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Sample records for exercise reduce smoking

  1. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-01

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. PMID:25450369

  2. Cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Teruo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Takahashi, Hidekatsu; Kawai, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impact of smoking cessation and relapse on the exercise habits of apparently healthy Japanese men, 750 subjects presenting for a checkup at a metropolitan health center were surveyed annually for 7 years. Exercise was dichotomously classified as none or any. Subjects were grouped in two categories: 98 smokers who ceased smoking during the second year of the study, matched with 196 continuing smokers and 196 men who had never smoked; and 52 relapsed smokers (including 2 new smokers) who did not smoke at baseline or at Year 1 but smoked from Year 2 to final follow-up, matched with 104 continuing smokers and 104 never-smokers. Based on self-reported responses to questionnaires, exercise was consistently less prevalent among smokers who did not quit than among never-smokers throughout the study. Habitual exercise in subjects who had quit smoking increased during the follow-up (any exercise: 42.9% at baseline increased to 51% at final follow-up, p for longitudinal trend = .115). Habitual exercise in matched never-smokers did not change during the study and decreased significantly among persistent smokers (p = .025). Habitual exercise in relapsed smokers decreased during the follow-up (any exercise: 50.0% at baseline declined to 32.7% at final follow-up, p = .007), but habitual exercise in matched persistent smokers and never-smokers did not change. We conclude that smoking and sedentary lifestyle coexist continuously, that smoking cessation is associated with increased habitual exercise among healthy men, and that relapse is associated with reduced habitual exercise, suggesting that cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits.

  3. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  4. Government action to reduce smoking.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Amanda

    2003-03-01

    The major health impacts of smoking were established more than 40 years ago but Governments were slow to respond to the growing health epidemic. Despite laudable tobacco control strategies in many countries, globally deaths from smoking continue to rise and are forecast to reach 10 million a year by the 2030's. There is now general agreement that in order to substantially reduce smoking rates, governments need to adopt a comprehensive approach to tobacco control. This should include a range of measures, notably: a total ban on tobacco advertising and promotion; restrictions on smoking in public places and in the workplace; sustained increases in tobacco taxation combined with measures to curb smuggling; large, bold health warnings on tobacco products; smoking cessation and health education campaigns; and the regulation of tobacco to standards agreed by the health community rather than those set by the tobacco industry. While legislation is to be favoured over voluntary controls, the key to the successful implementation of these measures is winning public support and ensuring proper enforcement. Given the enormous burden that smoking places on health services, governments in developed nations have generally responded by introducing a range of tobacco control measures. However, the picture is far from uniform and some of the best examples of strong, government-led action have occurred in less developed nations. Governments can learn much from these countries and, by supporting the impending global treaty on tobacco control, can help to reduce the smoking-related diseases and deaths of the future.

  5. Effects of exercise on craving and cigarette smoking in the human laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-06-01

    Exercise is increasingly being pursued as a treatment to reduce cigarette smoking. The efficacy of clinical, exercise-based cessation interventions may be enhanced by conducting laboratory studies to determine maximally effective conditions for reducing smoking, and the mechanisms through which the effects on smoking are achieved. The main purpose of this study was to assess whether the effects of exercise on two components of craving (anticipated reward from smoking, anticipated relief from withdrawal) mediated the relationship between exercise and delay (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Experiment 1 (N=21) assessed the effects of exercise intensity (inactivity, low, moderate) on craving components up to 60 min post-exercise. Because moderate-intensity exercise most effectively reduced craving on the reward component, all participants exercised at a moderate intensity in Experiment 2. Using an ABAB within-subjects design, Experiment 2 (N=20) evaluated whether the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on reward and relief components of craving mediated the relationship between exercise and participants' delays (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Delays were significantly longer after exercise (M=21 min) versus inactivity (M=4 min), and the effects of exercise on delay were mediated through the reward component of craving. Future research should continue to explore the mechanisms through which exercise influences behavioral indices of smoking in the human laboratory. Additionally, given the benefits uniquely afforded by exercise-based cessation interventions (e.g., improving mood and other health outcomes), implementing these interventions in clinical settings may contribute substantially to improving public health.

  6. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  7. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers. PMID:26506188

  8. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Vs. Leg Ergometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Tang, Jing-Shia; Li, Ping-Chia; Chou, Pi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods:This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent two sets of arm-cranking (AC) and leg-cycling (LC) exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 h before testing) and the experimental trial (participants smoked two cigarettes immediately before testing) were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE)]. The differences between the smoking and control trials were calculated using paired t-tests. For the exercise test periods, VO2, heart rate, and VE values were calculated at every 10% increment of the maximal effort time. The main effects of the time and trial, as well as their trial-by-time (4 × 10) interaction effects on the outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA with trend analysis. Results: 5 min after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < 0.05), in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < 0.001). The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < 0.05) at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = 0.005) and the ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05) in the LC tests, whereas no significant effects were observed in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded

  9. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  10. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  11. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  12. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  13. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  14. Physical activity, smoking, and exercise-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Crow, R S; Jacobs, D R; Mittelmark, M B; Leon, A S

    1984-06-01

    This study determined whether persons with coronary risk factors have increased fatigue during or after exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion were first shown to be a valid measure of fatigue; i.e., ratings of perceived exertion correlated with heart rate both during and after exercise and at each of three exercise tests (all within-subjects r greater than 0.88). Physical inactivity and smoking were associated with increased fatigue. Inactive men and smokers had higher levels of fatigue during both exercise and recovery conditions and at each of three exercise test. The increased fatigue of men who were inactive and smoked was not entirely due to their lower level of fitness. The risk factors of age, Type A behavior pattern, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein, and obesity were not associated with increased fatigue. The increased fatigue experienced by inactive persons and smokers may account for their decreased compliance to exercise programs.

  15. Walking reduces cue-elicited cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and delays ad libitum smoking.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian; Katomeri, Magdalena

    2007-11-01

    Stress and exposure to smoking cues influence smoking cravings and behavior. Exercise appears to reduce cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, but no study has investigated the effects of exercise on cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, or ad libitum smoking behavior. In this study, 60 regular smokers, invited by public advertisements, were assessed at baseline following 2 hr of abstinence, and randomized to a 15-min brisk walk or passive condition. Both groups then completed three tasks (Stroop color-word interference task, speech task, and handling a lit cigarette). Cravings were assessed with two single items, and withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the seven-item Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. After the laboratory session, ad libitum smoking was determined from the subject's cell phone text message. Exercise (mean heart rate reserve = 24%) attenuated increases in strength of desire to smoke, tension, poor concentration, and stress, in response to a lit cigarette, but had minimal effects on increases in cravings and withdrawal symptoms in response to the stressors. Absolute levels of cravings and withdrawal symptoms were reduced during and following exercise. Exercisers engaged in ad libitum smoking a net 57 min (CI = 31-83) later than those in the passive condition. A 15-min brisk walk not only reduced cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms but also could attenuate increases in cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and increase the time between cigarettes smoked.

  16. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  17. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-01

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  18. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND SMOKING, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Time perspective, a psychological construct reflecting guidance by present or future concerns, may motivate engagement in health behaviors. We examined associations between time perspective and smoking, body mass index, and exercise. Methods In this community-based survey, adults reported smoking and exercise habits and weight and height, and completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Results Subjects (N = 265) who were more future-oriented reported more frequent exercise, but were more likely to smoke. Fatalistic and hedonistic present orientations were not associated with smoking, obesity, or exercise. Conclusions Time perspective is not consistently associated with common health behaviors in adults. PMID:23026098

  19. Reducing Smoking at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Ruth A.

    Company policies and programs aimed at reducing smoking among employees have a number of other important benefits to employees and the company alike. Limiting or banning smoking helps create a safe and healthy workplace and may reduce direct health care costs, health and life insurance costs, employee absenteeism, costs associated with maintaining…

  20. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; White, Victoria M; Emery, Sherry L

    2012-03-01

    Smoking initiation is a key behaviour that determines the future health consequences of smoking in a society. There is a marked difference in smoking patterns around the world, driven by initiation rates. While a number of high-income countries have seen smoking prevalence decline markedly from peak, many low-income and middle-income countries appear to still be on an upward trend. Unlike cessation where changes are limited by nicotine dependence, rates of smoking initiation can change rapidly over a short time span. Interventions that can be effective in achieving this include increases in the price of tobacco products, mass media anti-smoking advertising, smoke-free policies, smoking curricula in schools, restrictions on marketing opportunities for the tobacco industry as well as social norms that lead to restrictions on adolescents' ability to purchase cigarettes. Comprehensive tobacco control programmes that aim to denormalise smoking behaviour in the community contain all of these interventions. Rapid reductions in smoking initiation in adolescents have been documented in two case studies of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in California and Australia. Consistent and inescapable messages from multiple sources appear to be key to success. However, the California experience indicates that the rapid decline in adolescent smoking will not continue if tobacco control expenditures and the relative price of cigarettes are reduced. These case studies provide strong additional evidence of the importance of countries implementing the provisions of the Framework Treaty on Tobacco Control.

  1. Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

    2000-01-01

    The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research.

  2. Caffeine reduces myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita M

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine consumption has been receiving increased interest from both the medical and lay press, especially given the increased amounts now available in energy products. Acute ingestion of caffeine usually increases cardiac work; however, caffeine impairs the expected proportional increase in myocardial blood flow to match this increased work of the heart, most notably during exercise. This appears to be mainly due to caffeine's effect on blocking adenosine-induced vasodilatation in the coronary arteries in normal healthy subjects. This review summarizes the available medical literature specifically relating to pure caffeine tablet ingestion and reduced exercise coronary blood flow, and suggests possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect for other common caffeine-delivery systems, including coffee, energy beverages, and energy gels, which are often used for exercise performance enhancement, especially in teenagers and young athletes.

  3. Caffeine reduces myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita M

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine consumption has been receiving increased interest from both the medical and lay press, especially given the increased amounts now available in energy products. Acute ingestion of caffeine usually increases cardiac work; however, caffeine impairs the expected proportional increase in myocardial blood flow to match this increased work of the heart, most notably during exercise. This appears to be mainly due to caffeine's effect on blocking adenosine-induced vasodilatation in the coronary arteries in normal healthy subjects. This review summarizes the available medical literature specifically relating to pure caffeine tablet ingestion and reduced exercise coronary blood flow, and suggests possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect for other common caffeine-delivery systems, including coffee, energy beverages, and energy gels, which are often used for exercise performance enhancement, especially in teenagers and young athletes. PMID:23764265

  4. Decreasing Nicotine Content Reduces Subjective and Physiological Effects of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Assessment of the subjective and physiological effects of smoking cigarettes with different machine-smoked nicotine yields. Methods Eight volunteers rated the characteristics of cigarettes with varying levels of nicotine (Quest®). At 30 minute intervals, participants smoked one of three different Quest® brand cigarettes in a counterbalanced order (reported machine-smoked nicotine yield: 0.6 mg, 0.3 mg, or 0.05 mg). Smoking satisfaction and sensations were measured on a cigarette evaluation questionnaire. A mood questionnaire measured self-reported subjective changes in ‘happy’, ‘stimulated’, ‘anxious’, ‘desire to smoke’, and ‘desire not to smoke’. Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded continuously. Results As nicotine yield decreased, cigarettes produced smaller changes in subjective ratings on the evaluation questionnaire with the placebo nicotine cigarette always rated lower or less potent than the other two cigarettes evaluated. Heart rate was significantly increased by the reduced nicotine cigarettes, but was not affected by the nicotine-free cigarette. Conclusion These results indicate that machine-smoked yield is an important determinant of both the subjective and physiological effects of smoking. The use of reduced and nicotine free cigarettes in smoking cessation programs remains to be evaluated. PMID:25253991

  5. Smoking cessation intervention using stepwise exercise incentives for male workers in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gyu-Seok; Jung, Hye-Sun; Yi, Yunjeong; Yoon, Chungsik; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program as one of the workplace health promotion program. The aim of this study is to evaluate the program offered in an electronics company in Korea. A total of 109 electronics company employees were recruited. Participants were surveyed for smoking history, nicotine dependence, and job stress. They received smoking cessation education and were provided with a stepwise fitness center ticket. Of 109 participants, 58 (53.2%) successfully ceased smoking for 3 months. Significant differences between success and fail groups were apparent in cigarettes smoked per day (P = .002) and nicotine dependence score (P = .049). However, there was no significant difference in job stress between success and fail groups. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, there were no identifiable factors associated with smoking cessation. In conclusion, a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program was highly effective when applied in a workplace setting.

  6. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology. PMID:18289753

  7. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    interventions.The cost per life year saved from the use of pharmacological treatment interventions ranged between US$128 and US$1,450 and up to US$4,400 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved. The use of pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, NRT, and Bupropion, when combined with GP counseling or other behavioral treatment interventions (such as proactive telephone counseling and Web-based delivery), is both clinically effective and cost effective to primary health care providers.Price-based policy measures such as increase in tobacco taxes are unarguably the most effective means of reducing the consumption of tobacco. A 10% tax-induced cigarette price increase anywhere in the world reduces smoking prevalence by between 4% and 8%. Net public benefits from tobacco tax, however, remain positive only when tax rates are between 42.9% and 91.1%. The cost effectiveness ratio of implementing non-price-based smoking cessation legislations (such as smoking restrictions in work places, public places, bans on tobacco advertisement, and raising the legal age of smokers) range from US$2 to US$112 per life year gained (LYG) while reducing smoking prevalence by up to 30%–82% in the long term (over a 50-year period).Smoking cessation classes are known to be most effective among community-based measures, as they could lead to a quit rate of up to 35%, but they usually incur higher costs than other measures such as self-help quit-smoking kits. On average, community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programs yield cost savings to the health system of between US$500 and US$614 per LYG.Advertising media, telecommunications, and other technology-based interventions (such as TV, radio, print, telephone, the Internet, PC, and other electronic media) usually have positive synergistic effects in reducing smoking prevalence especially when combined to deliver smoking cessation messages and counseling support. However, the outcomes on the cost effectiveness of TMT-based measures have been

  8. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  9. Personal Motivation, Exercise, and Smoking Behaviors among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scioli, Erica Rose; Biller, Henry; Rossi, Joseph; Riebe, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have…

  10. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure. PMID:27042047

  11. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice.

    PubMed

    Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; Dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30-35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure. PMID:27042047

  12. Reduced Phagocytic Capacity of Blood Monocyte/Macrophages in Tuberculosis Patients Is Further Reduced by Smoking.

    PubMed

    Aryanpur, Mahshid; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Tabarsi, Payam; Garssen, Johan; Adcock, Ian M; Mozafarian, Alireza; Sharifi, Hooman

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and tobacco use are two major alarming global health issues posing immense threats to human populations. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by activation of macrophages could induce the sequences of cells activation and releases of inflammatory cytokines such as CXCL-8, Il-12 and TNF-α which in turn induces the immune system network. However no information is available on other activity of cells by MTB and smoking. In the current study we aimed to investigate the serum levels TNF-a, CXCL-8 and phagocytosis capacity in tuberculosis patients with and without smoking. 103 subjects entered the study including 61 new diagnosed pulmonary TB patients (23 smokers and 38 nonsmokers) and 42 control healthy subjects. The phagocytosis of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-dextran) in blood monocytes/macrophages through flowcytometry was assessed. Serum levels of TNF-a and CXCL-8 were analyzed by ELISA methods. A lower percentage of cells from TB patients who smoked [50.29% (43.4-57.2), p<0.01] took up FITC-dextran after 2h compared to non-smoking TB subjects [71.62% (69.2-74.1)] and healthy cases [97.45% (95.9-99.1). Phagocytic capacity was inversely correlated with cigarette smoking as measured by pack years (r=-0.73, p<0.001). The serum levels of TNF-a and CXCL-8 were significantly higher in the TB patients who smoked compared to the TB non-smoker group (p<0.001, p<0.01 respectively). Blood monocytes/macrophages from TB patients have reduced phagocytic capacity which is further reduced in TB patients who smoke. Smoking enhanced serum levels of TNF-a and CXCL-8 suggesting a greater imbalance between the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors in these patients. PMID:27424132

  13. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND EXERCISE, OBESITY AND SMOKING: MODERATION OF ASSOCIATIONS BY AGE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Butler, SC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales, current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. Analysis We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18–24 years, 25–34 years, and 35 and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, while higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18 – 24 year olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18 – 24 year olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Conclusion Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision-making. PMID:24200252

  14. Reducing smoking reduces suicidality among individuals with psychosis: Complementary outcomes from a Healthy Lifestyles intervention study.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Clark, Vanessa; Baker, Amanda; Palazzi, Kerrin; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M

    2016-09-30

    This study sought to explore the impact of smoking reduction on suicidality (suicide ideation and behaviour) among people with a psychotic disorder (n=235) who participated in a randomized trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention trial. Suicidality, measured by item -4 of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was the main variable of interest. Measures were collected by research assistants blind to treatment allocation at baseline, at 15 weeks (mid-intervention) and 12 months after baseline. Mediation analysis, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine the relationship between smoking reduction and suicidality and to explore whether this was mediated through depression. At 12 months, smoking reduction was found to be significantly associated with suicidality change; an association was also seen between smoking reduction and depression and depression and suicidality. After adjusting for depression, the association between smoking reduction and suicidality was attenuated but remained statistically significant; the proportion of the total effect that was mediated through depression was 30%. There was no significant association between suicidality and treatment group (vs. controls) over time. Our study suggests that smoking interventions may have benefits over and above those for improved physical health, by reducing suicidal ideation in people with psychosis. PMID:27450743

  15. Disparity in Smoking Prevalence by Education: Can We Reduce It?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Hebert, Kiandra K.; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon E.; Gamst, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Can an intervention program that is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of an unhealthy behavior in the general population also reduce the disparity among its subgroups? That depends on what measure of disparity is used. Using simple algebraic models, this study demonstrates that disparity measured in terms of relative difference between two groups tends to increase when the prevalence of the behavior is in decline. The study then shows an empirical example, by analyzing the effects of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence of two education groups, the lowest (<12 years) and the highest (16+ years). It examines the data from four California Tobacco Surveys covering the years 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005. The effects of three components of the tobacco control program known to be effective in decreasing prevalence (media, worksite policy, and price) on the two education groups are assessed. The smoking prevalence for the two groups is obtained from these four surveys and a regression line is computed for each education group from 1996 to 2005. Results show that the California program is effective with both low education and high education groups and that the rate of decline in smoking prevalence from 1996 to 2005 is no smaller for the low education group than for the high education group. The paper then discusses that an analysis of disparity based on relative difference, however, could result in misleading recommendations that an intervention like the California tobacco program needs to change from its current whole-population approach to one that focuses on targeting subgroups because it has not reduced disparity. It proposes that research should focus more on increasing the rate of change among less advantaged groups and less on the relative disparity compared to some other group. PMID:20595352

  16. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  17. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  18. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... respiratory tract Share | Exposure to cigarette smoke reduces vitamin D3 in the blood stream and respiratory tract ... be understood as to how smoke causes inflammation. Vitamin D3 has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. ...

  19. Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions.

    PubMed

    Evero, Nero; Hackett, Laura C; Clark, Robert D; Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd A

    2012-05-01

    Acute exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake, but little is known about the effects of exercise on food reward brain regions. After an overnight fast, 30 (17 men, 13 women), healthy, habitually active (age = 22.2 ± 0.7 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), Vo(2peak) = 44.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) individuals completed 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer or 60 min of rest (no-exercise) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. After each condition, blood oxygen level-dependent responses to high-energy food, low-energy food, and control visual cues, were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Exercise, compared with no-exercise, significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to food (high and low food) cues vs. control cues in the insula (-0.37 ± 0.13 vs. +0.07 ± 0.18%), putamen (-0.39 ± 0.10 vs. -0.10 ± 0.09%), and rolandic operculum (-0.37 ± 0.17 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12%). Exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high food vs. control and low food vs. control cues in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (-0.94 ± 0.33%), insula (-0.37 ± 0.13%), and putamen (-0.41 ± 0.10%). No-exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high vs. control and low vs. control cues in the middle (-0.47 ± 0.15%) and inferior occipital gyrus (-1.00 ± 0.23%). Exercise reduced neuronal responses in brain regions consistent with reduced pleasure of food, reduced incentive motivation to eat, and reduced anticipation and consumption of food. Reduced neuronal response in these food reward brain regions after exercise is in line with the paradigm that acute exercise suppresses subsequent energy intake.

  20. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  1. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (p<0.001). SF-36 score for physical functioning (p<0.001) and role-emotional (p<0.001) were impaired in COPD patients than smokers. SF-36 scores for physical functioning (p<0.001), role-physical (p = 0.01), bodily pain (p = 0.01), vitality (p = 0.04) and role-emotional (p<0.001) were lower in COPD than never smokers. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both COPD diagnosis and smoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status. PMID:27737010

  2. Reducing Smoking Among Distracted Individuals: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wallaert, Matthew; Mann, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: According to the attentional myopia model, salient cues that serve to inhibit behavior can be especially effective under conditions of limited attention. A small field study tested the implications of this model for smoking reduction. Methods: Twenty-three undergraduate smokers were exposed to a prominent health warning for 2 5-day experimental phases, with phase order counterbalanced across participants. During one phase, participants simply viewed the warning at regular intervals. During the other phase, participants viewed the warning for the same duration but also simultaneously performed a distracting cognitive load task. Results: Participants in the phase that combined a health warning with cognitive load reported smoking significantly fewer cigarettes and taking significantly fewer puffs of smoke as compared to a baseline comparison phase—a reduction in smoking not observed in the absence of cognitive load. Conclusions: Sources of attentional distraction may heighten the impact of salient smoking warnings, resulting in significant reductions in smoking. PMID:25098673

  3. Long-term effects of smoking and smoking cessation on exercise stress testing: Three-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Asha; Piper, Megan E.; McBride, Patrick E.; Ward, Ann; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The long-term effects of smoking and smoking cessation on markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognosis obtained during treadmill stress testing (TST) are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on TST parameters that predict CVD risk. Methods In a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, symptom-limited TST was performed to determine peak METs, rate-pressure product (RPP), heart rate (HR) increase, HR reserve, and 60-second HR recovery, before and 3 years after the target smoking cessation date. Relationships between TST parameters and treatments among successful abstainers and continuing smokers were evaluated using multivariable analyses. Results At baseline, the 600 current smokers (61% women) had a mean age of 43.4 (SD 11.5) years and smoked 20.7 (8.4) cigarettes per day. Their exercise capacity was 8.7 (2.3) METs, HR reserve was 86.6 (9.6)%, HR increase was 81.1 (20.9) beats/min, and HR recovery was 22.3 (11.3) beats. Cigarettes per day and pack-years were independently and inversely associated with baseline peak METs (P < .001), RPP (P < .01, pack-years only), HR increase (P < .05), and HR reserve (P < .01). After 3 years, 168 (28%) had quit smoking. Abstainers had greater improvements than continuing smokers (all P < .001) in RPP (2,055 mm Hg beats/min), HR increase (5.9 beats/min), and HR reserve (3.7%), even after statistical adjustment (all P < .001). Conclusions Smokers with a higher smoking burden have lower exercise capacity, lower HR reserve, and a blunted exercise HR response. After 3 years, TST improvements suggestive of improved CVD prognosis were observed among successful abstainers. PMID:22172440

  4. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths in the UK and around the world. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, globally, smoking causes over US$500 billion in economic damage each year. OBJECTIVES This paper examines global and UK evidence on the economic impact of smoking prevalence and evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation measures. STUDY SELECTION Search methods We used two major health care/economic research databases, namely PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) database that contains the British National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; Cochrane Library of systematic reviews in health care and health policy; and other health-care-related bibliographic sources. We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. Selection criteria The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992. Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. Data collection and analysis The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Outcomes assessed in the review Primary outcomes of the selected studies are smoking prevalence

  5. Getting Fit for Life: Can Exercise Reduce Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1988-01-01

    This article considers the validity of the widely-held notion that exercising for physical fitness also reduces stress. The ways in which researchers define "stress" and "fitness" are described. Several researchers comment on the subject and various research projects are discussed. (JL)

  6. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  7. Physical exercise reduces risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Kaoru; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Miura, Shigeto; Tajima, Kazuo

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of physical exercise on breast cancer risk, a large-scale case-referent study of 2376 incident breast cancer cases and 18,977 non-cancer referents was conducted using data from the hospital-based epidemiologic research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). To adjust appropriately for possible confounders, we examined the effects within subgroups of the study population. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.94) for twice a week or more regular exercise. We observed a decreased risk of breast cancer for women who regularly exercised for health twice a week or more, irrespective of menopausal status, and were able to detect greater risk reductions within particular subgroups, including women who were parous, without a family history or non-drinkers. Among premenopausal women, a particularly strong protective effect of physical exercise was observed (OR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.28-1.15) for those women whose body mass index (BMI) was high (BM > or = 25). In contrast, risk reduction was found (OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.50-1.01) among postmenopausal women whose BMI was medium (BMI: 22-25). Stratification of history of stomach cancer screening to adjust modifying effects of healthy consciousness allows a more precise assessment of the protective effect of exercise twice a week or more, independent of stomach cancer screening history. This study provides evidence that physical exercise, especially exercise twice a week or more, reduces the risk of breast cancer among Japanese women.

  8. Exercise reduces cellular stress related to skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Mariana Aguiar; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Duarte, Tamiris Campos; Sampaio, Pâmela Fiche da Matta; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Fonseca, Cheyenne Alves; Neves, Miguel Pontes Correa; Schneider, Suzanne Maria; Moseley, Pope; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single session of exercise on the expression of Hsp70, of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and insulin receptor substrate 1 serine 612 (IRS(ser612)) phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of obese and obese insulin-resistant patients. Twenty-seven volunteers were divided into three experimental groups (eutrophic insulin-sensitive, obese insulin-sensitive, and obese insulin-resistant) according to their body mass index and the presence of insulin resistance. The volunteers performed 60 min of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60 % of peak oxygen consumption. M. vastus lateralis samples were obtained before and after exercise. The protein expressions were evaluated by Western blot. Our findings show that compared with paired eutrophic controls, obese subjects have higher basal levels of p-JNK (100 ± 23 % vs. 227 ± 67 %, p = 0.03) and p-IRS-1(ser612) (100 ± 23 % vs. 340 ± 67 %, p < 0.001) and reduced HSP70 (100 ± 16 % vs. 63 ± 12 %, p < 0.001). The presence of insulin resistance results in a further increase in p-JNK (460 ± 107 %, p < 0.001) and a decrease in Hsp70 (46 ± 5 %, p = 0.006), but p-IRS-1(ser612) levels did not differ from obese subjects (312 ± 73 %, p > 0.05). Exercise reduced p-JNK in obese insulin-resistant subjects (328 ± 33 %, p = 0.001), but not in controls or obese subjects. Furthermore, exercise reduced p-IRS-1(ser612) for both obese (122 ± 44 %) and obese insulin-resistant (185 ± 36 %) subjects. A main effect of exercise was observed in HSP70 (p = 0.007). We demonstrated that a single session of exercise promotes changes that characterize a reduction in cellular stress that may contribute to exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity.

  9. Exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis: Evidential value

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. METHODS Utilizing data derived from a prior meta-analysis of 29 randomized controlled trials comprising 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a new method, P-curve, was utilized to assess for evidentiary worth as well as dismiss the possibility of discriminating reporting of statistically significant results regarding exercise and depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Using the method of Stouffer, Z-scores were calculated to examine selective-reporting bias. An alpha (P) value < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in P-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. RESULTS Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (P < 0.05) while none of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Right-skew to dismiss selective reporting was identified (Z = −5.28, P < 0.0001). In addition, the included studies did not lack evidential value (Z = 2.39, P = 0.99), nor did they lack evidential value and were P-hacked (Z = 5.28, P > 0.99). The relative frequencies of P-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in P-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. CONCLUSION Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. PMID:27489782

  10. Combined Varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12-hrs of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC = 0.06 g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  11. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  12. Milk consumption following exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate-vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  13. Are Statewide Restaurant and Bar Smoking Bans Associated With Reduced Cigarette Smoking Among Those With Mental Illness?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoke-free air laws have effectively reduced cigarette consumption at the population level; however, the influence of these policies on smoking among those with mental illness is unclear. We examined whether associations between statewide restaurant/bar smoking bans and cigarette smoking varied by psychiatric diagnoses and gender. Methods: We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, Wave 1: 2001–2002; Wave 2: 2004–2005; n = 7,317 smokers). All analyses were stratified by gender. We examined whether tobacco cessation was associated with the interaction between ban implementation and Wave 1 psychiatric diagnoses (alcohol use disorder [AUD], anxiety disorder [AD], or mood disorder), adjusting for relevant covariates. Among those who continued to use tobacco at Wave 2, we examined associations between Wave 2 cigarettes per day (CPD) and the diagnoses × ban interactions, controlling for Wave 1 CPD and other relevant covariates. Results: Among men with an AUD and women with an AD, ban implementation was associated with 6% and 10% greater probability of tobacco cessation at Wave 2, respectively. Among men in the overall sample, ban implementation was associated with smoking 0.8 fewer CPD at Wave 2. Associations with CPD were nonsignificant among women. Interactions between ban implementation and psychiatric diagnoses were also nonsignificant when examining CPD, suggesting consistent reductions in CPD among men but not among women. Conclusions: This study provided the first evidence that statewide restaurant/bar smoking bans may be associated with reduced smoking among those with select psychiatric conditions. PMID:24566280

  14. Exercise training reduces coronary risk and effectively rehabilitates hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, A P; Geltman, E M; Gavin, J R; Carney, R M; Hagberg, J M; Delmez, J A; Naumovich, A; Oldfield, M H; Harter, H R

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 12 months of endurance exercise training (cycling, walking and jogging) on lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, anemia and psychological function in 14 hemodialysis patients. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) increased 18% in the exercisers (p less than 0.01), but did not change in 11 controls. This was associated with a reduction in depression, a decrease in dosages of antihypertensive medications, a significant increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels (red cell mass rose, plasma volume did not change), a decrease in plasma triglyceride by 23% (p less than 0.05) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels by 21% (p less than 0.01) (both HDL-C and triglyceride levels worsened in the sedentary controls), and an 18% increase in glucose disappearance rates (p less than 0.05) in spite of a 52% decrease in fasting insulin levels (p less than 0.01), suggesting that insulin sensitivity improved. These results demonstrate that some of the complications present in hemodialysis patients may be caused by their sedentary life-style, rather than endstage renal disease itself. This suggests that rehabilitation through exercise is possible for these patients. By reducing coronary risk factors in hemodialysis patients, exercise training may also decrease their heightened morbidity and mortality from atherosclerotic complications. These possibilities need to be examined in a longitudinal study.

  15. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (<1%), but a majority were interested in trying them as means of smoking reduction (54%), to quit/stay quit from smoking (51%), and to help them not smoke around their child or in the home (55%). Caregivers less motivated to quit smoking and with no home smoking ban were more interested in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  16. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  17. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  18. Poor Mental Health and Reduced Decline in Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.; Li, Yunqing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although smoking prevalence has been declining for smokers without mental illness, it has been static for those with mental illness. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in smoking rates and trajectories of smoking prevalence in the often-overlooked population of smokers with poor mental health, compared with those with better mental health. Methods Data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2010 to examine the relationship between poor mental health and current, daily, and intermittent tobacco use in New Jersey. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results During 2001–2010, current, daily, and intermittent smoking prevalence was higher in participants with poor mental health than those with better mental health. In addition, with the exception of 2 years, prevalence rates remained unchanged in this 10-year period for those with poor mental health while they significantly decreased for those with better mental health. Conclusions The disparity in which smokers with poor mental health are more likely to be current smokers and less likely to be never smokers as compared with those with better mental health has increased over time. These data suggest the need to more closely examine tobacco control and treatment policies in smokers with behavioral health issues. It is possible that tobacco control strategies are not reaching those with poor mental health, or, if they are, their messages are not translating into successful cessation. PMID:26071864

  19. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  20. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  1. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.

    PubMed

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking. PMID:25070072

  2. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.

    PubMed

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking.

  3. Does getting smokers to stop smoking before lung resections reduce their risk?

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mahvash; Bilal, Haris; Mahmood, Sarah; Tang, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    A best-evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question of whether the incidence of major pulmonary morbidity after lung resection was associated with the timing of smoking cessation was addressed. Overall 49 papers were found using the reported search outlined below, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. In most studies, smoking abstinence was shown to reduce the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) such as pneumonia, respiratory distress, atelectasis, air leakage, bronchopleural fistula and re-intubation. The timing of cessation is not clearly identified, although there is some evidence showing reduction in risk of PPCs with increasing interval since cessation. Two studies suggested that smoking abstinence for at least 4 weeks prior to surgery was necessary in order to reduce the incidence of major pulmonary events. Furthermore, it was also shown that a pre-operative smoke-free period of >10 weeks produced complication rates similar to those of patients who had never smoked. We conclude that smoking cessation reduces the risk of PPCs. All patients should be advised and counseled to stop smoking before any form of lung resection. PMID:22159264

  4. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications.

