physical limits of the human performance have been the object of study for a considerable time. Most of the research has focused on the locomotor muscles, lungs, and heart. As a consequence, much of the contemporary literature has ignored the importance of the brain in the regulation of exercise performance. With the introduction and development of new non-invasive devices, the knowledge regarding the behavior of the central nervous system during exercise has advanced. A first step has been provided from studies involving neuroimaging techniques where the role of specific brain areas have been identified during isolated muscle or whole-body exercise. Furthermore, a new interesting approach has been provided by studies involving non-invasive techniques to manipulate specific brain areas. These techniques most commonly involve the use of an electrical or magnetic field crossing the brain. In this regard, there has been emerging literature demonstrating the possibility to influence exercise outcomes in healthy people following stimulation of specific brain areas. Specifically, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently used prior to exercise in order to improve exercise performance under a wide range of exercise types. In this review article, we discuss the evidence provided from experimental studies involving tDCS. The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the experimental studies investigating the application of tDCS prior to exercise and how it influences brain function and performance. Finally, we provide a critical opinion of the usage of tDCS for exercise enhancement. This will consequently progress the current knowledge base regarding the effect of tDCS on exercise and provides both a methodological and theoretical foundation on which future research can be based. PMID:28261112
Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara
In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…
Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Hammes, Daniel; Coutts, Aaron J; Meyer, Tim
Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance.
Glucose derived from extracellular sources serves as an energy source in virtually all eukaryotic cells, including skeletal muscle. Its contribution to energy turnover increases with exercise intensity up to moderately heavy workloads. However, at very high workloads, the contribution of extracellular glucose to energy turnover is negligible, despite the high rate of glucose transport. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in isolated skeletal muscle preparations during intense repeated contractions. Consistent with this observation, heavy exercise is associated with significant production of ROS. However, during more mild to moderate stimulation or exercise conditions (in vitro, in situ and in vivo) antioxidants do not affect glucose transport. It is noteworthy that the production of ROS is limited or not observed under these conditions and that the concentration of the antioxidant used was extremely low. The results to date suggest that ROS involvement in activation of glucose transport occurs primarily during intense short-term exercise and that other mechanisms are involved during mild to moderate exercise. What remains puzzling is why ROS-mediated activation of glucose transport would occur under conditions where glucose transport is highest and utilization (i.e. phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase) is low. Possibly ROS production is involved in priming glucose transport during heavy exercise to accelerate glycogen biogenesis during the initial recovery period after exercise, as well as altering other aspects of intracellular metabolism.