  5. Exercise efficiency is reduced by mitochondrial uncoupling in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Cress, M Elaine; Esselman, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency accompanies ageing in humans. Here we evaluated the impact of changes in the contractile-coupling and mitochondrial-coupling efficiencies on the reduction in exercise efficiency in the elderly. Nine adult (mean, 38.8 years old) and 40 elderly subjects (mean, 68.8 years old) performed a cycle ergometer test to measure O2 uptake and leg power output up to the aerobic limit ( ). Reduced leg power output per unit O2 uptake was reflected in a drop in delta efficiency (εD) from 0.27 ± 0.01 (mean ± SEM) in adults to 0.22 ± 0.01 in the elderly group. Similar declines with age were apparent for both the leg power output at and the ATP generation capacity (ATPmax) determined in vivo using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These similar declines resulted in unchanged contractile-coupling efficiency values (εC) in the adult (0.50 ± 0.05) versus the elderly group (0.58 ± 0.04) and agreed with independent measures of muscle contractile-coupling efficiency in human quadriceps (0.5). The mitochondrial-coupling efficiency calculated from the ratio of delta to contractile-coupling efficiencies in the adults (εD/εC = 0.58 ± 0.08) corresponded to values for well-coupled mitochondria (0.6); however, εD/εC was significantly lower in the elderly subjects (0.44 ± 0.03). Conversion of ATPmax per mitochondrial volume (ATPmax/Vv[mt,f]) reported in these groups into thermodynamic units confirmed this drop in mitochondrial-coupling efficiency from 0.57 ± 0.08 in adults to 0.41 ± 0.03 in elderly subjects. Thus, two independent methods revealed that reduced mitochondrial-coupling efficiency was a key part of the drop in exercise efficiency in these elderly subjects and may be an important part of the loss of exercise performance with age.

  6. A Coproduction Community Based Approach to Reducing Smoking Prevalence in a Local Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    McGeechan, G. J.; Woodall, D.; Anderson, L.; Wilson, L.; O'Neill, G.; Newbury-Birch, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights that asset-based community development where local residents become equal partners in service development may help promote health and well-being. This paper outlines baseline results of a coproduction evaluation of an asset-based approach to improving health and well-being within a small community through promoting tobacco control. Local residents were recruited and trained as community researchers to deliver a smoking prevalence survey within their local community and became local health champions, promoting health and well-being. The results of the survey will be used to inform health promotion activities within the community. The local smoking prevalence was higher than the regional and national averages. Half of the households surveyed had at least one smoker, and 63.1% of children lived in a smoking household. Nonsmokers reported higher well-being than smokers; however, the differences were not significant. Whilst the community has a high smoking prevalence, more than half of the smokers surveyed would consider quitting. Providing smoking cessation advice in GP surgeries may help reduce smoking prevalence in this community. Work in the area could be done to reduce children's exposure to smoking in the home. PMID:27446219

  7. Reducing adolescent smoking: a comparison of peer-led, teacher-led, and expert interventions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J H; MacPherson, B; Holmes, D R; Jones, R

    1986-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of a psychosocial strategy of smoking deterence on seventh grade students, the School Health Education Development project implemented peer-led, teacher-led, and expert-led interventions in six Vermont schools. Four additional schools served as control groups. The teacher-led approach reduced the rate of smoking onset and the intention to smoke in the future among highly vulnerable females but not among males. The peer-led approach reduced the behavioral intention to smoke for both sexes but did not affect current smoking behavior. The expert-led approach did not produce favorable effects. Both the peer-led and teacher-led interventions had positive, though not significant, effects on student perception of locus of control. In the control schools, females experienced higher levels of smoking onset than males. Generally, the study points toward further development of a teacher-led approach to smoking deterence based on the theory of adolescent psychosocial development and the principle of continuous reinforcement.

  8. Lactic acidosis occurrence during exercises in the smoke chamber in a 53-year-old firefighter with no significant medical history.

    PubMed

    Bronisz, Agata; Spychalska, Magdalena; Szafrańska, Małgorzata

    2014-04-01

    Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap, reduced rate of arterial blood pH under 7.35 mmol/l, and lactic acid concentration over 7 mmol/l. In the literature we can find some descriptions of the cases of lactic acidosis in patients with severe systemic diseases (cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, sepsis, diabetes with cardiovascular disease and after organ transplantations). We present the case of lactic acidosis in a patient with no chronic disease--a firefighter in whom lactic acidosis has developed during standard exercises in the smoke chamber.

  9. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking. PMID:19440266

  10. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M.; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective. PMID:25785496

  11. [Characteristics of smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical exercise in health behavioral models].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Shimouchi, A; Hayashi, K; Hatta, H; Morita, M; Fukumoto, M; Masumoto, T; Oonishi, S

    1995-12-01

    Various kinds of preventive health behaviors are promoted by health education. The extent of behavioral modification achieved, however, obviously differs from individual to individual according to habits, one of the reasons being the characteristics of various health habits are perceived differently. This cross-sectional study examined the association of indices representing health behavior models with smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical exercise. The indices and their meaning were as follows; health locus of control (HLC) and saliency of health are thought to cause the most active behavioral change, health norm relatively passive change, and vulnerability to illness the most passive change. The indices and lifestyle (health related practices) were surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire in a rural town in March 1994. The study sample consisted of 1,010 males and 1,055 females aged 20 years or older who responded to all questions related to the indices. Results are as follows: 1) Smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with vulnerability to illness, suggesting that people who quit smoking or alcohol drinking do so because of perception of their association with illness. Alcohol drinking seemed to have a higher magnitude of being associated with becoming ill or with fear of illness than smoking. 2) Consuming green-yellow vegetables and fresh fish, and physical fitness were associated with internal HLC, saliency of health, and health norm. These habits appeared to be easy to modify by active personal behavior choice. 3) Consuming milk, yogurt, boiled beans, tofu, oranges, and other fruits were associated with saliency of health. These habits seemed to relate to personal sense of being "healthy". 4) It seemed that younger people more likely changed their behavior by active self-management, while, older people changed due to their sense of value or norm. While it is important for health education to promote "self-management of health" by active

  12. The Role of Cities in Reducing Smoking in China

    PubMed Central

    Redmon, Pamela; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael; Li, Shuyang; Kean, Wang

    2014-01-01

    China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the “bottom up”. The Emory Global Health Institute—China Tobacco Control Partnership supported 17 cities to establish tobacco control programs aimed at changing social norms for tobacco use. Program assessments showed the Tobacco Free Cities grantees’ progress in establishing tobacco control policies and raising public awareness through policies, programs and education activities have varied from modest to substantial. Lessons learned included the need for training and tailored technical support to build staff capacity and the importance of government and organizational support for tobacco control. Tobacco control, particularly in China, is complex, but the potential for significant public health impact is unparalleled. Cities have a critical role to play in changing social norms of tobacco use, and may be the driving force for social norm change related to tobacco use in China. PMID:25264682

  13. The role of cities in reducing smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Redmon, Pamela; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael; Li, Shuyang; Kean, Wang

    2014-01-01

    China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the "bottom up". The Emory Global Health Institute-China Tobacco Control Partnership supported 17 cities to establish tobacco control programs aimed at changing social norms for tobacco use. Program assessments showed the Tobacco Free Cities grantees' progress in establishing tobacco control policies and raising public awareness through policies, programs and education activities have varied from modest to substantial. Lessons learned included the need for training and tailored technical support to build staff capacity and the importance of government and organizational support for tobacco control. Tobacco control, particularly in China, is complex, but the potential for significant public health impact is unparalleled. Cities have a critical role to play in changing social norms of tobacco use, and may be the driving force for social norm change related to tobacco use in China. PMID:25264682

  14. The role of cities in reducing smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Redmon, Pamela; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael; Li, Shuyang; Kean, Wang

    2014-09-26

    China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the "bottom up". The Emory Global Health Institute-China Tobacco Control Partnership supported 17 cities to establish tobacco control programs aimed at changing social norms for tobacco use. Program assessments showed the Tobacco Free Cities grantees' progress in establishing tobacco control policies and raising public awareness through policies, programs and education activities have varied from modest to substantial. Lessons learned included the need for training and tailored technical support to build staff capacity and the importance of government and organizational support for tobacco control. Tobacco control, particularly in China, is complex, but the potential for significant public health impact is unparalleled. Cities have a critical role to play in changing social norms of tobacco use, and may be the driving force for social norm change related to tobacco use in China.

  15. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  16. Effectiveness of cigarette filter tips for reducing cadmium in relation to other mainstream smoke constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of filter tips for reducing cadmium, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were made from tobacco grown on municipal sewage sludge-amended soil and were therefore high in cadmium. When machine-smoked, filter tips did not result in a significant reduction of cadmium deposited on Cambridge filters. This may indicate that a considerable fraction of cadmium is present in the vapor phase of the smoke and therefore not reduced to the same extent as the tar by certain filters. Nicotine and carbon monoxide were reduced to a lesser extent than tar. This indicates that the filter tip has influenced the combustion of the tobacco column during smoking.

  17. Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Murphy, E A; McClellan, J L; Carmichael, M D; Gangemi, J D

    2008-08-01

    Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and may offset the increase in susceptibility to infection associated with stressful exercise. This study examined the effects of quercetin feedings on susceptibility to the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) following stressful exercise. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: exercise-placebo, exercise-quercetin, control-placebo, or control-quercetin. Exercise consisted of a run to fatigue (approximately 140 min) on a treadmill for 3 consecutive days. Quercetin (12.5 mg/kg) was administered via gavage for 7 days before viral challenge. At 30 min after the last bout of exercise or rest, mice (n=23-30) were intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of influenza virus (0.04 hemagglutinating units). Mice were monitored daily for morbidity (time to sickness), symptom severity, and mortality (time to death) for 21 days. Exercise stress was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5-7 (P<0.05)]; quercetin offset the increase in susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5-7 (P<0.05)] that was associated with stressful exercise. These data suggest that short-term quercetin feedings may prove to be an effective strategy to lessen the impact of stressful exercise on susceptibility to respiratory infection.

  18. Exercise at the Extremes: The Amount of Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Molossi, Silvana; Lee, Duck-Chul; Emery, Michael S; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-01-26

    Habitual physical activity and regular exercise training improve cardiovascular health and longevity. A physically active lifestyle is, therefore, a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. An appropriate volume and intensity are essential to maximally benefit from exercise interventions. This document summarizes available evidence on the relationship between the exercise volume and risk reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the risks and benefits of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise interventions are compared. Findings are presented for the general population and cardiac patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation. Finally, the controversy of excessive volumes of exercise in the athletic population is discussed. PMID:26796398

  19. Current smoking and reduced gray matter volume-a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Hans-Christian; Wittfeld, Katrin; Schmidt, Carsten O; Domin, Martin; Grabe, Hans J; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Lotze, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine modulates prefrontal processing when tested with functional imaging. Previous studies on changes in regional brain volumes in small samples, reporting different life-time exposure to nicotine, identified reduced volume in smokers in prefrontal areas but reported controversial results for other areas. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking and regional gray and white matter volume by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in 315 current-smokers and 659 never-smokers from the representative Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Our study showed that in current-smokers smoking is significantly associated with gray matter volume loss in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the olfactory gyrus. White matter volumes were not relevantly reduced in current-smokers. In current-smokers, we found associations of gray matter loss and smoking exposure (pack-years) in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior and middle cingulate cortex, and the superior temporal and angular gyrus, which however did not stand corrections for multiple testing. We confirmed associations between smoking and gray matter differences in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula in the general population of Pomerania (Germany). For the first time, we identified differences in brain volumes in the olfactory gyrus. Other cerebral regions did not show significant differences when correcting for multiple comparisons within the whole brain. The regions of structural deficits might be involved in addictive behavior and withdrawal symptoms, whereas further investigations have to show if the observed atrophies were caused by smoking itself or are preexisting differences between smoking and non-smoking individuals.

  20. Efficacy of a brief worksite intervention to reduce smoking: the roles of behavioral and implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of worksite interventions to reduce smoking needs to be enhanced because randomized controlled trials to date have produced mixed findings. The present study tested the ability of social-cognitive variables to mediate the past behavior-future behavior relationship and the effectiveness of implementation intentions to break the past behavior-future behavior relationship in a brief theory-based worksite intervention designed to reduce smoking. Smoking behavior and psychosocial orientation to quit (operationalized by theory of planned behavior variables and temptations) were measured at baseline; participants (N = 90) randomized to the experimental condition were also asked to form an implementation intention in their place of work. Identical measures taken 2 months postbaseline revealed that intention was a potent mediator of the past behavior-future behavior relationship. More important, significantly more people quit smoking in the experimental condition than in the control condition. Decomposition of these effects showed that implementation intentions worked best for individuals who were more motivated to quit at baseline and suggest that harnessing both motivational and volitional processes might enhance the effectiveness of worksite smoking cessation programs. PMID:17953496

  1. Masculinity and Fatherhood: New Fathers' Perceptions of Their Female Partners' Efforts to Assist Them to Reduce or Quit Smoking.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion initiatives to reduce smoking among parents have focused almost exclusively on women to support their cessation during pregnancy and postpartum, while overlooking the importance of fathers' smoking cessation. This study was a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 new and expectant fathers to identify how they perceived their female partners' efforts to assist them to reduce or quit smoking. Social constructionist gender frameworks were used to theorize and develop the findings. Three key themes were identified: support and autonomy in men's smoking cessation, perception of challenging men's freedom to smoke, and contempt for men's continued smoking. The findings suggest that shifts in masculinities as men take up fathering should be considered in designing smoking cessation interventions for fathers.

  2. Does exercise reduce brain oxidative stress? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Aranda, P; Radak, Z

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the influence of different exercise programs on brain oxidative stress. A search of the literature was conducted up to 1 December 2012 across five databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. The search strategy used in the electronic databases mentioned was established as: (swim* OR exercise OR training) AND ("oxidative stress" AND brain) for each database. A methodological quality assessment valuation/estimation was additionally carried out in the final sample of studies. Of 1553 potentially eligible papers, 19 were included after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality assessment showed a total score in the Quality Index between 40% and 80%, with a mean quality of 56.8%. Overall, regular moderate aerobic exercise appears to promote antioxidant capacity on brain. In contrast, anaerobic or high-intensity exercise, aerobic-exhausted exercise, or the combination of both types of training could deteriorate the antioxidant response. Future investigations should be focused on establishing a standardized exercise protocol, depending on the exercise metabolism wanted to test, which could enhance the objective knowledge in this topic.

  3. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women.

  4. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  5. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach - 'prevention is better than cure' - would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would help in

  6. Glutathione peroxidase activity in a healthy Canadian population. Effects of age, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    L'abbe, M R; Collins, M W; Trick, K D; Laffey, P J

    1992-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) has been suggested as an indicator of selenium status. The purpose of this study was to measure the activity of this enzyme in a large sample of healthy, free-living Canadians to determine normal distributions and the effects of age, smoking, and drinking habits, exercise, and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) or estrogen replacement therapy. The population consisted of 386 self-selected subjects between the ages of 24 and 75. Erythrocyte SeGSHPx activity was 21.5 +or- 7 (Mean +or- SD) and 33.6 +or- 8U/g Hb and plasma activity was 226 +or- 31 and 214 +or- 38 U/L for males (n=239) and females (n=147), respectively. Erythrocyte activity was significantly higher in females and males (p0.01). The Se form of GSHPx accounted for 76% and 54% of total activity in plasma and erythrocytes, respectively. No differences due to age were seen in males, although plasma SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities were elevated in females 65 years of age and older. Cigarette smoking significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects. This elevation did not vary with the amount smoked and was not seen in ex-smokers. Drinking elevated erythrocyte non-SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects with the highest activity seen in drinkers who also smoked. No significant differences were seen with level of exercise except for a slight elevation with vigorous exercise. Estrogen use significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total activities in both pre- and postmenopausal women. These data suggest that some lifestyle factors can have small but significant effects of GSHPx activity and must be controlled for when population-based surveys are being conducted.

  7. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  8. S-maltoheptaose targets syndecan-bound effectors to reduce smoking-related neutrophilic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David CL; Chan, Stanley CH; Mak, Judith CW; Freeman, Craig; Ip, Mary SM; Shum, Daisy KY

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke induces injury and neutrophilic inflammation in the airways of smokers. The stability and activity of inflammatory effectors, IL8 and neutrophil elastase (NE), can be prolonged by binding to airway heparan sulfate (HS)/syndecan-1, posing risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). We hypothesize that antagonizing HS/syndecan-1 binding of the inflammatory effectors could reduce smoking-related neutrophil-mediated airway inflammation. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) of COPD patients found both total and unopposed NE levels to be significantly higher among smokers with COPD than non-COPD subjects. Similar NE burden was observed in smoke-exposed rats compared to sham air controls. We chose sulfated-maltoheptaose(SM), a heparin-mimetic, to antagonize HS/sydecan-1 binding of the inflammatory mediators in airway fluids and lung tissues of the smoke-exposed rat model. Airway treatment with SM resulted in displacement of CINC-1 and NE from complexation with bronchio-epithelial HS/syndecan-1, dissipating the chemokine gradient for neutrophil flux across to the bronchial lumen. Following SM displacement of NE from shed HS/syndecan-1 in bronchial fluids, NE became accessible to inhibition by α1-antitrypsin endogenous in test samples. The antagonistic actions of SM against syndecan-1 binding of NE and CINC-1 in smoke-exposed airways suggest new therapeutic opportunities for modulating airway inflammation in smokers with SM delivery. PMID:26256047

  9. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  10. Sudden infant death syndrome: neonatal hypodynamia (reduced exercise level).

    PubMed

    Reid, G M

    2001-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been described as a silent unexpected death during sleep. Infants with near-miss SIDS have shown a higher heart rate and diminished heart rate variability during sleep. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep rate variability was related to respiration. A decreased heart rate variability was also observed in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or prenatal hypoxia. It was hypothesized that decreased heart rate variability and decreased body measurement during sleep were related to a decreased arousal response. Cardiac output is greater in the supine position. Acetylcholine slows the heart beat. Postural changes modify the acute baroreflex control of the heart rate. The cerebellum also contributes to the reflex anti-orthostatic (supine) cardiovascular response to postural change. Delayed myelination of various areas of the brain occurred in SIDS victims and it was suggested that the defect in central respiratory control could be a motor rather than a sensory problem, and that the search for abnormalities should be extended to regions in the cerebellum and pre-frontal-temporal-limbic systems. The cerebellum exercises control over motor neuron impulses from the cerebral cortex to lower structures. An extended period of neonatal decreased body movement has its counterpart in the astronaut exposed to the deconditioning effect of zero gravity. Hypodynamia induces hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, renal inositoluria and impaired nerve conduction. Myoinositol is 20 times higher in fetal-like tissue than in adults. The insecticide lindane (gammexane) is an inositol antagonist. Lindane administration to neonatal rats induced low levels of specific components of myelin proteins in oligodendrocytes in the brain. The activity of these specific enzymes was reduced in oligodendrocytes in the brain of SIDS victims. It is hypothesized that lindane administration to laboratory neonatal animals is a laboratory model for studying

  11. Carbohydrate intake reduces fat oxidation during exercise in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Riddell, Michael C; Takken, Tim; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-12-01

    The recent surge in childhood obesity has renewed interest in studying exercise as a therapeutic means of metabolizing fat. However, carbohydrate (CHO) intake attenuates whole body fat oxidation during exercise in healthy children and may suppress fat metabolism in obese youth. To determine the impact of CHO intake on substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in obese boys, seven obese boys (mean age: 11.4 ± 1.0 year; % body fat: 35.8 ± 3.9%) performed 60 min of exercise at an intensity that approximated maximal fat oxidation. A CHO drink (CARB) or a placebo drink (CONT) was consumed in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Rates of total fat, total CHO, and exogenous CHO (CHO(exo)) oxidation were calculated for the last 20 min of exercise. During CONT, fat oxidation rate was 3.9 ± 2.4 mg × kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1 )× min(-1), representing 43.1 ± 22.9% of total energy expenditure (EE). During CARB, fat oxidation was lowered (p = 0.02) to 1.7 ± 0.6 mg × kg FFM(-1 )× min(-1), contributing to 19.8 ± 4.9% EE. Total CHO oxidation rate was 17.2 ± 3.1 mg × kg FFM(-1 )× min(-1) and 13.2 ± 6.1 mg × kg FFM(-1) × min(-1) during CARB and CONT, respectively (p = 0.06). In CARB, CHO(exo) oxidation contributed to 23.3 ± 4.2% of total EE. CHO intake markedly suppresses fat oxidation during exercise in obese boys.

  12. Ability of a new oral nicotine substitute to reduce smoking urge in moderate smokers.

    PubMed

    Demazières, A; Luthringer, R; Coppel, E; Gilles, C; Fleury, C; Roegel, J C; Delarue, A; Laur, C; Lagrue, G

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new nicotine lozenge ( Nicopass 1.5 mg) in reducing smoking urge after an overnight abstinence. Twenty-four moderate smokers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period crossover trial. The results showed that 1.5 mg-nicotine lozenge is superior to placebo in reducing smoking urge (p = 0.0001). In addition, nicotine lozenge, but not placebo, significantly improved vigilance and psychomotor performances (p < 0.05) and displayed a cardiac chronotropic effect. Thus, the 1.5-mg nicotine lozenge appears as an effective aid to alleviate acute tobacco withdrawal symptoms in moderate smokers. PMID:15964703

  13. The effects of hypnotic susceptibility on reducing smoking behavior treated by an hypnotic technique.

    PubMed

    Perry, C; Mullen, G

    1975-07-01

    This study sought to obtain empirical data on the issue of whether susceptibility to hypnosis influences the outcome of an hypnotic therapy. At the first of two sessions, Ss had their susceptibility evaluated unobtrusively. At the second session, they learned Spiegel's self-hypnotic method to stop smoking. At the end of 3 months' follow-up 7 of 54 volunteers were completely abstinent (13%), while 31% had reduced smoking by 50% or more. Of the 7 totally abstaining Ss, 1 was high, 1 was low and 5 were medium susceptible, which is not unlike the distribution of hypnotic susceptibility in the general population. However, it was found that significantly more Ss of higher susceptibility reduced by 50% or more than did less susceptible Ss.

  14. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  15. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  16. Legislation reduces exposure to second‐hand tobacco smoke in New Zealand bars by about 90%

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Dinusha; Fowles, Jefferson; Woodward, Alistair; Christophersen, Annemarie; Dickson, Stuart; Hosking, Matthew; Berezowski, Richard; Lea, Rod A

    2007-01-01

    Aim To measure exposure to second‐hand smoke (SHS) in New Zealand bars before and after comprehensive smoke‐free legislation enacted on 10 December 2004. Methods Cotinine is the main specific metabolite of nicotine and a well‐established biomarker for SHS exposure. We measured cotinine levels in saliva of non‐smoking volunteers before and after a 3 h visit to 30 randomly selected bars in 3 cities across the country. Two measures of cotinine before the smoke‐free law change during winter and spring 2004, and two follow‐up measurements in the same volunteers and venues during winter and spring 2005, were included. Results Before the smoke‐free law change, in all bars and in all volunteers, exposure to SHS was evident with an average increase in saliva cotinine of 0.66 ng/ml (SE 0.03 ng/ml). Increases in cotinine correlated strongly with the volunteers' subjective observation of ventilation, air quality and counts of lit cigarettes. However, even venues that were judged to be “seemingly smoke free” with “good ventilation” produced discernable levels of SHS exposure. After the law change, there remained some exposure to SHS, but at much lower levels (mean saliva cotinine increase of 0.08 ng/ml, SE 0.01 ng/ml). Smoking indoors in bars was almost totally eliminated: in 2005 only one lit cigarette was observed in 30 visits. Conclusions Comprehensive smoke‐free legislation in New Zealand seems to have reduced exposure of bar patrons to SHS by about 90%. Residual exposures to SHS in bars do not result from illicit smoking indoors. PMID:17652238

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura J.; Myers, Vicki; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Kott, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02). Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02). Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM) in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:26694440

  18. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    PubMed Central

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P < 0.05). In response to exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P < 0.05). The MSM group had higher IL-1β at baseline when compared to YSM, although IL-1ra was greater for YSM at baseline (P < 0.05). Finally, the post-exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, smoker’s exhibit elevated MCP-1 and IL-1β that seem to be evident with a longer smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  19. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  20. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  1. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  2. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  3. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  4. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms. PMID:24911173

  5. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  6. Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.
DATA SOURCES—Literature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.
STUDY SELECTION—Review and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a synthesis of these studies as contrasted with a quantitative meta-analysis.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions designed for residential/child ETS exposure control have included policy/legal regulations, minimal clinical services, and counselling services. Divorce court and adoption services have limited custody to protect children from ETS exposure. Controlled trials of clinicians' one time counselling services have shown null results. One controlled trial found that repeated physician ETS counselling increased parent cessation. Three trials found that repeated counselling/shaping procedures reduced quantitative estimates of ETS exposure in asthmatic children.
CONCLUSIONS—Insufficient controlled studies of repeated session counselling procedures have been completed to determine efficacy for ETS exposure reduction, but evidence is promising. One time minimal interventions appear ineffective, but large scale studies may be warranted. No studies have been conducted to assess court or adoption agency regulations; no community ordinances for regulating residential ETS exposure have been invoked. Ethical and enforcement issues are discussed.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; interventions; counselling PMID:10841590

  7. Dual home screening and tailored environmental feedback to reduce radon and secondhand smoke: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Wright, Ashton Potter; Robertson, Heather E; Rinker, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Combined exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and radon increases lung cancer risk 10-fold. The authors assessed the feasibility and impact of a brief home screening and environmental feedback intervention to reduce radon and SHS (Freedom from Radon and Smoking in the Home [FRESH]) and measured perceived risk of lung cancer and synergistic risk perception (SHS x radon). Participants (N = 50) received home radon and SHS kits and completed baseline surveys. Test results were shared using an intervention guided by the Teachable Moment Model. Half of the participants completed online surveys two months later. Most (76%) returned the radon test kits; 48% returned SHS kits. Of the returned radon test kits, 26% were >4.0 pCi/L. Of the returned SHS kits, 38% had nicotine > .1 microg/m3. Of those with high radon, more than half had contacted a mitigation specialist or planned contact. Of those with positive air nicotine, 75% had adopted smoke-free homes. A significant increase occurred in perceived risk for lung cancer and synergistic risk perception after FRESH.

  8. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, p<0.01); however, spirometric lung ages significantly deteriorated in the failure group (70.5±25.5 vs. 73.7±26.9, p<0.01). The effect sizes (Cohen's d) of spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. The post-hoc statistical power of the spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups was 0.83 and 0.91, respectively. According to a multiple regression analysis, success in smoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that successful smoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  9. Attempts To Reduce Cigarette Smoking among College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jeanette; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Fruhwirth, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study utilizes college student volunteers in a three-week smoking cessation program. The volunteers were given two American Cancer Society brochures about smoking cessation, a guide for a comprehensive plan to quit smoking developed by Glaxo Wellcome, the American Lung Association's Quit Smoking Action Plan, a list of common nicotine…

  10. Preclinical evaluation of epinephrine nebulization to reduce airway hyperemia and improve oxygenation after smoke inhalation injury

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L.; Cox, Robert A.; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute lung injury secondary to smoke inhalation is a major source of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. We tested the hypothesis that nebulized epinephrine would ameliorate pulmonary dysfunction secondary to acute lung injury by reducing airway hyperemia and edema formation and mediating bronchodilatation in an established, large animal model of inhalation injury. Design Prospective, controlled, randomized trial. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Twenty-four chronically instrumented, adult, female sheep. Interventions Following baseline measurements, the animals were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 5), an injured and saline-treated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with 4 mg of nebulized epinephrine every 4 hrs (n = 6). Inhalation injury was induced by 48 breaths of cotton smoke. The dose of epinephrine was derived from dose finding experiments (n = 7 sheep). Measurements and Main Results The injury induced significant increases in airway blood flows, bronchial wet/dry weight ratio, airway obstruction scores, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content, and contributed to severe pulmonary dysfunction as evidenced by a significant decline in Pao2/Fio2 ratio and increase in pulmonary shunt fraction. Nebulization of epinephrine significantly reduced tracheal and main bronchial blood flows, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content. The treatment was further associated with significant improvements of Pao2/Fio2 ratio and pulmonary shunting. Conclusions Nebulization of epinephrine reduces airway blood flow and attenuates pulmonary dysfunction in sheep subjected to severe smoke inhalation injury. Future studies will have to improve the understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms and identify the optimal dosing for the treatment of patients with this injury. PMID:21263320

  11. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  12. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  13. Endurance exercise immediately before sea diving reduces bubble formation in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Vallee, Nicolas; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have observed that a single bout of exercise can reduce the formation of circulating bubbles on decompression but, according to different authors, several hours delay were considered necessary between the end of exercise and the beginning of the dive. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of exercise taken immediately before a dive on bubble formation. 24 trained divers performed open-sea dives to 30 msw depth for 30 min followed by a 3 min stop at 3 msw, under two conditions: (1) a control dive without exercise before (No-Ex), (2) an experimental condition in which subjects performed an exercise before diving (Ex). In the Ex condition, divers began running on a treadmill for 45 min at a speed corresponding to their own ventilatory threshold 1 h before immersion. Body weight, total body fluid volume, core temperature, and volume of consumed water were measured. Circulating bubbles were graded according to the Spencer scale using a precordial Doppler every 30 min for 90 min after surfacing. A single sub-maximal exercise performed immediately before immersion significantly reduces bubble grades (p < 0.001). This reduction was correlated not only to sweat dehydration, but also to the volume of water drunk at the end of the exercise. Moderate dehydration seems to be beneficial at the start of the dive whereas restoring the hydration balance should be given priority during decompression. This suggests a biphasic effect of the hydration status on bubble formation.

  14. Nedocromil sodium reduces cigarette smoke-induced bronchoconstrictor hyperresponsiveness to substance P in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Dusser, D J; Lacroix, H; Desmazes-Dufeu, N; Mordelet-Dambrine, M; Roisman, G L

    1995-01-01

    Acute exposure to cigarette smoke provokes airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P and inactivates neutral endopeptidase (NEP). To determine whether nedocromil sodium can prevent cigarette smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P, we studied two groups of anaesthetized guinea-pigs. One group of guinea-pigs was pretreated with aerosolized 0.9% NaCl solution (90 breaths), the other group was pretreated with aerosolized nedocromil sodium (10(-4) M, 90 breaths). In each animal, pretreatment was followed by either exposure to the smoke of one cigarette or exposure to air. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke or to air, we measured the change in total pulmonary resistance (RL) induced by increasing concentrations of aerosolized substance P. In the absence of nedocromil sodium, the bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P were greater in cigarette smoke-exposed guinea-pigs than in air-exposed animals. Aerosolized nedocromil sodium had no effect on the response to substance P in air-exposed animals, but it reduced cigarette smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P. The preventive effect on cigarette smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P was observed at concentrations of aerosolized nedocromil sodium of 3 x 10(-5), 10(-4), and 3 x 10(-4) M. In vitro, cigarette smoke solution inhibited NEP activity from lung membrane preparations, but this inhibitory effect was not modified by nedocromil sodium (10(-4) M). We conclude that aerosolized nedocromil sodium reduces cigarette smoke-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P in vivo. This action of nedocromil sodium is not due to a protective effect on cigarette smoke-induced inactivation of NEP in vitro.

  15. A Dyadic Exercise Intervention to Reduce Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029

  16. Aerobic exercise before diving reduces venous gas bubble formation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dujić, Željko; Duplančic, Darko; Marinovic-Terzić, Ivana; Baković, Darija; Ivančev, Vladimir; Valic, Zoran; Eterović, Davor; Petri, Nadan M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown in a rat model that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise 20h before a simulated dive reduces bubble formation and after the dive protects from lethal decompression sickness. The present study investigated the importance of these findings in man. Twelve healthy male divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 280kPa at a rate of 100kPamin−1 breathing air and remaining at pressure for 80min. The ascent rate was 9mmin−1 with a 7min stop at 130kPa. Each diver underwent two randomly assigned simulated dives, with or without preceding exercise. A single interval exercise performed 24h before the dive consisted of treadmill running at 90% of maximum heart rate for 3min, followed by exercise at 50% of maximum heart rate for 2min; this was repeated eight times for a total exercise period of 40min. Venous gas bubbles were monitored with an ultrasonic scanner every 20min for 80min after reaching surface pressure. The study demonstrated that a single bout of strenuous exercise 24h before a dive to 18 m of seawater significantly reduced the average number of bubbles in the pulmonary artery from 0.98 to 0.22 bubbles cm−2(P= 0.006) compared to dives without preceding exercise. The maximum bubble grade was decreased from 3 to 1.5 (P= 0.002) by pre-dive exercise, thereby increasing safety. This is the first report to indicate that pre-dive exercise may form the basis for a new way of preventing serious decompression sickness. PMID:14755001

  17. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  18. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  19. Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Reduces Risk of Mammary Tumorigenesis In Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo, Ignacio; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S.; Gavin, Timothy P.; Newcomer, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared to pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

  20. Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces risk of mammary tumorigenesis in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Ignacio G; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S; Gavin, Timothy P; Newcomer, Sean

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared with pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

  1. Effectiveness of exercise interventions in reducing pain symptoms among older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a review.

    PubMed

    Focht, Brian C

    2006-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately one third of older adults in the United States. The pain accompanying its progression reduces quality of life and leads to activity restriction and physical disability. Evidence suggests that exercise represents a promising treatment for pain among older knee-OA patients. The article provides an overview of the extant research examining the effectiveness of exercise interventions in reducing pain symptoms among older adults with knee OA. Critical evaluation of the literature reveals that aerobic training, strength training, and combination aerobic and strength training result in improvements in pain. The magnitude of pain reduction accompanying exercise interventions varies considerably across studies, however. In addition, most trials have focused on short-term (<6 months) interventions, and the limited number of long-term (>6 months) trials have been plagued by high attrition and poor postintervention maintenance of treatment effects. Given the variability in the effectiveness of exercise interventions, future research is necessary to determine the individual differences that influence older OA patients' responsiveness to exercise interventions and identify more efficacious strategies for promoting the maintenance of long-term exercise.

  2. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26) in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted. PMID:25590146

  3. Amlodipine reduces blood pressure during dynamic resistance exercise in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Souza, D R; Gomides, R S; Costa, L A R; Queiroz, A C C; Barros, S; Ortega, K C; Mion, D; Tinucci, T; Forjaz, C L M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, on blood pressure (BP) during resistance exercise performed at different intensities in hypertensives. Eleven hypertensives underwent 4 weeks of placebo and amlodipine (random double-blinded crossover design). In each phase, they performed knee extension exercise until exhaustion following three protocols: one set at 100% of 1 RM (repetition maximum), three sets at 80% of 1 RM, and three sets at 40% of 1 RM. Intraarterial BP was measured before and during exercise. Amlodipine reduced maximal systolic/diastolic BP values achieved at all intensities (100% = 225 ± 6/141 ± 3 vs. 207 ± 6/130 ± 6 mmHg; 80% = 289 ± 8/178 ± 5 vs. 273 ± 10/169 ± 6 mmHg; 40% = 289 ± 10/176 ± 8 vs. 271 ± 11/154 ± 6 mmHg). Amlodipine blunted the increase in diastolic BP that occurred during the second and third sets of exercise at 40% of 1RM (+75 ± 6 vs. +61 ± 5 mmHg and +78 ± 7 vs. +64 ± 5 mmHg, respectively). Amlodipine was effective in reducing the absolute values of systolic and diastolic BP during resistance exercise and in preventing the progressive increase in diastolic BP that occurs over sets of low-intensity exercise. These results suggest that systemic vascular resistance is involved in BP increase during resistance exercise, and imply that hypertensives receiving amlodipine are at lower risk of increased BP during resistance exercise than non-medicated patients.

  4. Atorvastatin treatment reduces exercise capacities in rats: involvement of mitochondrial impairments and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bouitbir, Jamal; Charles, Anne-Laure; Rasseneur, Laurence; Dufour, Stéphane; Piquard, François; Geny, Bernard; Zoll, Joffrey

    2011-11-01

    Physical exercise exacerbates the cytotoxic effects of statins in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial impairments may play an important role in the development of muscular symptoms following statin treatment. Our objective was to characterize mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise in atorvastatin-treated rats. The animals were divided into four groups: resting control (CONT; n = 8) and exercise rats (CONT+EXE; n = 8) as well as resting (ATO; n = 10) and exercise (ATO+EXE; n = 8) rats that were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 2 wk). Exhaustive exercise showed that the distance that was covered by treated animals was reduced (P < 0.05). Using dihydroethidium staining, we showed that the ROS level was increased by 60% in the plantaris muscle of ATO compared with CONT rats and was highly increased in ATO+EXE (226%) compared with that in CONT+EXE rats. The maximal mitochondrial respiration (V(max)) was decreased in ATO rats compared with that in CONT rats (P < 0.01). In CONT+EXE rats, V(max) significantly increased compared with those in CONT rats (P < 0.05). V(max) was significantly lower in ATO+EXE rats (-39%) compared with that in CONT+EXE rats (P < 0.001). The distance that was covered by rats significantly correlated with V(max) (r = 0.62, P < 0.01). The glycogen content was decreased in ATO, CONT+EXE, and ATO+EXE rats compared with that in CONT rats (P < 0.05). GLUT-4 mRNA expression was higher after exhaustive exercise in CONT+EXE rats compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Our results show that exhaustive exercise exacerbated metabolic perturbations and ROS production in skeletal muscle, which may reduce the exercise capacity and promote the muscular symptoms in sedentary atorvastatin-treated animals.

  5. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  6. Depressive Symptomatology, Exercise Adherence and Fitness are Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; van Dulmen, Manfred; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is common in heart failure (HF) and associated with reduced cognitive function. The current study used Structrual Equation Modeling to examine whether depression adversely impacts cognitive function in HF through its adverse affects on exercise adherence and cardiovascular fitness. Methods 158 HF patients completed neuropsychological testing, physical fitness test, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and measures assessing exercise adherence, and physical exertion. Results The model demonstrated excellent model fit and increased scores on the BDI-II negatively affected exercise adherence and cardiovascular fitness. There was a strong inverse association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Sobel test showed a significant indirect pathway between the BDI-II and cognitive function through cardiovascular fitness. Discussion This study suggests depression in HF may adversely impact cognitive function through reduced cardiovascular fitness. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether treatment of depression can lead to better lifestyle behaviors and ultimately improve neurocognitive outcomes in HF. PMID:23378527

  7. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups. PMID:27087188

  8. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  9. Can Exercise Increase Fitness and Reduce Weight in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Moltke, Ane; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15–20 years compared with the general population. Most years of lost life are due to the excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength, and weight. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. Results: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n = 892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11–30% and strength by 33–37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression, exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting, little is known about the effect on weight reduction and cardiovascular fitness. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum, and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally, participants should be assessed beyond the intervention to identify long lasting effects. PMID:25120495

  10. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  11. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  12. Randomized Trial of a Pre-Surgical Scheduled Reduced Smoking Intervention for Patients Newly Diagnosed with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ostroff, Jamie S.; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Li, Yuelin; Shiyko, Mariya P.; Lam, Cho Y.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Dhingra, Lara K.; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Holland, Susan M.; Manna, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer patients are advised to quit smoking to reduce treatment complications and future cancer risk. This study's main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel, pre-surgical cessation intervention in newly diagnosed cancer patients scheduled for surgical hospitalization. Methods We conducted a parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of our hospital-based, tobacco cessation “best practices” treatment model (BP; cessation counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) with BP enhanced by a behavioral tapering regimen (scheduled reduced smoking; BP+SRS) administered by a handheld computer before hospitalization for surgery. Cessation outcomes were short (hospital admission and three months) and longer-term (6 months) biochemically-verified smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that BP+SRS would be superior to BP alone. One hundred eighty-five smokers were enrolled. Results Overall, 7-day-point prevalence, confirmed abstinence rates at six months for BP alone (32%) and BP+SRS (32%) were high; however, no main effect of treatment was observed. Patients who were older and diagnosed with lung cancer were more likely to quit smoking. Conclusions Compared to best practices for treating tobacco dependence, a pre-surgical, scheduled reduced smoking intervention did not improve abstinence rates among newly diagnosed cancer patients. PMID:23895203

  13. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A; Lowery, Ryan P; De Souza, Eduardo O; Partl, Jeremy M; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  14. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  15. α1-Antitrypsin reduces rhinovirus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Reena; Jiang, Di; Wu, Qun; Chu, Hong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections target airway epithelium and are the leading cause of acute exacerbations of COPD. Cigarette smoke (CS) increases the severity of viral infections, but there is no effective therapy for HRV infection. We determined whether α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces HRV-16 infection in CS-exposed primary human airway epithelial cells. Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and patients diagnosed with COPD were cultured at air–liquid interface to induce mucociliary differentiation. These cells were treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin for 2 hours and then exposed to air or whole cigarette smoke (WCS) with or without HRV-16 (5×104 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose [TCID50]/transwell) infection for 24 hours. WCS exposure significantly increased viral load by an average of fivefold and decreased the expression of antiviral genes interferon-λ1, OAS1, and MX1. When A1AT was added to WCS-exposed cells, viral load significantly decreased by an average of 29-fold. HRV-16 infection significantly increased HRV-16 receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression in air-exposed cells, which was decreased by A1AT. A1AT-mediated reduction of viral load was not accompanied by increased epithelial antiviral gene expression or by inhibiting the activity of 3C protease involved in viral replication or maturation. Our findings demonstrate that A1AT treatment prevents a WCS-induced increase in viral load and for the first time suggest a therapeutic effect of A1AT on HRV infection. PMID:27354786

  16. Slow breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the pressure responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Jones, C U; Sangthong, B; Pachirat, O; Jones, D A

    2015-01-01

    Slow breathing training reduces resting blood pressure, probably by modifying central autonomic control, but evidence for this is lacking. The pressor response to static handgrip exercise is a measure of autonomic control and the aim of this study was to determine whether slow breathing training modulates the pressor responses to exercise of untrained muscles. Twenty hypertensive patients trained for 8 weeks, 10 with unloaded slow breathing (Unloaded) and 10 breathing against an inspiratory load of 20 cm H(2)O (Loaded). Ten subjects were untrained controls. Subjects performed a 2 min handgrip pressor test (30 % MVC) pre- and post-training, and blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured before the contraction, at the end and following 2 min recovery. Resting systolic (sBP) and HR were reduced as a result of training, as reported previously. After training there was both a smaller pressor response to hand grip exercise and a more rapid recovery of sBP and HR compared to pre-training. There were no changes in the Controls and no differences between the Unloaded and Loaded groups. Combining the two training groups, the sBP response to handgrip exercise after training was reduced by 10 mm Hg (95 % CI: -7, -13) and HR by 5 bpm (95 % CI: -4, -6), all p<0.05. These results are consistent with slow breathing training modifying central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function. PMID:25804100

  17. Molecular aspects involved in swimming exercise training reducing anhedonia in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Sigwalt, A R; Budde, H; Helmich, I; Glaser, V; Ghisoni, K; Lanza, S; Cadore, E L; Lhullier, F L R; de Bem, A F; Hohl, A; de Matos, F J; de Oliveira, P A; Prediger, R D; Guglielmo, L G A; Latini, A

    2011-09-29

    Patients suffering from depression frequently display hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in elevated cortisol levels. One main symptom of this condition is anhedonia. There is evidence that exercise training can be used as a rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an aerobic exercise training protocol on the depressive-like behavior, anhedonia, induced by repeated dexamethasone administration. The study was carried out on adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups: the "control group" (C), "exercise group" (E), "dexamethasone group" (D) and the "dexamethasone plus exercise group" (DE). The exercise training consisted of swimming (1 h/d, 5 d/wk) for 3 weeks, with an overload of 5% of the rat body weight. Every day rats were injected with either dexamethasone (D/DE) or saline solution (C/E). Proper positive controls, using fluoxetine, were run in parallel. Decreased blood corticosterone levels, reduced adrenal cholesterol synthesis and adrenal weight (HPA disruption), reduced preference for sucrose consumption and increased immobility time (depressive-like behavior), marked hippocampal DNA oxidation, increased IL-10 and total brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; pro-plus mature-forms) and a severe loss of body mass characterized the dexamethasone-treated animals. Besides increasing testosterone blood concentrations, the swim training protected depressive rats from the anhedonic state, following the same profile as fluoxetine, and also from the dexamethasone-induced impaired neurochemistry. The data indicate that physical exercise could be a useful tool in preventing and treating depressive disorders.

  18. Use of Self-Imposed Contingencies to Reduce the Frequency of Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexrod, Saul; And Others

    Two studies were done in which the subjects applied punishment contingencies to themselves for smoking cigarettes. After Baseline in Experiment I, the subject set a limit of 15 cigarettes for himself. If he exceeded the level, he was to tear a dollar bill into pieces for every additional cigarette he smoked. Every five days the criterion was…

  19. Barriers and Motivators to Reducing Secondhand Smoke Exposure in African American Families of Head Start Children: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…

  20. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  1. Dehydration reduces left ventricular filling at rest and during exercise independent of twist mechanics.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Eric J; González-Alonso, José; Pearson, James; Low, David A; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace; Shave, Rob

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduction in stroke volume (SV), previously shown to occur with dehydration and increases in internal body temperatures during prolonged exercise, is caused by a reduction in left ventricular (LV) function, as indicated by LV volumes, strain, and twist ("LV mechanics"). Eight healthy men [age: 20 ± 2, maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max): 58 ± 7 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹] completed two, 1-h bouts of cycling in the heat (35°C, 50% peak power) without fluid replacement, resulting in 2% and 3.5% dehydration, respectively. Conventional and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to determine LV volumes, strain, and twist at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise at baseline, both levels of dehydration, and following rehydration. Progressive dehydration caused a significant reduction in end-diastolic volume (EDV) and SV at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (rest: Δ-33 ± 14 and Δ-21 ± 14 ml, respectively; exercise: Δ-30 ± 10 and Δ-22 ± 9 ml, respectively, during 3.5% dehydration). In contrast to the marked decline in EDV and SV, systolic and diastolic LV mechanics were either maintained or even enhanced with dehydration at rest and during knee-extensor exercise. We conclude that dehydration-induced reductions in SV at rest and during exercise are the result of reduced LV filling, as reflected by the decline in EDV. The concomitant maintenance of LV mechanics suggests that the decrease in LV filling, and consequently ejection, is likely caused by the reduction in blood volume and/or diminished filling time rather than impaired LV function.

  2. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  3. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

  4. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  5. Effects of exercise on riboflavin requirements: biological validation in weight reducing women.

    PubMed

    Belko, A Z; Meredith, M P; Kalkwarf, H J; Obarzanek, E; Weinberg, S; Roach, R; McKeon, G; Roe, D A

    1985-02-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate our previous estimates for riboflavin requirement, 0.96 mg/1000 kcal during nonexercise and 1.16 mg/1000 kcal during exercise in overweight women. Two groups of 6 weight reducing women consumed either 1.16 mg riboflavin/1000 kcal (HR) or 0.96 mg/1000 kcal (MR). The study was two, 3 period by 2 treatment (exercise or nonexercise) crossover designs, one design at each level of riboflavin. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficients (AC) significantly increased in both groups from 1.16 +/- .02 to 1.20 +/- .03 in group HR and from 1.31 +/- .04 to 1.36 +/- .02 in the MR group during nonexercise and exercise, respectively. ACs increased in the HR group due to an increase in total enzyme activity while ACs increased in the MR group due to a decrease in basal enzyme activity reflecting decreased flavin availability. There were no differences in aerobic capacity, weight loss, nor change in lean body mass between the two groups. Thus, 0.96 mg/1000 kcal was not adequate during either nonexercise or exercise periods while the 1.16 mg/1000 kcal was adequate.

  6. Smoking Is Associated with Acute and Chronic Prostatic Inflammation: Results from the REDUCE Study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Nickel, J Curtis; Gerber, Leah; Muller, Roberto L; Andriole, Gerald L; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Both anti- and proinflammatory effects of cigarette smoking have been described. As prostate inflammation is common, we hypothesized smoking could contribute to prostate inflammation. Thus, we evaluated the association of smoking status with acute and chronic inflammation within the prostate of men undergoing prostate biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed 8,190 men ages 50 to 75 years with PSA levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL enrolled in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Smoking status was self-defined as never, former, or current. Prostate inflammation was assessed by systematic central review blinded to smoking status. The association of smoking with inflammation in the baseline, 2-year, and 4-year biopsies was evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. At study enrollment, 1,233 (15%), 3,203 (39%), and 3,754 (46%) men were current, former, and never smokers, respectively. Current smokers were significantly younger and had smaller prostates than former and never smokers (all P < 0.05). Former smokers were significantly heavier than current and never smokers (P < 0.001). Acute and chronic prostate inflammations were identified in 1,261 (15%) and 6,352 (78%) baseline biopsies, respectively. In univariable analysis, current smokers were more likely to have acute inflammation than former (OR, 1.35; P, 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 1.36; P, 0.001). The results were unchanged at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In contrast, current smoking was linked with chronic inflammation in the baseline biopsy, but not at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In conclusion, among men undergoing prostate biopsy, current smoking was independently associated with acute and possibly chronic prostate inflammations. PMID:25644151

  7. Heat stress increases muscle glycogen use but reduces the oxidation of ingested carbohydrates during exercise.

    PubMed

    Jentjens, Roy L P G; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the oxidation rate of ingested carbohydrate (CHO) is impaired during exercise in the heat compared with a cool environment. Nine trained cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption 65 +/- 1 ml x kg body wt(-1) x min(-1)) exercised on two different occasions for 90 min at 55% maximum power ouptput at an ambient temperature of either 16.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C (cool trial) or 35.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C (heat trial). Subjects received 8% glucose solutions that were enriched with [U-13C]glucose for measurements of exogenous glucose, plasma glucose, liver-derived glucose and muscle glycogen oxidation. Exogenous glucose oxidation during the final 30 min of exercise was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the heat compared with the cool trial (0.76 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.05 g/min). Muscle glycogen oxidation during the final 30 min of exercise was increased by 25% in the heat (2.07 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.66 +/- 0.09 g/min; P < 0.05), and liver-derived glucose oxidation was not different. There was a trend toward a higher total CHO oxidation and a lower plasma glucose oxidation in the heat although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.087 and P = 0.082, respectively). These results demonstrate that the oxidation rate of ingested CHO is reduced and muscle glycogen utilization is increased during exercise in the heat compared with a cool environment.

  8. Strong exercise stress exacerbates dermatitis in atopic model mice, NC/Nga mice, while proper exercise reduces it.

    PubMed

    Orita, Kumi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Inoue, Risa; Sato, Eisuke F; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Inoue, Masayasu

    2010-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is well known to exacerbate by stress. How the influence of exercise stress on the skin symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis has not been clarified. The purpose of our research is to investigate how different strength of exercise stress acts on atopic dermatitis. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional NC/Nga male mice were used for the experiments. Conventional mice but not SPF group spontaneously develop dermal symptom similar to that of patients with atopic dermatitis at their age of 7 weeks. They were given two types of stress, mild (20 m/min for 60 min) or strong exercise (25 m/min for 90 min), using a treadmill four times per day. The dermal symptom of the conventional group was strongly exacerbated by strong exercise but ameliorated by mild exercise. Under the standard experimental conditions, plasma concentrations of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and substance P in conventional mice increased markedly with concomitant exacerbation of the symptom. The plasma concentrations of these proteins elevated after strong exercise but decreased after mild exercise. Under the conventional conditions, plasma levels of β-endorphin increased with time by some mechanisms enhanced by the mild exercise. These observations suggested that exercise-induced stress significantly affect the symptom of atopic dermatitis in a pivotal manner depending on the plasma levels of TGF-β, α-MSH, substance P and β-endorphin. PMID:21087324

  9. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  10. NOS inhibition increases bubble formation and reduces survival in sedentary but not exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O

    2003-01-15

    Previously we have shown that chronic as well as a single bout of exercise 20 h prior to a simulated dive protects rats from severe decompression illness (DCI) and death. However, the mechanism behind this protection is still not known. The present study determines the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on bubble formation in acutely exercised and sedentary rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure. A total of 45 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned into exercise or sedentary control groups, with and without NOS inhibition, using L-NAME (0.05 or 1 mg ml(-1)) (a nonselective NOS inhibitor). Exercising rats ran intervals on a treadmill for 1.5 h, 20 h prior to the simulated dive. Intervals alternated between 8 min at 85-90 % of maximal oxygen uptake, and 2 min at 50-60 %. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a pressure chamber, at a rate of 200 kPa min(-1) to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the "surface" (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min(-1). Immediately after reaching the surface the animals were anaesthetised and the right ventricle was insonated using ultrasound. The study demonstrated that sedentary rats weighing more than 300 g produced a large amount of bubbles, while those weighing less than 300 g produced few bubbles and most survived the protocol. Prior exercise reduced bubble formation and increased survival in rats weighing more than 300 g, confirming the results from the previous study. During NOS inhibition, the simulated dive induced significantly more bubbles in all sedentary rats weighing less than 300 g. However, this effect could be attenuated by a single bout of exercise 20 h before exposure. The present study demonstrates two previously unreported findings: that administration of L-NAME allows substantial bubble formation and decreased survival in sedentary rats, and that a single bout of exercise

  11. Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress.

  12. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

  13. Evidence Suggests That The ACA's Tobacco Surcharges Reduced Insurance Take-Up And Did Not Increase Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S; Schpero, William L; Busch, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To account for tobacco users' excess health care costs and encourage cessation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed insurers to impose a surcharge on tobacco users' premiums for plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces. Low-income tax credits for Marketplace coverage were based on premiums for non-tobacco users, which means that these credits did not offset any surcharge costs. Thus, this policy greatly increased out-of-pocket premiums for many tobacco users. Using data for 2011-14 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the effect of tobacco surcharges on insurance status and smoking cessation in the first year of the exchanges' implementation, among adults most likely to purchase insurance from them. Relative to smokers who faced no surcharges, smokers facing medium or high surcharges had significantly reduced coverage (reductions of 4.3 percentage points and 11.6 percentage points, respectively), but no significant differences in smoking cessation. In contrast, those facing low surcharges showed significantly less smoking cessation. Taken together, these findings suggest that tobacco surcharges conflicted with a major goal of the ACA-increased financial protection-without increasing smoking cessation. States should consider these potential effects when deciding whether to limit surcharges to less than the federal maximum. PMID:27385231

  14. Evidence Suggests That The ACA's Tobacco Surcharges Reduced Insurance Take-Up And Did Not Increase Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S; Schpero, William L; Busch, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To account for tobacco users' excess health care costs and encourage cessation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed insurers to impose a surcharge on tobacco users' premiums for plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces. Low-income tax credits for Marketplace coverage were based on premiums for non-tobacco users, which means that these credits did not offset any surcharge costs. Thus, this policy greatly increased out-of-pocket premiums for many tobacco users. Using data for 2011-14 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the effect of tobacco surcharges on insurance status and smoking cessation in the first year of the exchanges' implementation, among adults most likely to purchase insurance from them. Relative to smokers who faced no surcharges, smokers facing medium or high surcharges had significantly reduced coverage (reductions of 4.3 percentage points and 11.6 percentage points, respectively), but no significant differences in smoking cessation. In contrast, those facing low surcharges showed significantly less smoking cessation. Taken together, these findings suggest that tobacco surcharges conflicted with a major goal of the ACA-increased financial protection-without increasing smoking cessation. States should consider these potential effects when deciding whether to limit surcharges to less than the federal maximum.

  15. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  16. Circulating ANGPTL8/Betatrophin Is Increased in Obesity and Reduced after Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Sriraman, Devarajan; Cherian, Preethi; AlKhairi, Irina; Elkum, Naser; Behbehani, Kazem; Abubaker, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    Objective ANGPTL8 is a liver and adipose tissue produced protein that regulates the level of triglyceride in plasma as well as glucose homeostasis. This study was designed to evaluate the level of ANGPTL8 in obese and non-obese subjects before and after exercise training. Methods A total of 82 non-obese and 62 adult obese were enrolled in this study. Subjects underwent a three months of exercise training. Both full length and C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 were measured by ELISA. Results Our data show that the full length ANGPTL8 level was increased in obese subjects (1150.04 ± 108.10 pg/mL) compared to non-obese (775.54 ± 46.12) pg/mL (p-Value = 0.002). C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 was also increased in obese subjects 0.28 ± 0.04 ng/mL vs 0.20 ± 0.02 ng/mL in non-obese (p-value = 0.058). In obese subjects, the levels of both forms were reduced after three months of exercise training; full length was reduced from 1150.04 ± 108.10 pg/mL to 852.04 ± 51.95 pg/mL (p-Values 0.015) and c-terminal form was reduced from 0.28 ± 0.04 ng/mL to 0.19 ± 0.03 ng/mL (p-Value = 0.058). Interestingly, full length ANGPTL8 was positively associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in non-obese (r = 0.317, p-Value = 0.006) and obese subjects (r = 0.346, p-Value = 0.006) C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 on the other hand, did not show any correlation in both groups. Conclusion In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ANGPTL8 was increased in obesity and reduced after exercise training supporting the potential therapeutic benefit of reducing ANGPTL8. The various forms of ANGPTL8 associated differently with FBG suggesting that they have different roles in glucose homeostasis. PMID:26784326

  17. Glutamine and carbohydrate supplements reduce ammonemia increase during endurance field exercise.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Alves, Robson Cardilo; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2007-12-01

    Blood ammonia concentration increases during endurance exercise and has been proposed as a cause for both peripheral and central fatigue. We examined the impact of glutamine and (or) carbohydrate supplementation on ammonemia in high-level runners. Fifteen men in pre-competitive training ran 120 min (approximately 34 km) outdoors on 4 occasions. On the first day, the 15 athletes ran without the use of supplements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. After that, each day for 4 d before the next 3 exercise trials, we supplemented the athletes' normal diets in bolus with carbohydrate (1 g.kg(-1).d(-1)), glutamine (70 mg.kg(-1).d(-1)), or a combination of both in a double-blind study. Blood ammonia level was determined before the run and every 30 min during the run. During the control trial ammonia increased progressively to approximately 70% above rest concentration. Following supplementation, independent of treatment, ammonia was not different (p>0.05) for the first 60 min, but for the second hour it was lower than in the control (p<0.05). Supplementation in high-level, endurance athletes reduced the accumulation of blood ammonia during prolonged, strenuous exercise in a field situation. PMID:18059593

  18. Ivabradine reduces myocardial stunning in patients with exercise-inducible ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Maranta, F; Tondi, L; Agricola, E; Margonato, A; Rimoldi, O; Camici, Paolo G

    2015-11-01

    Ivabradine is an effective treatment for angina in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and for heart failure. Experiments in a canine model have shown that ivabradine reduces both acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and post-ischaemic stunning. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ivabradine on LV dysfunction and stunning in patients with CAD and exercise-inducible ischaemia. Fifteen patients with ejection fraction >40 % and heart rate >70 bpm were enrolled. After pharmacologic washout, echocardiography was performed at rest, at peak treadmill exercise and during recovery until return to baseline. After 2 weeks of ivabradine (7.5 mg bid) stress echocardiography was repeated at the same workload achieved during washout. Peak global and segmental (ischaemic vs. remote normal segments) LV longitudinal strain (LS) was assessed by 2D speckle tracking analysis. At washout, LS was significantly impaired in ischaemic compared to remote segments at peak stress and for several minutes during recovery. After ivabradine a smaller, albeit still significant, impairment of LS in ischaemic segments was observed at peak whilst no difference with remote segments was present during recovery. Furthermore, the average global LS value improved significantly after treatment. In conclusion, ivabradine reduces both acute LV dysfunction and stunning in patients with CAD and exercise-inducible ischaemia. We hypothesise that this mechanism might contribute to reduce chronic LV dysfunction in patients with CAD. In this setting the drug might limit the development of hibernating myocardium which is believed to result from repeated episodes of ischaemia and stunning. PMID:26419678

  19. Voluntary exercise reduces the neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in maternally separated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile; Russell, Vivienne Ann

    2010-01-01

    Maternal separation has been associated with development of anxiety-like behaviour and learning impairments in adult rats. This has been linked to changes in brain morphology observed after exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids during the stress-hyporesponsive period (P4 to P14). In the present study, adult rats that had been subjected to maternal separation (180 min/day for 14 days) during the stress-hyporesponsive period, received unilateral infusions of a small dose of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 5 μg/4 μl saline) into the medial forebrain bundle. The results showed that voluntary exercise had a neuroprotective effect in both non-stressed and maternally separated rats in that there was a decrease in forelimb akinesia (step test) and limb use asymmetry (cylinder test). Maternal separation increased forelimb akinesia and forelimb use asymmetry and reduced the beneficial effect of exercise on forelimb akinesia. It also reduced exploratory behaviour, consistent with anxiety-like behaviour normally associated with maternal separation. Exercise appeared to reduce dopamine neuron destruction in the lesioned substantia nigra when expressed as a percentage of the non-lesioned hemisphere. However, this appeared to be due to a compensatory decrease in completely stained tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the contralateral, non-lesioned substantia nigra. In agreement with reports that maternal separation increases the 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopamine terminals in the striatum, there was a small increase in dopamine neuron destruction when expressed as a percentage of the non-lesioned hemisphere but there was no difference in dopamine cell number, suggesting that exposure to maternal separation did not exacerbate dopamine cell loss. PMID:20206210

  20. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  1. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; de Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:25120082

  2. Fluid restriction during exercise in the heat reduces tolerance to progressive central hypovolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.; Gagnon, Daniel; Rivas, Eric; Convertino, Victor A.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dehydration induced via exercise in the heat impairs tolerance to central hypovolaemia. Eleven male subjects (32 ± 7 years old, 81.5 ± 11.1 kg) walked (O2 uptake 1.7 ± 0.4 l min−1) in a 40°C, 30% relative humidity environment on three occasions, as follows: (i) subjects walked for 90 min, drinking water to offset sweat loss (Hydrated, n =11); (ii) water intake was restricted, and exercise was terminated when intestinal temperature increased to the same level as in the Hydrated trial (Isothermic Dehydrated, n = 11); and (iii) water intake was restricted, and exercise duration was 90 min (Time Match Dehydrated, n = 9). For each trial, tolerance to central hypovolaemia was determined following exercise via progressive lower body negative pressure and quantified as time to presyncope. Increases in intestinal temperature prior to lower body negative pressure were not different (P = 0.91) between Hydrated (1.1 ± 0.4°C) and Isothermic Dehydrated trials (1.1 ± 0.4°C), but both were lower than in the Time Match Dehydrated trial (1.7 ± 0.5°C, P < 0.01). Prior to lower body negative pressure, body weight was unchanged in the Hydrated trial (−0.1 ± 0.2%), but was reduced in Isothermic Dehydrated (−0.9 ± 0.4%) and further so in Time Match Dehydrated trial (−1.9 ± 0.6%, all P < 0.01). Time to presyncope was greater in Hydrated (14.7 ± 3.2 min) compared with Isothermic Dehydrated (11.9 ± 3.3 min, P < 0.01) and Time Match Dehydrated trials (10.2 ± 1.6 min, P = 0.03), which were not different (P = 0.19). These data indicate that inadequate fluid intake during exercise in the heat reduces tolerance to central hypovolaemia independent of increases in body temperature. PMID:26096953

  3. Reduced Influence of Monetary Incentives on Go/NoGo Performance During Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nicole J.; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers may experience decreased sensitivity to nondrug incentives during acute smoking deprivation. This decreased sensitivity may undermine attempts to encourage continued abstinence by enhancing cognitive processes through the use of monetary incentives. This study assessed whether the capacity for monetary incentives to enhance cognitive performance was compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers. Method: Eighteen smokers performed an incentivized Go/NoGo task on 2 occasions, once after smoking as usual prior to the session, and once after undergoing 12-hr abstinence. Participants could earn up to $5.00 ($2.50 per session) based on their performance on reward blocks of the Go/NoGo task. Results: Performance was significantly more accurate on incentivized NoGo, frequent-Go, and infrequent-Go trials relative to neutral trials during the smoke as usual session. Participants also produced fewer premature, impulsive responses on rewarded versus neutral blocks during the smoke as usual session. No significant difference between reward and neutral blocks was observed on any of the 4 performance indices during the abstinent session. Conclusions: The ability for monetary incentives to enhance inhibitory control may be compromised during acute abstinence in smokers. These findings may have implications for contingency management treatment programs which are thought to promote continued abstinence partly by facilitating the allocation of cognitive resources to processes that encourage continued abstinence by increasing the value associated with continued abstinence. PMID:25542919

  4. Resistance Exercise Reduces Skeletal Muscle Cachexia and Improves Muscle Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Salaheddin; Thomas, James M.; Donley, David A.; Gilleland, Diana L.; Bonner, Daniel E.; McCrory, Jean L.; Hornsby, W. Guyton; Zhao, Hua; Lively, Mathew W.; Hornsby, Jo Ann A.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease associated with cachexia (reduced muscle and increased fat). Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i) if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2) if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. A needle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the RA subject before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. Knee extensor strength increased by 13.6% and fatigue decreased by 2.8% Muscle mass increased by 2.1%. Average muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased by 49.7%, and muscle nuclei increased slightly after strength training from 0.08 to 0.12 nuclei/μm2. In addition, there was a slight decrease (1.6%) in the number of apoptotic muscle nuclei after resistance training. This case study suggests that resistance training may be a good tool for increasing the number of nuclei per fiber area, decreasing apoptotic nuclei, and inducing fiber hypertrophy in persons with RA, thereby slowing or reversing rheumatoid cachexia. PMID:22203849

  5. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Māori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help.

    PubMed

    van Esdonk, Tineke; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Māori community health workers ("Aunties") to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Māori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the 'kumara-vine' (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a "Māori way" which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties' believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties' knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach.

  6. Smoking and smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murin, Susan; Rafii, Rokhsara; Bilello, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is among the leading preventable causes of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Smoking prevalence among young women is the primary determinant of smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking among women of childbearing age is associated with reduced fertility, increased complications of pregnancy, and a variety of adverse fetal outcomes. There is increasing evidence of lasting adverse effects on offspring. Guidelines for smoking cessation during pregnancy have been developed. This article reviews the epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy, the adverse effects of smoking on the mother, fetus, and offspring, and recommended approaches to smoking cessation for pregnant women. PMID:21277451

  7. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise. PMID:21878735

  8. Hippocampal cell proliferation is reduced following prenatal ethanol exposure but can be rescued with voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Redila, Van A; Olson, Andrea K; Swann, Sarah E; Mohades, Gisou; Webber, Alina J; Weinberg, Joanne; Christie, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    The ingestion of ethanol during pregnancy has a number of deleterious consequences for the unborn offspring, producing structural and functional deficits that affect the brain and many other organs into adulthood. The hippocampus is a brain area that is particularly sensitive to ethanol's adverse effects. In a previous study we showed that voluntary exercise can ameliorate deficits in long-term potentiation and behavior that occur following prenatal ethanol exposure (Eur J Neurosci, 2005, 21, 1719-1726). In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on neurogenesis in adulthood, and tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise would ameliorate any deficits observed. Sprague-Dawley females were administered one of three diets throughout gestation: (i) ethanol (E), a liquid diet containing 36.5% ethanol-derived calories; (ii) pair-fed (PF), a liquid control diet, with maltose-dextrin isocalorically substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by an E partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and (iii) ad-libitum-fed control (C), normal laboratory chow and water, ad libitum. The offspring were housed individually at postnatal day (PND) 35, and at PND 50 were randomly assigned to cages either with or without an exercise wheel. BrdU (200 mg/kg, I.P.) was injected on PND 57, and animals terminated either 24 h (proliferation) or 4 weeks (neurogenesis) later. Our results demonstrate that prenatal ethanol exposure significantly decreases both cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Animals in the PF condition also showed reduced neurogenesis. In contrast, all animals that engaged in voluntary exercise showed a significant increase in cell proliferation and neurogenesis. These results indicate that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress both cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and that these effects may be, at least in part, nutritionally mediated. Importantly, voluntary exercise appears to have beneficial effects

  9. Retrospective analysis of changing characteristics of treatment-seeking smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M; Crew, Erin E; Bryson, Susan W; Lembke, Anna; Bailey, Steffani R; Prochaska, Judith J; Henriksen, Lisa; Fortmann, Stephen P; Killen, Joel D; Killen, Diana T; Hall, Sharon M; David, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to empirically compare successive cohorts of treatment-seeking smokers who enrolled in randomised clinical trials in a region of the USA characterised by strong tobacco control policies and low smoking prevalence, over the past three decades. Design Retrospective treatment cohort comparison. Setting Data were collected from 9 randomised clinical trials conducted at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, between 1990 and 2013. Participants Data from a total of 2083 participants were included (Stanford, n=1356; University of California San Francisco, n=727). Primary and secondary outcomes One-way analysis of variance and covariance, χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics among study cohorts. Results Similar trends were observed at both settings. When compared to earlier trials, participants in more recent trials smoked fewer cigarettes, were less nicotine-dependent, reported more depressive symptoms, were more likely to be male and more likely to be from a minority ethnic/racial group, than those enrolled in initial trials (all p's<0.05). Analysis of covariances revealed that cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence and current depressive symptom scores were each significantly related to trial (all p's<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that more recent smoking cessation treatment-seeking cohorts in a low prevalence region were characterised by less smoking severity, more severe symptoms of depression and were more likely to be male and from a minority racial/ethnic group. PMID:27357195

  10. Efficacy of Chinese Eye Exercises on Reducing Accommodative Lag in School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Ming; Kang, Meng-Tian; Peng, Xiao-xia; Li, Si-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Li, Lei; Yu, Jing; Qiu, Li-Xin; Sun, Yun-Yun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Sun, Xin; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial. Methods A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine); sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints); and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage). Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score. Results Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10D) than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03D) and eyes closed group (0.07D) (P = 0.04). The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0%) than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8%) and the eyes closed group (34.9%) (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287 PMID:25742161

  11. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  12. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  13. Exercise reduces diet-induced cognitive decline and increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in CA3 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Emily E.; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Little, Morgan R.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. Methods To test the effects of exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory, we compared cognitive scores of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised by voluntary running wheel (RW) access or forced treadmill (TM) to sedentary (Sed) animals. Memory was tested by two-way active avoidance test (TWAA), in which animals are exposed to a brief shock in a specific chamber area. When an animal avoids, escapes or has reduced latency to do either, this is considered a measure of memory. In a second experiment, rats were fed either a high-fat diet or control diet for 16 weeks, then randomly assigned to running wheel access or sedentary condition, and TWAA memory was tested once a week for seven weeks of exercise intervention. Results Both groups of exercised animals had improved memory as indicated by reduced latency to avoid and escape shock, and increased avoid and escape episodes (p<0.05). Exposure to a high-fat diet resulted in poor performance during both the acquisition and retrieval phases of the memory test as compared to controls. Exercise reversed high-fat diet-induced memory impairment, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region. Conclusions These data suggest that exercise improves memory retrieval, particularly with respect to avoiding aversive stimuli, and may be beneficial in protecting against diet induced cognitive decline, likely via elevated BDNF in neurons of the CA3 region. PMID:24755094

  14. Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  15. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  16. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  17. A multi-target antisense approach against PDE4 and PDE7 reduces smoke-induced lung inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marylène; D'Anjou, Hélène; Higgins, Marie-Ève; Gougeon, Jasmine; Aubé, Paméla; Moktefi, Kamel; Mouissi, Sonia; Séguin, Serge; Séguin, Rosanne; Renzi, Paolo M; Paquet, Luc; Ferrari, Nicolay

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent development in the field of COPD has focused on strategies aimed at reducing the underlying inflammation through selective inhibition of the phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE4) isoform. Although the anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator activity of selective PDE4 inhibitors has been well documented, their low therapeutic ratio and dose-dependent systemic side effects have limited their clinical utility. This study examined the effect of 2'-deoxy-2'-Fluoro-β-D-Arabinonucleic Acid (FANA)-containing antisense oligonucleotides (AON) targeting the mRNA for the PDE4B/4D and 7A subtypes on lung inflammatory markers, both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were transfected with FANA AON against PDE4B/4D and 7A alone or in combination. mRNA levels for target PDE subtypes, as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines were then measured following cell stimulation. Mice were treated with combined PDE4B/4D and 7A AON via endo-tracheal delivery, or with roflumilast via oral delivery, and exposed to cigarette smoke for one week. Target mRNA inhibition, as well as influx of inflammatory cells and mediators were measured in lung lavages. A two-week smoke exposure protocol was also used to test the longer term potency of PDE4B/4D and 7A AONs. Results In NHBE cells, PDE4B/4D and 7A AONs dose-dependently and specifically inhibited expression of their respective target mRNA. When used in combination, PDE4B/4D and 7A AONs significantly abrogated the cytokine-induced secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 to near baseline levels. In mice treated with combined PDE4B/4D and 7A AONs and exposed to cigarette smoke, significant protection against the smoke-induced recruitment of neutrophils and production of KC and pro-MMP-9 was obtained, which was correlated with inhibition of target mRNA in cells from lung lavages. In this model, PDE AONs exerted more potent and broader anti-inflammatory effects against smoke-induced lung inflammation

  18. The effectiveness of a pram-walking exercise programme in reducing depressive symptomatology for postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Kylie; Edwards, Helen

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the research project was to examine the effects of exercise, social support and depression on postnatal women who reported experiencing postnatal depression. A 12-week randomized, controlled trial was conducted investigating the effects of an exercise intervention group (a pram-walking programme for mothers and their babies ) compared to a social support group (non-structured sessions, similar to a playgroup). Participants in both groups had given birth in the past 12 months. Pretest data of physical fitness and structured questionnaires were compared to post-test effects. The primary outcomes were to reduce the depressive symptomatology and improve fitness levels of participants in the pram-walking group. Secondary outcomes were to improve the social support levels of the participants in both groups and explore women's views about the programmes. It was hypothesized that the pram-walking group participants would improve their feelings of depression and fitness levels compared to the social support group, but that both groups would improve their perceived levels of social support. The results showed that mothers in the pram-walking intervention group improved their fitness levels and reduced their level of depressive symptomatology significantly more than the social support group. There were no significant changes to social support levels for both groups. Therefore, a direct association between improvement in fitness was related to improvement in depression for the pram-walking group. However, it is also suggested that other factors in combination with improvements in fitness influenced improvements in depression levels. It is recommended that pram-walking programmes for mothers with postnatal depression be implemented as pilot research into existing available services. PMID:15265228

  19. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  20. Capsiate Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Cost of Contraction in Exercising Mouse Skeletal Muscle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  1. Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling exercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Motl, Robert W; Broglio, Steven P; Ely, Matthew R

    2004-06-01

    This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of ingesting two doses of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain and blood pressure during moderate intensity cycling exercise. Low caffeine consuming college-aged males (N=12) ingested one of two doses of caffeine (5 or 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight) or placebo and 1 h later completed 30 min of moderate intensity cycling exercise (60% VO2peak). The order of drug administration was counter-balanced. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately before and 1 h after drug administration. Perceptions of leg muscle pain as well as work rate, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded during exercise. Caffeine increased resting systolic pressure in a dose-dependent fashion but these blood pressure effects were not maintained during exercise. Caffeine had a significant linear effect on leg muscle pain ratings [F(2,22)=14.06; P < 0.0001; eta2=0.56 ]. The mean (+/-SD) pain intensity scores during exercise after ingesting 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, 5 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, and placebo were 2.1+/-1.4, 2.6+/-1.5, and 3.5+/-1.7, respectively. The results support the conclusion that caffeine ingestion has a dose-response effect on reducing leg muscle pain during exercise and that these effects do not depend on caffeine-induced increases in systolic blood pressure during exercise.

  2. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    . With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain. PMID:23834545

  3. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    . With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain.

  4. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields. PMID:18464053

  5. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces or eliminates Listeria monocytogenes contamination on lettuce, apples, cheese, smoked salmon and frozen foods.

    PubMed

    Perera, Meenu N; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    ListShield™, a commercially available bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated as a bio-control agent for L. monocytogenes in various Ready-To-Eat foods. ListShield™ treatment of experimentally contaminated lettuce, cheese, smoked salmon, and frozen entrèes significantly reduced (p < 0.05) L. monocytogenes contamination by 91% (1.1 log), 82% (0.7 log), 90% (1.0 log), and 99% (2.2 log), respectively. ListShield™ application, alone or combined with an antioxidant/anti-browning solution, resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 93% (1.1 log) reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination on apple slices after 24 h at 4 °C. Treatment of smoked salmon from a commercial processing facility with ListShield™ eliminated L. monocytogenes (no detectable L. monocytogenes) in both the naturally contaminated and experimentally contaminated salmon fillets. The organoleptic quality of foods was not affected by application of ListShield™, as no differences in the color, taste, or appearance were detectable. Bio-control of L. monocytogenes with lytic bacteriophage preparations such as ListShield™ can offer an environmentally-friendly, green approach for reducing the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of various foods that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes.

  6. A Web-Based Program to Increase Knowledge and Reduce Cigarette and Nargila Smoking Among Arab University Students in Israel: Mixed-Methods Study to Test Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. Methods A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. Results A total of 225 participants—response rate of 63.2% (225/356)—completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would

  7. Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Nicol, C; Komi, P V; Horita, T; Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E

    1996-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of SSC-induced metabolic fatigue and muscle damage on the efficacy of stretch reflexes, as judged by the electromyograph (EMG) response of two shank muscles (lateral gastrocnemius LG, soleus SOL) to controlled ramp stretches. These EMG responses were recorded before and immediately after exhausting SSC-type leg exercise and 2 h, 2 days and 4 days later. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase ([CK]), myoglobin and lactate were measured repetitively along the protocol. Two maximal vertical drop jumps and counter-movement jumps were performed after each reflex test. The exhausting SSC-type exercise induced an immediate reduction (P < 0.05) with a delayed short-term recovery of the LG peak-to-peak reflex amplitude. This was not accompanied by significant changes in the reflex latency. The drop jump performance remained slightly but significantly reduced (P < 0.05) until the 2nd day postexercise. Peak [CK] appeared for all the subjects on the 2nd day, suggesting the presence of muscle damage. The increase in [CK] between the 2nd h and the 2nd day postexercise was found to be negatively related (P < 0.001) to the relative changes in the drop jump height. Furthermore, a significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between recovery of the stretch reflex in LG and the decrease of [CK] between the 2nd and the 4th day. These findings support the hypothesis of a reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity. While the exact mechanisms of the reflex inhibition remain unclear, it is emphasized that the delayed recovery of the reflex sensitivity could have resulted from the progressive inflammation that develops in

  8. Hypoglycemia during moderate intensity exercise reduces counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cade, W Todd; Khoury, Nadia; Nelson, Suzanne; Shackleford, Angela; Semenkovich, Katherine; Krauss, Melissa J; Arbeláez, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Hypoglycemia, which occurs commonly during and following exercise in people with diabetes, is thought to be due to attenuated counterregulation in the setting of therapeutic insulin excess. To better understand the pathophysiology of counterregulation, we aimed to determine if dextrose administration to maintain euglycemia during moderate intensity exercise alters the attenuation of counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia in healthy adults : Counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia were assessed in 18 healthy adults after bed rest and following exercise with (n = 9) and without (n = 9) dextrose infusion. Responses were measured during a stepped euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamp 24 h after either bed rest or two 90-min bouts of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake : Hypoglycemia occurred during the second bout of exercise without dextrose infusion. Plasma glucagon and epinephrine responses to stepped hypoglycemia after antecedent exercise without dextrose infusion were significantly lower at the 45 mg/dL glycemic level compared to after bed rest. However, no attenuation of the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia was evident after antecedent exercise when dextrose was infused. This study suggests that the attenuation of the counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia after exercise is likely due to the hypoglycemia that occurs during moderate prolonged exercise and not solely due to exercise or its intensity. PMID:27597762

  9. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  10. Development of Countermeasures and Exercise Protocols to Reduce the Effects of Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Pandurang M.

    2000-01-01

    I have helped scientists at NASA-JSC in analyzing data from many projects. Some of the major ones are: (1) cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following bed rest, (2) the effects of dietary sodium, (3) in-flight cycle exercise mitigates reduced oxygen consumption at submaximal heart rates following space flight, (4) exercise thermoregulation after 13 days of head down bed rest, and (5) bed rest induced orthostatic intolerance. Many of the projects have now been completed and some of them are in the process of being published and others have been presented at national meetings. These projects have helped me be a true statistician and given me a real-life perspective of how interesting and complicated data can be. As a by-product of of these involvements I have been able to write and publish some methodological research that have applications in NASA and elsewhere. For instance, while I was at JSC, I happened to meet Dr. Al Feiveson and got into a discussion of the Space Shuttle Reliability. This led us to rethink about the way the data on the accelerated life testing of space shuttle pressure vessels had been analyzed. This has resulted in a major statistical paper and the paper has appeared in one of the top journals in the field of Statistics. A review of the paper by the editor of the journal was published in AmStatNews, a copy is attached with this report. I have presented these findings at the national/international statistics conference and at other places. I have also written another paper on reliability and a paper on calibration techniques that have applications in the engineering and the biomedical branches of NASA. Further, I am currently in the process of writing at least two more papers that have direct applications in NASA related studies.

  11. Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Long-term Wood Smoke Exposure Lowers Blood Pressure among Guatemalan Women

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, John P.; Smith, Kirk R.; Díaz, Anaité; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective RESPIRE, a randomized trial of an improved cookstove, was conducted in Guatemala to assess health effects of long-term reductions in wood smoke exposure. Given the evidence that ambient particles increase blood pressure, we hypothesized that the intervention would lower blood pressure. Methods Two study designs were used: a) between-group comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within subjects before and after they received improved stoves. From 2003 to 2005, we measured personal fine particle (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; PM2.5) exposures and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among women > 38 years of age from the chimney woodstove intervention group (49 subjects) and traditional open wood fire control group (71 subjects). Measures were repeated up to three occasions. Results Daily average PM2.5 exposures were 264 and 102 μg/m3 in the control and intervention groups, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, an asset index, smoking, secondhand tobacco smoke, apparent temperature, season, day of week, time of day, and a random subject intercept, the improved stove intervention was associated with 3.7 mm Hg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −8.1 to 0.6] and 3.0 mm Hg lower DBP (95% CI, −5.7 to −0.4) compared with controls. In the second study design, among 55 control subjects measured both before and after receiving chimney stoves, similar associations were observed. Conclusion The between-group comparisons provide evidence, particularly for DBP, that the chimney stove reduces blood pressure, and the before-and-after comparisons are consistent with this evidence. PMID:17637912

  12. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  13. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90–100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  14. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  15. Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Foong Kiew; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats. Methods A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 jumps per week (200J/w), given at 40 jumps per day (40J/d) for 5 days per week (5d/w) (8STP24E), followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 10J/d or 20J/d or 40J/d, for either 5d/w, or 3d/w, or 1d/w. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP) concentrations, and tibial fat free dry weight were measured. Results Tibial mass was significantly higher in 8STP than 8S. No changes were evident in serum markers of bone turnover parameters after 8STP. Significant increases in tibial mass were observed in rats that continued to exercise at workloads of 30J/w and above after 8STP. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations increase whereas serum 1CTP concentrations decrease in rats given workloads of 40J/w and above. Conclusions It appears, an exercise load of 30J/w, i.e. 10J/d for 3d/w, was the minimum level of continuous exercise load that was required to maintain the 8STP-induced bone gains. In addition, significant increases in bone mass in young rats following 8STP might not always be reflected by changes in serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and 1CTP. PMID:23342220

  16. Erythropoietin does not reduce plasma lactate, H⁺, and K⁺ during intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, N B; Robach, P; Boushel, R; Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C

    2015-12-01

    It is investigated if recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment for 15 weeks (n = 8) reduces extracellular accumulation of metabolic stress markers such as lactate, H(+) , and K(+) during incremental exhaustive exercise. After rHuEPO treatment, normalization of blood volume and composition by hemodilution preceded an additional incremental test. Group averages were calculated for an exercise intensity ∼80% of pre-rHuEPO peak power output. After rHuEPO treatment, leg lactate release to the plasma compartment was similar to before (4.3 ± 1.6 vs 3.9 ± 2.5 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Venous lactate concentration was higher (P < 0.05) after rHuEPO treatment (7.1 ± 1.6 vs 5.2 ± 2.1 mM). Leg H(+) release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO was similar to before (19.6 ± 5.4 vs 17.6 ± 6.0 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Nevertheless, venous pH was lower (P < 0.05) after rHuEPO treatment (7.18 ± 0.04 vs 7.22 ± 0.05). Leg K(+) release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO treatment was similar to before (0.8 ± 0.5 vs 0.7 ± 0.7 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Additionally, venous K(+) concentrations were similar after vs before rHuEPO (5.3 ± 0.3 vs 5.1 ± 0.4 mM). In conclusion, rHuEPO does not reduce plasma accumulation of lactate, H(+) , and K(+) at work rates corresponding to ∼80% of peak power output. PMID:25556620

  17. Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Alaei, Hojjat Allah; Naderi, Asieh; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Zahed, Reza

    2009-06-01

    Exercise can activate the same pathways as morphine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of short-term and mid-term exercises on the self-administration of morphine in rats. Male Wistar rats were initially trained to receive small pellets of food by pressing the active lever in self-administration apparatus. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Saline, Morphine, Exercise 1 (11 days) and Exercise 2 (30 days). Their jugular vein was cannulated. The animals were placed in self-administration apparatus and allowed to self-administer morphine (0.5mg per infusion all test groups) or saline (Saline group) during consecutive days, for 2h/sessions. In the group 1 the rats were running before each session of self-administration and of group Exercise 2, 30 days before surgery as well as before each session. The pressing numbers of active and passive levers in each group and among different groups were compared. The number of active lever pressing of Morphine group was significantly higher than Saline group (p<0.001). In Exercise 1 and Exercise 2 groups, the number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than Morphine group (p<0.001). As exercise can activate many neurotransmitter systems involved in the addiction process and increase the release of endorphins, it is likely that could decrease the morphine self-administration in this experimental setup. PMID:19131225

  18. A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Webber, Larry S.; Boris, Neil W.; He, Hao; Brewer, Dixye

    2009-01-01

    A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs. PMID:19440519

  19. Design verification programme for an air-to-air type rocket motor with CFRP composite case and reduced smoke propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossumstuen, Kai; Raudsandmoen, Geir; Heie, Ingar H.; Wurtinger, Horst

    1993-06-01

    A design verification program was performed for an air-to-air type rocket motor, having a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy motor case and reduced smoke, nitramine containing, composite propellant. Structural design of the motor case is presented, including choice of material and method of attaching metal parts. Structural tests, including environmental and handling damage tests, of the motor case were performed. On the complete motor, design verification work was performed for insulation, bonding, propellant properties, grain design and motor case behavior. Six flight-weight motors were tested, including firing at extreme temperatures, environmental loads, firing with launch bending moment, ageing and pressure pulsing. Two motors were also used for insensitive munition tests, fast cook-off and bullet impact. Some performance data that are classified, have been omitted.

  20. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  1. Randomized comparison of group versus individual educational interventions for pregnant women to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Ying-Chen; Sha, Feng; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chen, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is deleterious to pregnant women and their unborn children. The prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women is particularly high in many Asian countries where approximately half of the male population smokes. We aim to investigate the efficacy of an intervention based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. Methods: We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N = 50 in each arm) comparing the effectiveness of group-based and individual-based interventions with a treatment-as-usual group. A questionnaire tapping into constructs of the expanded HBM was administered at baseline and 1- and 2-month follow-ups. Exhaled carbon monoxide was used to determine SHS exposure (>=6 ppm). ANOVA was used to compare HBM construct scores, self-efficacy for rejecting SHS exposure, and SHS rejection behavior among the 3 groups at baseline and the 1- and 2-month follow-ups, while logistic regression analysis was used to compare the risk of exposure to SHS at each follow-up. Results: The group-based intervention significantly improved health beliefs, self-efficacy, and self-reported rejection behaviors. The individual-based intervention effect was limited to some health belief constructs and SHS rejection behaviors. Both group- and individual-based interventions showed significant reductions in SHS exposure 2 months after the intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Group-based educational interventions based on the HBM are particularly effective in training pregnant women to avoid and refuse exposure to SHS. Policy makers should consider offering group-delivered programs to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. PMID:27749578

  2. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces or eliminates Listeria monocytogenes contamination on lettuce, apples, cheese, smoked salmon and frozen foods.

    PubMed

    Perera, Meenu N; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    ListShield™, a commercially available bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated as a bio-control agent for L. monocytogenes in various Ready-To-Eat foods. ListShield™ treatment of experimentally contaminated lettuce, cheese, smoked salmon, and frozen entrèes significantly reduced (p < 0.05) L. monocytogenes contamination by 91% (1.1 log), 82% (0.7 log), 90% (1.0 log), and 99% (2.2 log), respectively. ListShield™ application, alone or combined with an antioxidant/anti-browning solution, resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 93% (1.1 log) reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination on apple slices after 24 h at 4 °C. Treatment of smoked salmon from a commercial processing facility with ListShield™ eliminated L. monocytogenes (no detectable L. monocytogenes) in both the naturally contaminated and experimentally contaminated salmon fillets. The organoleptic quality of foods was not affected by application of ListShield™, as no differences in the color, taste, or appearance were detectable. Bio-control of L. monocytogenes with lytic bacteriophage preparations such as ListShield™ can offer an environmentally-friendly, green approach for reducing the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of various foods that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. PMID:26338115

  3. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  4. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking is still highly prevalent in Denmark. One in four 13-year olds indicates that they have tried to smoke, and one in four 15-year olds answer that they smoke regularly. Smoking is more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in Denmark as well as in most Western countries. Previous school-based programs to prevent smoking have shown contrasting results internationally. In Denmark, previous programs have shown limited or no effect. This indicates a need for developing a well-designed, comprehensive, and multi-component intervention aimed at Danish schools with careful implementation and thorough evaluation. This paper describes X:IT, a study including 1) the development of a 3-year school-based multi-component intervention and 2) the randomized trial investigating the effect of the intervention. The study aims at reducing the prevalence of smoking among 13 to 15-year olds by 25%. Methods/Design The X:IT study is based on the Theory of Triadic Influences. The theory organizes factors influencing adolescent smoking into three streams: cultural environment, social situation, and personal factors. We added a fourth stream, the community aspects. The X:IT program comprises three main components: 1) smoke-free school premises, 2) parental involvement including smoke-free dialogues and smoke-free contracts between students and parents, and 3) a curricular component. The study encompasses process- and effect-evaluations as well as health economic analyses. Ninety-four schools in 17 municipalities were randomly allocated to the intervention (51 schools) or control (43 schools) group. At baseline in September 2010, 4,468 year 7 students were eligible of which 4,167 answered the baseline questionnaire (response rate = 93.3%). Discussion The X:IT study is a large, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an intervention, based on components proven to be efficient in other Nordic settings. The X:IT study directs

  5. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology. PMID:25874370

  6. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  7. Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

  8. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates among ... bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined data from ...

  9. Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Baturcam, Engin; Tiss, Ali; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

  10. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling.

  11. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling. PMID:26791827

  12. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:ΣCAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P < 0.001), but was unchanged in BAL (P = 0.061). Exercise time was shorter in TYR-free (59.8 ± 19.0 min vs. 66.2 ± 16.9 min in TYR-free and BAL respectively; P = 0.036). Heart rate (P = 0.298), core (P = 0.134) and skin (P = 0.384) temperature, RPE (P > 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:ΣCAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat.

  13. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  14. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  15. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  16. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease.

  17. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise. PMID:26343750

  18. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise.

  19. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  20. Exercise training reduces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in ovariectomized rats submitted to myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Simone Alves de; Claudio, Erick Roberto Gonçalves; Mengal, Vinícius; Mengal, Vinícius Franskoviaky; Oliveira, Suelen Guedes de; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila Lang; Gouvêa, Sônia Alves; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; de Abreu, Gláucia Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exercise training (ET) prevents or minimizes cardiac dysfunction and pathological ventricular remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were subjected to either MI or fictitious surgery (Sham) and randomly divided into the following groups: Control, OVX+SHAMSED, OVX+SHAMET, OVX+MISED and OVX+MIET. ET was performed on a motorized treadmill (5x/wk, 60 min/day, 8 weeks). Cardiac function was assessed by ventricular catheterization and Dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE) was evaluated to analyze cardiac oxidative stress. Histological analyses were made to assess collagen deposition, myocyte hypertrophy and infarct size. Western Blotting was performed to analyze the protein expression of catalase and SOD-2, as well as Gp91phox and AT1 receptor (AT1R). MI-trained rats had significantly increased in +dP/dt and decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared with MI-sedentary rats. Moreover, oxidative stress and collagen deposition was reduced, as was myocyte hypertrophy. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in both AT1R and Gp91phox expression and an increase in catalase expression. SOD-2 expression was not altered. These results indicate that ET improves the functional cardiac parameters associated with attenuation of cardiac remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to MI. The mechanism seems to be related to a reduction in the expression of both the AT1 receptor and Gp91phox as well as an increase in the antioxidant enzyme catalase, which contributes to a reduction in oxidative stress. Therefore, ET may be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of heart failure in postmenopausal women affected by MI. PMID:25551214

  1. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. PMID:27150832

  2. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery.

  3. The Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Training on Cardiopulmonary Function in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise in ischemic cardiomyopathy and to compare the results between patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reduced LVEF. Methods Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy with LVEF <50% were included as subjects. The patients were classified into the preserved LVEF (pLVEF; LVEF 41%–49%) group and the reduced LVEF (rLVEF; LVEF ≤40%) group. Patients underwent hourly aerobic exercise training sessions with an intensity of 60%–85% of heart rate reserve, three times a week for 6 weeks. Graded exercise test and transthoracic echocardiogram were performed in all study patients before and after completion of the CR exercise program. Results After completion of the CR exercise program, both groups (pLVEF, n=30; rLVEF, n=18) showed significant increases in LVEF and VO2max. In the pLVEF group, LVEF and VO2max increased from 45.1%±4.8% to 52.5%±9.6% (p<0.001) and from 24.1±6.3 to 28.1±8.8 mL/kg/min (p=0.002), respectively. In the rLVEF group, LVEF and VO2max increased from 29.7%±7.7% to 37.6%±10.3% (p<0.001) and from 17.6±4.7 to 21.2±5.1 mL/kg/min (p<0.001), respectively. Both groups completed their exercise program safely. Conclusion In both groups, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who completed a 6-week supervised CR exercise program demonstrated remarkable improvements in cardiopulmonary function. This result implies that neither of the two groups showed higher efficacy in comparison to each other, but we can conclude that CR exercise in the rLVEF group was as effective and safe as that in the pLVEF group.

  4. The Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Training on Cardiopulmonary Function in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise in ischemic cardiomyopathy and to compare the results between patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reduced LVEF. Methods Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy with LVEF <50% were included as subjects. The patients were classified into the preserved LVEF (pLVEF; LVEF 41%–49%) group and the reduced LVEF (rLVEF; LVEF ≤40%) group. Patients underwent hourly aerobic exercise training sessions with an intensity of 60%–85% of heart rate reserve, three times a week for 6 weeks. Graded exercise test and transthoracic echocardiogram were performed in all study patients before and after completion of the CR exercise program. Results After completion of the CR exercise program, both groups (pLVEF, n=30; rLVEF, n=18) showed significant increases in LVEF and VO2max. In the pLVEF group, LVEF and VO2max increased from 45.1%±4.8% to 52.5%±9.6% (p<0.001) and from 24.1±6.3 to 28.1±8.8 mL/kg/min (p=0.002), respectively. In the rLVEF group, LVEF and VO2max increased from 29.7%±7.7% to 37.6%±10.3% (p<0.001) and from 17.6±4.7 to 21.2±5.1 mL/kg/min (p<0.001), respectively. Both groups completed their exercise program safely. Conclusion In both groups, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who completed a 6-week supervised CR exercise program demonstrated remarkable improvements in cardiopulmonary function. This result implies that neither of the two groups showed higher efficacy in comparison to each other, but we can conclude that CR exercise in the rLVEF group was as effective and safe as that in the pLVEF group. PMID:27606271

  5. Treadmill exercise reduces spinal cord injury-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Dae-Young; Yune, Tae Young; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2014-03-01

    Apoptosis occurring secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) causes further neural damage and functional loss. In this study, a rat model was used to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on SCI-induced apoptosis and expression of neurotrophic factors. To produce SCI, a contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) was applied subsequent to laminectomy at the T9-T10 level. Following SCI, treadmill exercise was performed for six weeks. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated with a grid-walking test. The expression of neurotrophic factors and the level of apoptosis at the site of SCI were determined by western blotting. SCI reduced hindlimb motor function and suppressed expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the ratio of phosphorylated Akt to Akt (pAkt/Akt) and the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bax (Bcl-2/Bax) were decreased, and cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased by SCI. Treadmill exercise enhanced hindlimb motor function and increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise increased PI3K expression, the pAkt/Akt and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression in the injured spinal cord. This study demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes the recovery of motor function by suppressing apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. The beneficial effect of exercise may be attributed to the increase in expression of neurotrophic factors via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  6. When outcomes threaten incomes: a case study of the obstruction of research to reduce teenage smoking.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S

    1997-01-01

    A case study is presented of Australian efforts to promote an evidence-based, outcome-oriented intervention designed to reduce purchasing of cigarettes by minors. The intervention was supported by a wealth of international research literature, yet for several years was declared unethical by local institutional ethics committees. Eight objections that were raised are reviewed. Each of these objections was spurious yet initially influential. Various advocacy strategies were employed by proponents of the intervention to reframe its public definition. These gradually transformed perceptions of the intervention from one that considered it unethical, to one that considered it a virtual 'vaccine against teenage access to cigarettes' that should be incorporated into routine public health best practice. Those advocating outcome-oriented interventions should not assume that the imperative of influencing health outcomes will dominate perceptions of best practice within the health care system. In situations where competing definitions of the meaning of an intervention dominate decision makers' perceptions of outcome-oriented research, advocacy can be used to reframe these definitions more toward perceptions which are conducive to support and implementation.

  7. When outcomes threaten incomes: a case study of the obstruction of research to reduce teenage smoking.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S

    1997-01-01

    A case study is presented of Australian efforts to promote an evidence-based, outcome-oriented intervention designed to reduce purchasing of cigarettes by minors. The intervention was supported by a wealth of international research literature, yet for several years was declared unethical by local institutional ethics committees. Eight objections that were raised are reviewed. Each of these objections was spurious yet initially influential. Various advocacy strategies were employed by proponents of the intervention to reframe its public definition. These gradually transformed perceptions of the intervention from one that considered it unethical, to one that considered it a virtual 'vaccine against teenage access to cigarettes' that should be incorporated into routine public health best practice. Those advocating outcome-oriented interventions should not assume that the imperative of influencing health outcomes will dominate perceptions of best practice within the health care system. In situations where competing definitions of the meaning of an intervention dominate decision makers' perceptions of outcome-oriented research, advocacy can be used to reframe these definitions more toward perceptions which are conducive to support and implementation. PMID:10164906

  8. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 5: 8-Day randomized clinical trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Kanada, Shigeto; Takada, Kohji; Leroy, Claire Martin; Lindner, Dirk; Schorp, Matthias K; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, single-center study to determine biomarkers of exposure to twelve selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in cigarette smoke and urinary excretion of mutagenic material in 128 male and female Japanese subjects smoking Marlboro cigarettes (6 mg tar, 0.5mg nicotine, and 7.0mg CO) at baseline. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking Marlboro cigarettes, or switch to the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) and smoke either the EHCSS-K6 (5mg tar, 0.3mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg CO) or the EHCSS-K3 (3mg tar, 0.2mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg CO) cigarette, or switch to smoking Lark One cigarettes (1mg tar, 0.1mg nicotine, and 2.0mg CO), or to no-smoking. The mean decreases from baseline to Day 8 were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for all cigarette smoke HPHC including CO (the primary objective) and excretion of mutagenic material in the EHCSS-K6 (range: -14.6% to -75.6%) and EHCSS-K3 (range: -9.8% to -73.0%) groups. Statistically significant reductions (all p ≤ 0.05) in exposure to ten cigarette smoke HPHC (range: -5.9% to -34.6%), but not urinary mutagenicity, were observed in the Lark One group. The largest mean reductions in exposure to HPHC (all p ≤ 0.01 level) occurred in the no-smoking group (range: -13.7% to -97.6%). PMID:22940437

  9. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. PMID:26364732

  10. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with

  11. Antibody and CD8+ T cell memory response to influenza A/PR/8/34 infection is reduced in treadmill-exercised mice, yet still protective.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristi; Thompson, Nicholas; Wannemuehler, Michael; Kohut, Marian

    2013-05-15

    Moderate exercise may decrease the severity of influenza infection and reduce lung viral load. The possibility that an exercise-associated reduction in lung viral load early in infection could contribute to decreased serum antibody and reduced memory response were investigated. BALB/c mice exercised for 8 wk and were then infected with influenza A/PR/8/34 (intranasal route). Influenza-specific serum antibody was assessed for 6 mo post primary infection, at which time mice were infected again with influenza A/PR/8/34. After primary infection, exercise reduced morbidity/mortality, attenuated lung cytokines, and decreased serum anti-influenza IgG and IgG2a from day 14 to day 180 post primary infection. After secondary infectious challenge, exercised mice did not show any signs of illness, but had reduced serum anti-influenza IgG and IgG2a, increased IgG1, and reduced influenza-specific recruited and resident CD8+ granzyme B+ T cells within the lungs. When influenza virus was administered by an intraperitoneal route during primary infection, exercise did not alter serum anti-influenza IgG, IgG1, or IgG2a, suggesting the exercise effect was specific to the lung environment. Exercise-induced enhancement of respiratory host defense to primary influenza infection results in decreased serum antibody and lung CD8+ T cell memory response, but does not compromise resistance to secondary infectious challenge.

  12. A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

  13. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18–55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20–45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  14. Short-term hypoxic exposure at rest and during exercise reduces lung water in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Hulsebus, Minelle L; Breen, Jerome F; Hoffman, Eric A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2006-12-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise increase pulmonary arterial pressure, cause pulmonary capillary recruitment, and may influence the ability of the lungs to regulate fluid. To examine the influence of hypoxia, alone and combined with exercise, on lung fluid balance, we studied 25 healthy subjects after 17-h exposure to 12.5% inspired oxygen (barometric pressure = 732 mmHg) and sequentially after exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer with 12.5% inspired oxygen. We also studied subjects after a rapid saline infusion (30 ml/kg over 15 min) to demonstrate the sensitivity of our techniques to detect changes in lung water. Pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar-capillary conductance (D(M)) were determined by measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Lung tissue volume and density were assessed using computed tomography. Lung water was estimated by subtracting measures of Vc from computed tomography lung tissue volume. Pulmonary function [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF(50))] was also assessed. Saline infusion caused an increase in Vc (42%), tissue volume (9%), and lung water (11%), and a decrease in D(M) (11%) and pulmonary function (FVC = -12 +/- 9%, FEV(1) = -17 +/- 10%, FEF(50) = -20 +/- 13%). Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise resulted in increases in Vc (43 +/- 19 and 51 +/- 16%), D(M) (7 +/- 4 and 19 +/- 6%), and pulmonary function (FVC = 9 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 3%, FEV(1) = 5 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 3%, FEF(50) = 4 +/- 2 and 12 +/- 5%) and decreases in lung density and lung water (-84 +/- 24 and -103 +/- 20 ml vs. baseline). These data suggest that 17 h of hypoxic exposure at rest or with exercise resulted in a decrease in lung water in healthy humans. PMID:16902060

  15. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

  16. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge. PMID:23904096

  17. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population.

  18. Whole-body cryostimulation as an effective way of reducing exercise-induced inflammation and blood cholesterol in young men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert A; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kaczor, Jan J; Antosiewicz, Jędrzej; Skrobot, Wojciech; Kujach, Sylwester; Laskowski, Radosław

    2014-03-01

    Inflammation may accompany obesity and a variety of diseases, or result from excessive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise under laboratory conditions. The study also sought to establish if cold treatment changes the lipid profile and modifies energy expenditure in young people. Eighteen healthy and physically active, college-aged men volunteered to participate in the experiment. They were divided into two subgroups: CRY- submitted to whole-body cryostimulation, and CONT- a control group. Both groups performed eccentric work to induce muscle damage. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Over the five days that followed, the CRY group was exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (twice a day, for 3 min, at a temperature of -110̊C). After this period of rest, both groups repeated a similar eccentric work session, following the same schedule of blood collection. The perceived pain was noted 24h after each session of eccentric workout. A 30-minute step up/down work-out induced delayed-onset muscle soreness in both groups. The five-day recovery period accompanied by exposure to cold significantly enhanced the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. It also led to a pronounced reduction in levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and reduced muscle damage. The values for IL-10 before the second bout of eccentric exercise in the CRY group were 2.0-fold higher in comparison to baseline, whereas in the CONT group, the concentration remained unchanged. Furthermore, blood concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β fell significantly in the CRY group. The main finding of this study was that a series of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation significantly reduced the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise. The lipid profile was also improved, but there

  19. The Atlanta FICSIT study: two exercise interventions to reduce frailty in elders.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S L; Kutner, N G; Green, R C; McNeely, E

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the effect of two different exercise approaches on balance and frailty measures among more than 200 community-dwelling individuals greater than 70 years of age. Exercises are provided for 15 weekly sessions on an individual basis for participants randomly assigned to a Balance Training group. Training consists of center-of-mass feedback displayed on a motor under static conditions, or, in later sessions, as the floor surface is moved, with eyes open or closed. This high technology interface provides instantaneous information about displacement of body weight in space so that balance can be enhanced. An alternative procedure is comparatively simple and requires little expense or space. Tai Chi Quan was originally developed as a martial arts form but has been used for centuries in China as an exercise among elderly citizens. Participants randomly assigned to this intervention meet twice weekly for 15 weeks to learn a condensation of 108 Tai Chi forms into 10 that emphasize movement components often restricted or absent with aging. A third group serves as a control for exercise interventions by meeting weekly for 15 sessions to discuss topics of interest such as memory loss, drug management, and nutrition. All subjects are screened prior to assignment, and a host of physical, behavioral, and functional measures are assessed before and after the intervention as well as 4 months later. Measurements unique to the Atlanta site include: balance with eyes closed, programmed force-distribution changes when stance is perturbed, cardiovascular assessments, WAIS, Affects Balance Scale, and a survey of home environment.

  20. Process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise to reduce musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Zebis, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8-12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67-92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

  1. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  2. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  3. Minimally supervised multimodal exercise to reduce falls risk in economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Taís L; Alexander, Neil B; Nyquist, Linda V; Montagnini, Marcos L; Santos A, C S; Rodrigues G, H P; Negrão, Carlos E; Trombetta, Ivani C; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, η2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 η2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility.

  4. Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces intrahepatic lipid content and visceral fat and improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoJung; Deldin, Anthony R; White, David; Kim, YoonMyung; Libman, Ingrid; Rivera-Vega, Michelle; Kuk, Jennifer L; Sandoval, Sandra; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2013-11-15

    It is unclear whether regular exercise alone (no caloric restriction) is a useful strategy to reduce adiposity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors in obese girls. We examined the effects of aerobic (AE) vs. resistance exercise (RE) alone on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese girls. Forty-four obese adolescent girls (BMI ≥95th percentile, 12-18 yr) with abdominal obesity (waist circumference 106.5 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to 3 mo of 180 min/wk AE (n = 16) or RE (n = 16) or a nonexercising control group (n = 12). Total fat and VAT were assessed by MRI and intrahepatic lipid by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) was measured by CT. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic (80 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) euglycemic clamp. Compared with controls (0.13 ± 1.10 kg), body weight did not change (P > 0.1) in the AE (-1.31 ± 1.43 kg) and RE (-0.31 ± 1.38 kg) groups. Despite the absence of weight loss, total body fat (%) and IMAT decreased (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups compared with control. Compared with control, significant (P < 0.05) reductions in VAT (Δ-15.68 ± 7.64 cm(2)) and intrahepatic lipid (Δ-1.70 ± 0.74%) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (Δ0.92 ± 0.27 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml) were observed in the AE group but not the RE group. Improvements in insulin sensitivity in the AE group were associated with the reductions in total AT mass (r = -0.65, P = 0.02). In obese adolescent girls, AE but not RE is effective in reducing liver fat and visceral adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss or calorie restriction.

  5. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  6. Individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and reductions in exercise performance when perfusion pressure is reduced: evidence for vasodilator phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Robert F.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Moynes, Jackie S.; Poitras, Veronica J.; Walsh, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular compensatory response phenotypes exist in the face of a reduced perfusion pressure challenge to exercising muscle oxygen delivery (O2D), and whether these responses might be exercise intensity (EI) dependent. Ten healthy men (19.5 ± 0.4 yr) completed two trials of progressive forearm isometric handgrip exercise to exhaustion (24.5 N increments every 3.5 min) in each of forearm above and below heart level [forearm arterial perfusion pressure (FAPP) difference of 29.5 ± 0.97 mmHg]. At the end of each EI, measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF; ml/min) via brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; mmHg) via finger photoplethysmography, and exercising forearm venous effluent via antecubital vein catheter revealed distinct cardiovascular response groups: n = 6 with compensatory vasodilation vs. n = 4 without compensatory vasodilation. Compensatory vasodilators were able to blunt the perfusion pressure-evoked reduction in submaximal O2D in the arm-above-heart condition, whereas nonvasodilators did not (−22.5 ± 13.6 vs. −65.4 ± 14.1 ml O2/min; P < 0.05), and in combination with being able to increase O2 extraction, nonvasodilators defended submaximal V̇o2 and experienced less of an accumulated submaximal O2D deficit (−80.7 ± 24.7 vs. −219.1 ± 36.0 ml O2/min; P < 0.05). As a result, the compensatory vasodilators experienced less of a compromise to peak EI than nonvasodilators (−24.5 ± 3.5 N vs. −52.1 ± 8.9 N; P < 0.05). In conclusion, in the forearm exercise model studied, vasodilatory response phenotypes exist that determine individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and the degree to which aerobic metabolism and exercise performance are compromised. PMID:24970851

  7. Reduced hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction after implementation of a smoke-free ordinance--City of Pueblo, Colorado, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse cardiovascular effects, and prolonged exposure can cause coronary heart disease. Nine studies have reported that laws making indoor workplaces and public places smoke-free were associated with rapid, sizeable reductions in hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, most studies examined hospitalizations for 1 year or less after laws were implemented; thus, whether the observed effect was sustained over time was unknown. The Pueblo Heart Study examined the impact of a municipal smoke-free ordinance in the city of Pueblo, Colorado, that took effect on July 1, 2003. The rate of AMI hospitalizations for city residents decreased 27%, from 257 per 100,000 person-years during the 18 months before the ordinance's implementation to 187 during the 18 months after it (the Phase I post-implementation period). This report extends that analysis for an additional 18 months through June 30, 2006 (the Phase II post-implementation period). The rate of AMI hospitalizations among city residents continued to decrease to 152 per 100,000 person-years, a decline of 19% and 41% from the Phase I post-implementation and pre-implementation period, respectively. No significant changes were observed in two comparison areas. These findings suggest that smoke-free policies can result in reductions in AMI hospitalizations that are sustained over a 3-year period and that these policies are important in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with heart disease. This effect likely is mediated through reduced SHS exposure among nonsmokers and reduced smoking, with the former making the larger contribution.

  8. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure.

  9. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail; Shabalina, Irina G; Rozhdestvenskaya, Zinaida; Mattsson, C Mikael; Enqvist, Jonas K; Ekblom, Björn; Sahlin, Kent

    2007-05-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

  10. Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Santos-Alves, Estela; Mariani, Diogo; Rizo-Roca, David; Padrão, Ana I; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, J Ramon; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paulo J; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anti-cancer agent whose clinical usage results in a cumulative and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have previously shown that exercise performed prior to DOX treatment reduces the resulting cardiac(mito) toxicity. We sought to determine the effects on cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) when used prior and during DOX treatment. Male-young Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=6 per group): SAL+SED (saline sedentary), SAL+TM (12-weeks TM), SAL+FW (12-weeks FW), DOX+SED (7-weeks of chronic DOX treatment 2mg/kg per week), DOX+TM and DOX+FW. DOX administration started 5weeks after the beginning of the exercise protocol. Heart mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations, mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption and membrane potential), semi-quantification of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and their in-gel activity, as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress (SIRT3, p66shc and UCP2), biogenesis (PGC1α and TFAM), acetylation and markers for oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, MDA,SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD activity) were evaluated. DOX treatment resulted in ultrastructural and functional alterations and decreased OXPHOS. Moreover, DOX decreased complex I activity and content, mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM), increased acetylation and oxidative stress. TM and FW prevented DOX-induced alteration in OXPHOS, the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in complex V activity and in complex I activity and content. DOX-induced decreases in TFAM and SIRT3 content were prevented by TM only. Both chronic models of physical exercise performed before and during the course of sub-chronic DOX treatment translated into an improved mitochondrial bioenergetic fitness, which may result in part from the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. PMID:25446396

  11. Randomized Control Trials on Otago Exercise Program (OEP) to Reduce Falls Among Elderly Community Dwellers in Shahroud, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dadgari, Ali; Aizan Hamid, Tengku; Hakim, Mohammad Nazrul; Chaman, Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Poh Hin, Lim; Dadvar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Fall is a worldwide health problem among elderly people and a known leading cause of disabilities. Fall prevention programs have been implemented in various forms. The Otago exercise program (OEP) is one of the most recent home-base exercise training program. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of OEP to reduce falls among elderly people in Shahroud, IR Iran. Materials and Methods This randomised control trial was conducted among the elderly community dwellers in Shahroud city of the Semnan province, IR Iran, with experience of falls in the last 12 months. Subjects of the study (n = 317) were recruited from elderly senior citizens at public health centers. Block systematic random sampling was applied to categorize the subjects in experimental and control groups. The experimental group (n = 160) received OEP for six months and was compared with the control group (n = 157) who received general health training. This study was registered with the following ID, IRCT2014012016285N1. Results The findings of the study showed that OEP improved physical performance (Berg-Balance-Score with P > 0.025, and Timed-Up-Go-Test with P > 0.017) and functional capacity (Arm-Curl-Test with P > 0.00 and Chair-Stand-Test with P > 0.01). In addition, OEP significantly reduced the incidence of falls (P ≤ 0.00) among senior citizens in the experimental group. Discussion The OEP as a home-based exercise is effective for the reduction of the incidence of falls among senior citizens with a history of falls. The OEP can be recommended for elderly homebound people who do not have access to facilities. PMID:27478629

  12. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  13. The Use of Nicotine Fading and Self-Monitoring to Reduce Cigarette Smoking: A Non-Aversive Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard A.; Foxx, R. M.

    Several treatment approaches to cigarette smoking were investigated, including a nicotine fading procedure in which subjects changed their cigarette brand each week to one containing progressively less nicotine and tar; a self-monitoring procedure in which subjects plotted their daily intake of nicotine and tar; a combined nicotine…

  14. The Effectiveness of Policy and Health Education Strategies for Reducing Adolescent Smoking: A Review of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Marc C.; de Zwart, Wil M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews international literature to identify the most effective measures to prevent smoking among adolescents. Concludes that isolated measures produce little effect. Most effect may be expected from a combination of a complete ban on tobacco advertising, increasing prices, restricting tobacco product sales to tobacconists, mass media education…

  15. Increasing Exercise Intensity Reduces Heterogeneity of Glucose Uptake in Human Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Jukka; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2012-01-01

    Proper muscle activation is a key feature of survival in different tasks in daily life as well as sports performance, but can be impaired in elderly and in diseases. Therefore it is also clinically important to better understand the phenomenon that can be elucidated in humans non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET) with measurements of spatial heterogeneity of glucose uptake within and among muscles during exercise. We studied six healthy young men during 35 minutes of cycling at relative intensities of 30% (low), 55% (moderate), and 75% (high) of maximal oxygen consumption on three separate days. Glucose uptake in the quadriceps femoris muscle group (QF), the main force producing muscle group in recreational cycling, and its four individual muscles, was directly measured using PET and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. Within-muscle heterogeneity was determined by calculating the coefficient of variance (CV) of glucose uptake in PET image voxels within the muscle of interest, and among-muscles heterogeneity of glucose uptake in QF was expressed as CV of the mean glucose uptake values of its separate muscles. With increasing intensity, within-muscle heterogeneity decreased in the entire QF as well as within its all four individual parts. Among-muscles glucose uptake heterogeneity also decreased with increasing intensity. However, mean glucose uptake was consistently lower and heterogeneity higher in rectus femoris muscle that is known to consist of the highest percentage of fast twitch type II fibers, compared to the other three QF muscles. In conclusion, these results show that in addition to increased contribution of distinct muscle parts, with increases in exercise intensity there is also an enhanced recruitment of muscle fibers within all of the four heads of QF, despite established differences in muscle-part specific fiber type distributions. Glucose uptake heterogeneity may serve as a useful non-invasive tool to elucidate muscle activation in aging and

  16. Prior exercise reduces fast-start duration and end-spurt magnitude during cycling time-trial.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, A E; Correia-Oliveira, C R; Tenorio, L; Melo, A A; Bertuzzi, R; Bishop, D

    2013-08-01

    We examined the pacing strategy and the magnitude of the end spurt during a 200-kJ cycling time trial performed 12-14 h after an exercise protocol designed to reduce muscle glycogen content. 9 physically-active men performed 5 familiarization sessions and 2 experimental 200-kJ time trials in either a control condition (CON) or after an exercise protocol performed the previous evening that was designed to induce muscle glycogen depletion (EP). Mean total time was faster and power output was higher in the CON than in the EP (P<0.01). A fast-start was maintained until the 50-kJ section in CON, but only the 25-kJ section for EP (P<0.05). The power outputs during the 50-, 150- and 200-kJ sections, and the magnitude of the end-spurt, were significantly higher for the CON than for the EP condition (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rating of perceived exertion (overall feeling and feeling in legs) between conditions. In conclusion, a protocol designed to decrease muscle glycogen stores reduced the duration of the fast-start and the magnitude of the end spurt during a 200-kJ cycling time trial, impairing the overall performance.

  17. Two- and 3-Dimensional Knee Valgus Are Reduced After an Exercise Intervention in Young Adults With Demonstrable Valgus During Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David R.; Oates, D. Craig; Clark, Micheal A.; Padua, Darin A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Two-dimensional (or medial knee displacement [MKD]) and 3-dimensional (3D) knee valgus are theorized to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, whether these displacements can be improved in the double-legged squat (DLS) after an exercise intervention is unclear. Objective: To determine if MKD and 3D knee valgus are improved in a DLS after an exercise intervention. Design:  Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 participants were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or intervention (n = 16) group. During a DLS, all participants demonstrated knee valgus that was corrected with a heel lift. Intervention(s):  The intervention group completed 10 sessions of directed exercise that focused on hip and ankle strength and flexibility over a 2- to 3-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed MKD and 3D knee valgus during the DLS using an electromagnetic tracking system. Hip strength and ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion were measured. Change scores were calculated for MKD and 3D valgus at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% phases, and group (2 levels)-by phase (6 levels) repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Independent t tests were used to compare change scores in other variables (α < .05). Results: The MKD decreased from 20% to 50% of the DLS (P = .02) and 3D knee valgus improved from 30% to 50% of the squat phase (P = .001). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (knee extended) increased in the intervention group (P = .009). No other significant findings were observed (P > .05). Conclusions:  The intervention reduced MKD and 3D knee valgus during a DLS. The intervention also increased ankle range of motion. Our inclusion criteria might have limited our ability to observe changes in hip strength. PMID:23724771

  18. Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil Jit R.J.; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhpal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elizabeth; Wisloff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym M.; Boyett, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system in vivo in mice and in vitro in the denervated sinus node. We also show that a widespread remodelling of pacemaker ion channels, notably a downregulation of HCN4 and the corresponding ionic current, If. Block of If abolishes the difference in heart rate between trained and sedentary animals in vivo and in vitro. We further observe training-induced downregulation of Tbx3 and upregulation of NRSF and miR-1 (transcriptional regulators) that explains the downregulation of HCN4. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for the potentially pathological heart rate adaptation to exercise training. PMID:24825544

  19. Exercise Can Rescue Recognition Memory Impairment in a Model with Reduced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafenêtre, Pauline; Leske, Oliver; Ma-Högemeie, Zhanlu; Haghikia, Aiden; Bichler, Zoe; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Running is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and these newly generated hippocampal neurons seem to be implicated in memory functions. Here we have used a mouse model expressing activated Ras under the direction of the neuronal Synapsin I promoter (named synRas mice). These mice develop down-regulated proliferation of adult hippocampal precursor cells and show decreased short-term recognition memory performances. Voluntary physical activity reversed the genetically blocked generation of hippocampal proliferating cells and enhanced the dendritic arborisation of the resulting doublecortin newly generated neurons. Moreover, running improved novelty recognition in both wild type and synRas littermates, compensating their memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a potential mediator of physical exercise acting in the hippocampus on dentate neurons and their precursors. This was confirmed here by the identification of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells expressing tyrosine receptor kinase B BDNF receptor. While no difference in BDNF levels were detected in basal conditions between the synRas mice and their wild type littermates, running was associated with enhanced BDNF expression levels. Thus increased BDNF signalling is a candidate mechanism to explain the observed effects of running. Our studies demonstrate that voluntary physical activity has a robust beneficial effect even in mice with genetically restricted neurogenesis and cognition. PMID:20204139

  20. Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

  1. Exercise can rescue recognition memory impairment in a model with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lafenêtre, Pauline; Leske, Oliver; Ma-Högemeie, Zhanlu; Haghikia, Aiden; Bichler, Zoe; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Running is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and these newly generated hippocampal neurons seem to be implicated in memory functions. Here we have used a mouse model expressing activated Ras under the direction of the neuronal Synapsin I promoter (named synRas mice). These mice develop down-regulated proliferation of adult hippocampal precursor cells and show decreased short-term recognition memory performances. Voluntary physical activity reversed the genetically blocked generation of hippocampal proliferating cells and enhanced the dendritic arborisation of the resulting doublecortin newly generated neurons. Moreover, running improved novelty recognition in both wild type and synRas littermates, compensating their memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a potential mediator of physical exercise acting in the hippocampus on dentate neurons and their precursors. This was confirmed here by the identification of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells expressing tyrosine receptor kinase B BDNF receptor. While no difference in BDNF levels were detected in basal conditions between the synRas mice and their wild type littermates, running was associated with enhanced BDNF expression levels. Thus increased BDNF signalling is a candidate mechanism to explain the observed effects of running. Our studies demonstrate that voluntary physical activity has a robust beneficial effect even in mice with genetically restricted neurogenesis and cognition.

  2. Measurement of Reduced Gingival Melanosis after Smoking Cessation: A Novel Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tomotaka; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Makino, Michiko; Noguchi, Satoshi; Katayama-Ono, Tomoko; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to moisture and the anatomical complexity of the oral mucosa, it is difficult to measure the extent of gingival melanosis in an optical manner. Therefore, we developed a new quantitative method using clinical oral photographs and compared the extent of gingival melanosis before and after smoking cessation. Methods: A new analysis method, which we named the gingival melanosis record (GMR), is a quantitative analysis method using clinical oral photographs. We obtained 659 clinical photographs from 263 patients from 16 general dental offices in Japan. Standardized measuring sites were automatically spotted on the screen, and the presence of gingival melanosis was determined at the measuring sites. We assessed the validity of the GMR with the previously reported Hedin’s classification using Spearman’s rank correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The GMR showed a significant association with Hedin’s classification (p < 0.01, correlation coefficient = 0.94). The GMR also showed excellent reproducibility of the substantial repeated agreement intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (1,1) and ICC (2,1), p > 0.61). The longitudinal loss of gingival melanosis was confirmed by a change in the GMR among patients who successfully achieved smoking cessation for a mean of 4.5 years. Conclusion: The GMR is an effective method to assess gingival melanosis. The loss of gingival melanosis after smoking cessation can be objectively confirmed with the use of the GMR. PMID:27322294

  3. Office Exercise Training to Reduce and Prevent the Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Office Workers: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, Ardalan; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Arumugam, Manohar; Danaee, Mahmoud; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pain in specific areas of the body (including the lower back, neck, and shoulders) due to extended periods of sitting and inactivity is the most widespread musculoskeletal disorder worldwide and has consequences that are both socio-economic and personal. This condition is particularly prevalent in industrialised countries, affecting roughly 70% to 80% of adults at some point in their lives; approximately 1% of the U.S. population is chronically disabled by this type of pain disorder. A practical way to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among office workers would have a significant positive impact. More work is required to develop a package of exercises designed to prevent and treat musculoskeletal pain in office workers. Such a package would be preferable to pharmacological treatments, which can have undesirable side effects. The main objective of this package would be to increase the flexibility and strength of trunk muscles in order to decrease the soreness, pain, and degree of discomfort. In this article, we introduce our proposed package of exercises, which are based on guidelines issued bythe American College of Sports Medicine.

  4. Office Exercise Training to Reduce and Prevent the Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Office Workers: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, Ardalan; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Arumugam, Manohar; Danaee, Mahmoud; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pain in specific areas of the body (including the lower back, neck, and shoulders) due to extended periods of sitting and inactivity is the most widespread musculoskeletal disorder worldwide and has consequences that are both socio-economic and personal. This condition is particularly prevalent in industrialised countries, affecting roughly 70% to 80% of adults at some point in their lives; approximately 1% of the U.S. population is chronically disabled by this type of pain disorder. A practical way to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among office workers would have a significant positive impact. More work is required to develop a package of exercises designed to prevent and treat musculoskeletal pain in office workers. Such a package would be preferable to pharmacological treatments, which can have undesirable side effects. The main objective of this package would be to increase the flexibility and strength of trunk muscles in order to decrease the soreness, pain, and degree of discomfort. In this article, we introduce our proposed package of exercises, which are based on guidelines issued bythe American College of Sports Medicine. PMID:27660545

  5. Office Exercise Training to Reduce and Prevent the Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Office Workers: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shariat, Ardalan; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Arumugam, Manohar; Danaee, Mahmoud; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Pain in specific areas of the body (including the lower back, neck, and shoulders) due to extended periods of sitting and inactivity is the most widespread musculoskeletal disorder worldwide and has consequences that are both socio-economic and personal. This condition is particularly prevalent in industrialised countries, affecting roughly 70% to 80% of adults at some point in their lives; approximately 1% of the U.S. population is chronically disabled by this type of pain disorder. A practical way to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among office workers would have a significant positive impact. More work is required to develop a package of exercises designed to prevent and treat musculoskeletal pain in office workers. Such a package would be preferable to pharmacological treatments, which can have undesirable side effects. The main objective of this package would be to increase the flexibility and strength of trunk muscles in order to decrease the soreness, pain, and degree of discomfort. In this article, we introduce our proposed package of exercises, which are based on guidelines issued bythe American College of Sports Medicine. PMID:27660545

  6. Smoke-free homes, smoking susceptibility and familial smoking among never-smoking high school students: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gregoire, Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that living in a smoke-free home has a positive effect on adolescents' perceived acceptance of smoking. However, the relationship between smoke-free homes and adolescent smoking behaviours remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoke-free homes and smoking susceptibility among high school students, and to determine whether these associations persist when analyses are stratified by familial smoking status. Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional survey (2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey) of primary, junior and high school students in Canada (n = 47 203). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between smoke-free homes and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking high school students, with and without stratification by familial smoking. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents living in a smoke-free home had reduced odds of being susceptible to smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.582, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.428-0.791) compared with their peers living in households where smoking was permitted. When adolescents had other family members who were smokers, having a smoke-free home was not significantly associated with reduced smoking susceptibility (OR 0.878, 95% CI 0.721-1.071). Interpretation: Our results suggest that smoke-free homes may influence future smoking initiation. Optimal success in preventing youth smoking uptake necessitates having a coherent antismoking message between the home smoking environment and familial smoking behaviour. PMID:27398377

  7. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Hamer, Peter; Bishop, David

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight healthy males carried out tests to determine Pana (defined as the highest power output attained during a 6-s cycling sprint), Paer (defined as the highest power output achieved during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure) and a repeated cycling sprint test (10 x 6-s max sprints with 30 s rest). Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each maximal 6-s cycling bout. Root mean square (RMS) was utilized to quantify EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of the right leg. Over the ten sprints, PPO and MPO decreased by 24.6 and 28.3% from the maximal value (i.e., sprint 1), respectively. Fatigue index during repeated sprints was significantly correlated with APR (R = 0.87; P < 0.05). RMS values decreased over the ten sprints by 14.6% (+/-6.3%). There was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) between the changes in MPO and EMG RMS from the vastus lateralis muscle during the ten sprints. The individual advantage in fatigue-resistance when performing a repeated sprint task was related with a lower anaerobic power reserve. Additionally, a suboptimal net motor unit activity might also impair the ability to repeatedly generate maximum power outputs.

  8. Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O/sub 3/) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ while performing a 1 h competitive simulation protocol on a bicycle ergometer. Endurance performance was evaluated by the number of subjects unable to complete rides (last 30 min at an intense work load of approximately 86% VO/sub 2/max). All subjects completed the FA exposure, whereas one, five, and seven subjects did not complete the 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the inability of subjects to complete the competitive simulations with increasing O/sub 3/ concentration, including a significant difference between the 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA exposure. Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) were also observed following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, in forced vital capacity (-7.8 and -9.9%), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-5.8 and -10.5%). No significant O/sub 3/ effect was observed for exercise respiratory metabolism or ventilatory pattern responses. However, the number of reported subjective symptoms increased significantly following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ protocols. These data demonstrate significant decrements in simulated competitive endurance performance and in pulmonary function, with accompanying enhanced subjective symptoms, following exposure to low O/sub 3/ levels commonly observed in numerous metropolitan environments during the summer months.

  9. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.

    PubMed

    Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L; Wyatt, Holly R; Eckel, Robert H; Hill, James O; MacLean, Paul S

    2011-09-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

  10. The Bioavailability of Soluble Cigarette Smoke Extract Is Reduced through Interactions with Cells and Affects the Cellular Response to CSE Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Jeffrey S.; Jacob, Jeeva; Garewal, Aram; Ndahayo, Renata; Paxson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to cigarette smoke leads to an array of complex responses including apoptosis, cellular senescence, telomere dysfunction, cellular aging, and neoplastic transformation. To study the cellular response to cigarette smoke, a common in vitro model exposes cultured cells to a nominal concentration (i.e. initial concentration) of soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). However, we report that use of the nominal concentration of CSE as the only measure of cellular exposure is inadequate. Instead, we demonstrate that cellular response to CSE exposure is dependent not only on the nominal concentration of CSE, but also on specific experimental variables, including the total cell number, and the volume of CSE solution used. As found in other similar xenobiotic assays, our work suggests that the effective dose of CSE is more accurately related to the amount of bioavailable chemicals per cell. In particular, interactions of CSE components both with cells and other physical factors limit CSE bioavailability, as demonstrated by a quantifiably reduced cellular response to CSE that is first modified by such interactions. This has broad implications for the nature of cellular response to CSE exposure, and for the design of in vitro assays using CSE. PMID:27649082

  11. The Bioavailability of Soluble Cigarette Smoke Extract Is Reduced through Interactions with Cells and Affects the Cellular Response to CSE Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Jeffrey S; Jacob, Jeeva; Garewal, Aram; Ndahayo, Renata; Paxson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to cigarette smoke leads to an array of complex responses including apoptosis, cellular senescence, telomere dysfunction, cellular aging, and neoplastic transformation. To study the cellular response to cigarette smoke, a common in vitro model exposes cultured cells to a nominal concentration (i.e. initial concentration) of soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). However, we report that use of the nominal concentration of CSE as the only measure of cellular exposure is inadequate. Instead, we demonstrate that cellular response to CSE exposure is dependent not only on the nominal concentration of CSE, but also on specific experimental variables, including the total cell number, and the volume of CSE solution used. As found in other similar xenobiotic assays, our work suggests that the effective dose of CSE is more accurately related to the amount of bioavailable chemicals per cell. In particular, interactions of CSE components both with cells and other physical factors limit CSE bioavailability, as demonstrated by a quantifiably reduced cellular response to CSE that is first modified by such interactions. This has broad implications for the nature of cellular response to CSE exposure, and for the design of in vitro assays using CSE. PMID:27649082

  12. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5 g/kg, Protein=2.5 g/kg, Fat=1.0 g/kg). Body mass (59.2±4.6 vs. 57.6±4.5 kg), fat mass (7.5±3.5 vs. 6.2±2.6) and body fat (13.1±5.9 vs. 11.5±4.9%) all decreased (P<0.05) from pre to post-intervention whilst lean mass (47.1±5.3 vs. 47.0±5.5 kg) was maintained (P=0.80). RMR (1703±329 vs. 1975±313 kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.8±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.7 L/min(- 1)) chest strength (65±11 vs. 71±13 kg), leg strength (160±28 vs. 175±29 kg) and jumping height (40±6 vs. 48±5 cm) significantly increased (P<0.05). Bone health (DXA) did not change (P>0.05) at hip (-1.04±1.29 vs. - 0.76±0.71) or lumbar sites (-1.32±0.76 vs. - 1.31±0.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.3±4.3 vs. 8.9±3.8 and 14.8±9.6 vs. 11.0±5.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation.

  13. The hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) could effectively reduce the heat strain while exercising in a hot and moderate humid environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenfang; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) in mitigating body heat stain while exercising in a hot environment. Eight subjects underwent two trials: PCS and CON (i.e. no cooling). All trials were conducted at an air temperature of 36 ± 0.5 °C and RH = 59 ± 5%. The key findings demonstrated that the PCS could significantly reduce the core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). Subjective perceptions were also significantly alleviated in PCS at the end of the exercise and during the recovery (p < 0.05). Besides, the PCS could also bring remarkable benefits in lowering local skin temperatures and in improving perceptual sensations in both upper and lower body during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). It was thus concluded that the hybrid PCS is effective in mitigating body heat strain while exercising in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: In hot and humid environments, body heat dissipation through sweating is greatly restricted. Our newly developed hybrid PCS could effectively alleviate heat strain while exercising in hot environments. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in improving the health and well-being of sportsmen while exercising in hot environments. PMID:26457872

  14. The hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) could effectively reduce the heat strain while exercising in a hot and moderate humid environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenfang; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) in mitigating body heat stain while exercising in a hot environment. Eight subjects underwent two trials: PCS and CON (i.e. no cooling). All trials were conducted at an air temperature of 36 ± 0.5 °C and RH = 59 ± 5%. The key findings demonstrated that the PCS could significantly reduce the core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). Subjective perceptions were also significantly alleviated in PCS at the end of the exercise and during the recovery (p < 0.05). Besides, the PCS could also bring remarkable benefits in lowering local skin temperatures and in improving perceptual sensations in both upper and lower body during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). It was thus concluded that the hybrid PCS is effective in mitigating body heat strain while exercising in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: In hot and humid environments, body heat dissipation through sweating is greatly restricted. Our newly developed hybrid PCS could effectively alleviate heat strain while exercising in hot environments. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in improving the health and well-being of sportsmen while exercising in hot environments.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Hervé; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

  16. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  17. Low energy availability in exercising men is associated with reduced leptin and insulin but not with changes in other metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Hoerner, Neele R; Gibbs, Jenna C; Zinner, Christoph; Braun, Hans; De Souza, Mary Jane; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-01

    Low energy availability, defined as low caloric intake relative to exercise energy expenditure, has been linked to endocrine alterations frequently observed in chronically energy-deficient exercising women. Our goal was to determine the endocrine effects of low energy availability in exercising men. Six exercising men (VO2peak: 49.3 ± 2.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) underwent two conditions of low energy availability (15 kcal · kg(-1) fat-free mass [FFM] · day(-1)) and two energy-balanced conditions (40 kcal · kg(-1) FFM · day(-1)) in randomised order. During one low energy availability and one balanced condition, participants exercised to expend 15 kcal · kg(-1) FFM · day(-1); no exercise was conducted during the other two conditions. Metabolic hormones were assessed before and after each 4-day period. Following both low energy availability conditions, leptin (-53% to -56%) and insulin (-34% to -38%) were reduced (P < 0.05). Reductions in leptin and insulin were independent of whether low energy availability was attained with or without exercise (P > 0.80). Low energy availability did not significantly impact ghrelin, triiodothyronine, testosterone and IGF-1 (all P > 0.05). The observed reductions in leptin and insulin were in the same magnitude as changes previously reported in sedentary women. Further research is needed to understand why other metabolic hormones are more robust against low energy availability in exercising men than those in sedentary and exercising women.

  18. The phosphodiesterases type 5 inhibitor tadalafil reduces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in men during cycle ergometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Crescioli, Clara; Bianchini, Serena; Romanelli, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-04-15

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may influence human physiology, health, and performance by also modulating endocrine pathways. We evaluated the effects of a 2-day tadalafil administration on adenohypophyseal and adrenal hormone adaptation to exercise in humans. Fourteen healthy males were included in a double-blind crossover trial. Each volunteer randomly received two tablets of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/day with a 36-h interval) before a maximal exercise was performed. After a 2-wk washout, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected at -30 and -15 min and immediately before exercise, immediately after, and during recovery (+15, +30, +60, and +90 min) for adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), β-endorphin, growth hormone (GH), prolactin, cortisol (C), corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) assays. C-to-CBG (free cortisol index, FCI) and DHEAS-to-C ratios were calculated. Exercise intensity, perceived exertion rate, O₂ consumption, and CO₂ and blood lactate concentration were evaluated. ACTH, GH, C, corticosterone, and CBG absolute concentrations and/or areas under the curve (AUC) increased after exercise after both placebo and tadalafil. Exercise increased DHEAS only after placebo. Compared with placebo, tadalafil administration reduced the ACTH, C, corticosterone, and FCI responses to exercise and was associated with higher β-endorphin AUC and DHEAS-to-C ratio during recovery, without influencing cardiorespiratory and performance parameters. Tadalafil reduced the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during exercise by probably influencing the brain's nitric oxide- and cGMP-mediated pathways. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results and to identify the involved mechanisms, possible health risks, and potential clinical uses.

  19. [Exercise as the cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention].

    PubMed

    Boraita Pérez, Araceli

    2008-05-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is a public health problem and is recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of coronary disease. The relative risk of inactivity is similar to that of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Consequently, a sedentary lifestyle is associated with a concurrent increase in cardiovascular disease. Engaging regularly in mild-to-moderate physical exercise results in a range of physiological adaptations that are beneficial for health. Various studies have demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of coronary heart disease, cardiac events and death. Exercise improves the lipid profile and glycemic control, reduces or prevents hypertension, obesity and stress, and promotes fitness and longevity. However, most evidence for the benefits of exercise comes from observational studies and, although maximum oxygen uptake and the duration of exercise on an exercise stress test are powerful predictors of mortality, there is no agreement on the quantity or intensity of the physical activity needed for primary or secondary prevention. On the other hand, although there is a temporarily increased risk of acute myocardial infarction during exhaustive exercise, the balance of risks and benefits is strongly in favor of the benefits because there is a minimum threshold for the weekly energy expenditure required to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  20. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Homberg, Judith R; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression. PMID:24478673

  1. Reduced Frontal Brain Volume in Non-Treatment-Seeking Cocaine-Dependent Individuals: Exploring the Role of Impulsivity, Depression, and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E.; Homberg, Judith R.; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression. PMID:24478673

  2. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

  3. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  4. The prevalence of lymphoedema in women who attended an information and exercise class to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, E; Purushotham, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema (BCRL) affects approximately 20 % of women undergoing axillary intervention. Women who attended a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class, including exercise instruction, anecdotally reported positive BCRL outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine BCRL outcomes and perceived benefit for attendees at a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class between 2000 and 2005. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two parts: (1) self-report questionnaire regarding lymphoedema status and benefit received from class and exercise programme; (2) clinical evaluation and objective measurement to confirm BCRL. 46 women completed questionnaires; 40 continued to clinical evaluation and objective measurement. BCRL prevalence defined as ≥10 % excess limb volume was only 5 %, although clinician judgement identified 23 % with arm lymphoedema and 8 % with lymphoedema limited to the hand. Clinician judgement correlated highly with patient self-report (Kappa = 0.833, p = 0.000). All women found the class beneficial, reporting increased confidence to return to normal life and a wide range of activities/exercise. We conclude that prevalence of BCRL should be determined by both clinical judgement and objective measurement to avoid underestimation. The benefit of group education with a lymphoedema expert and of exercise instruction should be further explored, and the potential for exercise to reduce BCRL prevalence should be examined. PMID:26759760

  5. The prevalence of lymphoedema in women who attended an information and exercise class to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, E; Purushotham, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema (BCRL) affects approximately 20 % of women undergoing axillary intervention. Women who attended a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class, including exercise instruction, anecdotally reported positive BCRL outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine BCRL outcomes and perceived benefit for attendees at a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class between 2000 and 2005. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two parts: (1) self-report questionnaire regarding lymphoedema status and benefit received from class and exercise programme; (2) clinical evaluation and objective measurement to confirm BCRL. 46 women completed questionnaires; 40 continued to clinical evaluation and objective measurement. BCRL prevalence defined as ≥10 % excess limb volume was only 5 %, although clinician judgement identified 23 % with arm lymphoedema and 8 % with lymphoedema limited to the hand. Clinician judgement correlated highly with patient self-report (Kappa = 0.833, p = 0.000). All women found the class beneficial, reporting increased confidence to return to normal life and a wide range of activities/exercise. We conclude that prevalence of BCRL should be determined by both clinical judgement and objective measurement to avoid underestimation. The benefit of group education with a lymphoedema expert and of exercise instruction should be further explored, and the potential for exercise to reduce BCRL prevalence should be examined.

  6. Multiple short bouts of exercise over 12-h period reduce glucose excursions more than an energy-matched single bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrup, ME; Fairchild, TJ; Keslacy, S; Weinstock, RS; Kanaley, JA

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior are thought to negatively influence postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the effects of a 1-h bout of morning exercise versus intermittent walking bouts of short duration on glucose excursions and insulin secretion over 12-h. Materials/Methods Eleven young, obese individuals (18–35y, BMI>30kg/m2) with impaired glucose tolerance were studied on three 12-h study days: 1) sedentary behavior (SED); 2) sedentary behavior with 1-h morning exercise (EX) at 60–65% VO2peak; and 3) sedentary behavior with 12-hourly, 5-min intervals of exercise (INT) at 60–65% VO2peak. Meals (1046 kJ/meal) were provided every 2-h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and measured for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide concentrations. Results Glucose iAUC (12-h) was attenuated in the INT and SED conditions compared to the EX condition (P<0.05). Glucose concentrations were higher in the EX compared to the SED condition for ~150 min (20% of the study day), and comparison of the EX-INT study days revealed that glucose concentrations were greater for ~ 240 minutes (~1/3 of the 12-h day). In the SED condition, the 12-h insulin iAUC was ~15% higher (P<0.05) compared to the INT and EX conditions. Insulin production rate was found to increase ~20% with INT exercise vs. the SED and EX condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Short, frequent periods of exercise attenuated glucose excursions and insulin concentrations in obese individuals to a greater degree than an equal amount of exercise performed continuously in the morning. PMID:24439242

  7. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Juriena D.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Methods Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Results Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. Conclusions These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects

  8. [Women and smoking].

    PubMed

    Schmeiser-Rieder, A; Schoberberger, R; Kunze, M

    1995-01-01

    Of the 300,000 deaths attributable to smoking among women in developed countries in 1985, 21% were coded to lung cancer, for example, 41% to cardiovascular diseases, primarily coronary heart disease and stroke, and 18% to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Overall, female deaths rates from lung cancer in developed countries increased by almost 200% between 1957 and 1987. Smoking and tobacco consumption is a health risk for women at all ages. All women, regardless whether they are pregnant, performing oral contraception or estrogen replacement should not smoke; if they are not able to stop on their own, appropriate counselling and therapy should be provided according to the state of the art. Women who smoke typically go through the menopause 2 or 3 years earlier than non-smokers. Cigarette smoking to increase the risk of estrogen-deficiency diseases, as cardiovascular risk and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Many women want to give up smoking for a number of reasons, such as health, freedom from smoking dependence, financial worries and of course pregnancy. Women find it more difficult to quit than men because of lack of social support, more reliance on cigarette to cope with stress and anxiety and fear of weight gain. Although many women manage to refrain from smoking for a long, they may relapse in situations involving negative emotions, such as conflicts, stress, loss. Men however, tend to relapse in positive situations, such as social events. Smoking cessation programmes have to cover specifically women's need including basic health education, discussion of withdrawal symptoms, strategies to maintain non-smoking and prevent relapse, continuing group support, stress management, advice on weight management, nutrition, fitness and exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  10. Glutamine supplementation prevents exercise-induced neutrophil apoptosis and reduces p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 and caspase 3 expression.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, Claudia J; Hirabara, Sandro M; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that a single session of exercise induces DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increases expression of pro-apoptotic genes (bax and bcl-xS) and decreases expression of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-xL) in rat neutrophils. Glutamine supplementation had a protective effect in the apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise. The mechanism involved in the effect of single session of exercise to induce apoptosis was investigated by measuring expression of p53 and caspase 3 and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cJun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in neutrophils from rats supplemented or not with glutamine. Exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 1 h and the rats were killed by decapitation. Neutrophils were obtained by intraperitoneal (i.p.) lavage with PBS, 4 h after injection of oyster glycogen solution. Glutamine supplementation (1g per Kg b.w.) was given by gavage 1 h before the exercise session. Gene expression and protein phosphorylation were then analyzed by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. A single session of exercise increased p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 and caspase 3 expression. Glutamine supplementation partially prevented the increase in p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 expression, and fully abolished the increase in caspase 3 expression. Thus, neutrophil apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise is accompanied by increased p53 and caspase 3 expression and p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation. Glutamine supplementation prevents these effects of exercise and reduces apoptosis. PMID:17542038

  11. Glutamine supplementation prevents exercise-induced neutrophil apoptosis and reduces p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 and caspase 3 expression.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, Claudia J; Hirabara, Sandro M; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that a single session of exercise induces DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increases expression of pro-apoptotic genes (bax and bcl-xS) and decreases expression of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-xL) in rat neutrophils. Glutamine supplementation had a protective effect in the apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise. The mechanism involved in the effect of single session of exercise to induce apoptosis was investigated by measuring expression of p53 and caspase 3 and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cJun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in neutrophils from rats supplemented or not with glutamine. Exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 1 h and the rats were killed by decapitation. Neutrophils were obtained by intraperitoneal (i.p.) lavage with PBS, 4 h after injection of oyster glycogen solution. Glutamine supplementation (1g per Kg b.w.) was given by gavage 1 h before the exercise session. Gene expression and protein phosphorylation were then analyzed by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. A single session of exercise increased p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 and caspase 3 expression. Glutamine supplementation partially prevented the increase in p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 expression, and fully abolished the increase in caspase 3 expression. Thus, neutrophil apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise is accompanied by increased p53 and caspase 3 expression and p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation. Glutamine supplementation prevents these effects of exercise and reduces apoptosis.

  12. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg−1•min−1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

  13. Aerobic exercise prevents age-dependent cognitive decline and reduces anxiety-related behaviors in middle-aged and old rats.

    PubMed

    Pietrelli, A; Lopez-Costa, J; Goñi, R; Brusco, A; Basso, N

    2012-01-27

    Recent research involving human and animals has shown that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity produces the greatest benefit on brain health and behavior. In this study we investigated the effects on cognitive function and anxiety-related behavior in rats at different ages of aerobic exercise, performed regularly throughout life. We designed an aerobic training program with the treadmill running following the basic principles of human training, and assuming that rats have the same physiological adaptations. The intensity was gradually adjusted to the fitness level and age, and maintained at 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption (max.VO(2)). In middle age (8 months) and old age (18 months), we studied the cognitive response with the radial maze (RM), and anxiety-related behaviors with the open field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Aerobically trained (AT) rats had a higher cognitive performance measured in the RM, showing that exercise had a cumulative and amplifier effect on memory and learning. The analysis of age and exercise revealed that the effects of aerobic exercise were modulated by age. Middle-aged AT rats were the most successful animals; however, the old AT rats met the criteria more often than the middle-aged sedentary controls (SC), indicating that exercise could reverse the negative effects of sedentary life, partially restore the cognitive function, and protect against the deleterious effects of aging. The results in the OF and EPM showed a significant decrease in key indicators of anxiety, revealing that age affected most of the analyzed variables, and that exercise had a prominent anxiolytic effect, particularly strong in old age. In conclusion, our results indicated that regular and chronic aerobic exercise has time and dose-dependent, neuroprotective and restorative effects on physiological brain aging, and reduces anxiety-related behaviors.

  14. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; de Brito, Auriléia Aparecida; Pelatti, Mayra; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Greiffo, Flávia Regina; da Silveira, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira-Junior, Manuel Carneiro; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila; Halpern, Silvio; Nisenbaum, Marcelo Gil; Perin, Paulo; Czeresnia, Carlos Eduardo; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Aimbire, Flávio; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Zatz, Mayana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL) therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs) cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day) and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC), which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  15. Oxidative and pro-inflammatory impact of regular and denicotinized cigarettes on blood brain barrier endothelial cells: is smoking reduced or nicotine-free products really safe?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both active and passive tobacco smoke (TS) potentially impair the vascular endothelial function in a causative and dose-dependent manner, largely related to the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and pro-inflammatory activity. Together these factors can compromise the restrictive properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and trigger the pathogenesis/progression of several neurological disorders including silent cerebral infarction, stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Based on these premises, we analyzed and assessed the toxic impact of smoke extract from a range of tobacco products (with varying levels of nicotine) on brain microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3), a well characterized human BBB model. Results Initial profiling of TS showed a significant release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in full flavor, nicotine-free (NF, “reduced-exposure” brand) and ultralow nicotine products. This release correlated with increased oxidative cell damage. In parallel, membrane expression of endothelial tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin were significantly down-regulated suggesting the impairment of barrier function. Expression of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 were also increased by the ultralow or nicotine free tobacco smoke extract. TS extract from these cigarettes also induced an inflammatory response in BBB ECs as demonstrated by increased IL-6 and MMP-2 levels and up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1 and PECAM-1. Conclusions In summary, our results indicate that NF and ultralow nicotine cigarettes are potentially more harmful to the BBB endothelium than regular tobacco products. In addition, this study demonstrates that the TS-induced toxicity at BBB ECs is strongly correlated to the TAR and NO levels in the cigarettes rather than the nicotine content. PMID:24755281

  16. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; de Brito, Auriléia Aparecida; Pelatti, Mayra; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Greiffo, Flávia Regina; da Silveira, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira-Junior, Manuel Carneiro; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila; Halpern, Silvio; Nisenbaum, Marcelo Gil; Perin, Paulo; Czeresnia, Carlos Eduardo; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Aimbire, Flávio; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Zatz, Mayana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL) therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs) cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day) and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC), which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD. PMID:26322981

  17. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  18. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  20. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of

  1. Exercise does not activate the β3 adrenergic receptor-eNOS pathway, but reduces inducible NOS expression to protect the heart of obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, Adrien; Battault, Sylvain; Belaidi, Elise; Tanguy, Stephane; Rosselin, Marie; Boulghobra, Doria; Meyer, Gregory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Walther, Guillaume; Geny, Bernard; Durand, Gregory; Cazorla, Olivier; Reboul, Cyril

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with higher cardiac vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The cardioprotective effect of regular exercise has been attributed to β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) stimulation and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Here, we evaluated the role of the β3AR-eNOS pathway and NOS isoforms in exercise-induced cardioprotection of C57Bl6 mice fed with high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) for 12 weeks and subjected or not to exercise training during the last 4 weeks (HFS-Ex). HFS animals were more sensitive to in vivo and ex vivo IR injuries than control (normal diet) and HFS-Ex mice. Cardioprotection in HFS-Ex mice was not associated with increased myocardial eNOS activation and NO metabolites storage, possibly due to the β3AR-eNOS pathway functional loss in their heart. Indeed, a selective β3AR agonist (BRL37344) increased eNOS activation and had a protective effect against IR in control, but not in HFS hearts. Moreover, iNOS expression, nitro-oxidative stress (protein s-nitrosylation and nitrotyrosination) and ROS production during early reperfusion were increased in HFS, but not in control mice. Exercise normalized iNOS level and reduced protein s-nitrosylation, nitrotyrosination and ROS production in HFS-Ex hearts during early reperfusion. The iNOS inhibitor 1400 W reduced in vivo infarct size in HFS mice to control levels, supporting the potential role of iNOS normalization in the cardioprotective effects of exercise training in HFS-Ex mice. Although the β3AR-eNOS pathway is defective in the heart of HFS mice, regular exercise can protect their heart against IR by reducing iNOS expression and nitro-oxidative stress. PMID:27164904

  2. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID

  3. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory.

  4. Novel long chain fatty acid derivatives of quercetin-3-O-glucoside reduce cytotoxicity induced by cigarette smoke toxicants in human fetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-06-15

    Smoking has become a global health concern due to its association with many disease conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Flavonoids are plant polyphenolic compounds, studied extensively for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) is a flavonoid which is widely found in plants. Six novel long chain fatty acid [stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] derivatives of Q3G were evaluated for their potential in protecting human lung fibroblasts against cytotoxicity induced by selected cigarette smoke toxicants: 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo-α-pyrene (BaP), nicotine and chromium (Cr[VI]). Nicotine and Cr[VI] induced toxicity in fibroblasts and reduced the percentage of viable cells, while BaP and NNK did not affect cell viability. The fatty acid derivatives of Q3G provided protection against nicotine- and Cr[VI]-induced cell death and membrane lipid peroxidation. Based on the evaluation of inflammatory markers of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the fatty acid derivatives of Q3G were found to be effective in lowering the inflammatory response. Overall, these novel fatty acid esters of Q3G warrant further investigation as potential cytoprotective agents. PMID:27071958

  5. Women and Smoking: The Effect of Gender on the Epidemiology, Health Effects, and Cessation of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alicia M.; Oncken, Cheryl; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is still the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality. This paper examines new research on gender differences and the epidemiology of smoking, smoking-related morbidity and mortality, and factors that affect smoking cessation. The rate of decline in the prevalence of smoking has been slowing, especially among adolescent girls. New research suggests that, compared with men, women may be more susceptible to smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Gender-related barriers to smoking cessation include weight gain, sex hormones, and mood. Furthermore, the sensory aspects of smoking may have more of an effect on smoking treatment for women than for men. We discuss new studies that examine smoking-cessation interventions that may be particularly beneficial for women, including exercise (as an adjunct intervention), very low nicotine content cigarettes, and a variety of pharmacotherapy. Further research is needed to identify and target the gender-specific needs of smokers. PMID:27213132

  6. Reduced expression of CRHR2 and Sp-1 in myocardium of ovariectomized rats is improved by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Cong, Binhai; Lu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has been looked on as a non-pharmacologic approach to treating ovariectomy (OVX)-induced dysfunctions. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise impacts on expression of urocortins (UCNs) and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 (CRHR2) in myocardium of OVX rats. Bilateral OVX or sham-operation was performed under anesthesia. Both groups were then divided into two subgroups, with or without treadmill training for 8 weeks. It was found that OVX as well as exercise did not affect the mRNA levels of UCN, UCN2 and UCN3 in myocardium. OVX caused down-regulation of CRHR2 in myocardium. Exercise training reversed the OVX-induced reduction of CRHR2, but had no influence on CRHR2 level in sham rats. OVX resulted in a decrease in estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in myocardium, which was restored by exercise. Moreover, exercise training also reversed OVX-induced down-regulation of specific protein-1 (Sp-1) expression in myocardium. CRHR2 expression level correlated with Sp-1 and ERα level in myocardium. These results indicate that exercise training can restore the CRHR2 level in myocardium of OVX rats, which is associated with ERα and Sp-1 expression.

  7. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  8. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with plasma NOx level (r = 0.493, P < 0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). Serum adropin levels were elevated after the 8-wk aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P < 0.05) and plasma NOx level (r = 0.623, P < 0.001). Thus the increase in adropin may participate in the exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness.

  9. Moderate swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines without causing oxidative stress in tissues of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Rocha, Juliana T; Carvalho, Nelson R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The levels of circulatory inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (INF-γ), are known to increase associated to aging. Caffeine has been reported to produce many beneficial effects for health. Exercise is considered to be a safe medicine to attenuate inflammation and cellular senescence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate-intensity swimming exercise (3 % of body weight, 20 min per day, 4 weeks) and sub-chronic supplementation with caffeine (30 mg/kg, 4 weeks) on the serum cytokine levels in middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats. The effects of swimming exercise and caffeine on oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats were also investigated. The two-way ANOVA of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels demonstrated a significant exercise x caffeine interaction for IL-1β (F (1, 16) = 9.5772; p = 0.0069), IL-6 (F (1, 16) = 8.0463; p = 0.0119) and INF-γ (F (1, 16) = 15.078; p = 0.0013). The two-way ANOVA of TNF-α levels revealed a significant exercise × caffeine interaction (F (1, 16) = 9.6881; p = 0.00670). Swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation increased the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the rat liver and gastrocnemius muscle. Hepatic and renal markers of damage were not modified. In conclusion, a moderate-intensity swimming exercise protocol and caffeine supplementation induced positive adaptations in modulating cytokine levels without causing oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats. PMID:24481487

  10. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg) were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle soreness (DOMS), vertical jump (VJ), thigh circumference (TC) and calf circumference (CC) were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P<0.05). Furthermore, the recovery of MVC was greater in the BCAA group (P<0.05). The VJ, TC and CC were not different between groups. Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281. PMID:22569039

  11. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  12. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Thyfault, John P

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g α-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation.

  13. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Picklo, Matthew J.; Thyfault, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g α-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:25761734

  14. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Thyfault, John P

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g α-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:25761734

  15. [General environmental pollutants and passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Meister, R

    1990-02-01

    Epidemiological studies-especially data from smog episodes-indicate that antropogenous outdoor air pollution exercises a deleterious effect on health and particularly on the respiratory organs. Controlled exposure test in animals and man confirm this. The main pollutants are SO2, suspended dust particles (dust aerosols or solid atmospheric condensation nuclei) as well as NO2 (NOx) and O3. The adverse influence of quite a number of meteorological factors such as low temperature and inversion cannot be denied. During smog conditions in January 1985 in the Federal Republic of Germany there was a highly significant negative correlation between atmospheric temperature and the rate of exacerbations of bronchitis. Indoor air pollution is gaining in importance. Airtight sealing of buildings associated with reduced indoor ventilation results in novel health upsets ("sick building syndrome"). Interiors are characterised by an accumulation of CO2, CO, NO2, dust aerosols and various organic substances such as benzene, benzypyrene, formaldehyde, nitrosamines etc. Cigarette smoke is a frequent cause of indoor air pollution. The possible unhealthy effects of passive smoking (mainly the inhalation of sidestream smoke) have been frequently studied. Infants of smoking parents are more often affected by respiratory diseases than non-exposed children. The same applies to schoolchildren: the incidence of bronchial signs and symptoms increases with increasing smoke consumptions of the parents. However, no definitely established effect on lung function has been seen in children, adults and asthmatics. The important question as to whether passive smoking increases lung cancer risk is still a subject of controversial discussion among experts. PMID:2195521

  16. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  17. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: the importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J

    2013-11-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research.

  18. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. Results: We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health bene-fits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 bene-fits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that significant health and

  19. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  20. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     ... Russia and northeast China, and produced a large amount of smoke that rose to form a thick layer of tiny atmospheric particles, or ... northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian Islands was measured by the ...

  1. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  3. Early Postmenopausal Phase Is Associated With Reduced Prostacyclin-Induced Vasodilation That Is Reversed by Exercise Training: The Copenhagen Women Study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Nielsen, Mads B; Mogensen, Alexander S; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age were included. Before the training period, the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of either the prostacyclin analog epoprostenol or acetylcholine was lower (≈13%-41%; P<0.05) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women. Acetylcholine infusion induced a similar release of prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1a). To elucidate the role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, acetylcholine infusion was combined with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac and here the vascular response to acetylcholine was reduced to a similar extent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training increased (P<0.05) the vasodilator response to epoprostenol (≈100%-150%) and acetylcholine (≈100%-120%) infusion in the postmenopausal group. These findings demonstrate that the early postmenopausal phase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent postmenopausal women. PMID:27550922

  4. Individualized home-based exercise programs for older people to reduce falls and improve physical performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Keith D; Hunter, Susan W; Batchelor, Frances A; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Burton, Elissa

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable diversity in the types of exercise programs investigated to reduce falls in older people. The purpose of this paper was to review the effectiveness of individualized (tailored) home-based exercise programs in reducing falls and improving physical performance among older people living in the community. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of randomized or quasi-randomized trials that utilized an individualized home-based exercise program with at least one falls outcome measure reported. Single intervention exercise studies, and multifactorial interventions where results for an exercise intervention were reported independently were included. Two researchers independently rated the quality of each included study. Of 16,871 papers identified from six databases, 12 met all inclusion criteria (11 randomized trials and a pragmatic trial). Study quality overall was high. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 981, participants had an average age 80.1 years, and although the majority of studies targeted the general older population, several studies included clinical groups as their target (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and hip fracture). The meta-analysis results for the five studies reporting number of fallers found no significant effect of the intervention (RR [95% CI]=0.93 [0.72-1.21]), although when a sensitivity analysis was performed with one study of participants recently discharged from hospital removed, this result was significant (RR [95% CI] = 0.84 [0.72-0.99]). The meta-analysis also found that intervention led to significant improvements in physical activity, balance, mobility and muscle strength. There were no significant differences for measures of injurious falls or fractures.

  5. Locomotor muscle fatigue increases cardiorespiratory responses and reduces performance during intense cycling exercise independently from metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Marcora, Samuele M; Bosio, Andrea; de Morree, Helma M

    2008-03-01

    Locomotor muscle fatigue, defined as an exercise-induced reduction in maximal voluntary force, occurs during prolonged exercise, but its effects on cardiorespiratory responses and exercise performance are unknown. In this investigation, a significant reduction in locomotor muscle force (-18%, P < 0.05) was isolated from the metabolic stress usually associated with fatiguing exercise using a 100-drop-jumps protocol consisting of one jump every 20 s from a 40-cm-high platform. The effect of this treatment on time to exhaustion during high-intensity constant-power cycling was measured in study 1 (n = 10). In study 2 (n = 14), test duration (871 +/- 280 s) was matched between fatigue and control condition (rest). In study 1, locomotor muscle fatigue caused a significant curtailment in time to exhaustion (636 +/- 278 s) compared with control (750 +/- 281 s) (P = 0.003) and increased cardiac output. Breathing frequency was significantly higher in the fatigue condition in both studies despite similar oxygen consumption and blood lactate accumulation. In study 2, high-intensity cycling did not induce further fatigue to eccentrically-fatigued locomotor muscles. In both studies, there was a significant increase in heart rate in the fatigue condition, and perceived exertion was significantly increased in study 2 compared with control. These results suggest that locomotor muscle fatigue has a significant influence on cardiorespiratory responses and exercise performance during high-intensity cycling independently from metabolic stress. These effects seem to be mediated by the increased central motor command and perception of effort required to exercise with weaker locomotor muscles. PMID:18184760

  6. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for

  7. Long-Term Exercise and Bone Mineral Density Changes in Postmenopausal Women--Are There Periods of Reduced Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise can prevent fractures in postmenopausal women. However, even with careful adaptation of the exercise program to subjects' changing bone, health, and fitness status, effectivity may still decrease over the time. This could be specifically the case where the limitations of higher age collide with the specification of the exercise program. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor bone mineral density (BMD) changes over a 16-year period of supervised exercise. Our hypothesis was that BMD differences at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) between exercisers (EG) and nontraining controls (CG) increased throughout the intervention with significant differences for each of the four 4-year observation periods. Sixty-seven (EG, n = 39 versus CG, n = 28) initially early-postmenopausal osteopenic women of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS) with complete BMD data sets for baseline (1998) and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The exercise protocol initially focused on a high-intensity strategy that addressed bone but increasingly shifted to a more comprehensive intervention. LS-BMD differences between the EG and CG continuously increased (year 4: 2.4% (95%- Confidence Interval 1.0% to 3.8%), year 8: 3.1% (1.6% to 4.7%), year 12: 3.9% (1.9% to 5.8), year 16: 4.5% (2.5% to 6.6%). Correspondingly, rising differences for FN-BMD (0.9% (-0.2% to 2.1%) versus 1.9% (0.4% to 3.3%) versus 2.0% (0.5% to 3.8%) versus 3.0% (1.0% to 5.0%)) were observed. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, group differences within the four 4-year periods were not consistently significant (LS, p = 0.001 to 0.097; FN, p = 0.026 to 0.673); further, BMD kinetics among the groups varied between LS and FN. Of particular importance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.030) for both regions were still found in the final period. We conclude that exercise-even when adapted for subjects' decreasing bone

  8. Exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion-induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Deng, Wenqian; Yuan, Qiongjia; Yang, Huijun

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect and mechanism of exercise preconditioning on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced cerebral infarction via rat model; Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups at random: ischemia reperfusion group (IR, n=24), sham group (sham, n=12) and exercise preconditioning group (EP, n=24). Group EP carried out moderate exercise preconditioning for 4 weeks (swimming with non-weight bearing, 60 minutes/day, 6 days/week), Rats in Group EP and IR were established cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury model by Zea Longa's thread method. The cerebral infarct volume in rat of different group was evaluated after 2%TTC staining, expression of HIF-1α in rats' brain was detected by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochmeistry method and western blot. No cerebral infarction and significant expression of HIF-1α in Group sham. Compared with Group IR, there was smaller infarct volume and stronger HIF-1α expression in Group EP (P<0.05). Moderate exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α.

  9. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. PMID:26800860

  10. Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

  11. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  12. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M.; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). PMID:27160659

  13. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). PMID:27160659

  14. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  15. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  16. The mechano-gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4 reduces the exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising from contracting muscles evoke the exercise pressor reflex. This reflex is greater in a rat model of simulated peripheral arterial disease in which a femoral artery is chronically ligated than it is in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. The role played by the mechanically sensitive component of the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in ligated rats is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the mechano-gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4, a relatively selective inhibitor of mechano-gated Piezo channels, reduces the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with ligated femoral arteries. Injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the pressor response to Achilles tendon stretch (a purely mechanical stimulus) but had no effect on the pressor responses to intra-arterial injection of α,β-methylene ATP or lactic acid (purely metabolic stimuli). Moreover, injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced both the integrated pressor area (control 535 ± 21, GsMTx4 218 ± 24 mmHg·s; P < 0.01), peak pressor (control 29 ± 2, GsMTx4 14 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01), and renal sympathetic nerve responses to electrically induced intermittent hindlimb muscle contraction (a mixed mechanical and metabolic stimulus). The reduction of the integrated pressor area during contraction caused by GsMTx4 was greater in rats with ligated femoral arteries than it was in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. We conclude that the mechanically sensitive component of the reflex contributes to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex during intermittent hindlimb muscle contractions in rats with ligated femoral arteries. PMID:26921442

  17. Effectiveness of measures against smoking.

    PubMed

    Horn, D

    1979-03-01

    The objective of a program to control cigarette smoking is to reduce illness and early mortality. This requires a) reducing the taking up of smoking, b) increasing the giving up of smoking, c) reducing the dosage of harmful substances received by the smoker, and d) protecting the non-smoker. Such a program requires both an educational effort and a management approach. The success of past educational efforts has changed the nature of current efforts from an emphasis on persuading people to stop smoking to an emphasis on encouraging those who have been unsuccessful to try again, to assist them, and to use dosage reduction as an alternative to quitting. Managerial efforts most promising are the gradual reduction of harmful substances in the smoke, economic disincentives, and limitations of smoking in public places, thereby protecting both the smoker and the non-smoker.

  18. Human muscle net K(+) release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4,100 m.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Calbet, José A L; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Juel, Carsten; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    It was investigated whether skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m. The highest workload completed by all subjects in all trials was 260 W. With acute hypoxic exposure prior to acclimatization, venous plasma [K(+)] was lower (P < 0.05) in normoxia (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) than hypoxia (5.2 +/- 0.2 mM) at 260 W, but similar at exhaustion, which occurred at 400 +/- 9 W and 307 +/- 7 W (P < 0.05), respectively. At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 wk of acclimatization, no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, either at submaximal intensities or at exhaustion (360 +/- 14 W vs. 313 +/- 8 W; P < 0.05). At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was less (P < 0.001) than prior to acclimatization and reached negative values in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions after acclimatization. Moreover, the reduction in plasma volume during exercise relative to rest was less (P < 0.01) in normoxic than hypoxic conditions, irrespective of the degree of acclimatization (at 260 W prior to acclimatization: -4.9 +/- 0.8% in normoxia and -10.0 +/- 0.4% in hypoxia). It is concluded that leg net K(+) release is unrelated to anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization reduces leg net K(+) release during exercise.

  19. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  20. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  1. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  2. [Smoking and female reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sajdak, Stefan; Witczak, Kamila; Sroka, Lukasz; Samulak, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological data shows that 9 millions of Poles are in smokers group, 43% of them are women. Smoking has significant negative impact on different fields of female sexual and reproductive life, like menstrual cycle, fertility, gynecological cancers and early menopause. Smoking during pregnancy is an important cause of ill health for both mother and foetus-it increases risk of placental complications, pregnancy induced hypertension, reduced fetal growth and perinatal death. Many of adverse effects of smoking is at least partially reversible after stopping smoking, so large public information campaigns can be useful for increasing women awareness of smoking hazards. Gynecologist, as a first contact specialist, has a responsibility to provide accurate information on the risks smoking poses both to the health of the smoker and to give clear, firm advice to stop smoking and offer suitable support.

  3. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  4. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  5. Association of campus tobacco policies with secondhand smoke exposure, intention to smoke on campus, and attitudes about outdoor smoking restrictions.

    PubMed

    Fallin, Amanda; Roditis, Maria; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    College campus tobacco-free policies are an emerging trend. Between September 2013 and May 2014, we surveyed 1309 college students at 8 public 4-year institutions across California with a range of policies (smoke-free indoors only, designated outdoor smoking areas, smoke-free, and tobacco-free). Stronger policies were associated with fewer students reporting exposure to secondhand smoke or seeing someone smoke on campus. On tobacco-free college campuses, fewer students smoked and reported intention to smoke on campus. Strong majorities of students supported outdoor smoking restrictions across all policy types. Comprehensive tobacco-free policies are effective in reducing exposure to smoking and intention to smoke on campus.

  6. Association of Campus Tobacco Policies With Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Intention to Smoke on Campus, and Attitudes About Outdoor Smoking Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Roditis, Maria

    2015-01-01

    College campus tobacco-free policies are an emerging trend. Between September 2013 and May 2014, we surveyed 1309 college students at 8 public 4-year institutions across California with a range of policies (smoke-free indoors only, designated outdoor smoking areas, smoke-free, and tobacco-free). Stronger policies were associated with fewer students reporting exposure to secondhand smoke or seeing someone smoke on campus. On tobacco-free college campuses, fewer students smoked and reported intention to smoke on campus. Strong majorities of students supported outdoor smoking restrictions across all policy types. Comprehensive tobacco-free policies are effective in reducing exposure to smoking and intention to smoke on campus. PMID:25521901

  7. Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Foresta, Mara; Izzotti, Alberto; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Poggi, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Frosina, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells’ capacity to repair damaged DNA. PMID:24498234

  8. Improved Insulin Sensitivity After Exercise Training is Linked to Reduced Plasma C14:0 Ceramide in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kasumov, Takhar; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Hwang, Calvin; Huang, Hazel; Haus, Jacob M.; Zhang, Renliang; Kirwan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=14), or diabetes (n=10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 d/wk, 1 hr/d, 80–85% of maximum heart rate). Changes in body composition were assessed using hydrostatic weighing and computed tomography. Peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 40 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Plasma ceramides (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:0, C24:0 and C24:1) were quantified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after separation with HPLC. Results Plasma ceramides were similar for the obese NGT and subjects with diabetes, despite differences in glucose tolerance. Exercise significantly reduced body weight and adiposity, and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in both groups (P<0.05). In addition, plasma C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, and C24:0 ceramide levels were reduced in all subjects following the intervention (P<0.05). Decreases in total (r=-0.51, P=0.02) and C14:0 (r=-0.56, P=0.009) ceramide were negatively correlated with the increase in insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Ceramides are linked to exercise training-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, and plasma C14:0 ceramide may provide a specific target for investigating lipid-related insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. PMID:25966363

  9. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =−1.06 [−1.67 to −0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [−1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =−0.10 [−0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  10. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 6: 6-Day randomized clinical trial of a menthol cigarette in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Kanada, Shigeto; Takada, Kohji; Martin Leroy, Claire; Lindner, Dirk; Schorp, Matthias K; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, single-center study to determine biomarkers of exposure to 12 selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in cigarette smoke, excretion of mutagenic material in urine, and serum Clara cell 16-kDa protein (CC16) in 102 male and female Japanese subjects who smoked Marlboro Ultra Lights Menthol cigarettes (M4J(M); 4 mg tar and 0.3mg nicotine) at baseline. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking M4J(M), or switch to smoking either the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System menthol cigarette (EHCSS-K6(M); 5mg tar and 0.3mg nicotine) or the Lark One menthol cigarette (Lark1(M); 1mg tar and 0.1mg nicotine), or to no-smoking. The mean decreases from baseline to Day 5/6 were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for exposure to 10 of 12 cigarette smoke HPHC including the primary endpoint (carbon monoxide) and urinary excretion of mutagenic material in the EHCSS-K6(M) group (-12.3% to -83.4%). Smaller, but statistically significant reductions (p ≤ 0.05) occurred in the Lark1(M) group (-3.3% to -35.2%), with the exception of urinary mutagens. The largest mean reductions (all p ≤ 0.05) in exposure to cigarette smoke HPHC and excretion of mutagenic material occurred in the no-smoking group (-1.4% to -93.6%). Serum CC16, an indicator of lung epithelial injury, was not significantly different between groups. PMID:22951347

  11. Post-Exercise Phosphocreatine Recovery, an Index of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, is Reduced in Diabetic Patients With Lower Extremity Complications

    PubMed Central

    Tecilazich, Francesco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Guest, Julie; Villafuerte, Rose; Sampanis, Christos; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Zuo, Chun; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in the post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery, an index of mitochondrial function, in diabetic patients with and without lower extremity complications. Research Methods and Design We enrolled healthy control subjects and three groups of T2DM patients: patients without complications, with peripheral neuropathy and both peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. We employed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic (MRS) measurements to perform continuous measurements of phosphorous metabolites (PCr and Pi) during a 3-minute graded exercise at the level of the posterior calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). Micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements were also performed. Results The resting Pi/PCr ratio and PCr at baseline and the maximum reached during exercise was similar in all groups. The post-exercise time required for recovery of Pi/PCr ratio and PCr levels to resting levels, an assessment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly higher in the diabetic patients with neuropathy and those with both neuropathy and PAD (p <0.01 for both measurements). These two groups had also higher levels of TNFα, (p<0.01) and G-CSF (p <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only G-CSF, OPG and TNFα were significant contributing factors in the variation of the Pi/PCr ratio recovery time. No associations were observed between micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements and Pi/Pcr ration or Pcr recovery time. Conclusions Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is impaired only in T2DM patients with neuropathy whether PAD is present or not and is associated with the increased proinflammatory state that was observed in these groups. PMID:23465172

  12. Running Exercise Reduces Myelinated Fiber Loss in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Chao, Fenglei; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Yanmin; Xiao, Qian; Lv, Fulin; He, Qi; Zhou, Chunni; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Lin; Jiang, Rong; Gu, Hengwei; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of running exercise on myelinated fibers in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus during Alzheimer's disease (AD), 6-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to control or running groups. The running group mice were subjected to a running protocol for four months. The behaviors of the mice from both group mice were then assessed using the Morris water maze, and the total volume of the DG and the related quantitative parameters with characteristics of the myelinated nerve fiber and the myelin sheath in the DG were investigated using unbiased stereological techniques and electron microscopy. Learning and spatial memory performances were both significantly increased in the running group compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the gratio of the myelinated axons between the two groups. However, the DG volume, the myelinated fiber length and volume in the DG, and the myelin sheath volume and thickness in the DG were all significantly increased in the running group mice compared with the control group mice. These results indicated that running exercise was able to prevent DG atrophy and delay the progression of the myelinated fiber loss and the demyelination of the myelin sheaths in the DG in an AD mouse model, which may underlie the running-induced improvement in learning and spatial memory. Taken together, these results demonstrated that running exercise could delay the progression of AD.

  13. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  14. Educational Disadvantage and Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of education on smoking status in a cohort (n = 316) of pregnant women who were smokers at the time they learned of the current pregnancy. Subjects were participants in clinical trials examining the efficacy of monetary-based incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. In multivariate analyses, educational achievement was a robust predictor of smoking status upon entering prenatal care, of achieving abstinence antepartum among those still smoking at entry into prenatal care, and of smoking status at 6-months postpartum in the entire cohort and the subsample who received smoking-cessation treatment. In addition to educational attainment, other predictors of smoking status included smoking-related characteristics (e.g., number of cigarettes/day smoked pre-pregnancy), treatment, maternal age, and stress ratings. We suggest that strategies to increase educational attainment be included with more conventional tobacco-control policies in efforts to reduce smoking among girls and young women. PMID:19442460

  15. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  16. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 3: Eight-day randomized clinical trial in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Stewart, Adrian J; Leroy, Claire Martin; Lindner, Dirk; Schorp, Matthias K; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, single-center study to determine biomarkers of exposure to nine selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in cigarette smoke and urinary excretion of mutagenic material in 160 male and female subjects smoking Marlboro cigarettes (6 mg tar, 0.5mg nicotine, and 7.0mg CO) at baseline. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking Marlboro cigarettes, or switch to using an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) smoking one of two EHCSS series-K cigarettes, the EHCSS-K6 cigarette (5mg tar, 0.3mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg CO) or the EHCSS-K3 cigarette (3mg tar, 0.2mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg CO), or switch to smoking Philip Morris One cigarettes (1mg tar, 0.1mg nicotine, and 2.0mg CO), or to no-smoking. The mean decreases from baseline to Day 8 were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for all determined HPHC including benzene and CO (the primary objectives), and urinary excretion of mutagenic material in the EHCSS-K6 (range -35.5 ± 29.2% to -79.4 ± 14.6% [mean ± standard deviation]), EHCSS-K3 (range -41.2 ± 26.6% to -83.1 ± 9.2%), and PM1 (range -14.6 ± 24.1% to -39.4 ± 17.5%) groups. The largest reductions in exposure occurred in the no-smoking group (range -55.4 ± 45.0% to -100.0 ± 0.0%). PMID:22940436

  17. The decreased oxygen uptake during progressive exercise in ischemia-induced heart failure is due to reduced cardiac output rate.

    PubMed

    Rolim, N P L; Mattos, K C; Brum, P C; Baldo, M V C; Middlekauff, H R; Negrão, C E

    2006-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the inability to increase cardiac output during exercise would explain the decreased rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) in recent onset, ischemia-induced heart failure rats. Nine normal control rats and 6 rats with ischemic heart failure were studied. Myocardial infarction was induced by coronary ligation. VO2 was measured during a ramp protocol test on a treadmill using a metabolic mask. Cardiac output was measured with a flow probe placed around the ascending aorta. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher in ischemic heart failure rats compared with normal control rats (17 +/- 0.4 vs 8 +/- 0.8 mmHg, P = 0.0001). Resting cardiac index (CI) tended to be lower in ischemic heart failure rats (P = 0.07). Resting heart rate (HR) and stroke volume index (SVI) did not differ significantly between ischemic heart failure rats and normal control rats. Peak VO2 was lower in ischemic heart failure rats (73.72 +/- 7.37 vs 109.02 +/- 27.87 mL min(-1) kg(-1), P = 0.005). The VO2 and CI responses during exercise were significantly lower in ischemic heart failure rats than in normal control rats. The temporal response of SVI, but not of HR, was significantly lower in ischemic heart failure rats than in normal control rats. Peak CI, HR, and SVI were lower in ischemic heart failure rats. The reduction in VO2 response during incremental exercise in an ischemic model of heart failure is due to the decreased cardiac output response, largely caused by depressed stroke volume kinetics.

  18. Aerobic Exercise Training Prevents the Onset of Endothelial Dysfunction via Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Reduced Reactive Oxygen Species in an Experimental Model of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Viviane A. V. N.; Couto, Gisele K.; Lazzarin, Mariana C.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estrogen deficiency, arising in postmenopause, promotes endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training on endothelial dependent vasodilation of aorta in ovariectomized rats, specifically investigating the role of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods Female Wistar rats ovariectomized (OVX – n=20) or with intact ovary (SHAM – n=20) remained sedentary (OVX and SHAM) or performed aerobic exercise training on a treadmill 5 times a week for a period of 8 weeks (OVX-TRA and SHAM-TRA). In the thoracic aorta the endothelium-dependent and –independent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. Certain aortic rings were incubated with L-NAME to assess the NO modulation on the ACh-induced vasodilation. The fluorescence to dihydroethidium in aortic slices and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured to evaluate ROS and NO bioavailability, respectively. Results ACh-induced vasodilation was reduced in OVX rats as compared SHAM (Rmax: SHAM: 86±3.3 vs. OVX: 57±3.0%, p<0.01). Training prevented this response in OVX-TRA (Rmax: OVX-TRA: 88±2.0%, p<0.01), while did not change it in SHAM-TRA (Rmax: SHAM-TRA: 80±2.2%, p<0.01). The L-NAME incubation abolished the differences in ACh-induced relaxation among groups. SNP-induced vasodilation was not different among groups. OVX reduced nitrite/nitrate plasma concentrations and increased ROS in aortic slices, training as effective to restore these parameters to the SHAM levels. Conclusions Exercise training, even in estrogen deficiency conditions, is able to improve endothelial dependent vasodilation in rat aorta via enhanced NO bioavailability and reduced ROS levels. PMID:25923465

  19. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  20. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation. PMID:27382033

  1. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor κ B signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NFκB) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days × 2500–4500 mg) treatment with the NFκB inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = −0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NFκB signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of

  2. Exercise Training Reduces Central Adiposity and Improves Metabolic Indices in HAART-Treated HIV-Positive Subjects in Rwanda: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    MUTIMURA, EUGENE; CROWTHER, NIGEL J.; CADE, TODD W.; YARASHESKI, KEVIN E.; STEWART, AIMEE

    2014-01-01

    As HAART becomes more accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, metabolic syndromes, body fat redistribution (BFR), and cardiovascular disease may become more prevalent. We conducted a 6-month, randomized controlled trial to test whether cardiorespiratory exercise training (CET), improves metabolic, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in HAART-treated HIV+ African subjects with BFR. Six months of CET reduced waist circumference (−7.13 ± 4.4 cm, p < 0.0001), WHR (−0.10 ± 0.1, p < 0.0001), sum skinfold thickness (−6.15 ± 8.2 mm, p < 0.0001) and % body fat mass (−1.5 ± 3.3, p < 0.0001) in HIV+BFR+EXS. Hip circumference was unchanged in non-exercise control groups. CET reduced fasting total cholesterol (−0.03 ± 1.11 mM, p < 0.05), triglycerides (−0.22 ± 0.48 mM, p < 0.05) and glucose levels (−0.21 ± 0.71 mM, p < 0.05) (p < 0.0001). HDL-, LDL-cholesterol and HOMA values were unchanged after CET. Interestingly, HIV+ subjects randomized to non-exercising groups experienced increases in fasting plasma glucose levels, whereas HIV seronegative controls did not (p < 0.001). Predicted VO2 peak increased more in the HIV+BFR+EXS than in all other groups (4.7 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min, p < 0.0001). Exercise training positively modulated body composition and metabolic profiles, and improved cardiorespiratory fitness in HAART-treated HIV+ Africans. These beneficial adaptations imply that exercise training is a safe, inexpensive, practical, and effective treatment for evolving metabolic and cardiovascular syndromes associated with HIV and HAART exposure in resource-limited sub-Saharan countries, where treatment is improving, morbidity and mortality rates are declining, but where minimal resources are available to manage HIV- and HAART-associated cardiovascular and metabolic syndromes. PMID:18275343

  3. Public health impacts of the severe haze in Equatorial Asia in September-October 2015: demonstration of a new framework for informing fire management strategies to reduce downwind smoke exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplitz, Shannon N.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Marlier, Miriam E.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Liu, Tianjia; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Schwartz, Joel; Pongsiri, Montira; Myers, Samuel S.

    2016-09-01

    In September-October 2015, El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions set the stage for massive fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), leading to persistently hazardous levels of smoke pollution across much of Equatorial Asia. Here we quantify the emission sources and health impacts of this haze episode and compare the sources and impacts to an event of similar magnitude occurring under similar meteorological conditions in September-October 2006. Using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we first calculate the influence of potential fire emissions across the domain on smoke concentrations in three receptor areas downwind—Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore—during the 2006 event. This step maps the sensitivity of each receptor to fire emissions in each grid cell upwind. We then combine these sensitivities with 2006 and 2015 fire emission inventories from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) to estimate the resulting population-weighted smoke exposure. This method, which assumes similar smoke transport pathways in 2006 and 2015, allows near real-time assessment of smoke pollution exposure, and therefore the consequent morbidity and premature mortality, due to severe haze. Our approach also provides rapid assessment of the relative contribution of fire emissions generated in a specific province to smoke-related health impacts in the receptor areas. We estimate that haze in 2015 resulted in 100 300 excess deaths across Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, more than double those of the 2006 event, with much of the increase due to fires in Indonesia’s South Sumatra Province. The model framework we introduce in this study can rapidly identify those areas where land use management to reduce and/or avoid fires would yield the greatest benefit to human health, both nationally and regionally.

  4. Surgical smoke.

    PubMed

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown. PMID:19892630

  5. Perceptions of Second-hand Smoke Risks Predict Future Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To directly test whether perceptions of second-hand smoke risks deter adolescent smoking initiation. Methods A longitudinal survey design was utilized in this study. Baseline surveys measuring perceptions of tobacco-related risks and smoking behaviors were administered to 395 high school students, with three follow-up assessments every 6 months. Results Perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks and parental second-hand smoke risks significantly deterred adolescent smoking initiation. Perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks reduced the odds of smoking by a factor of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42–0.94) for each quartile increase in perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks. Adolescents who provided the highest estimates of risks for personal second-hand smoke were 0.25 as likely to smoke as adolescents who provided the lowest estimates of risk. Perceptions of parental second-hand smoke risks reduced the odds of smoking by a factor of 0.64 (95% CI = 0.43–0.93) for each quartile increase. Adolescents who perceived the highest estimates of risks associated with parental second-hand smoke were 0.26 as likely to smoke in the future compared to adolescents who provided the lowest estimates of risk. These effects are over three times as large as a smoking peer’s influence on a nonsmoking adolescents’ risk for smoking initiation, odds ratio [OR] = 1.18 (95% CI = 1.02–1.35). Conclusions Adolescent perceptions of risks of second-hand smoke are strongly associated with smoking initiation. Encouraging adolescents to express their objections to second-hand smoke, as well as encouraging parents to create smoke-free homes, may be powerful tobacco control strategies against adolescent smoking. PMID:19931835

  6. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Methods Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Results Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Conclusion Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke–associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:27763830

  7. Adolescents' perceptions of smoking and stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Scales, Monica B; Monahan, Jennifer L; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they suggested that the primary reasons why they smoked-namely, as a coping mechanism (to calm nerves), for social acceptance, and because of environmental influences. Family issues, boyfriend/girlfriend problems, and school were common stressors. Although participants overwhelmingly believed that people smoke to reduce their stress, a few believed that cigarettes do not actually reduce stress. When asked for examples of smoking in popular media, teens predominantly generated examples of individuals smoking to reduce stress. Ethnic and gender differences were found among the types of media in which they had seen smoking, their opinions of anti-smoking messages, and the media's perceived influence.

  8. Smoking Cessation for Crohn's Disease: Clearing the Haze.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-03-01

    The TABACROHN Study Group conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study, demonstrating that smoking cessation improved the prognosis of Crohn's disease. Patients who continued to smoke were 50% more likely to relapse compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation reduced the risk of flaring, regardless of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial, many patients do not quit smoking after their diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Lack of awareness, physical addiction, and social context of smoking inhibit smoking cessation. In spite of this, comprehensive smoking cessation programs have been shown to be effective and reduce costs.

  9. [Passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Grandjean, E; Weber, A; Fischer, T

    1979-03-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inspiration of smoky indoor air. Based on the information available today, it may be assumed that passive smoking normally is no health hazard as far as the classical smoker's diseases (lung cancer, myocardial infarct, etc.) are concerned. Nevertheless, it is probable that irritations caused by tobacco smoke have an unfavorable influence on the health of small children and that of already sick persons. The main problem of passive smoking is annoyance due to odor and irritations of eyes and respiratory organs. Our investigations in a climatic chamber with healthy subjects show that air pollution caused by tobacco smoke as indicated by 5 ppm CO leads to marked eye irritations--objectively as well as subjectively--in 15 to 20% of the subjects. This corresponds to smoking 10 cigarettes per hour in a small room with an air ventilation rate of four times per hour. If air pollution caused by tobacco smoke lies below the level of 2 ppm CO, irritations and annoyance for healthy persons are regarded as low and tolerable. This corresponds to about four cigarettes per hour under the same circumstances.

  10. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). PMID:26867697

  11. Supervised exercise training reduces oxidative stress and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vinetti, Giovanni; Mozzini, Chiara; Desenzani, Paolo; Boni, Enrico; Bulla, Laura; Lorenzetti, Isabella; Romano, Claudia; Pasini, Andrea; Cominacini, Luciano; Assanelli, Deodato

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of supervised exercise training (SET) on cardiometabolic risk, cardiorespiratory fitness and oxidative stress status in 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), twenty male subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which performed SET in a hospital-based setting, and to a control group. SET consisted of a 12-month supervised aerobic, resistance and flexibility training. A reference group of ten healthy male subjects was also recruited for baseline evaluation only. Participants underwent medical examination, biochemical analyses and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Oxidative stress markers (1-palmitoyl-2-[5-oxovaleroyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [POVPC]; 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [PGPC]) were measured in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All investigations were carried out at baseline and after 12 months. SET yielded a significant modification (p < 0.05) in the following parameters: V'O2max (+14.4%), gas exchange threshold (+23.4%), waist circumference (−1.4%), total cholesterol (−14.6%), LDL cholesterol (−20.2%), fasting insulinemia (−48.5%), HOMA-IR (−52.5%), plasma POVPC (−27.9%) and PGPC (−31.6%). After 12 months, the control group presented a V'O2max and a gas exchange threshold significantly lower than the intervention group. Plasma POVC and PGPC were significantly different from healthy subjects before the intervention, but not after. In conclusion, SET was effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk and oxidative stress status in T2DM. PMID:25783765

  12. Supervised exercise training reduces oxidative stress and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vinetti, Giovanni; Mozzini, Chiara; Desenzani, Paolo; Boni, Enrico; Bulla, Laura; Lorenzetti, Isabella; Romano, Claudia; Pasini, Andrea; Cominacini, Luciano; Assanelli, Deodato

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of supervised exercise training (SET) on cardiometabolic risk, cardiorespiratory fitness and oxidative stress status in 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), twenty male subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which performed SET in a hospital-based setting, and to a control group. SET consisted of a 12-month supervised aerobic, resistance and flexibility training. A reference group of ten healthy male subjects was also recruited for baseline evaluation only. Participants underwent medical examination, biochemical analyses and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Oxidative stress markers (1-palmitoyl-2-[5-oxovaleroyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [POVPC]; 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [PGPC]) were measured in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All investigations were carried out at baseline and after 12 months. SET yielded a significant modification (p < 0.05) in the following parameters: V'O₂max (+14.4%), gas exchange threshold (+23.4%), waist circumference (-1.4%), total cholesterol (-14.6%), LDL cholesterol (-20.2%), fasting insulinemia (-48.5%), HOMA-IR (-52.5%), plasma POVPC (-27.9%) and PGPC (-31.6%). After 12 months, the control group presented a V'O₂max and a gas exchange threshold significantly lower than the intervention group. Plasma POVC and PGPC were significantly different from healthy subjects before the intervention, but not after. In conclusion, SET was effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk and oxidative stress status in T2DM. PMID:25783765

  13. [SMOKING CESSATION IN PREGNANCY].

    PubMed

    Grangé, Gilles; Berlin, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of perinatal morbidity. Half of smokers are weaned during pregnancy resulting in 15% of female smokers at time of delivery. Most often, women spontaneously withdraw at the announcement of pregnancy. Thus, the action of professionals has a modest effect. But this effect is real and should encourage us to take care for patients who smoke. They should feel free with guilty. The spouse must be included in this support to create an enabling environment. Every action has its effectiveness. Nicotine prescription should be reserved for cases where it reduces consumption and keep the medicalized link. It is possible to smoke with a nicotine patch in place; the substitution then reduces the cosumption of each cigarette.

  14. Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

  15. Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

    PubMed

    Savage, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The primary aim of the ban was to reduce people's exposure to second-hand smoke. A 95% compliance rate among employers suggests this aim was achieved. By prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor working places, an effect of the ban was to increase the non-monetary cost of smoking. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. A difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. The research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared with the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed.

  16. Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

    PubMed

    Savage, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The primary aim of the ban was to reduce people's exposure to second-hand smoke. A 95% compliance rate among employers suggests this aim was achieved. By prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor working places, an effect of the ban was to increase the non-monetary cost of smoking. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. A difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. The research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared with the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed. PMID:24521758

  17. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  18. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  19. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial ...

  20. Quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  1. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  2. Smoking further increases platelet activity in patients with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, G; Winther, K

    1996-01-01

    In this study the authors examine whether smoking further heightens platelet activity and reduces fibrinolysis above that already present in mild hypertension. Ten smokers and 11 non-smokers, all with mild hypertension (defined as a diastolic pressure between 90 and 110 mm Hg) were compared for their platelet activity in vitro and in vivo and for their fibrinolytic activity. Successive measurements were made with the patients lying at rest after they had assumed the erect posture for 10 min and at the end of a 5-min moderately strenuous exercise test. The threshold for platelet aggregation by ADP in vitro was significantly lower in samples taken from the smokers at rest (1.4 +/- 0.9 mumol L(-1)) than in the non-smokers (3.5 +/- 2.5 mumol L(-1)), and the difference persisted both in the upright posture and after exercise. The level of platelet release of beta-thromboglobulin was, likewise, higher in the smokers in the upright posture. Neither standing up nor physical exercise had any significant influence on either of these two indices of platelet activity. The euglobulin clot lysis time was slightly longer in the smokers than in the non-smokers in all three experimental situations, but the differences were not significant. Inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator was not materially different in the two groups (Table 2). The results indicate that smoking adds a further element of heightened platelet activity to that inherently present in hypertension.

  3. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications

    SciTech Connect

    Greenholt, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity of particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.

  4. A diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promote neuroprotection, reduced cell apoptosis and glial cell activation in the hypothalamus of old rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus. A decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 levels as well as an increase of the cleaved PARP/full length PARP ratio (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP) and the pJNK/JNK ratio (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) were observed. The levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), the pAkt/Akt ratio (also known as protein kinase B) and NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron marker, were decreased in the hypothalamus of old rats. Old rats that received a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and performed swimming exercise had the hypothalamic levels of Iba-1 and GFAP decreased. The combined treatment also increased the levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 and decreased the ratios of cleaved PARP/full length PARP and pJNK/JNK in old rats. The levels of mBDNF and NeuN, but not the pAkt/Akt ratio, were increased by combined treatment. In conclusion, a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promoted neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old rats, reducing apoptosis and glial cell activation.

  5. Daily Oxygen/O3 Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Trotta, M. C.; Maisto, R.; Siniscalco, D.; Luongo, M.; Mascolo, L.; Alfano, R.; Accardo, M.; Rossi, C.; Ferraraccio, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (−13%), the heart rate (−6%), the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and more effective (+14%) at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise. PMID:26265981

  6. A diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promote neuroprotection, reduced cell apoptosis and glial cell activation in the hypothalamus of old rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus. A decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 levels as well as an increase of the cleaved PARP/full length PARP ratio (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP) and the pJNK/JNK ratio (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) were observed. The levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), the pAkt/Akt ratio (also known as protein kinase B) and NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron marker, were decreased in the hypothalamus of old rats. Old rats that received a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and performed swimming exercise had the hypothalamic levels of Iba-1 and GFAP decreased. The combined treatment also increased the levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 and decreased the ratios of cleaved PARP/full length PARP and pJNK/JNK in old rats. The levels of mBDNF and NeuN, but not the pAkt/Akt ratio, were increased by combined treatment. In conclusion, a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promoted neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old rats, reducing apoptosis and glial cell activation. PMID:27215802

  7. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dechanet, C; Anahory, T; Mathieu Daude, J C; Quantin, X; Reyftmann, L; Hamamah, S; Hedon, B; Dechaud, H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is associated with lower fecundity rates, adverse reproductive outcomes and a higher risk of IVF failures. Over the last few decades, prevalence of smoking among women of reproductive age has increased. This review focuses on current knowledge of the potential effects of smoke toxicants on all reproductive stages and the consequences of smoke exposure on reproductive functions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on the impact of cigarette smoking and smoke constituents on the different stages of reproductive function, including epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. We attempted to create hypotheses and find explanations for the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke observed in experimental studies. RESULTS Cigarette smoke contains several thousand components (e.g. nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cadmium) with diverse effects. Each stage of reproductive function, folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and uterine myometrium is a target for cigarette smoke components. The effects of cigarette smoke are dose-dependent and are influenced by the presence of other toxic substances and hormonal status. Individual sensitivity, dose, time and type of exposure also play a role in the impact of smoke constituents on human fertility. CONCLUSIONS All stages of reproductive functions are targets of cigarette smoke toxicants. Further studies are necessary to better understand the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke compounds on the reproductive system in order to improve health care, help to reduce cigarette smoking and provide a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive toxicology.

  8. Automating arm movement training following severe stroke: functional exercises with quantitative feedback in a gravity-reduced environment.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robert J; Liu, Jiayin; Rao, Sandhya; Shah, Punit; Smith, Robert; Rahman, Tariq; Cramer, Steven C; Bobrow, James E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2006-09-01

    An important goal in rehabilitation engineering is to develop technology that allows individuals with severe motor impairment to practice arm movement without continuous supervision from a rehabilitation therapist. This paper describes the development of such a system, called Therapy WREX or ("T-WREX"). The system consists of an orthosis that assists in arm movement across a large workspace, a grip sensor that detects hand grip pressure, and software that simulates functional activities. The arm orthosis is an instrumented, adult-sized version of the Wilmington Robotic Exoskeleton (WREX), which is a five degrees-of-freedom mechanism that passively counterbalances the weight of the arm using elastic bands. After providing a detailed design description of T-WREX, this paper describes two pilot studies of the system's capabilities. The first study demonstrated that individuals with chronic stroke whose arm function is compromised in a normal gravity environment can perform reaching and drawing movements while using T-WREX. The second study demonstrated that exercising the affected arm of five people with chronic stroke with T-WREX over an eight week period improved unassisted movement ability (mean change in Fugl-Meyer score was 5 points +/- 2 SD; mean change in range of motion of reaching was 10%, p < 0.001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of automating upper-extremity rehabilitation therapy for people with severe stroke using passive gravity assistance, a grip sensor, and simple virtual reality software.

  9. Early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise reduces neuropathic pain by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, Víctor M; Modol, Laura; Navarro, Xavier; Cobianchi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Activity treatments, such as treadmill exercise, are used to improve functional recovery after nerve injury, parallel to an increase in neurotrophin levels. However, despite their role in neuronal survival and regeneration, neurotrophins may cause neuronal hyperexcitability that triggers neuropathic pain. In this work, we demonstrate that an early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise (iTR), performed during the first week (iTR1) or during the first 2 weeks (iTR2) after section and suture repair of the rat sciatic nerve, significantly reduced the hyperalgesia developing rapidly in the saphenous nerve territory and later in the sciatic nerve territory after regeneration. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in sensory neurons and spinal cord was reduced in parallel. iTR prevented the extension of collateral sprouts of saphenous nociceptive calcitonin gene-related peptide fibers within the adjacent denervated skin and reduced NGF expression in the same skin and in the L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Injury also induced Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) upregulation in DRG, and K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 (KCC2) downregulation in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. iTR normalized NKCC1 and boosted KCC2 expression, together with a significant reduction of microgliosis in L3-L5 dorsal horn, and a reduction of BDNF expression in microglia at 1 to 2 weeks postinjury. These data demonstrate that specific activity protocols, such as iTR, can modulate neurotrophins expression after peripheral nerve injury and prevent neuropathic pain by blocking early mechanisms of sensitization such as collateral sprouting and NKCC1/KCC2 disregulation. PMID:26090759

  10. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  11. Cigarette smoking and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, J B; Hegedüs, L

    1994-01-01

    Relevant English language articles published from 1970 through 1993 regarding the possible influence of cigarette smoking on the thyroid were identified through a MEDLINE search and manual searches of identified articles. Thiocyanate in tobacco smoke influences the thyroid by a competitive inhibition of iodine uptake and organification in the gland. Also the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by cigarette smoke and benzpyrene, another constituent of tobacco, is thought to influence thyroid gland function. The thyroid hormones and TSH receptor autoantibodies are not affected by smoking, but serum TSH levels have been found to be slightly reduced. Smokers have a higher frequency of goiter and increased serum thyroglobulin levels, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Graves' ophthalmopathy is strongly associated with cigarette smoking; the more severe the eye disease the stronger the association. Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy is also associated with smoking, though this association is weaker. Thiocyanate level in cord blood equilibrates completely with the level in the mother, and a reverse correlation has been demonstrated between birth weight and thiocyanate level in cord blood. Cigarette smoking induces similar changes in thyroid function in the adult and the fetus. No separate study has elucidated the effects of cessation of smoking, but there seems to be longstanding effects induced by smoking, some probably irreversible.

  12. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  13. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  14. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  15. [Cost effectiveness of workplace smoking policies].

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, Tamara; van den Borne, Inge

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the motivations of companies to set out a policy for controlling smoking, the economic benefits for the company resulting from such a policy and the costs, broken down by European Union countries. The literature on the costs of implementing a policy related to smoking at the workplace is reviewed. The main objective of policies related to smoking at the workplace is that of safeguarding employees from environmental tobacco smoke. Other reasons are cutting costs, improving the company image, and reducing absenteeism, occupational accidents, internal quarrels and extra costs due to cigarette smoking, protection against environmental tobacco smoke does not entail any higher costs for companies, and economic advantages are visible. The benefits are by far greater than the costs involved, particularly on a long-range basis, and seem to be greater when smoking at the workplace is completely prohibited and no smoking areas are set. PMID:12696390

  16. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  17. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  18. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

  19. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Rennard, Stephen I; Daughton, David M

    2014-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the developed world. Smoking is a chronic relapsing disease. Optimal treatment includes nonpharmacologic support, together with pharmacotherapy. All clinicians should be comfortable with the use of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline. Second-line therapies can be used by those familiar with their use. Effective use of these medications requires their integration into an effective management plan, which is likely to be a long-term undertaking, involving several cycles of remission and relapse. PMID:24507844

  20. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  1. Smoking Policies of U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, H. Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of a study on the preventive health activity concerning smoking at dental schools were to determine the smoking policies and what actions were taken to reduce health hazards of smoke to personnel in institutions. The majority of schools surveyed (N=46) restricted smoking to certain areas in their facility. (MLW)

  2. Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment | View Video Back About Video Struggling with Low Back Pain? Many people are surprised to learn that carefully selected exercise can actually reduce back pain. Some exercises can ...

  3. Smoke and mirrors: a fiber optic smoke sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesel, Henry K.; Overby, John K.; Ransford, Michael J.; Tatem, Patricia A.

    1994-11-01

    Smoke detectors in general, are usually threshold devices that frequently experience false alarms. Optical smoke detectors usually depend on the measurement of optical power absorption and scattering across an air gap and are usually threshold devices. Fiber optic sensor technology offers potential improvements for existing smoke detector technology. We have developed a new smoke sensor design based on wavelength selective absorption and scattering that generates a continuous measurement of smoke density. This technique provides first order compensation for water and dirt coatings on the optical surfaces and for optical power and ambient light changes. The sensor has a 2 inch sensing region and utilizes multimode technology with an 850 nanometer LED source. Experimental models of the fiber optic smoke sensors were tested successfully in our laboratory and on the ex-USS SHADWELL. Operational performance advantages of the fiber optic smoke sensor are expected in the areas of monitoring visibility, reducing false alarms, improving reliability, and continuous measurement of smoke density; this will improve fire detection capability and will assist in developing fire fighting strategy. Application of the sensors are planned for the shipboard environment to provide sensor input to new damage control management systems.

  4. Smoke-Free Laws and Direct Democracy Initiatives on Smoking Bans in Germany: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions. PMID:24394216

  5. The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Carpenter, R. Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S.; Goldstrohm, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Bowler, Russell P.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Regan, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading. PMID:25593283

  6. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A L

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  7. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  8. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... about exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these places: At work The workplace is a major source of SHS ... the only way to prevent SHS exposure at work. Separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning ... public places Everyone can be exposed to SHS in public ...

  9. Attitudes toward smoking and smoking rate: implications for smoking discouragement.

    PubMed

    Dawley, H H; Fleischer, B J; Dawley, L T

    1985-03-01

    Attitudes toward smoking were measured among nonsmokers and five levels of smokers (light to heavy). Of 13 attitude items, a relationship between attitudes and number of cigarettes smoked was found to exist in five, three of which dealt with smoking as a health risk. The results suggest that the more cigarettes a person smokes, the greater the likelihood of denial of the health hazards associated with smoking.

  10. Exercise, Lymphokines, Calories, and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of epidemiological studies suggesting that exercise reduces the risk of cancer concludes that exercise may help defend against cancer by preventing obesity, stimulating lymphokines, and/or facilitating other healthful changes in behavior. (Author/CB)

  11. Changes in Smoking Patterns During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Homish, Gregory G.; Colder, Craig R.; Schuetze, Pamela; Gray, Teresa R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of smoking during pregnancy among low-income smokers and differences on demographics, psychopathology, and smoking outcome expectancies among women with different smoking trajectories. The sample consisted of 215 urban pregnant smokers living in the United States. Results indicated four trajectories of smoking and significant changes over time within each trajectory. Persistent smokers had the highest demographic and mental health risks, reported higher craving compared to light smokers, and were more likely to endorse smoking to reduce negative affect, for state enhancement motives. Implications for intervention are discussed. The study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. PMID:23581507

  12. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand.

  13. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  14. Perceptions of Smoking-Related Risks and Benefits as Predictors of Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cornell, Jodi L.; Ramos, Malena E.; Biehl, Michael; Kropp, Rhonda Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive value of perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits with regard to adolescent smoking initiation has not been adequately established. We used prospective, longitudinal data to directly test whether smoking-related perceptions predict smoking initiation among adolescents. Methods. We administered surveys assessing perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits to 395 high school students, beginning at the start of their ninth-grade year. We conducted follow-up assessments every 6 months until the end of 10th grade, obtaining 4 waves of data. Results. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of long-term smoking-related risks were 3.64 times more likely to start smoking than were adolescents who held the highest perceptions of risk. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of short-term smoking-related risks were 2.68 times more likely to initiate. Adolescents who held the highest perceptions of smoking-related benefits were 3.31 times more likely to initiate. Conclusions. Findings from this study provide one of the first sets of empirical evidence to show that smoking initiation is directly related to smoking-related perceptions of risks and benefits. Thus, efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should continue to communicate the health risks of smoking and counteract perceptions of benefits associated with smoking. PMID:19106420

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-274-1879, evaluation of zinc chloride smoke-generating devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Richardson, F.

    1988-03-01

    An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters of using different zinc-chloride smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc., New Jersey. used in fire-fighter-training exercises, zinc compounds, hydrochloric acid and over 50 chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in smoke clouds. The concentration of hydrochloric acid ranged as high as 420 mg/m/sup 3/. Zinc chloride concentrations ranged from 11 to 498 mg/m/sup 3/. A telephone survey was conducted of 62 different fire fighting training organizations around the United States to obtain information they might have on use of similar devices. A literature search revealed that there had been severe adverse health effects, including death, resulting from exposure to a dense smoke cloud from a zinc-chloride smoke-generating device. Individuals who were adversely affected were not wearing respiratory protective gear or had malfunctioning gear. Symptoms of exposure included sore throat, difficulty breathing, joint pain, chills and fever, headache, and generalized fatigue. The authors conclude that no smoke-generating device should be considered safe and nontoxic, and that measures should be taken to reduce exposures to smoke clouds from such devices. Alternative methods to distort vision in fire-fighting training exercises should be considered.

  16. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn; Stallknecht, Bente

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P < 0.001) and increased insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment; P < 0.05). Plasma adiponectin (P < 0.001) increased, and C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P < 0.01) decreased. AT inflammation was reduced, determined from an increased mRNA expression of adiponectin (P < 0.001) and a decreased expression of macrophage-specific markers (CD14, CD68), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.01). After adjusting for macrophage infiltration in AT, only IL-6 mRNA was decreased (P < 0.05). Only very low levels of inflammatory markers were found in SM. The intervention had no effect on adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA in AT or SM. Thus hypocaloric diet and increased physical activity improved insulin sensitivity and reduced low-grade inflammation. Markers of inflammation were particularly reduced in AT, whereas SM does not contribute to this attenuation of whole body inflammation.

  17. Factors associated with late smoking initiation in Minnesota women.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, K A; Lund, E M; Harty, K C; Ersted, S A

    1993-01-01

    This case-control study investigated factors associated with late initiation (i.e., initiation after the age of 17 years) of smoking among young women. The most significantly elevated odds ratios for late initiation were having a significant other who smoked and having friends who found smoking acceptable at initiation. Peers, especially significant others, played an important role in smoking initiation among young women. Prevention efforts should focus on strategies that reduce the acceptability of smoking in the social environment. PMID:8363013

  18. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  20. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  1. Exercise and food ad libitum reduce the impact of early in life nutritional inbalances on nitrergic activity of hippocampus and striatum.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lane Coelho; Torres, João Bento; Farias, José Augusto; Kawhage, Rafael; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Trévia, Nonata; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances were produced by varying litter size pups per dam: 3 (small), 6 (medium), and 12 (large). On the 21st day, 4 subjects of each litter, were sacrificed and the remaining were grouped, 2 per cage, with or without running wheels, with food and water ad libitum. Adult subjects were tested in water maze, their brains processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and quantified by densitometry. No differences were detected in water maze. At 21st day, S and L compared with M presented reduced NADPH-d in the stratum molecular of dentate gyrus (DG), stratum lacunosum of CA1 and in all CA3 layers but not in the striatum. On the 58th day, actvity remained low in S and L in CA3 and striatum and L in CA1 and DG. Voluntary exercise increased NADPH-d in DG, CA1, CA3, and striatum in S, and in the stratum lacunosum of CA1 and CA3 in L.

  2. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Kevin R; Fell, Charlene; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Brown, Kevin; Colby, Thomas; Costabel, Ulrich; Franks, Teri J; Gross, Barry H; Hansell, David M; Kazerooni, Ella; Kim, Dong Soon; King, Talmadge E; Kitachi, Masanori; Lynch, David; Myers, Jeff; Nagai, Sonoko; Nicholson, Andrew G; Poletti, Venerino; Raghu, Ganesh; Selman, Moises; Toews, Galen; Travis, William; Wells, Athol U; Vassallo, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases. An international group of clinicians, radiologists and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) to determine unique features of cigarette smoking. Phase 1 (derivation group) identified smoking-related features in patients with a history of smoking (n=41). Phase 2 (validation group) determined if these features correctly predicted the smoking status of IIP patients (n=100) to participants blinded to smoking history. Finally, the investigators sought to determine if a new smoking-related interstitial lung disease phenotype could be defined. Phase 1 suggested that preserved forced vital capacity with disproportionately reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and various radiographic and histopathological findings were smoking-related features. In phase 2, the kappa coefficient among clinicians was 0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21), among the pathologists 0.36 (95% CI 0.32-0.40) and among the radiologists 0.43 (95% CI 0.35-0.52) for smoking-related features. Eight of the 100 cases were felt to represent a potential smoking-related interstitial lung disease. Smoking-related features of interstitial lung disease were identified in a minority of smokers and were not specific for smoking. This study is limited by its retrospective design, the potential for recall bias in smoking history and lack of information on second-hand smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between smoking and interstitial lung disease. PMID:25063244

  3. Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2012-12-01

    The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (<0.01 μm aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM <10 μm aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations

  4. Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. ); Rowland, R.A. . Chemical Preparedness Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

  5. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  6. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  7. Smoking and Youth

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  8. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... there harmful chemicals in cigar smoke? Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? What if I don’t ... to yourself and others, stop smoking. Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer ...

  9. COPD: benefits of exercise training.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    In patients with stable, moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), general exercise training, including limb exercises, provides sustained improvement in various quality of life domains, compared with care without pulmonary rehabilitation. After a COPD exacerbation, exercise training appears to reduce the risk of hospitalisation in the following months by at least half. Few studies have evaluated the adverse effects of exercise training in COPD, but based on the data available in 2015, its harm-benefit balance appears favourable. PMID:27152405

  10. Addition of porphyrins to cigarette filters to reduce the levels of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changguo; Dai, Ya; Feng, Guanglin; He, Rong; Yang, Wenmin; Li, Dongliang; Zhou, Xuezheng; Zhu, Lijun; Tan, Lanlan

    2011-07-13

    Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) cause smoking-related diseases and environmental pollution. Porphyrins were added to cigarette filters to reduce B[a]P (porphyrins A-E) and TSNAs (porphyrin F) in MSS. The porphyrin-B[a]P and porphyrin F-TSNAs (N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN)) interactions were investigated by fluorescence quenching and UV-visible spectroscopy. The correlation coefficients were 0.987-0.997 (B[a]P) and 0.994-0.999 (TSNAs), and the binding constants were (1.67-5.02) × 10(5) (B[a]P) and 3.42 × 10(3)-1.40 × 10(4) (TSNAs). Up to 36.72% of B[a]P and 46.67% of the TSNAs were eliminated from MSS, with greater reductions when more porphyrin was included in the filter. With the same mass of porphyrin in the filter, the reduction trend for B[a]P by porphyrins A-E was A > B > C > D > E. The reduction trend for TSNAs by porphyrin F was NNN > NAB > NNK > NAT. The porphyrin mode of action is possibly through strong π-π interactions.

  11. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based) versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength), in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360) are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at the Netherlands Trial

  12. Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Brumitt, Jason; Matheson, J. W.; Meira, Erik P.

    2013-01-01

    Context Therapeutic exercises are frequently prescribed to patients with low back pain. Numerous exercise programs for patients with low back pain have been described. Many of these treatment programs are based on 1 of 2 popular rehabilitation strategies: a motor control exercise approach or a general exercise approach. Data Sources PubMed clinical queries from 1966 to March 2013 for keyword combinations including motor control exercise, core stability exercise, therapeutic exercise, general exercise, global exercise, local exercise, transversus abdominis, segmental stabilization, and low back pain. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of a motor control exercise approach, a general exercise approach, or both for patients with low back pain that were published in scientific peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction Included studies underwent appraisal for exercise intervention and outcomes. Results Fifteen studies were identified (8, motor control exercise approach without general exercise comparison; 7, general exercise approach with or without motor control exercise approach comparison). Current evidence suggests that exercise interventions may be effective at reducing pain or disability in patients with low back pain. Conclusion: Stabilization exercises for patients with low back pain may help to decrease pain and disability. It may not be necessary to prescribe exercises purported to restore motor control of specific muscles. PMID:24427425

  13. Structure fires, smoke production, and smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury causes severe morbidity and death. In the United States, the majority of fatalities from fire and burns occur because of inhalation of smoke. Medical treatment is only supportive; there is no known antidote to the damaging effects of smoke toxicants on pulmonary tissue. Without question, minimization of the morbidity and mortality that are caused by smoke inhalation is best accomplished by prevention of the injury. Effective prevention programs depend on a thorough and detailed understanding of the mechanism of damage caused by smoke, as well as of the available options for efficacious prevention. This summary presents details of smoke production from structure fires, the effects of smoke on physiology, and the devices currently in use to prevent damage and death from smoke. PMID:21785363

  14. Do physical exercise and reading reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease? a cross-sectional study on factors associated with Parkinson’s disease in elderly Chinese veterans

    PubMed Central

    Zou, YM; Tan, JP; Li, N; Yang, JS; Yu, BC; Yu, JM; Zhao, YM; Wang, LN

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for and factors protecting against Parkinson’s disease (PD) in elderly Chinese veterans. Methods Using a database containing detailed information on the health status of the nervous system in elderly Chinese veterans, univariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may be associated with PD were performed. Univariate analysis of qualitative data was done using the Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, and the Mann–Whitney U nonparametric test was used for univariate analysis of quantitative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for and factors protecting against PD in elderly Chinese veterans. Results A total of 9,676 elderly Chinese veterans were enrolled, including 228 cases with PD and 183 cases with Parkinson’s syndrome, with 9,265 non-PD subjects serving as controls. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028–1.755) and medical history of essential tremor (OR 1.228, 95% CI 1.081–1.396) were identified as independent risk factors for PD, with age being the most important risk factor. Physical exercise (OR 0.478, 95% CI 0.355–0.643) and reading (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.357–0.735) were identified as independent factors protecting against PD, and physical exercise showed better protection against PD relative to reading. Smoking, alcohol use, anemia, cerebral trauma, education level, and electromagnetic field exposure showed no association with PD. Conclusion Physical exercise and reading may be independent factors that protect against PD among elderly Chinese veterans, while advancing age and medical history of essential tremor may be independent risk factors for PD. This study was cross-sectional, so further research is needed to confirm its results. PMID:25834444

  15. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  16. Second-hand smoke exposure and household smoking bans in Chinese families: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hua, Fu; Xia, Xiao; Hurlburt, Sarah; Ng, Patrick; MacLeod, William; Siegel, Michael; Griffiths, Sian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-07-01

    As workplace smoking restrictions spread, smoking in the home is becoming the predominant source of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among children and other non-smokers in the household. This study explored issues around children's exposure to SHS. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted among 31 Chinese households in urban Shanghai, China. All FGDs/IDIs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that there are gaps in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and SHS among the participants. Although there was a lack of knowledge about the health risk of exposure to SHS, most were willing to protect their child from the SHS exposure. In 16/31 households, families had partial home-smoking restrictions; there were no complete restrictions in any of the smokers' homes. Many families do not openly discuss smoking or smoking restrictions at home. Barriers to adopting a smoke-free home included the social acceptability of smoking (22/31), hosting social gatherings at home, which would involve smoking (12/31), authoritative attitudes of the husband or father-in-law (10/31), and difficulties with visitors who smoke (7/31). Most (28/31) participants stated they would accept a counselling intervention to reduce SHS exposure to children and suggested various measures to implement it. The findings from this intervention have implications for designing intervention strategies to reduce SHS exposure at home among children in China.

  17. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. Methods We conducted a pretest–posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers’ indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F 1,144 = 22.69, P < .001) and no change in outdoor exposure to secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F 1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F 1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Conclusions Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing. PMID:27536903

  18. Smoking and women: tragedy of the majority.

    PubMed

    Fielding, J E

    1987-11-19

    An increasing number of women are becoming victims of their smoking habit. A broader cross-section of women, other than the very rich and the "indecent," began to smoke in the 1920s, and over the past 50 years tobacco advertising has linked smoking with women's emancipation and achievement of equality with men. The marketing efforts directed to women include special packaging for feminine appeal, "designer" cigarettes, and offering discounted women's products with the purchase of a particular brand of cigarettes. Sponsorship of sporting events coupled with sports themes in cigarette advertisements associates smoking with enhanced physical capacity--a deception. The marketing experts promote smoking as a way of remaining slim in a culture obsessed with thinness. The woman who smokes today is a heavier smoker, on average, with the percentage of women smoking more than 25 cigarettes/day almost doubling from 13% in 1965 to 23% in 1985. Women start smoking at younger and younger ages. 84% of women smokers who are now 28-37 years began to smoke before age 20 as compared with 42% of those now 58-67 years. Today more young women than young men smoke. In addition to the risk of lung cancer, women who smoke also have sex-specific risks, such as those pertaining to a women's reproductive organs and processes. When smoking is of long duration, it appears to increase the risks of intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix and of invasive cervical cancer. An antiestrogen effect of smoking may provide the explanation for why smoking women reach menopause 1-2 years earlier than nonsmokers. The same mechanism, which has been supported by several case-control studies, may increase postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures, particularly among nonobese women. Possibly the worst consequences of smoking by women are its effects on reproduction and on children. Both a dose-response depressant effect of smoking on fetal development and birth weight have been confirmed. Smoking also reduces

  19. Maori women's views on smoking cessation initiatives.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Carole; Wilson, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Smoking is particularly prevalent among Maori women over the age of 15 years and remains a concern despite anti-smoking campaigns. This raises questions about the effectiveness of current smoking cessation initiatives as mainstream tobacco control programmes have not benefited Maori to the same extent as non-Maori. Limited research is available on the effectiveness of smoking cessation initiatives for Maori. In this descriptive qualitative study five Maori women who had ceased smoking were interviewed about such initiatives and what was more likely to influence Maori women to quit. A focus group was used to discuss smoking cessation initiatives and the data were thematically analysed using Boyatzis' (1998) approach. Two themes were identified: (a) Transmission of Whanau (immediate and extended family) Values that includes the sub-categories whanau experiences, being mothers, and role models; and (b) Factors Crucial in Influencing Change that includes the sub-categories choices and exercising own will, a positive perception of self and a Maori approach. The findings provide insight for nurses into Maori women's perspectives. These highlight the importance of whanau and supportive relationships, and can be used to inform strategies to assist Maori women in smoking cessation.

  20. Smoking-attributable mortality in cuba.

    PubMed

    Varona, Patricia; Herrera, Delia; García, René Guillermo; Bonet, Mariano; Romero, Teresa; Venero, Silvia Josefina

    2009-07-01

    Introduction Smoking is the main preventable cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that smoking causes 5 million deaths annually, a figure that could double shortly if the present trend in tobacco product consumption continues. Objectives Estimate smoking-attributable mortality in the Cuban population and provide information needed to carry out effective public health actions. Methods This is a descriptive study using smoking prevalence and mortality data in Cuba for 1995 and 2007. Causes of death were grouped in three categories: malignant tumors, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. Etiological fractions and attributable mortality were calculated by cause and sex. Results Of deaths recorded in 1995 and 2007, 15% and 18% of preventable deaths were attributed to smoking, respectively. In Cuba in 2007, smoking caused 86% of deaths from lung cancer, 78% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 28% of deaths from ischemic heart disease, and 26% of deaths from cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Smoking is responsible for high rates of preventable mortality in Cuba. There is willingness on the part of administrative and political authorities to discourage smoking, and more than half of smokers in Cuba wish to quit smoking. Given awareness that reducing smoking is the most effective means of decreasing preventable morbidity and mortality, the country is moving steadily toward concrete, sustainable steps leading to increased life expectancy and quality of life for the Cuban population. PMID:21483306

  1. The importance of exercise as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2002-07-01

    Adaptations in the structural and/or functional properties of cells, tissues and organ systems in the human body occurs when exposed to various stimuli. While there is unanimous agreement that regular physical activity is essential for optimal function of the human body, it is evident that extrinsic factors, such as diet, smoking, exercise habits, are reflected in the morbidity and mortality statistics of the population. Ageing is obligatorily associated with reduced maximal aerobic power and reduced muscle strength, i.e. with reduced physical fitness. As a consequence of diminished exercise tolerance, a large and increasing number of the aged population will be living below, at or just above 'threshold' of physical ability, needing only a minor illness to render them completely dependent. Physical training can readily produce a profound improvement of functions essential for physical fitness in old age. Adaptation to regular physical activity causes less disruption of the cells' internal environment and minimises fatigue which enhances performances and the economy of energy output during daily physical activity. Regular physical exercise reduces the risk of premature mortality in general, and of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Physical activity also improves mental health and is important for health and optimal function of muscles, bones and joints. The most recent recommendations advice the people of all ages to include a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity, such as brisk walking, on most, if not all, days of the week. PMID:22844219

  2. Biological effects of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics: The use of electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the chemistry of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics and building materials that is inhaled by persons trapped in fires. Cigarette smoke produces cancer, emphysema, and other diseases after a delay of years. Acute exposure to smoke in a fire can produce a loss of lung function and death after a delay of days or weeks. Tobacco smoke and the smoke inhaled in a burning building have some similarities from a chemical viewpoint. For example, both contain high concentrations of CO and other combustion products. In addition, both contain high concentrations of free radicals, and our laboratory has studied these free radicals, largely by electron spin resonance (ESR) methods, for about 15 years. This article reviews what is known about the radicals present in these different types of smokes and soots and tars and summarizes the evidence that suggests these radicals could be involved in cigarette-induced pathology and smoke-inhalation deaths. The combustion of all organic materials produces radicals, but (with the exception of the smoke from perfluoropolymers) the radicals that are detected by ESR methods (and thus the radicals that would reach the lungs) are not those that arise in the combustion process. Rather they arise from chemical reactions that occur in the smoke itself. Thus, a knowledge of the chemistry of the smoke is necessary to understand the nature of the radicals formed. Even materials as similar as cigarettes and wood (cellulose) produce smoke that contains radicals with very different lifetimes and chemical characteristics, and mechanistic rationales for this are discussed. Cigarette tar contains a semiquinone radical that is infinitely stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar, which contain this radical, reduce oxygen to superoxide and thus produce both hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical.

  3. Intergenerational Patterns of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental and adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States. Methods. We used data from the 2004 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which ascertained smoking behaviors of 1 parent and 1 adolescent aged 12 to 17 years in 35 000 dyads. We estimated associations between parental and adolescent smoking behaviors, adjusted for covariates. Results. Parental current dependence was strongly associated with adolescents’ lifetime smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47, 3.55), whereas parental current nondependent smoking (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.92, 2.67) and former smoking (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.75) were less strongly associated. Only parental nicotine dependence was associated with adolescent nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.74). Associations between parental and adolescent smoking did not differ by race/ethnicity. Parents’ education, marital status, and parenting and adolescents' mental health, beliefs about smoking, perception of schoolmates’ smoking, and other substance use predicted adolescent smoking and dependence. Conclusions. Reducing parental smoking would reduce adolescent smoking. Prevention efforts should encourage parental smoking cessation, improve parenting, address adolescent mental health, and reinforce adolescents' negative beliefs about smoking. PMID:26378847

  4. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  5. Can parents who smoke socialise their children against smoking? Results from the Smoke-free Kids intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C; Dickinson, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate Smoke-free Kids, a new home based programme to assist parents who smoke in socialising their children against smoking. Design: Two year randomised controlled trial. Participants: At baseline, 887 adult smokers who had an abstinent child in the third grade (ages 7–8 years); 671 adults and children were retained through the 24 month follow up. Intervention: Programme modules, newsletters, incentives, support calls. Outcomes: Anti-smoking socialisation; susceptibility to smoking. Results: Of 327 parents randomised to treatment, 210 obtained adequate treatment by using at least three of five core modules. Programme efficacy analyses, which compared these parents with controls (n = 344), showed that exposure to adequate treatment predicted significantly higher levels in nearly all categories of anti-smoking socialisation three months post-intervention. Two years post-baseline, children of parents who reported adequate treatment scored significantly higher than controls on attributes that reduce susceptibility to smoking, and they scored significantly lower than controls on attributes that raise susceptibility to smoking. Programme effectiveness analyses compared all parents randomised to treatment (n = 327) with controls (n = 344). Treatment effects were evident for several socialisation outcomes; however, these effects were smaller and less consistent than those from the efficacy analyses. Similarly, although treated children scored higher than controls on attributes that reduce susceptibility and lower than controls on attributes that raise susceptibility, several of these between-group differences were not significant. Conclusions: Given adequate exposure to the Smoke-free Kids programme, significant beneficial effects were observed on anti-smoking socialisation in households where parents smoke cigarettes, and significant beneficial effects were observed on children's susceptibility to smoking after two years. Improving programme acceptance

  6. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  7. Measurements and modeling of environmental tobacco smoke leakagefrom a simulated smoking room

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Faulkner, D.; Gundel, L.A.; Fisk,W.J.; Alevantis, L.E.; Waldman, J.M.

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect ofvarious design and operating parameters on smoking room performance.Twenty-eight experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room witha smoking machine and an automatic door opener. Measurements were made ofair flows, pressures, temperatures, two particle-phase ETS tracers, twogas-phase ETS tracers, and sulfur hexafluoride. Quantification of leakageflows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room performance andnon-smoker exposure, and the relative importance of each leakagemechanism are presented. The results indicate that the first priority foran effective smoking room is to depressurize it with respect to adjoiningnon-smoking areas. Another important ETS leakage mechanism is the pumpingaction of the smoking room door. Substituting a sliding door for astandard swing-type door reduced this source of ETS leakagesignificantly. Measured results correlated well with model predictions(R2 = 0.82-0.99).

  8. Smoke-free hospitals in Greece: Personnel perceptions, compliance and smoking habit

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Bouloukaki, Izolde; Linardakis, Manolis K; Tzilepi, Penelope; Tzanakis, Nikos; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    Smoke-free environments in Greece are scarce. Despite existent legislation that forbids smoking in all health care service centers, smoking is still evident. Using a random sample of hospital personnel from a large university hospital in Greece, we evaluated their smoking habits, perceptions and compliance towards hospital smoking regulations. 57.8% of the nursing personnel and 34.5% of medical/research staff were found to be current smokers (p < 0.05). Although 66% of the staff does not oppose the complete hospital smoking ban, 95% responded that they would prefer it to be partial. The above findings warrant the necessity for nurturing efforts to reduce smoking and increase the health professionals' awareness of their position as a role model to both patients and the society. PMID:19335886

  9. Exercise and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, S R; Klugh, S A; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes. While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for

  10. Why the tobacco industry fears the passive smoking issue.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Borland, R; Hill, D; Owen, N; Woodward, S

    1990-01-01

    The tobacco industry has identified the passive smoking issue as the single most important problem confronting its economic future. During the 1980s, the industry has been engaged in an elaborate and expensive international campaign seeking to refute the evidence against passive smoking's effects on health and to position the issue as one essentially concerned with civil liberties and smokers' "rights." There are three main reasons for the industry's concern: first, the passive smoking issue allows a widening of the definition of smoking beyond its discussion as a personal habit, legitimizing it as a social problem; second, successful cases of litigation against employers by workers with histories of chronic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke have created an industrial climate of concern leading to workplace smoking restrictions and bans, and third, the proliferation of smoking restrictions reduces smoking opportunities and thus reduces total cigarette consumption and hence financial returns to the industry. Based on the results of a large Australian study of a workplace smoking ban, an estimated 654.88 million cigarettes with a retail value of $A6,549 thousand would be forgone annually in Australia alone if 50 percent of white-collar worksites were to ban smoking. Finally, the passive smoking issue can be considered a Trojan horse to its less discussed effects: the reduced morbidity and mortality likely to result in smokers from the significant reductions in smoking frequency that occur with the proliferation of smoking restrictions introduced in the name of concern for the health of nonsmokers. PMID:2384286

  11. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    PubMed

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  12. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies. PMID:20852325

  13. Investigating the link between smoke-free legislation and stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Been, Jasper V; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Despite considerable recent progress in tobacco control, smoking and second-hand smoke exposure continue to pose a major health threat to adults, children, and (unborn) babies. There is increasing evidence that implementation of smoke-free legislation, through reducing smoking and smoke exposure, has the potential to improve population health. In this editorial we focus on the research on smoke-free legislation in relation to stillbirths, summarizing the findings to-date, reflecting on methodological issues that need to be considered when interpreting this evidence base, and highlighting some key next steps to further strengthen the evidence in order to inform evidence-based policy making. PMID:26610241

  14. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposu