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Sample records for exercise reduce smoking

  1. The effect of exercise in reducing desire to smoke and cigarette withdrawal symptoms is not caused by distraction.

    PubMed

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2006-08-01

    Moderate-intensity exercise has been shown to reduce common smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the present study was to determine if this was caused by distraction. A secondary aim was to determine whether exercise-related changes in affect were related to a reduction in symptoms. Forty 'sedentary' participants who had smoked at least 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years were assigned randomly to one of two groups. They completed either 10 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer or 10 minutes of a cognitive distraction task (paced visual serial addition task, PVSAT) after 11-15 hours of smoking abstinence. Participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke using standard scales at 10, 5 and 0 minutes before the experimental intervention, then at 5 and 10 minutes after the start of the intervention and 5 and 10 minutes after its completion. Significant group x time interactions were observed for ratings of desire to smoke and several withdrawal symptoms (irritability, depression, restlessness, difficulty concentrating and stress). There was a reduction in ratings during and immediately following exercise that was not observed with cognitive distraction. Also it was found the effects were not mediated by changes in affect observed in the exercise condition. A brief bout of moderate-intensity exercise can lead to a rapid reduction in desire to smoke and withdrawal discomfort, which is not due to the distracting effect of exercise or the effects of mood. These findings support recommendations to smokers to use exercise as a means of helping cope with the difficulties encountered when they try to stop.

  2. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  3. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p < 0.05). In Group 2, MDA and PrOOH decreased (p < 0.05), with no other changes noted (p > 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p < 0.05). Group 4 showed no change in oxidative stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels. PMID:20500899

  5. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p < 0.05). In Group 2, MDA and PrOOH decreased (p < 0.05), with no other changes noted (p > 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p < 0.05). Group 4 showed no change in oxidative stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  6. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions.

  7. Acute effects of marihuana smoking on maximal exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Renaud, A M; Cormier, Y

    1986-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of marihuana smoking on exercise performance, 12 healthy young subjects did progressive exercise testing on an ergocycle to exhaustion under two conditions: non-smoking (control) and 10 min after smoking a marihuana cigarette (containing 1.7% of delta-9-tetra-hydro-cannabinol) of 7 mg X kg-1 body weight. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation (VE), breathing rate (fb), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before, during, and for 4 min after the exercise. Tidal volume was calculated from VE X fb-1. The exercise duration was also measured. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was measured: before smoking (rest); before exercise (10 min after smoking); and after exercise. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured before and 10 min after smoking in four subjects. Marihuana smoking reduced exercise duration (16.1 +/- 4.0 to 15.1 +/- 3.3 min, P less than 0.05). At peak exercise performance, there were no differences in VO2, VCO2, heart rate, and VE between the two experimental conditions. Marihuana induced tachycardia at preexercise (94.3 +/- 13.3 beats X min-1 to 119.0 +/- 18.0, P less than 0.01) that was sustained up to 80% of maximum effort and during the recovery period. After marihuana, VE, VO2 and VCO2 were increased above control from 50% of maximum effort to the end of the test. Marihuana induced a bronchodilation (FEV1 from 4.28 +/- 1.00 to 4.43 +/- 1.031, P less than 0.0) that was still present after exercise. Exercise induced a bronchodilation in the control condition but not in the marihuana smoking condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  9. Effects of exercise on craving and cigarette smoking in the human laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-06-01

    Exercise is increasingly being pursued as a treatment to reduce cigarette smoking. The efficacy of clinical, exercise-based cessation interventions may be enhanced by conducting laboratory studies to determine maximally effective conditions for reducing smoking, and the mechanisms through which the effects on smoking are achieved. The main purpose of this study was to assess whether the effects of exercise on two components of craving (anticipated reward from smoking, anticipated relief from withdrawal) mediated the relationship between exercise and delay (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Experiment 1 (N=21) assessed the effects of exercise intensity (inactivity, low, moderate) on craving components up to 60 min post-exercise. Because moderate-intensity exercise most effectively reduced craving on the reward component, all participants exercised at a moderate intensity in Experiment 2. Using an ABAB within-subjects design, Experiment 2 (N=20) evaluated whether the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on reward and relief components of craving mediated the relationship between exercise and participants' delays (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Delays were significantly longer after exercise (M=21 min) versus inactivity (M=4 min), and the effects of exercise on delay were mediated through the reward component of craving. Future research should continue to explore the mechanisms through which exercise influences behavioral indices of smoking in the human laboratory. Additionally, given the benefits uniquely afforded by exercise-based cessation interventions (e.g., improving mood and other health outcomes), implementing these interventions in clinical settings may contribute substantially to improving public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette smoke inhibits brain mitochondrial adaptations of exercised mice.

    PubMed

    Speck, Ana Elisa; Fraga, Daiane; Soares, Priscila; Scheffer, Débora L; Silva, Luciano A; Aguiar, Aderbal S; Estreck, Emílio L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2011-06-01

    Physical exercise and smoking are environmental factors that generally cause opposite health-promoting adaptations. Both physical exercise and smoking converge on mitochondrial adaptations in various tissues, including the pro-oxidant nervous system. Here, we analyzed the impact of cigarette smoking on exercise-induced brain mitochondrial adaptations in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of adult mice. The animals were exposed to chronic cigarette smoke followed by 8 weeks of moderate-intensity physical exercise that increased mitochondrial activity in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex in the non-smoker mice. However, mice previously exposed to cigarette smoke did not present these exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. Our results suggest that smoking can inhibit some brain health-promoting changes induced by physical exercise.

  11. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  13. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Vs. Leg Ergometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Tang, Jing-Shia; Li, Ping-Chia; Chou, Pi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods:This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent two sets of arm-cranking (AC) and leg-cycling (LC) exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 h before testing) and the experimental trial (participants smoked two cigarettes immediately before testing) were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE)]. The differences between the smoking and control trials were calculated using paired t-tests. For the exercise test periods, VO2, heart rate, and VE values were calculated at every 10% increment of the maximal effort time. The main effects of the time and trial, as well as their trial-by-time (4 × 10) interaction effects on the outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA with trend analysis. Results: 5 min after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < 0.05), in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < 0.001). The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < 0.05) at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = 0.005) and the ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05) in the LC tests, whereas no significant effects were observed in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded

  14. Effect of brief exercise on urges to smoke in men and women smokers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alicia M; Abdelwahab, Nermine M; Carlson, Samantha; Bosch, Tyler A; Eberly, Lynn E; Okuyemi, Kola

    2017-09-20

    Although smoking urges have been demonstrated to vary by gender and also be influenced by exercise, it is unknown if exercise has a differential effect on smoking urges by gender. This study aimed to explore gender-specific effects of an acute bout of exercise on cessation-related symptoms in men and women smokers during acute abstinence. We enrolled smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) who were 18-40years old for a study on exercise and smoking behavior. Participants abstained from smoking for at least 3h, prior to measurement of their maximal oxygen consumption tested, which was the acute bout of exercise. Prior to and after the exercise, participants completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges - Brief and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Participants (n=38; 61% women) were, on average, 30.0±0.9years old and smoked 13.0±0.8 cigarettes/day. All measured aspects of cessation-related symptoms significantly improved after the exercise in both men and women. In women there was a significant decline in anticipated relief from negative affect after the exercise (women: -0.45±0.20, p=0.0322; men: -0.41±0.26, p=0.1312). In men there was a significant decline in the intention to smoke after the exercise (men: -0.77±0.23, p=0.0053; women: -0.66±0.37, p=0.0909). An acute bout of exercise reduced smoking urges in both men and women smokers during an acute state of abstinence. Additional research is needed to replicate these observations in a larger, more diverse sample, and to explore the implication of these observations on cessation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An attentional control task reduces intrusive thoughts about smoking.

    PubMed

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Willoughby, Kimberley; Brown, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Attentional control tasks such as body scanning and following isometric exercise instructions have been shown to reduce smoking cravings, apparently by reducing stress (Ussher, M., Cropley, M., Playle, S., Mohidin, R., & West, R. [2009]. Effect of isometric exercise and body scanning on cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Addiction, 104, 1251-1257. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02605.x). Related work based upon elaborated intrusion theory (Kavanagh, D. J., Andrade, J., & May, J. [2005]. Imaginary relish and exquisite torture: The elaborated intrusion theory of desire. Psychological Review, 112, 446-467. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.112.2.446) has shown that similar tasks can reduce hungry participants' involuntary food-related thoughts (May, J., Andrade, J., Batey, H., Berry, L.-M., & Kavanagh, D. [2010]. Less food for thought: Impact of attentional instructions on intrusive thoughts about snack foods. Appetite, 55, 279-287. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.06.014). This study tests the effect of body scanning instructions upon smoking-related thoughts as well as craving. Twenty-seven smokers took part in 2 counterbalanced sessions, on different days, having been asked to abstain from smoking for 2 hr. In each session, they followed audio instructions for three 10-min blocks during which their thoughts were probed 10 times. In the first and third blocks, they were instructed to let their mind wander; during the second block of the control session, they also let their mind wander, but in the experimental session, they followed body scanning instructions. "Smoking thought frequency" was assessed using thought probes; "Craving" was measured using Factor 1 of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (Tiffany, S. T., & Drobes, D. J. [1991]. The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1467-1476. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01732.x). Participants reported fewer smoking-related thoughts and lower smoking cravings in

  16. The relationship between smoking and exercise among physical education teachers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Cemal; Oguzoncul, A Ferdane

    2013-07-04

    We studied the relationship between smoking and exercise among physical education teachers in Turkey. An online questionnaire was used to collect data. The responses of 1,995 teachers who completed the questionnaire were evaluated. The mean age of the participants was 31.0 +/- 4.7 years; 67.4% of the participants were male. The smoking rate was 65.2%. The mean age of onset of smoking was 16.6 +/- 2.6 years. The age of starting smoking increased with higher parental education level. There were no differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to gender. Of smokers, 51.2% were married; 52.4% were in the 30-39 year old age group. The most common reasons for starting smoking were the influence of friends and emulation. The most common reason for trying to quit smoking among men was future health concerns and among women was current health concerns. We found smoking was less common among participants who exercised regularly. The level of nicotine dependence was significantly lower among participants who exercised regularly compared to those who did not. This study suggests physical education teachers, who are role models for their students, have a high smoking rate. We believe urgent action is needed to reduce the smoking rate and increase the quit rate among physical education teachers.

  17. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  18. Exercise attenuates negative effects of abstinence during 72 hours of smoking deprivation.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Cynthia A; Soreca, Isabella; Kupfer, David J; Cheng, Yu; Salkeld, Ronald P; Mumma, Joel M; Jakicic, John M; Joyce, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Exercise is presumed to be a potentially helpful smoking cessation adjunct reputed to attenuate the negative effects of deprivation. The present study examined the effectiveness of moderate within-session exercise to reduce 4 key symptoms of smoking deprivation during 3 72-hr nicotine abstinence blocks in both male and female smokers. Forty-nine (25 male, 24 female) sedentary smokers abstained from smoking for 3 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions. At each session, smokers' abstinence-induced craving, cue-induced craving, negative mood, and withdrawal symptom severity were assessed prior to and after either exercise (a.m. exercise, p.m. exercise) or a sedentary control activity (magazine reading). Abstinence-induced craving and negative mood differed as a function of condition, F(2, 385) = 21, p < .0001; and, F(2, 385) = 3.38, p = .03. Planned contrasts revealed no difference between a.m. and p.m. exercise, but exercise overall led to greater pre-post reduction in abstinence-induced craving, t(385) = 6.23, p < .0001, effect size Cohen's d = 0.64; and negative mood, t(385) = 2.25, p = .03, d = 0.23. Overall exercise also led to a larger pre-post reduction in cue-induced craving in response to smoking cues, F(2, 387) = 8.94, p = .0002; and withdrawal severity, F(2, 385) = 3.8, p = .02. Unlike the other 3 measures, p.m. exercise reduced withdrawal severity over control, t(385) = 2.64, p = .009, d = 0.27, whereas a.m. exercise did not. The results support the clinical potential of exercise to assist smokers in managing common and robust negative symptoms experienced during the first 3 days of abstinence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    provided in this update, an increase of eight countries from the original review. The nature of the intervention precludes randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies used an interrupted time series study design, 23 studies use a controlled before-and-after design and 18 studies are before-and-after studies with no control group; six of these studies use a cohort design. Seventy-two studies reported health outcomes, including cardiovascular (44), respiratory (21), and perinatal outcomes (7). Eleven studies reported national mortality rates for smoking-related diseases. A number of the studies report multiple health outcomes. There is consistent evidence of a positive impact of national smoking bans on improving cardiovascular health outcomes, and reducing mortality for associated smoking-related illnesses. Effects on respiratory and perinatal health were less consistent. We found 24 studies evaluating the impact of national smoke-free legislation on smoking behaviour. Evidence of an impact of legislative bans on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption is inconsistent, with some studies not detecting additional long-term change in existing trends in prevalence. Since the first version of this review was published, the current evidence provides more robust support for the previous conclusions that the introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to improved health outcomes through reduction in SHS for countries and their populations. The clearest evidence is observed in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence of reduced mortality from smoking-related illnesses at a national level. There is inconsistent evidence of an impact on respiratory and perinatal health outcomes, and on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

  20. Cigarette smoking, exercise and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Papanek, P; Cresanta, M

    1984-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depressed levels of HDL-C, whereas exercise is associated with elevated levels of HDL-C. The purpose was to determine effects of smoking and exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins in middle-aged males. It was hypothesized that smoking may attenuate the effects of exercise to elevate HDL-C. A total of 269 males (70 smokers) met all criteria for inclusion in the study population. Age, height, weight, body fatness via hydrostatic weighing, daily caloric consumption and alcohol intake, and smoking habits and history were determined. Interviews concerning physical activity patterns were conducted and cardiovascular responses to treadmill exercise were determined. Subjects were grouped as sedentary (low activity), participants in vigorous recreational activities (moderate activity) and joggers/runners (high activity). Analysis of covariance with adjustments for factors which may affect blood lipids and lipoproteins was employed. Smokers demonstrated lower HDL-C and higher total cholesterol levels than nonsmokers. High activity subjects demonstrated significantly higher HDL-C levels than the low and moderate groups which did not differ. High activity smokers did not differ from low activity nonsmokers with respect to HDL-C. This supports the proposed hypothesis. Nonsmokers were higher in weight and body fatness than smokers even though smokers consumed 288 more calories per day on the average. This suggests that smoking may account for a significant number of calories through altered metabolism or some other means.

  1. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  2. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  3. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    PubMed

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-02

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  5. The Role of Public Policies in Reducing Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Boyle, Raymond G.; Abrams, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Purpose To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Methods Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. Results SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Conclusions Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota’s smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. PMID:23079215

  6. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Klinsophon, Thaniya; Thaveeratitham, Premtip; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2017-09-06

    Exercise is one choice of additional treatment for smoking cessation by relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving. The possible mechanism of the effect of exercise on relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving is including affect, biological, and cognitive hypotheses. Evidence suggests that different types of exercise have different effects on these mechanisms. Therefore, type of exercise might have effect on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials to gain insight into which types of exercise are effective for smoking cessation. Publications were systemically searched up to November 2016 in several databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, PEDro, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library), using the following keywords: "physical activity", "exercise", "smoking", "tobacco" and "cigarette". The methodological quality was assessed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the type of exercise on smoking cessation. The quality of the evidence was assessed and rated according to the GRADE approach. 20 articles on 19 studies were judged to meet the selection criteria (seven low-risk of bias RCTs and 12 high-risk of bias RCTs). The findings revealed low quality evidence for the effectiveness of yoga for smoking cessation at the end of the treatment. The evidence found for no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, and a combined aerobic and resisted exercise program on smoking cessation was of low to moderate quality. Furthermore, very low to low quality evidence was found for no effect of physical activity on smoking cessation. There was no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, physical activity and combined aerobic and resisted exercise on smoking cessation. There was a positive effect on smoking cessation at the end of treatment in the program where yoga plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used. However, which

  8. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND SMOKING, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Time perspective, a psychological construct reflecting guidance by present or future concerns, may motivate engagement in health behaviors. We examined associations between time perspective and smoking, body mass index, and exercise. Methods In this community-based survey, adults reported smoking and exercise habits and weight and height, and completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Results Subjects (N = 265) who were more future-oriented reported more frequent exercise, but were more likely to smoke. Fatalistic and hedonistic present orientations were not associated with smoking, obesity, or exercise. Conclusions Time perspective is not consistently associated with common health behaviors in adults. PMID:23026098

  9. Reducing Smoking at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Ruth A.

    Company policies and programs aimed at reducing smoking among employees have a number of other important benefits to employees and the company alike. Limiting or banning smoking helps create a safe and healthy workplace and may reduce direct health care costs, health and life insurance costs, employee absenteeism, costs associated with maintaining…

  10. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; White, Victoria M; Emery, Sherry L

    2012-03-01

    Smoking initiation is a key behaviour that determines the future health consequences of smoking in a society. There is a marked difference in smoking patterns around the world, driven by initiation rates. While a number of high-income countries have seen smoking prevalence decline markedly from peak, many low-income and middle-income countries appear to still be on an upward trend. Unlike cessation where changes are limited by nicotine dependence, rates of smoking initiation can change rapidly over a short time span. Interventions that can be effective in achieving this include increases in the price of tobacco products, mass media anti-smoking advertising, smoke-free policies, smoking curricula in schools, restrictions on marketing opportunities for the tobacco industry as well as social norms that lead to restrictions on adolescents' ability to purchase cigarettes. Comprehensive tobacco control programmes that aim to denormalise smoking behaviour in the community contain all of these interventions. Rapid reductions in smoking initiation in adolescents have been documented in two case studies of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in California and Australia. Consistent and inescapable messages from multiple sources appear to be key to success. However, the California experience indicates that the rapid decline in adolescent smoking will not continue if tobacco control expenditures and the relative price of cigarettes are reduced. These case studies provide strong additional evidence of the importance of countries implementing the provisions of the Framework Treaty on Tobacco Control.

  11. The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect, and smoking behaviour: systematic review update and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Vaughan; Maddison, Ralph; Simpson, Caroline; Bullen, Chris; Prapavessis, Harry

    2012-07-01

    Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. A systematic review of all studies published between January 2006 and June 2011 was conducted. Fifteen new studies were identified, 12 of which found a positive effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. The magnitude of statistically significant effect sizes for 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' ranged from 0.4 to 1.98 in favour of exercise compared to passive control conditions, and peaked either during or soon after treatment. Effects were found up to 30 min post-exercise. Cigarette cravings were reduced following exercise with a wide range of intensities from isometric exercise and yoga to activity as high as 80-85 % heart rate reserve. Meta-analyses revealed weighted mean differences of -1.90 and -2.41 in 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' outcomes, respectively. Measures of TWS and negative affect were reduced following light-moderate intensity exercise, but increased during vigorous exercise. Exercise can have a positive effect on cigarette cravings and TWS. However, the most effective exercise intensity to reduce cravings and the underlying mechanisms associated with this effect remain unclear.

  12. Effects of resistance exercise on the HPA axis response to psychological stress during short-term smoking abstinence in men.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jen-Yu; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Vingren, Jakob L; Fragala, Maren S; Flanagan, Shawn D; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Szivak, Tunde K; Hatfield, Disa L; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to mental challenge, withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, and cognitive stress during 24-hour smoking abstinence. 8 sedentary smokers (mean±SD age: 20.1±1.7y; height: 171.6±10.8cm; body mass: 70.4±12.0kg; smoking history: 2.9±0.8y) completed a 24-hour ad libitum smoking trial (SMO) followed by two 24-hour smoking abstinence trials. During abstinence trials, participants performed six whole body resistance exercises (EX) or a control condition (CON) in the morning, followed by mental challenge tasks in the afternoon. Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and salivary and serum cortisol were measured during each visit at rest (REST), and then before (PRE-EX), immediately after (IP-EX), and 30min after exercise (30-EX); and before (PRE-MC), immediately after (IP-MC), and 30min after mental challenge (30-MC). Resistance exercise significantly (p≤0.05) elevated plasma ACTH and serum cortisol at IP-EX during EX compared with SMO and CON trials. Resting ACTH, salivary and serum cortisol concentrations at Pre-MC did not differ between EX and CON trials. The HPA axis response to mental challenge was similar after EX and CON trials. Finally, resistance exercise did not reduce withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, or stress. Resistance exercise did not substantially alter resting HPA hormones or the HPA response to mental challenge tasks during 24h of smoking abstinence. © 2013.

  13. Caffeine reduces myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita M

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine consumption has been receiving increased interest from both the medical and lay press, especially given the increased amounts now available in energy products. Acute ingestion of caffeine usually increases cardiac work; however, caffeine impairs the expected proportional increase in myocardial blood flow to match this increased work of the heart, most notably during exercise. This appears to be mainly due to caffeine's effect on blocking adenosine-induced vasodilatation in the coronary arteries in normal healthy subjects. This review summarizes the available medical literature specifically relating to pure caffeine tablet ingestion and reduced exercise coronary blood flow, and suggests possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect for other common caffeine-delivery systems, including coffee, energy beverages, and energy gels, which are often used for exercise performance enhancement, especially in teenagers and young athletes.

  14. Ameliorative effect of chronic moderate exercise in smoke exposed or nicotine applied rats from acute stress.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Bilgin, Seyda; Mentese, Semih Tiber; Tazegul, Gokhan; Ozgur, Sevinc; Cilingir, Ozlem T; Akakin, Dilek; Yarat, Aysen; Kasimay, Ozgur

    2015-05-01

    Physical activity has been found to be related with many health benefits. Our aim was to investigate the effect of chronic moderate exercise from acute stress on nicotine and cigarette smoke exposed rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n = 48) were divided into 6 groups as non-exercised, exercised, smoke exposed, smoke exposed and exercised, nicotine applied, and nicotine applied and exercised. Nicotine bitartarate was applied intraperitoneally (0.1mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks, and cigarette smoke was exposed in a ventilated chamber. After 1 week of nicotine application or smoke exposure, moderate exercise training protocol was applied to exercise groups. At the end of the experiments, acute stress induction was made to all groups by electric foot shock. Holeboard tests were performed before and after the experiments. Biochemical and histological analyses were performed in lung, liver, colon, stomach, and gastrocnemius tissues. Malondialdehyde levels were increased in all tissues of smoke exposed group (p < .05-.01) except gastrocnemius tissue compared to non-exercised group and were decreased with exercise (p < .05-.001). Myeloperoxidase levels were increased in lung, liver and colon tissues of smoke exposed group (p < .05-.001) and liver and colon tissues of nicotine applied rats (p < .01-.001) and decrease with exercise in liver and colon tissues of both smoke exposed or nicotine applied groups (p < .05-.01). In all tissue samples, increased histological injury scores (p < .05-.001) decreased significantly with exercise (p < .01-.001). Biochemical parameters and histological scoring indicated increased tissue injury due to nicotine application and cigarette smoke exposure and exercise training ameliorated these effects in most of the tissues of acute stress induced rats. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Reducing Underserved Children’s Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley N.; Nair, Uma S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; DiSantis, Katie I.; Jaffe, Karen; Tolley, Natalie; Wileyto, E. Paul; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addressing maternal smoking and child secondhand smoke exposure is a public health priority. Standard care advice and self-help materials to help parents reduce child secondhand smoke exposure is not sufficient to promote change in underserved populations. We tested the efficacy of a behavioral counseling approach with underserved maternal smokers to reduce infant’s and preschooler’s secondhand smoke exposure. Design A two-arm randomized trial: experimental behavior counseling versus enhanced standard care (control). Assessment staff members were blinded. Setting/participants Three hundred randomized maternal smokers were recruited from low-income urban communities. Participants had a child aged <4 years exposed to two or more maternal cigarettes/day at baseline. Intervention Philadelphia Family Rules for Establishing Smokefree Homes (FRESH) included 16 weeks of counseling. Using a behavioral shaping approach within an individualized cognitive–behavioral therapy framework, counseling reinforced efforts to adopt increasingly challenging secondhand smoke exposure–protective behaviors with the eventual goal of establishing a smokefree home. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were end-of-treatment child cotinine and reported secondhand smoke exposure (maternal cigarettes/day exposed). Secondary outcomes were end-of-treatment 7-day point-prevalence self-reported cigarettes smoked/day and bioverified quit status. Results Participation in FRESH behavioral counseling was associated with lower child cotinine (β= −0.18, p=0.03) and secondhand smoke exposure (β= −0.57, p=0.03) at end of treatment. Mothers in behavioral counseling smoked fewer cigarettes/day (β= –1.84, p=0.03) and had higher bioverified quit rates compared with controls (13.8% vs 1.9%, χ2=10.56, p<0.01). There was no moderating effect of other smokers living at home. Conclusions FRESH behavioral counseling reduces child secondhand smoke exposure and promotes smoking quit

  16. Does a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program reduce smoking intentions among Aboriginal children? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    McKennitt, Daniel W; Currie, Cheryl L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. A grade 4 classroom in the second school received a standard smoking prevention program delivered in this jurisdiction. Children in each classroom were tested pre- and post-intervention to measure attitude changes about smoking. There was a significant reduction in intentions to smoke among Aboriginal children who received the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. The small overall sample size precluded a direct comparison of the efficacy of the culturally sensitive and standard programs. The present findings suggest a smoking prevention program that has been culturally adapted for Aboriginal children may reduce future smoking intentions among Aboriginal grade 4 students. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which school smoking prevention programs adapted to respect the long-standing use of tobacco in Aboriginal cultural traditions may be more effective than standard programs in reaching Aboriginal youth.

  17. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Yan; Cao, Yi; Yue, Ming Bo; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2015-03-20

    In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.

  18. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology.

  19. Laser-acupuncture reduces cigarette smoking: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zalesskiy, V N; Belousova, I A; Frolov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The stop-smoking campaign constitutes a component of the cardiovascular and oncology disease-prevention programme. In the study, laser-acupuncture was used in heavy smoking elderly patients with peripheral vascular diseases, as well as in those with lung cancer, to relieve the nicotine abstinence symptoms at the preoperational management stage. To produce a stable negative response to nicotine there was additionally applied steel needle (Seirlin-Kasei & Co., F.R.G.) insertion at cavity of concha, tragus and antitragus areas. In each of 85 patients there were noted positive trends, vegetative and somatic manifestations of abstinence were eliminated, desire to smoke was reduced. Most of them (71%) stopped smoking completely. The results have proven the high therapeutic value of laser-acupuncture in treating for chronic smoking.

  20. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Frierson, Georita M; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Davis, Michelle L; DeBoer, Lindsey B; Briceno, Nicole F

    2012-11-13

    Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US), over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse) group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety), and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP). STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST) for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX) or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL). Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization) per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after the baseline visit, and smoking

  1. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US), over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse) group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety), and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP). Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST) for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX) or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL). Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization) per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after the baseline visit

  2. Intense Physical Exercise Reduces Overt Attentional Capture.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel; Huertas, Florentino; Molina, Enrique; Bennett, Simon

    2015-10-01

    The abrupt onset of a visual stimulus typically results in overt attentional capture, which can be quantified by saccadic eye movements. Here, we tested whether attentional capture following onset of task-irrelevant visual stimuli (new object) is reduced after a bout of intense physical exercise. A group of participants performed a visual search task in two different activity conditions: rest, without any prior effort, and effort, immediately after an acute bout of intense exercise. The results showed that participants exhibited (1) slower reaction time of the first saccade toward the target when a new object was simultaneously presented in the visual field, but only in the rest activity condition, and (2) more saccades to the new object in the rest activity condition than in the effort activity condition. We suggest that immediately after an acute bout of effort, participants improved their ability to inhibit irrelevant (distracting) stimuli.

  3. Smoking cessation intervention using stepwise exercise incentives for male workers in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gyu-Seok; Jung, Hye-Sun; Yi, Yunjeong; Yoon, Chungsik; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program as one of the workplace health promotion program. The aim of this study is to evaluate the program offered in an electronics company in Korea. A total of 109 electronics company employees were recruited. Participants were surveyed for smoking history, nicotine dependence, and job stress. They received smoking cessation education and were provided with a stepwise fitness center ticket. Of 109 participants, 58 (53.2%) successfully ceased smoking for 3 months. Significant differences between success and fail groups were apparent in cigarettes smoked per day (P = .002) and nicotine dependence score (P = .049). However, there was no significant difference in job stress between success and fail groups. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, there were no identifiable factors associated with smoking cessation. In conclusion, a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program was highly effective when applied in a workplace setting.

  4. Exercise and Counseling for Smoking Cessation in Smokers With Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paquito; Ninot, Gregory; Cyprien, Fabienne; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sebastien; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Taylor, Adrian; Quantin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Despite various strategies to help smokers with depressive disorders to quit, the smoking relapse rate remains high. The purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the effects of adding an exercise and counseling intervention to standard smoking cessation treatment for smokers with depressive disorders. We hypothesized that the exercise and counseling intervention would lead to improved abstinence, reduced depressive symptoms, and increased physical activity. Seventy smokers with current depressive disorders were randomly assigned to standard smoking cessation treatment plus exercise and counseling (n = 35) or standard treatment plus a time-to-contact control intervention on health education (n = 35). Both programs involved 10 sessions over 8 weeks. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence since the quit date and was measured at week 8 (end of the intervention) and again at 12-, 24-, and 52-week follow-ups. Nearly 60% of participants were female (n = 41), 38 (52.3%) were single, 37 (52.9%) had education beyond high school, and 32 (45.7%) met criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants in the two treatment conditions differed at baseline only in marital status (χ(2) = 4.28, df = 1, p =.04); and smoking abstinence self-efficacy, t(66) = -2.04, p =.04). The dropout rate did not differ significantly between groups and participants attended 82% and 75% of the intervention and control sessions, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that, at 12 weeks after the beginning of the intervention, continuous abstinence did not vary significantly between the intervention and control groups: 48.5% versus 28.5%, respectively, ORadj = 0.40, 95% CI [0.12-1.29], p =.12. There were no group differences in depressive symptoms, but the intervention group did outperform the control group on the 6-minute walking test (Mint = 624.84, SD = 8.17, vs. Mcon = 594.13, SD = 8.96, p =.015) and perceived physical control (Mint = 2.84, SD = 0.16, vs. Mcon = 2

  5. Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hovell, Melbourne F; Zakarian, Joy M; Matt, Georg E; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A; Hofstetter, C Richard; Larson, Sarah N; Benowitz, Neal L

    2009-12-01

    We tested a combined intervention to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and help parents quit smoking. After baseline, mothers who exposed their children younger than 4 years to 10 or more cigarettes/week were randomized to the intervention (n = 76) or usual care control condition (n = 74). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Intervention families were offered 10 in-person at home and 4 telephone counseling sessions over 6 months, and additional pre- and postquit telephone sessions. Counseling procedures included behavioral contracting, self-monitoring, and problem solving. Parents' reports of their smoking and children's exposure showed moderate and significant correlations with children's urine cotinine levels and home air nicotine (r = .40-.78). Thirteen (17.1%) intervention group mothers and 4 (5.4%) controls reported that they quit smoking for 7 days prior to 1 or more study measurements, without biochemical contradiction (p = .024). Results of generalized estimating equations showed significantly greater decrease in reported SHSe and mothers' smoking in the counseled group compared with controls. Reported indoor smoking and children's urine cotinine decreased, yet group differences for changes were not significant. Nicotine contamination of the home and resulting thirdhand exposure may have contributed to the failure to obtain a differential decrease in cotinine concentration. Partial exposure to counseling due to dropouts and lack of full participation from all family members and measurement reactivity in both conditions may have constrained intervention effects. Secondhand smoke exposure counseling may have been less powerful when combined with smoking cessation.

  6. Reducing smoking. The effect of suggestion during general anaesthesia on postoperative smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J A; Sanders, L D; Dunne, J A; Tarpey, J; Vickers, M D

    1994-02-01

    In a double-blind randomised trial, 122 female smokers undergoing elective surgery were allocated to receive one of two prerecorded messages while fully anaesthetised. The active message was designed to encourage them to give up smoking whilst the control message was the same voice counting numbers. No patient could recall hearing the tape. Patients were asked about their postoperative smoking behaviour one month later. Significantly more of those who had received the active tape had stopped or reduced their smoking (p < 0.01). This would suggest a level of preconscious processing of information.

  7. Smoking Status and Exercise in relation to PTSD Symptoms: A Test among Trauma-Exposed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Farris, Samantha G.; Harte, Christopher B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effect of cigarette smoking status (i.e., regular smoking versus non-smoking) and weekly exercise (i.e., weekly metabolic equivalent) in terms of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) symptom severity among a community sample of trauma-exposed adults. Participants included 86 trauma-exposed adults (58.1% female; Mage = 24.3). Approximately 59.7% of participants reported regular (≥ 10 cigarettes per day) daily smoking over the past year. The interactive effect of smoking status by weekly exercise was significantly associated with hyperarousal and avoidance symptom cluster severity (p ≤ .05). These effects were evident above and beyond number of trauma types and gender, as well as the respective main effects of smoking status and weekly exercise. Follow-up tests indicated support for the moderating role of exercise on the association between smoking and PTSD symptoms, such that the highest levels of PTSD symptoms were observed among regular smokers reporting low weekly exercise levels. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24273598

  8. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  9. Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-05-27

    Smoking bans or restrictions can assist in eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to the dangers of secondhand smoke and can reduce tobacco consumption amongst smokers themselves. Evidence exists identifying the impact of tobacco control regulations and interventions implemented in general workplaces and at an individual level. However, it is important that we also review the evidence for smoking bans at a meso- or organisational level, to identify their impact on reducing the burden of exposure to tobacco smoke. Our review assesses evidence for meso- or organisational-level tobacco control bans or policies in a number of specialist settings, including public healthcare facilities, higher education and correctional facilities. To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. We contacted authors to identify completed or ongoing studies eligible for inclusion in this review. We also checked websites of state agencies and organisations, such as trial registries. Date of latest searches was 22nd June 2015. We considered studies that reported the effects of tobacco bans or policies, whether complete or partial, on reducing secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence and other health outcomes, in public healthcare, higher educational and correctional facilities, from 2005 onwards.The minimum standard for inclusion was having a settings-level policy or ban implemented in the study, and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included quasi-experimental studies (i.e. controlled before-and-after studies), interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. Two or more review authors independently

  10. [Strategies for reducing risks in smoking: opportunity or threat].

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The smoking control policies recommended by the World Health Organisation have achieved a slight decrease in smoking prevalence in the developed countries, although associated mortality is still very high. The use of tobacco products other than cigarettes and even medicinal nicotine (known as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)) has been proposed as a risk reduction strategy. Among the tobacco products with less individual risk than cigarettes would be any type of tobacco without smoke (smokeless) with a low content in nitrosamines and modified cigarettes; both forms included under the PREP (Potentially Reduced Exposure Products) concept. The idea would be to promote these products among those who cannot quit smoking or wish to reduce their risk without giving up nicotine intake. The possible effects of risk reduction strategies, including PREP, on the decreased prevalence and morbidity and mortality are reviewed, and the possible implications that this measure could have in our country are analysed. Tobacco control measures in Spain are recent and still insufficient. Therefore, the current priority in Spain is the development of policies of control that have shown to more than effective. The marketing and advertising of new tobacco products, even with reduced potential risk, seems more a serious threat than an opportunity for the development of smoking control policies.

  11. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked compared to non-smoking parents (miscarriage: 1.18, 95 % CI 0.96-1.44; stillbirth: 1.32, 95 % CI 0.93-1.89). On the additive scale, we detected a small positive interaction for stillbirth between smoking and body mass index (overweight women). In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise.

  12. Protecting children: reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Lorraine

    2004-04-01

    The present review examines the current status of efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) among infants and young children. Estimates of the number of children exposed vary, but it is probably over 20 million or about 35% of all U.S. children. Healthy People 2010 sets as an objective the reduction, to 10%, of the proportion of children regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Children with ETS exposure are at higher risk for upper respiratory illnesses, asthma, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome. Eight experimental or quasi-experimental studies of attempts to reduce children' ETS exposure with sample sizes of greater than 100 were conducted in the United States and published between 1990 and 2003. Most of these studies showed a significant impact on maternal smoking and on the number of cigarettes smoked in the home, although intervention-control differences were relatively small. Despite support from professional organizations and federal government groups, many pediatricians and family physicians do not routinely engage in intensive efforts to reduce children's ETS exposure. Training in techniques for reducing tobacco dependence should be included in professional education programs. Public and private insurance should reimburse providers for efforts in this area. An overall strategy for reducing children's ETS exposure should combine individual counseling and education in offices, clinics, and homes with community education and regulatory and economic policies (i.e., smoking bans and excise taxes). Additional funding is needed for studies of provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices; of the effectiveness of various communication strategies; and of office- and community-based strategies to reduce ETS exposure.

  13. Effects of Parental Smoking on Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Methods and Results Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents’ blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Conclusions Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. PMID:25964207

  14. Effects of parental smoking on exercise systolic blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-05-11

    In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents' blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    interventions.The cost per life year saved from the use of pharmacological treatment interventions ranged between US$128 and US$1,450 and up to US$4,400 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved. The use of pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, NRT, and Bupropion, when combined with GP counseling or other behavioral treatment interventions (such as proactive telephone counseling and Web-based delivery), is both clinically effective and cost effective to primary health care providers.Price-based policy measures such as increase in tobacco taxes are unarguably the most effective means of reducing the consumption of tobacco. A 10% tax-induced cigarette price increase anywhere in the world reduces smoking prevalence by between 4% and 8%. Net public benefits from tobacco tax, however, remain positive only when tax rates are between 42.9% and 91.1%. The cost effectiveness ratio of implementing non-price-based smoking cessation legislations (such as smoking restrictions in work places, public places, bans on tobacco advertisement, and raising the legal age of smokers) range from US$2 to US$112 per life year gained (LYG) while reducing smoking prevalence by up to 30%–82% in the long term (over a 50-year period).Smoking cessation classes are known to be most effective among community-based measures, as they could lead to a quit rate of up to 35%, but they usually incur higher costs than other measures such as self-help quit-smoking kits. On average, community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programs yield cost savings to the health system of between US$500 and US$614 per LYG.Advertising media, telecommunications, and other technology-based interventions (such as TV, radio, print, telephone, the Internet, PC, and other electronic media) usually have positive synergistic effects in reducing smoking prevalence especially when combined to deliver smoking cessation messages and counseling support. However, the outcomes on the cost effectiveness of TMT-based measures have been

  16. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    treatment interventions ranged between US$128 and US$1,450 and up to US$4,400 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved. The use of pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, NRT, and Bupropion, when combined with GP counseling or other behavioral treatment interventions (such as proactive telephone counseling and Web-based delivery), is both clinically effective and cost effective to primary health care providers.Price-based policy measures such as increase in tobacco taxes are unarguably the most effective means of reducing the consumption of tobacco. A 10% tax-induced cigarette price increase anywhere in the world reduces smoking prevalence by between 4% and 8%. Net public benefits from tobacco tax, however, remain positive only when tax rates are between 42.9% and 91.1%. The cost effectiveness ratio of implementing non-price-based smoking cessation legislations (such as smoking restrictions in work places, public places, bans on tobacco advertisement, and raising the legal age of smokers) range from US$2 to US$112 per life year gained (LYG) while reducing smoking prevalence by up to 30%-82% in the long term (over a 50-year period).Smoking cessation classes are known to be most effective among community-based measures, as they could lead to a quit rate of up to 35%, but they usually incur higher costs than other measures such as self-help quit-smoking kits. On average, community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programs yield cost savings to the health system of between US$500 and US$614 per LYG.Advertising media, telecommunications, and other technology-based interventions (such as TV, radio, print, telephone, the Internet, PC, and other electronic media) usually have positive synergistic effects in reducing smoking prevalence especially when combined to deliver smoking cessation messages and counseling support. However, the outcomes on the cost effectiveness of TMT-based measures have been inconsistent, and this made it difficult to attribute results to specific

  17. Posttraumatic Stress and Emotion Dysregulation: Relationships with Smoking to Reduce Negative Affect and Barriers to Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Short, Nicole A.; Oglesby, Mary E.; Raines, Amanda M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. Methods We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results Results demonstrated elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. Conclusion These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. PMID:26070492

  18. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  19. Reducing phosphine after the smoking process using an oxidative treatment.

    PubMed

    Nota, G; Naviglio, D; Romano, R; Ugliano, M; Sabia, V

    2000-02-01

    This article gives a description of the setup in a laboratory of a pilot system to reduce phosphine following the smoking process of foodstuffs. At present, this fumigant is released into the atmosphere and causes serious damage to the environment due to its transformation into aggressive compounds. However, phosphine may prove a good alternative to methyl bromide, which will legally be used as a fumigant until the year 2002, provided it is made inert after the smoking process and transformed into nontoxic and easily disposable substances. Oxidant solutions containing potassium permanganate or potassium bichromate in suitable concentrations proved moderately effective in reducing phosphine. The addition of traces of silver nitrate as a catalyst to the oxidant solutions increased the efficiency in reducing the fumigant, although not completely. Thus it was necessary to use a recycling system to decontaminate air from phosphine, as such an apparatus ensures the complete reduction of phosphine. The mathematical function describing how the concentration of phosphine varies in the smoking chamber also makes it possible to estimate the time necessary to reduce a phosphine concentration from any initial value to a fixed final value.

  20. Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

  1. Aerobic exercise program reduces anger expression among overweight children.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Collen A; Davis, Catherine L

    2008-11-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children.

  2. Negative Affect as a Mediator of the Relationship between Vigorous-Intensity Exercise and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tart, Candyce D.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Richter, Ashley; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report measures of physical activity, cigarette smoking, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affect. Consistent with hypothesis, vigorous-intensity exercise was related to lower levels of cigarette smoking, accounting for 10% of the variance in smoking. Additionally, negative affect mediated the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity and cigarette smoking, accounting for about 12% of this relation. Furthermore, these relationships were stronger for individuals with high anxiety sensitivity than for those with low anxiety sensitivity; including anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the mediated relationship increased the amount of variance accounted for by negative affect to 17%. The findings are discussed in relation to developing further scientific insight into the mechanisms and pathways relevant to understanding the association among vigorous-intensity exercise, smoking, and emotional vulnerability. PMID:20171786

  3. Personal Motivation, Exercise, and Smoking Behaviors among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scioli, Erica Rose; Biller, Henry; Rossi, Joseph; Riebe, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have…

  4. Personal Motivation, Exercise, and Smoking Behaviors among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scioli, Erica Rose; Biller, Henry; Rossi, Joseph; Riebe, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have…

  5. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  6. The use of a novel tobacco-substitute sheet and smoke dilution to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    McAdam, K G; Gregg, E O; Liu, C; Dittrich, D J; Duke, M G; Proctor, C J

    2011-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products, tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One approach to reducing smoke toxicant yields is to dilute the smoke with glycerol. We report chemical, biological and human exposure data related to experimental cigarettes containing up to 60% of a novel glycerol containing "tobacco-substitute" sheet. Analysis of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes showed reductions in yields of most measured constituents, other than some volatile species. In vitro toxicological tests showed reductions in the activity of smoke particulates in proportion to their glycerol content. Human exposure to nicotine was reduced by a mean of 18% as determined by filter studies and by 14% using 24h urinary biomarker analysis. Smoke particulate exposures were reduced by a mean of 29% in filter studies and NNK exposure by similar amounts based on urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol concentrations. These results show that reducing exposure to some smoke toxicants is possible using a tobacco-substitute sheet, although some smoke toxicants, and the sensory attributes of the smoke, remain as technical challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing smoking reduces suicidality among individuals with psychosis: Complementary outcomes from a Healthy Lifestyles intervention study.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Clark, Vanessa; Baker, Amanda; Palazzi, Kerrin; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M

    2016-09-30

    This study sought to explore the impact of smoking reduction on suicidality (suicide ideation and behaviour) among people with a psychotic disorder (n=235) who participated in a randomized trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention trial. Suicidality, measured by item -4 of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was the main variable of interest. Measures were collected by research assistants blind to treatment allocation at baseline, at 15 weeks (mid-intervention) and 12 months after baseline. Mediation analysis, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine the relationship between smoking reduction and suicidality and to explore whether this was mediated through depression. At 12 months, smoking reduction was found to be significantly associated with suicidality change; an association was also seen between smoking reduction and depression and depression and suicidality. After adjusting for depression, the association between smoking reduction and suicidality was attenuated but remained statistically significant; the proportion of the total effect that was mediated through depression was 30%. There was no significant association between suicidality and treatment group (vs. controls) over time. Our study suggests that smoking interventions may have benefits over and above those for improved physical health, by reducing suicidal ideation in people with psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Counseling and exercise intervention for smoking reduction in patients with schizophrenia: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paquito Philippe Noel; Esseul, Elodie Christine; Raymond, Laurent; Dandonneau, Loic; Xambo, Jean-Jacques; Carayol, Marion Sara; Ninot, Gregory Jean-Marie Guilyn

    2013-02-01

    Smoking cessation is possible for individuals with schizophrenia but the relapse rate is high. It is necessary to develop more flexible approaches to help these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of an intervention approach that integrates counseling and exercise for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A single group prospective design was used in this study. A sample of inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a program called "oxygen group", a program combining five sessions of smoking reduction counseling and three sessions of moderate intensity exercise over an 8-week period. Tobacco consumption, motivation, carbon monoxide level, anxiety and depression, smoking self-efficacy, nicotine dependence and waist circumference were measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported their satisfaction with the study characteristics after completion of the intervention. Smoking consumption and CO level were assessed at 6-week post-intervention follow-up. Twelve individuals (mean age 45.7±10.8years) were recruited. Participant attendance was 81.3%. There were no dropouts. Significant decreases were found for tobacco consumption (P=.04) and CO rate (P=.003) at the end of the intervention and were maintained at 6-week follow-up. Compared to baseline levels, there were no changes in depression and anxiety. Smoking cessation motivation increased significantly. This intervention appears feasible and acceptable to patients with schizophrenia and there were promising findings regarding smoking reduction. Larger trials to test the intervention are warranted.

  9. Time perspective and exercise, obesity, and smoking: moderation of associations by age.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Lessl, Kristen; Ochi, Onyinyechukwu; Ward, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects were 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures used were the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales and current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18-24 years, 25-34 years, and 35 years and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, whereas higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18- to 24-year-olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18- to 24-year-olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision making.

  10. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND EXERCISE, OBESITY AND SMOKING: MODERATION OF ASSOCIATIONS BY AGE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Butler, SC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales, current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. Analysis We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18–24 years, 25–34 years, and 35 and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, while higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18 – 24 year olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18 – 24 year olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Conclusion Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision-making. PMID:24200252

  11. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  12. Do smoke-free environment policies reduce smoking on hospital grounds? Evaluation of a smoke-free health service policy at two Sydney hospitals.

    PubMed

    Poder, Natasha; Carroll, Therese; Wallace, Cate; Hua, Myna

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the compliance of hospital staff, inpatients and visitors with Sydney South West Area Health Service's Smoke-free Environment Policy. Six sites were observed at two Sydney hospitals 2 weeks before implementation of the policy and at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 2 years after implementation. There was an overall significant 36% (P≤0.05) reduction in observed smoking incidents on hospital grounds 2 years after implementation. Two years after implementation, observed smoking incidents reduced by 44% (P≤0.05) in staff, 37% (P≤0.05) in visitors and remained unchanged among inpatients. The Smoke-free Environment Policy was effective in reducing visitors and staff observed smoking on hospital grounds, but had little effect on inpatients' smoking. Identifying strategies to effectively manage nicotine addiction and promote cessation amongst hospital inpatients remains a key priority.

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions.

    PubMed

    Evero, Nero; Hackett, Laura C; Clark, Robert D; Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd A

    2012-05-01

    Acute exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake, but little is known about the effects of exercise on food reward brain regions. After an overnight fast, 30 (17 men, 13 women), healthy, habitually active (age = 22.2 ± 0.7 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), Vo(2peak) = 44.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) individuals completed 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer or 60 min of rest (no-exercise) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. After each condition, blood oxygen level-dependent responses to high-energy food, low-energy food, and control visual cues, were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Exercise, compared with no-exercise, significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to food (high and low food) cues vs. control cues in the insula (-0.37 ± 0.13 vs. +0.07 ± 0.18%), putamen (-0.39 ± 0.10 vs. -0.10 ± 0.09%), and rolandic operculum (-0.37 ± 0.17 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12%). Exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high food vs. control and low food vs. control cues in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (-0.94 ± 0.33%), insula (-0.37 ± 0.13%), and putamen (-0.41 ± 0.10%). No-exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high vs. control and low vs. control cues in the middle (-0.47 ± 0.15%) and inferior occipital gyrus (-1.00 ± 0.23%). Exercise reduced neuronal responses in brain regions consistent with reduced pleasure of food, reduced incentive motivation to eat, and reduced anticipation and consumption of food. Reduced neuronal response in these food reward brain regions after exercise is in line with the paradigm that acute exercise suppresses subsequent energy intake.

  14. Weight change following smoking cessation: the role of food intake and exercise.

    PubMed

    Rodin, J

    1987-01-01

    While much of the interest in the relationship between weight change and smoking cessation has focused on weight gain, several studies have also reported weight loss or no change. To assess determinants of the direction of weight change, this study followed middle aged smokers from before to after their participation in various local smoking cessation programs. Measures included caloric consumption, available macro- and micronutrients in the diet, taste sensitivity and hedonics, smoking behavior, mood and exercise patterns. Smoking status was confirmed by determination of salivary cotinine levels. Subjects who successfully stopped smoking could be divided in those who gained weight and those who showed no change or lost. These subjects were compared to those who continued smoking and could be divided into the same weight categories. Subjects who gained weight after cessation did not consume more calories but ate somewhat less protein and significantly more carbohydrate than quitters whose weights did not change. Percentage of calories as sugar, in particular, was increased. Regardless of weight change, subjects who stopped smoking showed increased preference for sweet taste. Subjects who gained weight engaged in significantly less aerobic activity than those who did not.

  15. Exercise to reduce vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms: a review.

    PubMed

    Daley, A J; Stokes-Lampard, H J; Macarthur, C

    2009-07-20

    Many women are reluctant to consider HRT as a therapeutic option for menopausal symptoms and are keen to use non-pharmacological treatments. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the effects of aerobic exercise on vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms is limited but what evidence we do have suggests that aerobic exercise can improve psychological health and quality of life in vasomotor symptomatic women. In addition, several RCTs of middle-aged/menopausal-aged women have found that aerobic exercise can invoke significant improvements in several common menopause-related symptoms (e.g. mood, health-related QoL and insomnia), relative to non-exercise comparison groups. There is some evidence that alternative forms of low intensity exercise such as yoga are beneficial in reducing vasomotor symptoms and improving psychological well-being in menopausal women. Collectively, these RCTs highlight the broader potential that exercise could have for women during the menopause transition. Whilst both the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the UK and the North American Menopause Society have recommended that women be advised to consider aerobic exercise as a treatment for vasomotor menopausal symptoms, to make any evidence-based conclusions regarding the effectiveness of exercise in managing these symptoms, more high quality research is needed.

  16. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  17. Are tobacco control policies effective in reducing young adult smoking?

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Loomis, Brett R; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S; Pechacek, Terry F; Couzens, G Lance

    2014-04-01

    We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%-7% higher in 2009. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing Smoking in Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness Results From the Cluster Randomized ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David; Hawkins, James; Hughes, Rachael A.; Moore, Laurence A. R.; Holliday, Jo C.; Audrey, Suzanne; Starkey, Fenella; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: School-based smoking prevention programmes can be effective, but evidence on cost-effectiveness is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a school-based “peer-led” intervention. Methods: We evaluated the ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial) programme in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The ASSIST programme trained students to act as peer supporters during informal interactions to encourage their peers not to smoke. Fifty-nine secondary schools in England and Wales were randomized to receive the ASSIST programme or usual smoking education. Ten thousand seven hundred and thirty students aged 12–13 years attended participating schools. Previous work has demonstrated that the ASSIST programme achieved a 2.1% (95% CI = 0%–4.2%) reduction in smoking prevalence. We evaluated the public sector cost, prevalence of weekly smoking, and cost per additional student not smoking at 24 months. Results: The ASSIST programme cost of £32 (95% CI = £29.70–£33.80) per student. The incremental cost per student not smoking at 2 years was £1,500 (95% CI = £669–£9,947). Students in intervention schools were less likely to believe that they would be a smoker at age 16 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.66–0.96). Conclusions: A peer-led intervention reduced smoking among adolescents at a modest cost. The intervention is cost-effective under realistic assumptions regarding the extent to which reductions in adolescent smoking lead to lower smoking prevalence and/or earlier smoking cessation in adulthood. The annual cost of extending the intervention to Year 8 students in all U.K. schools would be in the region of £38 million and could result in 20,400 fewer adolescent smokers. PMID:22180581

  19. Naltrexone Improves Quit Rates, Attenuates Smoking Urge, and Reduces Alcohol Use in Heavy Drinking Smokers Attempting to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Cao, Dingcai; Grant, Jon E.; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking smokers (HDS) have more difficulty quitting smoking than lighter drinkers or abstainers. The opioid antagonist naltrexone may improve smoking quit rates and reduce alcohol use in drinker–smokers, but its relative efficacy in smokers with a range of drinking patterns is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that HDS would show differential benefit of naltrexone versus placebo relative to moderate-to-light or nondrinking smokers in terms of improving smoking outcomes and reducing alcohol consumption. Methods Adult smokers (N = 315) enrolled in a 12-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 50 mg naltrexone for smoking cessation were categorized into subgroups based upon past 6-month drinking patterns: HDS (n = 69; i.e., averaged ≥2 heavy drinking episodes per month), moderate-to-light drinking smokers (n = 204, i.e., consumed 1 drink up to a maximum of <2 heavy drinking episodes per month on average), or nondrinking smokers (n = 42, no alcohol consumed in the past 6 months). The groups were compared on the main study outcomes of biochemically verified prolonged abstinence quit rates (i.e., no smoking weeks 2 to 12), and smoking urge and alcohol use (drinks/wk) during treatment. Results Naltrexone significantly increased 12-week smoking abstinence rates and decreased smoking urge and alcohol use among HDS, but not moderate-to-light or nondrinking smokers. Mediation analyses in HDS revealed that naltrexone’s effect on smoking urge during the first 4 weeks of treatment mediated its effect on quit rates. Conclusions HDS appear to be particularly sensitive to naltrexone effects on smoking and drinking outcomes. This group may represent an important target for adjunctive treatment with naltrexone to optimize smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:25335648

  20. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 2: Smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicological evaluation using smoking regimens reflecting human puffing behavior.

    PubMed

    Zenzen, Volker; Diekmann, Joerg; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Weber, Susanne; Wittke, Sandra; Schorp, Matthias K

    2012-11-01

    Chemical analysis of up to 49 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in mainstream smoke, in vitro cytotoxicity of the particulate and gas/vapor phase of mainstream smoke determined in the Neutral Red Uptake assay, and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase determined in the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay are reported for three Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) series-K cigarettes, the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F, and a number of comparator commercial conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) under ISO machine-smoking conditions and a total of 25 additional smoking regimens reflecting 'human puffing behavior' (HPB). The smoking machines were set to deliver nicotine yields for the EHCSS and comparator CC derived from the 10th percentile to the 90th percentile of nicotine uptake distributions in smokers determined in two clinical studies. Duplication of the smoking intensity 'per cigarette' on a smoking machine may provide an insight into product performance that is directly relevant to obtaining scientific evidence for reduced exposure substantiation based on mainstream cigarette smoke HPHC-to-nicotine regressions. The reported data support an overall evaluation of reduced exposure to HPHC and biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of smoking and nicotine ingestion on exercise heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Druyan, Amit; Atias, Danit; Ketko, Itay; Cohen-Sivan, Yoav; Heled, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    Smoking has a thermogenic effect and is associated with low physical performance. Nevertheless, a direct, quantitative effect of acute smoking on exercise heat tolerance has not been reported. Sixteen healthy young male volunteers, eight cigarette smokers, and eight non-smokers participated in the study. All subjects performed a maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2max) and a standardized heat tolerance test (HTT) after at least 12 h without smoking under the following conditions: no nicotine exposure, 10 min after nicotine exposure (2 mg nicotine lozenge), and 10 min after smoking two cigarettes (0.8 mg nicotine in each cigarette, smokers only). There was no significant effect of nicotine exposure on physiological performance and heat tolerance in the non-smokers group. In the smokers group, cigarette smoking, but not nicotine ingestion, resulted with higher heart rate (by 9±9 bpm) at the end of the HTT (p<0.05). Moreover, both smoking and nicotine ingestion increased smokers' rectal temperature at the end of the HTT (by 0.24±0.16°C and 0.21±0.26°C, respectively, p<0.05) and were associated with higher sweat rate during the HTT (by 0.08±0.07 g/h and 0.06±0.08 g/h, respectively, p<0.05). Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis also revealed a higher LF/HF (low frequency/high frequency) ratio after exposure to nicotine and smoking in the smokers group compared with no exposure (2.13±2.57 and 2.48±2.76, respectively, p<0.05), indicating a higher sympathetic tone. According to this preliminary study, cigarette smoking and nicotine ingestion increase the physiological strain during a HTT in smokers. Acute smoking may, therefore, increase heat intolerance and the risk to heat injuries.

  2. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  3. The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths caused by smoking in an Eastern European nation: results from the Albania SimSmoke simulation model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Ross, Hana; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Shuperka, Roland; Rusta, Meriglena

    2008-12-01

    The Albania SimSmoke simulation model is used to examine the effects of tobacco control policies. The model is used to consider the projected trends in smoking prevalence and associated smoking-attributable deaths in the absence of new policies, and then to examine the effect of new policies that are consistent with the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) on these outcomes. The model shows that significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases. Acomprehensive strategy to further reduce smoking rates should include a media campaign complete with programs to publicize and enforce clean air laws, a comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, advertising bans, and youth access laws. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps to identify important information needed for both modeling and policymaking. The effectiveness of future tobacco control policy will require proper surveillance and evaluation schemes for Albania.

  4. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (p<0.001). SF-36 score for physical functioning (p<0.001) and role-emotional (p<0.001) were impaired in COPD patients than smokers. SF-36 scores for physical functioning (p<0.001), role-physical (p = 0.01), bodily pain (p = 0.01), vitality (p = 0.04) and role-emotional (p<0.001) were lower in COPD than never smokers. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both COPD diagnosis and smoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status. PMID:27737010

  5. Clinical interventions and smoking ban methods to reduce infants' and children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Wewers, Mary Ellen; Uno, Mariko

    2002-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a serious health threat to infants and children. Clinical efforts, primarily educational, have been associated with modest improvements in ETS reduction. Smoking bans may provide a much larger impact but have yet to be systematically evaluated. Home smoking bans are also surrounded by social, economic, legal, and political challenges. Nurses, as health care providers, play a critical role in this comprehensive health promotion effort.

  6. Opportunities for policy interventions to reduce youth hookah smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel S; Fiala, Steven C; Pawlak, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Preventing youth smoking initiation is a priority for tobacco control programs, because most adult tobacco smokers become addicted during adolescence. Interventions that restrict the affordability, accessibility, and marketing of cigarettes have been effective in reducing youth cigarette smoking. However, increasing numbers of youth are smoking tobacco using hookahs. Predictors of smoking tobacco with hookahs are the same as those for smoking cigarettes. Established interventions that curb youth cigarette smoking should therefore be effective in reducing hookah use. Potential policy interventions include equalizing tobacco tax rates for all tobacco types, requiring warning labels on hookah tobacco and accurate labeling of product contents, extending the cigarette flavoring ban to hookah tobacco, enacting smoke-free air laws and removing exemptions for hookah lounges, and expanding shipping restrictions on tobacco products.

  7. A citywide smoking ban reduced maternal smoking and risk for preterm births: a Colorado natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert Lee; Slejko, Julia F; Libby, Anne M

    2012-06-01

    Few reports exist on the association of a public smoking ban with fetal outcomes and maternal smoking in the United States. We sought to evaluate the effect of a citywide smoking ban in comparison to a like municipality with no such ban in Colorado on maternal smoking and subsequent fetal birth outcomes. A citywide smoking ban in Colorado provided a natural experiment. The experimental citywide smoking ban site was implemented in Pueblo, Colorado. A comparison community was chosen that had no smoking ban, El Paso County, with similar characteristics of population, size, and geography. The two sites served as their own controls, as each had a preban and postban retrospective observation period: preban was April 1, 2001, to July 1, 2003; postban was April 1, 2004, to July 1, 2006. Outcomes were maternal smoking (self-report), low birth weight (LBW) (defined as <2500 g or as <3000 g), and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation) in singleton births from mothers residing in these cities and reported to the State Department of Public Health. A difference-in-differences estimator was used to account for site and temporal trends in multivariate models. Compared to El Paso County preban, the odds of maternal smoking and preterm births were, respectively, 38% (p<0.05) and 23% (p<0.05) lower in Pueblo. The odds for LBW births decreased by 8% for <3000 g and increased by 8.4% for <2500 g; however, neither was significant. This is the first evidence in the United States that population-level intervention using a smoking ban improved maternal and fetal outcomes, measured as maternal smoking and preterm births.

  8. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  9. Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls

    PubMed Central

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

  10. Mass media interventions to reduce youth smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2010-07-01

    Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Grade 7-12 students from public schools in these eight medium-sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; Grades 4-12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, probably because of a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass Media Interventions to Reduce Youth Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Design Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Setting/Participants Grade 7–12 students from public schools in these eight medium sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; grades 4–12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Intervention Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. Results No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence, and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Conclusions Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, likely due to a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. PMID:20537841

  12. Smoke-free homes: an intervention to reduce second-hand smoke exposure in households.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, K; Sarmad, R; Usmani, R A; Kanwal, A; Thomson, H; Cameron, I

    2010-10-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious health hazard. We tested the fidelity and feasibility of the Smoke-Free Homes (SFH) intervention and looked for preliminary evidence of its effectiveness in imposing smoking restrictions in homes in Pakistan. SFH was piloted and adapted for Pakistan. The adapted SFH intervention was then delivered to primary schoolchildren, community leaders and health professionals in a semi-rural Union Council. We carried out a survey before and after the intervention to assess adult smoking behaviour and restrictions at homes. We also carried out focus group discussions with stakeholders to determine the appropriateness and acceptability of the intervention. We found the adapted SFH intervention feasible and appropriate in a typical semi-rural setting in Pakistan. The proportion of smoke-free homes increased from 43% (95%CI 37.4-48.2) to 85% (95%CI 80.9-89.2) after the intervention. The number of households with at least one smoker decreased from 57.5% (95%CI 52.1-62.9) to 38.4% (95%CI 32.7-44.1). There was a reduction in self-reported adult smoking prevalence from 44% (95%CI 39-48) to 28% (95%CI 24-33) in males. SFH has the potential to influence adult smoking behaviour in households. This approach needs to be further evaluated to establish its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and to ascertain its long-term sustainability.

  13. Exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis: Evidential value.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-07-12

    To determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Utilizing data derived from a prior meta-analysis of 29 randomized controlled trials comprising 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a new method, P-curve, was utilized to assess for evidentiary worth as well as dismiss the possibility of discriminating reporting of statistically significant results regarding exercise and depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Using the method of Stouffer, Z-scores were calculated to examine selective-reporting bias. An alpha (P) value < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in P-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (P < 0.05) while none of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Right-skew to dismiss selective reporting was identified (Z = -5.28, P < 0.0001). In addition, the included studies did not lack evidential value (Z = 2.39, P = 0.99), nor did they lack evidential value and were P-hacked (Z = 5.28, P > 0.99). The relative frequencies of P-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in P-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions.

  14. Exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis: Evidential value

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. METHODS Utilizing data derived from a prior meta-analysis of 29 randomized controlled trials comprising 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a new method, P-curve, was utilized to assess for evidentiary worth as well as dismiss the possibility of discriminating reporting of statistically significant results regarding exercise and depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Using the method of Stouffer, Z-scores were calculated to examine selective-reporting bias. An alpha (P) value < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in P-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. RESULTS Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (P < 0.05) while none of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Right-skew to dismiss selective reporting was identified (Z = −5.28, P < 0.0001). In addition, the included studies did not lack evidential value (Z = 2.39, P = 0.99), nor did they lack evidential value and were P-hacked (Z = 5.28, P > 0.99). The relative frequencies of P-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in P-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. CONCLUSION Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. PMID:27489782

  15. Effects of radon mitigation vs smoking cessation in reducing radon-related risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to provide smokers with information on the relative benefits of mitigating radon and quitting smoking in reducing radon-related lung cancer risk. METHODS: The standard radon risk model, linked with models characterizing residential radon exposure and patterns of moving to new homes, was used to estimate the risk reduction produced by remediating high-radon homes, quitting smoking, or both. RESULTS: Quitting smoking reduces lung cancer risk from radon more than does reduction of radon exposure itself. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers should understand that, in addition to producing other health benefits, quitting smoking dominates strategies to deal with the problem posed by radon. PMID:9585753

  16. Combined Varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12-hrs of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC = 0.06 g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces exercise-induced perceived pain and improves endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Astokorki, Ali H Y; Mauger, Alexis R

    2017-03-01

    Muscle pain is a natural consequence of intense and prolonged exercise and has been suggested to be a limiter of performance. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current (IFC) have been shown to reduce both chronic and acute pain in a variety of conditions. This study sought to ascertain whether TENS and IFC could reduce exercise-induced pain (EIP) and whether this would affect exercise performance. It was hypothesised that TENS and IFC would reduce EIP and result in an improved exercise performance. In two parts, 18 (Part I) and 22 (Part II) healthy male and female participants completed an isometric contraction of the dominant bicep until exhaustion (Part I) and a 16.1 km cycling time trial as quickly as they could (Part II) whilst receiving TENS, IFC, and a SHAM placebo in a repeated measures, randomised cross-over, and placebo-controlled design. Perceived EIP was recorded in both tasks using a validated subjective scale. In Part I, TENS significantly reduced perceived EIP (mean reduction of 12%) during the isometric contraction (P = 0.006) and significantly improved participants' time to exhaustion by a mean of 38% (P = 0.02). In Part II, TENS significantly improved (P = 0.003) participants' time trial completion time (~2% improvement) through an increased mean power output. These findings demonstrate that TENS can attenuate perceived EIP in a healthy population and that doing so significantly improves endurance performance in both submaximal isometric single limb exercise and whole-body dynamic exercise.

  18. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    PubMed Central

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V˙O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V˙O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  19. Exercise training reduces insulin resistance in postmyocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhua; Tian, Zhenjun; Zang, Weijin; Jiang, Hongke; Li, Youyou; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Shengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-α, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas. MI significantly impaired endothelial structure and vasodilation (P < 0.05–0.01), as indicated by decreased arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin. MI also attenuated the myocardial contractile response, decreased aortic PI3K/Akt/eNOS expression and phosphorylation by insulin, and increased IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression and p38 MAPK activity (P < 0.05–0.01). Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in aortas, facilitated myocardial contractile response and arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin, and increased arterial PI3K/Akt/eNOS activity. Moreover, exercise markedly reversed increased p38 MAPK activity and normalized inflammatory cytokines in post-MI arteries. Inhibition of PI3K with LY-294002, and eNOS with L-NAME significantly blocked arterial vasorelaxation and PI3K/Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in response to insulin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in response to insulin plays an important role in MI-related IR. The reversal of IR by exercise is most likely associated with normalizing inflammatory cytokines, increasing the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS, and reducing the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:25907785

  20. Are Statewide Restaurant and Bar Smoking Bans Associated With Reduced Cigarette Smoking Among Those With Mental Illness?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoke-free air laws have effectively reduced cigarette consumption at the population level; however, the influence of these policies on smoking among those with mental illness is unclear. We examined whether associations between statewide restaurant/bar smoking bans and cigarette smoking varied by psychiatric diagnoses and gender. Methods: We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, Wave 1: 2001–2002; Wave 2: 2004–2005; n = 7,317 smokers). All analyses were stratified by gender. We examined whether tobacco cessation was associated with the interaction between ban implementation and Wave 1 psychiatric diagnoses (alcohol use disorder [AUD], anxiety disorder [AD], or mood disorder), adjusting for relevant covariates. Among those who continued to use tobacco at Wave 2, we examined associations between Wave 2 cigarettes per day (CPD) and the diagnoses × ban interactions, controlling for Wave 1 CPD and other relevant covariates. Results: Among men with an AUD and women with an AD, ban implementation was associated with 6% and 10% greater probability of tobacco cessation at Wave 2, respectively. Among men in the overall sample, ban implementation was associated with smoking 0.8 fewer CPD at Wave 2. Associations with CPD were nonsignificant among women. Interactions between ban implementation and psychiatric diagnoses were also nonsignificant when examining CPD, suggesting consistent reductions in CPD among men but not among women. Conclusions: This study provided the first evidence that statewide restaurant/bar smoking bans may be associated with reduced smoking among those with select psychiatric conditions. PMID:24566280

  1. Reduced nicotine cigarettes: smoking behavior and biomarkers of exposure among smokers not intending to quit.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. FDA has the authority to limit the nicotine content of cigarettes; however, there are concerns that reduced nicotine cigarettes will be smoked more intensely and, therefore, will increase exposure to toxic chemicals in smoke. This study examined changes in consumer behavior and exposure in response to cigarettes with substantially reduced nicotine content. Seventy-two adult smokers completed an unblinded trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes. Participants completed a 7-day baseline period during which they smoked their usual cigarette brand, followed by consecutive 7-day periods smoking cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine levels (0.6, 0.3, and 0.05 mg emission Quest cigarettes). Nicotine dependence and withdrawal, smoking behavior, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed for each 7-day period. Significant reductions in nicotine intake were observed between usual brand smoking (∼1.2 mg nicotine) and the 0.3 and 0.05 mg nicotine emission cigarettes, but not the 0.6 mg cigarette. The findings provide little evidence of compensatory smoking of Quest cigarettes, with no increases in exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels, smoking intensity, or levels of 1-hydroxypyrene across study periods. No significant differences were observed for smoking urges or measures of nicotine dependence. The study adds to the evidence that cigarettes with markedly reduced nicotine content are not associated with increased smoking intensity or exposure to smoke toxicants. The findings add to the evidence base on reduced nicotine content cigarettes and have the potential to inform FDA policy on nicotine levels. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (<1%), but a majority were interested in trying them as means of smoking reduction (54%), to quit/stay quit from smoking (51%), and to help them not smoke around their child or in the home (55%). Caregivers less motivated to quit smoking and with no home smoking ban were more interested in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  3. Individualized Attempts To Reduce Cigarette Smoking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jeanette; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Authier, Charlene; Chambliss, Catherine

    An earlier study found it very difficult to attract large numbers of college-age smokers to a traditional counseling center based smoking cessation program, despite repeated efforts at advertising the availability of a free program. This study utilizes the program from the earlier study but tailors it more specifically to the needs of the target…

  4. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  5. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  6. Using prescribed fire to reduce the risk of smoke related traffic problems on I-95

    Treesearch

    Steven R. Miller

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the United States, prescribed burning near highways is considered too risky because of the potential for smoke to obscure the highway. In one area in Florida, prescribed fire is used to reduce the risks of smoke related impacts to Interstate 95. The St Johns River Water Management District manages over 400,000 acres of land. Seventy percent of those...

  7. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  8. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  9. Study protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of implementation intentions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current literature suggests that forming implementation intentions (simple ‘if-then’ plans) about how to refuse the offer of a cigarette may be an effective intervention to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. This study is a pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention in reducing smoking initiation in a sample of UK adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial with at least 36 schools randomised to receive an implementation intention intervention targeting reducing smoking initiation (intervention group) or increasing homework (control group). Interventions will be conducted at the classroom level and be repeated every six months for four years (eight interventions). Objectively assessed (carbon monoxide monitor) and self-reported smoking plus smoking related cognitions (e.g., smoking intentions, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy) will be assessed at baseline and 12, 24, 36 and 48 months post baseline. Objectively assessed smoking at 48 months post baseline will be the primary outcome variable. Health economic analyses will assess life years gained. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information on the impact of a repeated implementation intention for refusing offers of cigarettes on rates of smoking initiation in adolescents. Trial registration ISRCTN27596806 PMID:23332020

  10. The impact of smoke-free legislation on reducing exposure to secondhand smoke: differences across gender and socioeconomic groups.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chang, Li-Chuan; Sung, Hai-Yen; Hu, Teh-Wei; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2015-01-01

    On 11 January 2009, Taiwan expanded its smoke-free legislation to all indoor public places and workplaces. This study examined the impact of this policy on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in adult non-smokers, across gender and socioeconomic status groups (SES). An annual sample of about 13,000-14,000 non-smokers was drawn from cross-sectional nationwide data of Taiwan Adult Tobacco Behavior Surveys during 2005-2011. Logistic regressions were used to analyse the aggregate data to estimate the association between the 2009 smoke-free legislation and SHS exposures in homes and workplaces. Interaction terms were used to examine the impact of the 2009 smoke-free policy on reducing differences in SHS exposure across gender, education and income groups. The 2009 policy reduced the odds of SHS exposure in homes in 2009 (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.84) and in workplaces (year 2009: OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.62; year 2010: OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). The model with interaction terms showed that men were more likely than women to be exposed to workplace SHS (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.27) but were less likely to be exposed to home SHS (OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86). SHS exposure in homes was significantly related to lower socioeconomic status, but the 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the difference in SHS exposure across education levels. The 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the SHS exposure for non-smokers. However, this impact on home SHS did not persist after 2009, and the effect of protection was unequal across gender and SES groups. Thus, further enforcement of smoking restrictions would be needed to reduce the risk of SHS exposure and improve protection against SHS risk among parts of the population with lower socioeconomic status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L; Howe, Peter R C; Groeller, Herbert

    2008-12-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are readily incorporated into heart and skeletal muscle membranes where, in the heart, animal studies show they reduce O2 consumption. To test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs alter O2 efficiency in humans, the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on O2 consumption during exercise were evaluated. Sixteen well-trained men (cyclists), randomly assigned to receive 8 x 1 g capsules per day of olive oil (control) or FO for 8 weeks in a double-blind, parallel design, completed the study (control: n = 7, age 27.1 +/- 2.7 years; FO: n = 9, age 23.2 +/- 1.2 years). Subjects used an electronically braked cycle ergometer to complete peak O2 consumption tests (VO 2peak) and sustained submaximal exercise tests at 55% of peak workload (from the VO 2peak test) before and after supplementation. Whole-body O2 consumption and indirect measurements of myocardial O2 consumption [heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP)] were assessed. FO supplementation increased omega-3 PUFA content of erythrocyte cell membranes. There were no differences in VO 2peak (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) (control: pre 66.8 +/- 2.4, post 67.2 +/- 2.3; FO: pre 68.3 +/- 1.4, post 67.2 +/- 1.2) or peak workload after supplementation. The FO supplementation lowered heart rate (including peak heart rate) during incremental workloads to exhaustion (P < 0.05). In addition, the FO supplementation lowered steady-state submaximal exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P < 0.01). Time to voluntary fatigue was not altered by FO supplementation. This study indicates that FOs may act within the healthy heart and skeletal muscle to reduce both whole-body and myocardial O2 demand during exercise, without a decrement in performance.

  12. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  13. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke and subsequent reduced fertility in females.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D; Eggesbo, Merete; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2010-11-01

    Animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke reduces female fertility, but epidemiological findings have been inconsistent. We examined the association between in utero exposure to tobacco smoke and female fertility among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, enrolled from 1999 to 2007. Around the 17th week of pregnancy, participants reported how long they took to conceive (time to pregnancy), and whether their mother smoked while pregnant with the participant. This analysis included 48 319 planned pregnancies among women aged 15-44 years. We estimated fecundability odds ratios (FORs) using a discrete-time survival analysis, adjusting for age, education and adult tobacco smoking. The adjusted FOR for in utero exposure to tobacco smoke among all subjects was 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.98], among subjects reporting no adult tobacco smoking or passive exposure it was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.99) and among subjects reporting adult tobacco smoking or passive exposure it was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the effect of exposure and outcome misclassification on the results, and, as expected, the association became more pronounced after taking misclassification into account. This large cohort study supports a small-to-modest association between in utero exposure to tobacco smoke and reduced fertility.

  14. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  15. Reduced exercise capacity in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Soumya; Kuppurao, K V; Somu, N; Vijayan, V K

    2003-07-01

    Bronchiectasis not due to cystic fibrosis is usually a consequence of severe bacterial or tuberculous infection of the lungs, which is commonly seen in children in developing countries. Our aim was to study its functional sequelae and affect on work capacity in children. Seventeen children (7-17 years of age) with clinical and radiological evidence of bronchiectasis of one or both lungs were studied at the Cardiopulmonary Unit of the Tuberculosis Research Centre. Pulmonary function tests including spirometry and lung volume measurements were performed. Incremental exercise stress test was done on a treadmill, and ventilatory and cardiac parameters were monitored. Control values were taken from a previous study. Children with bronchiectasis had lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (1.1 + 0.4 L versus 1.5 + 0.4 L, p = 0.003) and FEV1 (0.95 +/- 0.2 L versus 1.4 +/- 0.3 L, p < 0.002) compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The patient group had significantly higher residual lung volumes (0.7 +/- 0.3 L versus 0.4 + 0.1 L, p < 0.02). At maximal exercise, they had lower aerobic capacity (28 +/- 6 ml/min/kg versus 38 +/- 5 ml/min/kg, p < 0.0001) and maximal ventilation (24 +/- 8 L/min versus 39 +/- 10 L/min, p < 0.001). At maximal exercise, while none of the controls desaturated, oxygen saturation fell below 88% in eight of 17 patients. The findings show that children and adolescents with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis have abnormal pulmonary function and reduced exercise capacity. This is likely to interfere with their life as well as future work capacity. Efforts should be made to minimize lung damage in childhood by ensuring early diagnosis and instituting appropriate treatment of respiratory infections.

  16. Does getting smokers to stop smoking before lung resections reduce their risk?

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mahvash; Bilal, Haris; Mahmood, Sarah; Tang, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    A best-evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question of whether the incidence of major pulmonary morbidity after lung resection was associated with the timing of smoking cessation was addressed. Overall 49 papers were found using the reported search outlined below, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. In most studies, smoking abstinence was shown to reduce the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) such as pneumonia, respiratory distress, atelectasis, air leakage, bronchopleural fistula and re-intubation. The timing of cessation is not clearly identified, although there is some evidence showing reduction in risk of PPCs with increasing interval since cessation. Two studies suggested that smoking abstinence for at least 4 weeks prior to surgery was necessary in order to reduce the incidence of major pulmonary events. Furthermore, it was also shown that a pre-operative smoke-free period of >10 weeks produced complication rates similar to those of patients who had never smoked. We conclude that smoking cessation reduces the risk of PPCs. All patients should be advised and counseled to stop smoking before any form of lung resection. PMID:22159264

  17. Overcoming limitations in previous research on exercise as a smoking cessation treatment: rationale and design of the "Quit for Health" trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Ussher, Michael; Dunsiger, Shira; Miranda, Robert; Gwaltney, Chad J; Monti, Peter M; Emerson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been proposed as a stand-alone or adjunct smoking cessation treatment, but findings have been mixed. Laboratory studies have shown that individual exercise sessions lead to decreases in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings, but findings are limited by lack of follow-up and artificial settings. On the other hand, smoking cessation treatment RCTs have generally failed to show positive effects of exercise on smoking cessation, but have been plagued by poor and/or unverified compliance with exercise programs. This paper describes the rationale and design for Quit for Health (QFH)--an RCT designed to determine the efficacy of aerobic exercise as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment among women. To overcome limitations of previous research, compliance with the exercise (and wellness contact control) program is incentivized and directly observed, and ecological momentary assessment is used to examine change over time in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings in participants' natural environments.

  18. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  20. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications.

  1. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  2. Nursing research in community-based approaches to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Ashford, Kristin B; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; York, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and a major source of indoor air pollution, accounting for an estimated 53,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke exposure varies by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The most effective public health intervention to reduce SHS exposure is to implement and enforce smoke-free workplace policies that protect entire populations including all workers regardless of occupation, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. This chapter summarizes community and population-based nursing research to reduce SHS exposure. Most of the nursing research in this area has been policy outcome studies, documenting improvement in indoor air quality, worker's health, public opinion, and reduction in Emergency Department visits for asthma, acute myocardial infarction among women, and adult smoking prevalence. These findings suggest a differential health effect by strength of law. Further, smoke-free laws do not harm business or employee turnover, nor are revenues from charitable gaming affected. Additionally, smoke-free laws may eventually have a positive effect on cessation among adults. There is emerging nursing science exploring the link between SHS exposure to nicotine and tobacco dependence, suggesting one reason that SHS reduction is a quit smoking strategy. Other nursing research studies address community readiness for smoke-free policy, and examine factors that build capacity for smoke-free policy. Emerging trends in the field include tobacco free health care and college campuses. A growing body of nursing research provides an excellent opportunity to conduct and participate in community and population-based research to reduce SHS exposure for both vulnerable populations and society at large.

  3. Side-stream smoking reduces intestinal inflammation and increases expression of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Hu, Nan; Ren, Jun; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of side-stream smoking on gut microflora composition, intestinal inflammation and expression of tight junction proteins. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoking for one hour daily over eight weeks. Cecal contents were collected for microbial composition analysis. Large intestine was collected for immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses of the inflammatory pathway and tight junction proteins. RESULTS: Side-stream smoking induced significant changes in the gut microbiota with increased mouse intestinal bacteria, Clostridium but decreased Fermicutes (Lactoccoci and Ruminococcus), Enterobacteriaceae family and Segmented filamentous baceteria compared to the control mice. Meanwhile, side-stream smoking inhibited the nuclear factor-κB pathway with reduced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα, accompanied with unchanged mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. The contents of tight junction proteins, claudin3 and ZO2 were up-regulated in the large intestine of mice exposed side-stream smoking. In addition, side-stream smoking increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK kinase signaling, while inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase in the large intestine. CONCLUSION: Side-stream smoking altered gut microflora composition and reduced the inflammatory response, which was associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:22611310

  4. A Coproduction Community Based Approach to Reducing Smoking Prevalence in a Local Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    McGeechan, G. J.; Woodall, D.; Anderson, L.; Wilson, L.; O'Neill, G.; Newbury-Birch, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights that asset-based community development where local residents become equal partners in service development may help promote health and well-being. This paper outlines baseline results of a coproduction evaluation of an asset-based approach to improving health and well-being within a small community through promoting tobacco control. Local residents were recruited and trained as community researchers to deliver a smoking prevalence survey within their local community and became local health champions, promoting health and well-being. The results of the survey will be used to inform health promotion activities within the community. The local smoking prevalence was higher than the regional and national averages. Half of the households surveyed had at least one smoker, and 63.1% of children lived in a smoking household. Nonsmokers reported higher well-being than smokers; however, the differences were not significant. Whilst the community has a high smoking prevalence, more than half of the smokers surveyed would consider quitting. Providing smoking cessation advice in GP surgeries may help reduce smoking prevalence in this community. Work in the area could be done to reduce children's exposure to smoking in the home. PMID:27446219

  5. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O2 uptake (VO2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO2; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV1, FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise efficiency is reduced by mitochondrial uncoupling in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Cress, M Elaine; Esselman, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency accompanies ageing in humans. Here we evaluated the impact of changes in the contractile-coupling and mitochondrial-coupling efficiencies on the reduction in exercise efficiency in the elderly. Nine adult (mean, 38.8 years old) and 40 elderly subjects (mean, 68.8 years old) performed a cycle ergometer test to measure O2 uptake and leg power output up to the aerobic limit ( ). Reduced leg power output per unit O2 uptake was reflected in a drop in delta efficiency (εD) from 0.27 ± 0.01 (mean ± SEM) in adults to 0.22 ± 0.01 in the elderly group. Similar declines with age were apparent for both the leg power output at and the ATP generation capacity (ATPmax) determined in vivo using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These similar declines resulted in unchanged contractile-coupling efficiency values (εC) in the adult (0.50 ± 0.05) versus the elderly group (0.58 ± 0.04) and agreed with independent measures of muscle contractile-coupling efficiency in human quadriceps (0.5). The mitochondrial-coupling efficiency calculated from the ratio of delta to contractile-coupling efficiencies in the adults (εD/εC = 0.58 ± 0.08) corresponded to values for well-coupled mitochondria (0.6); however, εD/εC was significantly lower in the elderly subjects (0.44 ± 0.03). Conversion of ATPmax per mitochondrial volume (ATPmax/Vv[mt,f]) reported in these groups into thermodynamic units confirmed this drop in mitochondrial-coupling efficiency from 0.57 ± 0.08 in adults to 0.41 ± 0.03 in elderly subjects. Thus, two independent methods revealed that reduced mitochondrial-coupling efficiency was a key part of the drop in exercise efficiency in these elderly subjects and may be an important part of the loss of exercise performance with age.

  7. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2016-11-10

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P < 0.05). These results suggest whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  8. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking. PMID:19440266

  9. Reduced exercise capacity in persons with Down syndrome: cause, effect, and management.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2010-12-08

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have reduced peak and submaximal exercise capacity. Because ambulation is one predictor of survival among adults with DS, a review of the current knowledge of the causes, effects, and management of reduced exercise capacity in these individuals would be important. Available data suggest that reduced exercise capacity in persons with DS results from an interaction between low peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and poor exercise economy. Of several possible explanations, chronotropic incompetence has been shown to be the primary cause of low VO(2peak) in DS. In contrast, poor exercise economy is apparently dependent on disturbed gait kinetics and kinematics resulting from joint laxity and muscle hypotonia. Importantly, there is enough evidence to suggest that such low levels of physical fitness (reduced exercise capacity and muscle strength) limit the ability of adults with DS to perform functional tasks of daily living. Consequently, clinical management of reduced exercise capacity in DS seems important to ensure that these individuals remain productive and healthy throughout their lives. However, few prospective studies have examined the effects of structured exercise training in this population. Existent data suggest that exercise training is beneficial for improving exercise capacity and physiological function in persons with DS. This article reviews the current knowledge of the causes, effects, and management of reduced exercise capacity in DS. This review is limited to the acute and chronic responses to submaximal and peak exercise intensities because data on supramaximal exercise capacity of persons with DS have been shown to be unreliable.

  10. Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions.

    PubMed

    Millar, Philip J; McGowan, Cheri L; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Araujo, Claudio G; Swaine, Ian L

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension, or the chronic elevation in resting arterial blood pressure (BP), is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and estimated to affect ~1 billion adults worldwide. The goals of treatment are to lower BP through lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise training, healthy eating and reduced sodium intake), and if not solely effective, the addition of antihypertensive medications. In particular, increased physical exercise and decreased sedentarism are important strategies in the prevention and management of hypertension. Current guidelines recommend both aerobic and dynamic resistance exercise training modalities to reduce BP. Mounting prospective evidence suggests that isometric exercise training in normotensive and hypertensive (medicated and non-medicated) cohorts of young and old participants may produce similar, if not greater, reductions in BP, with meta-analyses reporting mean reductions of between 10 and 13 mmHg systolic, and 6 and 8 mmHg diastolic. Isometric exercise training protocols typically consist of four sets of 2-min handgrip or leg contractions sustained at 20-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction, with each set separated by a rest period of 1-4 min. Training is usually completed three to five times per week for 4-10 weeks. Although the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations remain to be fully clarified, improvements in conduit and resistance vessel endothelium-dependent dilation, oxidative stress, and autonomic regulation of heart rate and BP have been reported. The clinical significance of isometric exercise training, as a time-efficient and effective training modality to reduce BP, warrants further study. This evidence-based review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of isometric exercise training on resting BP.

  11. Effects of smoking on heart rate at rest and during exercise, and on heart rate recovery, in young adults.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, George; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Papageorgiou, Effie; Zerva, Efthimia; Michalis, Lampros; Kalfakakou, Vasiliki; Evangelou, Angelos

    2013-01-01

    There is an established link between smoking, abnormal heart rate (HR) values, and impaired cardiovascular health in middle-aged or older populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on resting HR and on HR responses during and after exercise in young adults. A sample of 298 young adults (159 men), aged 20-29 years old, were selected from a large population of health-science students based on health status, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking habit. All subjects underwent a maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Smokers had significantly higher resting HR values than non-smokers. Both female and male smokers showed a significantly slower HR increase during exercise. Female smokers failed to reach their age-predicted maximum HR by 6.0 bpm and males by 3.6 bpm. The actual maximum HR achieved (HRmax) was significantly lower for both female smokers (191.0 bpm vs.198.0 bpm) and male smokers (193.2 bpm vs.199.3 bpm), compared to non-smokers. Heart rate reserve was also significantly lower in female (114.6 bpm vs. 128.1 bpm) and male smokers (120.4 bpm vs. 133.0 bpm). During recovery, the HR decline was significantly attenuated, but only in female smokers. Females had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to males. Smoking was found to affect young smokers' HR, increasing HR at rest, slowing HR increase during exercise and impairing their ability to reach the age-predicted HRmax. In addition, smoking was associated with an attenuated HR decline during recovery, but only in females.

  12. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M.; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective. PMID:25785496

  13. Asthma in childhood reduces smoking initiation in subsequent teens among males.

    PubMed

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Bortolami, Oscar; Accordini, Simone; Olivieri, Mario; Cappa, Veronica; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Corsico, Angelo; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; de Marco, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The association between smoking habits and asthma is complex because subjects with asthma could avoid smoking, whereas smoking could increase asthma severity or incidence. The relation between asthma in childhood (0-10 years) and smoking initiation in the second decade (11-20 years) was investigated using the database of the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults, performed in 1998-2000 on people aged 20-45 years. The cumulative incidence of smoking initiation was compared among (1) subjects not reporting asthma attacks in the first 20 years of life (n = 17,384), (2) subjects reporting asthma onset in the first decade and no disease remission by the age of 20 years (n = 305), (3) subjects reporting asthma onset in the first decade and remission in the first and second decades (n = 573). Among men, the cumulative incidence of smoking onset was higher among nonasthmatics (49%) than among asthmatics (35.6%), and intermediate among asthmatics with disease remission (44.2%) (p = .001). These differences were larger in males born between 1953 and 1965, and tended to decrease in males born between 1966 and 1979: cumulative incidence of smoking onset decreased from 54.3% to 43.8% in nonasthmatics, whereas it remained stable in asthmatics (from 36.8% to 35%). Women, instead, had similar cumulative incidence of smoking initiation, irrespective of asthma onset or remission (p = .849). Asthma in childhood reduces smoking initiation during the subsequent teenage in men, but not in women. This protective effect tends to fade when asthma remission occurs. In the last decades, smoking initiation has decreased among nonasthmatic males, but not among asthmatic males. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions to reduce harm from smoking with families in infancy and early childhood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-03-16

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1-5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.

  15. A Randomized, Controlled Community-Wide Intervention to Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use in low- to middle-income countries is a major public health concern for both smokers and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Egypt has made important strides in controlling tobacco use, but smoking and ETS remain highly prevalent. This randomized intervention sought to improve the target population’s knowledge regarding the hazards of smoking and ETS and to change attitudes and smoking behaviors within the community and the household. Methods: In this 2005–2006 study in Egypt’s Qalyubia governorate, trained professionals visited schools, households, mosques, and health care centers in rural villages randomly selected for the intervention to discuss the adverse effects of smoking and ETS exposure and ways to reduce one’s ETS exposure. Data collected in interviewer-facilitated surveys before and after the intervention period were analyzed in pairwise comparisons with data from control villages to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in achieving its aims. Results: The intervention group showed a greater increase in understanding the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes and waterpipes and became more proactive in limiting ETS exposure by asking smokers to stop, avoiding areas with ETS, and enacting smoking bans in the home. However, the intervention had little to no impact on the number of smokers and the amount of tobacco smoked. Conclusions: Results are consistent with previous studies showing that changing smokers’ behavior can be difficult, but community-wide efforts to reduce ETS exposure through smoking bans, education, and empowering people to ask smokers to stop are effective. The method can be generalized to other settings. PMID:23328881

  16. Clinical interventions to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Dietz, Patricia M; Rolle, Italia V; Kennedy, Sara M; Thomas, William; England, Lucinda J

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a systematic review of clinical interventions to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking pregnant women. We searched 16 databases for publications from 1990 to January 2013, with no language restrictions. Papers were included if they met the following criteria: (1) the study population included non-smoking pregnant women exposed to SHS, (2) the clinical interventions were intended to reduce SHS exposure at home, (3) the study included a control group and (4) outcomes included either reduced SHS exposure of non-smoking pregnant women at home or quit rates among smoking partners during the pregnancy of the woman. Two coders independently reviewed each abstract or full text to identify eligible papers. Two abstractors independently coded papers based on US Preventive Services Task Force criteria for study quality (good, fair, poor), and studies without biochemically-verified outcome measures were considered poor quality. From 4670 papers, we identified five studies that met our inclusion criteria: four focused on reducing SHS exposure among non-smoking pregnant women, and one focused on providing cessation support for smoking partners of pregnant women. All were randomised controlled trials, and all reported positive findings. Three studies were judged poor quality because outcome measures were not biochemically-verified, and two were considered fair quality. Clinical interventions delivered in prenatal care settings appear to reduce SHS exposure, but study weaknesses limit our ability to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies, using biochemical validation, are needed to identify strategies for reducing SHS exposure in pregnant women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Local health campaigns to reduce lung cancers induced by radon and smoking--who responds?

    PubMed

    Denman, Antony Roger; Timson, Karen; Shield, George; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher John; Rogers, Stephen; Campbell, Jackie Ann; Phillips, Paul Scott

    2009-12-01

    The greatest risk factor for lung cancer is smoking, the second largest factor being raised radon levels at home. Initiatives to stop smoking and reduce domestic radon levels have met with some success, but in both cases a significant proportion of those affected have not taken action. The two risk factors combine, so that those who smoke and live in a house with high radon levels are at higher risk than if exposed to only one of the two threats. There is the potential for combined public health campaigns to better target those affected. Using postal questionnaires, we collected demographic information of those in Northamptonshire, UK, a radon Affected Area, who participated in Smoking Cessation Programmes, and compared these to a recent study by our group of those who had taken action to reduce radon. The comparison suggests that these two groups are significantly different, and in some cases differ from the general population. In addition, those who continue to quit smoking at 1 year were more likely to have children under 18 at home, and live with a parent or partner compared to those who had relapsed after the previous assessment at 4 weeks. There is merit in extending Smoking Cessation Programmes to include advice on reducing the risks from radon.

  18. The Role of Cities in Reducing Smoking in China

    PubMed Central

    Redmon, Pamela; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael; Li, Shuyang; Kean, Wang

    2014-01-01

    China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the “bottom up”. The Emory Global Health Institute—China Tobacco Control Partnership supported 17 cities to establish tobacco control programs aimed at changing social norms for tobacco use. Program assessments showed the Tobacco Free Cities grantees’ progress in establishing tobacco control policies and raising public awareness through policies, programs and education activities have varied from modest to substantial. Lessons learned included the need for training and tailored technical support to build staff capacity and the importance of government and organizational support for tobacco control. Tobacco control, particularly in China, is complex, but the potential for significant public health impact is unparalleled. Cities have a critical role to play in changing social norms of tobacco use, and may be the driving force for social norm change related to tobacco use in China. PMID:25264682

  19. The role of cities in reducing smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Redmon, Pamela; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael; Li, Shuyang; Kean, Wang

    2014-09-26

    China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the "bottom up". The Emory Global Health Institute-China Tobacco Control Partnership supported 17 cities to establish tobacco control programs aimed at changing social norms for tobacco use. Program assessments showed the Tobacco Free Cities grantees' progress in establishing tobacco control policies and raising public awareness through policies, programs and education activities have varied from modest to substantial. Lessons learned included the need for training and tailored technical support to build staff capacity and the importance of government and organizational support for tobacco control. Tobacco control, particularly in China, is complex, but the potential for significant public health impact is unparalleled. Cities have a critical role to play in changing social norms of tobacco use, and may be the driving force for social norm change related to tobacco use in China.

  20. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Methods: Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. Results: For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Conclusions: Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Implications: Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross

  1. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys.

    PubMed

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys across the four countries of the United Kingdom

  2. The efficacy of different models of smoke-free laws in reducing exposure to second-hand smoke: a multi-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mark; Currie, Laura M; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious public health concern and while all EU Member States have enacted some form of regulation aimed at limiting exposure, the scope of these regulations vary widely and many countries have failed to enact comprehensive legislation creating smoke-free workplaces and indoor public places. To gauge the effectiveness of different smoke-free models we compared fine particles from second-hand smoke in hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoking bans in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and Scotland. Data on PM2.5 fine particle concentration levels were recorded in 338 hospitality venues across these countries before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Changes in mean PM2.5 concentrations during the period from pre- to post-legislation were then compared across countries. While a reduction in PM2.5 was observed in all countries, those who had enacted and enforced more fully comprehensive smoke-free legislation experienced the greatest reduction in second-hand tobacco smoke. Comprehensive smoke-free laws are more effective than partial laws in reducing exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Also, any law, regardless of scope must be actively enforced in order to have the desired impact. There is continued need for surveillance of smoke-free efforts in all countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selectively reduced responses to smoking cues in amygdala following extinction-based smoking cessation: results of a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    McClernon, F Joseph; Hiott, F Berry; Liu, Jim; Salley, Alfred N; Behm, Frederique M; Rose, Jed E

    2007-09-01

    Preliminary studies suggest an extinction-based smoking cessation treatment using reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes decreases self-report craving for cigarettes prior to quitting and may be an effective smoking cessation treatment. The aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extinction-based smoking cessation treatment on brain responses to smoking cues using blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen (n = 16) dependent smokers were scanned using BOLD fMRI at baseline, following 2-4 weeks of smoking RNC cigarettes while wearing a 21-mg nicotine patch, and 2-4 weeks following quitting smoking. During scanning, participants viewed smoking-related pictures (e.g. lit cigarette) and pictures of people engaged in everyday activities (e.g. using a stapler). Event-related BOLD responses to smoking and control cues were analyzed in regions of interest (ROIs) known to subserve reward, attention, motivation and emotion. The extinction-based treatment simultaneously attenuated responses to smoking cues in amygdala while potentiating responses to control cues. Exploratory analysis indicated that this pattern was also observed in the thalamus of future abstinent but not relapsing smokers. The results of this preliminary study suggest that an extinction-based treatment for smoking cessation alters brain responses to smoking and control cues in amygdala--a region previously associated with drug cue reactivity and extinction.

  4. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  5. Effectiveness of cigarette filter tips for reducing cadmium in relation to other mainstream smoke constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of filter tips for reducing cadmium, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were made from tobacco grown on municipal sewage sludge-amended soil and were therefore high in cadmium. When machine-smoked, filter tips did not result in a significant reduction of cadmium deposited on Cambridge filters. This may indicate that a considerable fraction of cadmium is present in the vapor phase of the smoke and therefore not reduced to the same extent as the tar by certain filters. Nicotine and carbon monoxide were reduced to a lesser extent than tar. This indicates that the filter tip has influenced the combustion of the tobacco column during smoking.

  6. Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M.; Chaloupka, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.
DATA SOURCES—Literature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California, Massachusetts, Arizona, Oregon, and Florida.
STUDY SELECTION—All studies, reports, and commentaries that provided information on aspects of programme implementation and evaluation.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Statewide comprehensive programmes show high levels of advertising recall and generally positive improvement in smoking related beliefs and attitudes among teenagers. More fully funded programmes lead to increased mass media campaign advertising and community initiatives; a greater capacity to implement school based smoking prevention programmes; and an increase in the passage of local ordinances that create smoke free indoor environments and reduce cigarette sales to youth. The combination of programme activity and increased tobacco tax reduce cigarette consumption more than expected as a result of price increases alone, and these effects seem to apply to adolescents as well as adults. Programmes are associated with a decline in adult smoking prevalence, with these effects observed to date in California, Massachusetts, and Oregon. Arizona and Florida have yet to examine change in adult prevalence associated with programme exposure. California and Massachusetts have demonstrated relative beneficial effects in teenage smoking prevalence, and Florida has reported promising indications of reduced prevalence. Arizona has yet to report follow up data, and Oregon has found no change in teenage smoking, but has only two years of follow up available. One of the most critical factors in programme success is the extent of programme funding, and

  7. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison J; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2007-10-01

    Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Cohort study. A total of 792 smokers, participating in a trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-assisted smoking cessation. Participants were informed that the trial investigated relationships between genetic markers and smoking behaviour, but personalized genetic feedback was not provided. Primary care in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, UK. Perceived control over smoking and perceived importance of genetic factors in causing smoking assessed pre-quit; abstinence 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment. A total of 515 smokers (65.0%) viewed genetic factors as playing some role in causing their smoking. They had lower perceived control over smoking than smokers who viewed genetic factors as having no role in causing their smoking. Attributing smoking to genetic causes was not associated significantly with a lower probability of quit attempt success. Attributing smoking to genetic factors was associated with lower levels of perceived control over smoking but not lower quit rates. This suggests that learning of one's genetic predisposition to smoking during a pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation intervention may not deter quitting. Further research should examine whether the lack of impact of genetic attributions on quit attempt success is also found in smokers provided with personalized genetic feedback.

  8. Exercise Reduces Lung Fibrosis Involving Serotonin/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo Rogerio; Oliveira-Junior, Manoel Carneiro; Mackenzie, Breanne; Chiovatto, Jaime Eduardo Davino; Matos, Yves; Greiffo, Flavia Regina; Rigonato-Oliveira, Nicole Cristine; Brugemman, Thayse Regina; Delle, Humberto; Idzko, Marco; Albertini, Regiane; Ligeiro Oliveira, Ana Paula; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Fernandez, Isis Ensil; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Eickelberg, Oliver; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, which involves aberrant serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and Akt signaling. As protective effects of chronic aerobic training (AT) have been demonstrated in the context of lung injury, this study investigated whether AT attenuates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis partly via a reduction of 5-HT and AKT signaling. Seventy-two C57BL/6 male mice were distributed in Control (Co), Exercise (Ex), Fibrosis (Fi), and Fibrosis + Exercise (Fi + Ex) groups. Bleomycin (1.5 UI·kg) was administered on day 1 and treadmill AT began on day 15 and continued for 60 min·d, 5 d·wk for 4 wk. We evaluated total and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CXCL1/KC, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β levels in BAL, collagen content in lung parenchyma, 5-HT levels in BAL fluid and in serum, the expression of 5-HT2B receptor, and Akt phosphorylation in lung tissue. AT reduced bleomycin-increased number of total cells (P < 0.001), neutrophils (P < 0.01), macrophages (P < 0.01), and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in BAL. It also reduced the levels of IL-1β (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.05), CXCL1/KC (P < 0.001), tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.001), and transforming growth factor β (P < 0.001). It increased expression of ant-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P < 0.001). It reduced bleomycin-increased 5-HT levels in BAL (P < 0.001) and in serum (P < 0.05). Reductions in collagen fiber deposition (P < 0.01), 5-HT2B receptor expression (P < 0.01), and Akt phosphorylation in lung tissue were observed. AT accelerates the resolution of lung inflammation and fibrosis in a model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis partly via attenuation of 5-HT/Akt signaling.

  9. Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rose, J E; Behm, F M

    1994-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sensory cues associated with cigarette smoking can suppress certain smoking withdrawal symptoms, including craving for cigarettes. In this study we investigated the subjective effects of a cigarette substitute delivering a vapor of black pepper essential oil. Forty-eight cigarette smokers participated in a 3-h session conducted after overnight deprivation from smoking. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one group of smokers puffed on a device that delivered a vapor from essential oil of black pepper; a second group puffed on the device with a mint/menthol cartridge, and a third group used a device containing an empty cartridge. Subjects puffed and inhaled ad libitum from the device throughout the session during which no smoking was allowed. Reported craving for cigarettes was significantly reduced in the pepper condition relative to each of the two control conditions. In addition, negative affect and somatic symptoms of anxiety were alleviated in the pepper condition relative to the unflavored placebo. The intensity of sensations in the chest was also significantly higher for the pepper condition. These results support the view that respiratory tract sensations are important in alleviating smoking withdrawal symptoms. Cigarette substitutes delivering pepper constituents may prove useful in smoking cessation treatment.

  10. The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model.

    PubMed

    Levy, D T; Benjakul, S; Ross, H; Ritthiphakdee, B

    2008-02-01

    With the male smoking prevalence near 60% in 1991, Thailand was one of the first Asian nations to implement strict tobacco control policies. However, the success of their efforts has not been well documented. The role of tobacco control policies are examined using the "SimSmoke" tobacco control model. We first validated the model against survey data on smoking prevalence. We then distinguished the effect of policies implemented between 1991 and 2006 from long-term trends in smoking rates. We also estimated smoking attributable deaths and lives saved as a result of the policies. The model validates well against survey data. The model shows that by the year 2006, policies implemented between 1991 and 2006 had already decreased smoking prevalence by 25% compared to what it would have been in the absence of the policies. Tax increases on cigarettes and advertising bans had the largest impact, followed by media anti-smoking campaigns, clean air laws and health warnings. The model estimates that the policies saved 31 867 lives by 2006 and will have saved 319,456 lives by 2026. The results document the success of Thailand in reducing smoking prevalence and reducing the number of lives lost to smoking, thereby showing the potential of tobacco control policies specifically in a middle-income country. Additional improvements can be realised through higher taxes, stronger clean air policies, comprehensive cessation treatment policies, and targeted media campaigns.

  11. Reducing psychosocial stress: a novel mechanism of improving survival from exercise training.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training reduces mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Behavioral characteristics, including depression, hostility, and overall psychosocial stress, have been shown to be independent risk factors for recurrent myocardial infarction and death in these patients. Exercise training can reduce these high-risk behaviors, but it remains uncertain as to what extent the health benefits of exercise training can be attributed to improving these behaviors. We evaluated the impact of exercise training during cardiac rehabilitation on mortality in 53 patients with coronary artery disease with high levels of psychosocial stress and in 469 patients with coronary artery disease with low levels of psychosocial stress and compared them with 27 control patients with high psychosocial stress who did not undergo formal cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training. Mortality was approximately 4-fold greater in patients with high psychosocial stress than in those with low psychosocial stress (22% vs 5%; P = .003). Exercise training decreased the prevalence of psychosocial stress from 10% to 4% (P<.0001) and similarly improved peak oxygen uptake in patients with high and low psychosocial stress. Mortality in patients who improved exercise capacity by>or=10% (high exercise change) was 60% lower than in patients who had<10% improvement in exercise capacity (low exercise change) (P=.009). Mortality was lower in patients with high psychosocial stress with high exercise change compared with patients with high psychosocial stress with low exercise change (0% vs 19%; P=.009). In contrast, there was no significant improvement in mortality in patients with high versus low exercise change with low psychosocial stress (4% vs 8%; P=.14). Psychosocial stress is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, and exercise training can effectively reduce its prevalence. Exercise training reduces mortality in patients with coronary artery disease

  12. The use of contingency management to reduce cigarette smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Correia, Christopher J; Benson, Trisha A

    2006-05-01

    The current study tested the feasibility of using contingency management to reduce cigarette smoking among college students. Eighty-eight undergraduate smokers were enrolled in a 3-week ABA study. During the baseline weeks, participants earned noncontingent monetary payments for attending data collection sessions. During the intervention week, participants earned monetary payments contingent on demonstrating recent abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to either a low- or a high-reinforcer magnitude condition that controlled the amount of money that could be earned during the intervention week. Cigarette smoking was significantly reduced during the intervention week relative to the baseline weeks, and greater reductions were achieved under the high-reinforcer magnitude condition. These results suggest that cigarette smoking among college students is responsive to contingency management procedures.

  13. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.

    PubMed

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Life style and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative dna damage: effects of exercise, working conditions, meat intake, body mass index, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Kasai, H; Iwamoto-Tanaka, N; Miyamoto, T; Kawanami, K; Kawanami, S; Kido, R; Ikeda, M

    2001-01-01

    The urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, of 318 healthy men aged 18 - 58 were measured with high resolution by a newly developed automated high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled to an electrochemical detector (ECD). The mean 8-OH-dG level (mg / g creatinine) was 4.12 +/- 1.73 (SD). An eleven-fold inter-individual variation was observed. The accuracy of the measurement estimated from the recovery of an added 8-OH-dG standard was 90 - 98%. By univariate analysis, it was found that moderate physical exercise (P = 0.0023) and high body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0032) reduced the 8-OH-dG level, while physical labor (P = 0.0097), smoking (P = 0.032), and low meat intake (less than once / week) (P = 0.041) increased its level. Based on a multi-regression analysis of the log-transformed values, moderate physical exercise (P = 0.0039), high BMI (P = 0.0099), and age (P = 0.021) showed significant reducing effects on the 8-OH-dG level, while low meat intake (P = 0.010), smoking (P = 0.013), and day-night shift work (P = 0.044) increased its level. These results suggest that many types of life-style factors that either generate or scavenge oxygen radicals may affect the level of oxidative DNA damage of each individual.

  15. Smoking and schizophrenia: is symptom profile related to smoking and which antipsychotic medication is of benefit in reducing cigarette use?

    PubMed

    Barnes, Mark; Lawford, Bruce R; Burton, Simon C; Heslop, Karen R; Noble, Ernest P; Hausdorf, Karrin; Young, Ross McD

    2006-01-01

    Smoking rate is disproportionately high among patients with schizophrenia, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. However, cigarette smoking has been reported to have beneficial effects on negative symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, cognitive functioning and mood symptoms. Therefore, smoking cessation may worsen disability in schizophrenia. The association between smoking and these key clinical parameters was examined. Additionally, severity of smoking across four different antipsychotic treatment groups was explored. One hundred and forty-six patients with schizophrenia were assessed for smoking using expired carbon monoxide and smoking history. They were administered the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, The Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, Reitans Trail-making Test (A and B) and General Health Questionnaire-28. There was no difference in the chlorpromazine equivalent dose of any of the medications studied. Atypical agents were associated with significantly lower levels of smoking when compared with typical medications. There was no difference in smoking severity between the individual atypical medications examined. Similarly, there were no significant differences between smoking and non-smoking groups with regard to Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, Trail-making Test and General Health Questionnaire-28. However, there was a significant difference between these groups with the smoking group demonstrating less akathisia. Smoking is not associated with positive, negative cognitive and mood symptoms in schizophrenia. Smoking is associated with lower levels of antipsychotic induced akathisia. Clinicians should not be discouraged from helping patients stop smoking for fear of worsening symptoms. However, akathisia may emerge upon cessation of smoking. Switching patients from typical to atypical antipsychotics may assist patients with schizophrenia to give up smoking.

  16. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women.

  17. Masculinity and Fatherhood: New Fathers' Perceptions of Their Female Partners' Efforts to Assist Them to Reduce or Quit Smoking.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion initiatives to reduce smoking among parents have focused almost exclusively on women to support their cessation during pregnancy and postpartum, while overlooking the importance of fathers' smoking cessation. This study was a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 new and expectant fathers to identify how they perceived their female partners' efforts to assist them to reduce or quit smoking. Social constructionist gender frameworks were used to theorize and develop the findings. Three key themes were identified: support and autonomy in men's smoking cessation, perception of challenging men's freedom to smoke, and contempt for men's continued smoking. The findings suggest that shifts in masculinities as men take up fathering should be considered in designing smoking cessation interventions for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Intermittent exercises reduce the hypertension syndromes and improve the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuanhai

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common causes for cardiovascular mortality in China and physical exercises have been well recognized for its prevention and treatment. Recent studies indicated that the methods of exercise differed in improving cardiorespiratory fitness, endothelial function, etc. In the present study, we compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and moderate-intensity continuous exercise on the blood pressure, plasma CRAMP level and living quality of hypertensive patients. We measured the basic characteristics of all the individuals and made intermittent/continuous exercise plans according to each of their conditions. The whole training lasted for 16 weeks and the CRAMP level of each patient was recorded by blood sampling and ELISA test. The patients' quality of life (QoL) was also surveyed to determine their physical and psychological health. Our result suggested that the intermittent exercise significantly reduced the blood pressure and the CRAMP level of the hypertensive patients. Although the physical pain and social function were not improved by either exercises training, the other six dimensions of QoL, including physical function, physical role, general health condition, vitality, emotional role and mental health, were significant improved by exercises, especially by intermittent exercises. To sum up, the high-intensity intermittent exercise and moderate-intensity continuous exercise could both improve the living quality of hypertensive patients, but the effect of intermittent exercise was more obvious that it reduced the blood pressure and the CRAMP level of hypertensive patients and improve the living quality in a higher level.

  19. Reduced vital capacity leads to exercise intolerance in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ozdem Yr, O; Inanici, F; Hasçelik, Z

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that pulmonary function is altered in patients with ankylosing spondilitis (AS) owing mainly to the restriction of chest expansion. In addition to musculoskeletal factors, development of pulmonary function abnormalities may also deteriorate exercise tolerance of the patients. The aim of this study was to examine the pulmonary function and exercise tolerance of AS patients. A case controlled study. Outpatient clinic of an university hospital. Twenty-two men with the diagnosis of definite AS and 20 healthy controls matched according to age, sex, smoking habits and physical activity level were enrolled in this study. After a detailed physical examination, pulmonary function and exercise tolerance were assessed by "Sensormedics-Vmax 229" ergospirometry system. Maximal exercise testing was performed on a cycle ergometer using "10 watt ramp" protocol. Patients with AS had lower chest expansion, vital capacity and exercise tolerance than healthy subjects. Exercise tolerance strongly correlated with the patients' age, disease duration, chest expansion, modified Schober test, and vital capacity. In stepwise regression analysis, the best regression model for explaining the total variation of exercise tolerance selected only vital capacity as an independent variable (R²=54.9%). Rather than musculoskeletal manifestations, exercise intolerance was mainly explained by pulmonary function impairment in AS patients. These results suggest that efforts should be directed not only towards improving spinal mobility but also towards increasing cardiopulmonary fitness in AS patients.

  20. A trial of health education aimed to reduce cigarette smoking among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rush, D; Orme, J; King, J; Eiser, J R; Butler, N R

    1992-04-01

    Three hundred and forty-six women who reported smoking one or more cigarettes per day prior to the 20th week of gestation were recruited into a trial of health educational counselling to stop or reduce cigarette smoking. Counselling was begun at the first prenatal visit and then continued subsequently in the home. Among the 319 women included in analysis, at first follow-up visit those who received counselling smoked 1.7 fewer cigarettes a day than control women (P less than 0.05) and 10.4% had stopped smoking, compared to 5.4% in the control group (NS). Similar but not significant differences were noted at the end of pregnancy. Study effects were limited to the 284 women smoking five or more cigarettes a day at booking. This report refers primarily to them. At first follow-up visit the proportion of such women in the counselled group who ceased smoking (9.3%) was significantly greater than in the control group (2.6%; P less than 0.05). The magnitude of this difference persisted through late pregnancy (11.8% vs. 4.3%; NS) and delivery (10.6% vs. 4.7%; NS). The differences between counselled women and controls in numbers of cigarettes reported smoked at first and last prenatal follow-up visits (2.4 and 2.1) and at delivery (2.0) were all statistically significant. While there was no effect of counselling on either serum thiocyanate or end expiratory carbon monoxide, the counselled group gained slightly more weight than controls during the study (0.47 vs. 0.44 kg per week among controls; NS), and their infants had modestly higher birthweight (44 g; NS).

  1. Does exercise reduce brain oxidative stress? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Aranda, P; Radak, Z

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the influence of different exercise programs on brain oxidative stress. A search of the literature was conducted up to 1 December 2012 across five databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. The search strategy used in the electronic databases mentioned was established as: (swim* OR exercise OR training) AND ("oxidative stress" AND brain) for each database. A methodological quality assessment valuation/estimation was additionally carried out in the final sample of studies. Of 1553 potentially eligible papers, 19 were included after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality assessment showed a total score in the Quality Index between 40% and 80%, with a mean quality of 56.8%. Overall, regular moderate aerobic exercise appears to promote antioxidant capacity on brain. In contrast, anaerobic or high-intensity exercise, aerobic-exhausted exercise, or the combination of both types of training could deteriorate the antioxidant response. Future investigations should be focused on establishing a standardized exercise protocol, depending on the exercise metabolism wanted to test, which could enhance the objective knowledge in this topic.

  2. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  3. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  4. Smoking behaviour and toxin exposure during six weeks use of a potential reduced exposure product: Omni.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Hecht, S S; Carmella, S G; Murphy, S E; Callas, P

    2004-06-01

    To determine smoking behaviour, acceptability, and toxin exposure when smokers switch to the potential reduced exposure product-Omni cigarette. 12 week randomised, crossover study of Omni versus own cigarettes. 19 light/ultralight and 15 regular smokers. Cigarettes/day, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal symptoms, urinary cotinine plus its glucuronide (total cotinine), nicotine plus its glucuronide (total nicotine), and carcinogen metabolites (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides and 1-hydroxypyrene). When switched to Omni, smokers smoked the same number of cigarettes/day, smoked Omni cigarettes less intensely (total puff volume = -11%) and had slightly lower total cotinine (-18%) levels than their own cigarettes, but had a slightly greater carbon monoxide boost/cig (+21%). Craving and withdrawal ratings were similar with Omni and own cigarettes. Carcinogen metabolite levels were somewhat but not significantly lower with Omni. About half of smokers rated Omni as better for their health and about two thirds stated it was weaker and worse tasting than their own cigarettes. Although Omni may be an adequate behavioural and pharmacological substitute for traditional cigarettes, it may not decrease carcinogen exposure and may increase carbon monoxide. Replications with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are needed. These results indicate the need for regulation of reduced exposure and reduced risk claims.

  5. Characterizing and identifying "hard-core" smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; Gilpin, E A; Ake, C; Farkas, A J; Pierce, J P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Some smokers may never quit. Depending on how many of these "hard-core" smokers exist, tobacco control efforts could reach the limits of a minimum achievable smoking prevalence. We defined the hard core as heavy smokers with weak quitting histories who expect never to quit smoking. We compared them with other smokers and analyzed whether they represent a meaningful barrier to further reducing smoking prevalence. METHODS: We used data from the 1996 California Tobacco Surveys (18616 adults; response rate = 72.9%). RESULTS: In 1996, 5.2% of California smokers 26 years and older (1.3% of the California population) were hard-core smokers. Compared with other smokers, hard-core smokers were more likely to be retired non-Hispanic White males, with 12 years or less of education and incomes below $30,000 a year, who live alone. They began smoking at younger ages and attributed fewer negative health consequences to smoking than other smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco control efforts have a long way to go before they "hit the wall." Nonetheless, the group of hard-core smokers represents a challenge because they appear to be largely unaffected by the messages of tobacco control. PMID:10705856

  6. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  7. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    PubMed

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  8. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Pregnancy is Associated With Earlier Delivery and Reduced Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel C; Wills, Andrew K; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-12-01

    The association between maternal smoking and preterm birth (PTB) has been known for more than 50 years but the effect of passive smoking is controversial. This retrospective cohort study in Bristol, United Kingdom, examines the effect of environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE) on gestational age at delivery, birth weight, PTB, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was defined by either self-report or exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels, and exposed women were compared with unexposed controls. Two models were used: The first included all women with adjustment for maternal smoking, and the second considered nonsmokers alone. Both models were further adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, parity, ethnicity, employment status, socioeconomic position, asthma, preeclampsia, and offspring sex. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to test for any association between exposure and the binary outcomes (PTB and SGA), while linear regression and F tests were used to test for associations between exposure and the continuous outcomes. There were 13 359 deliveries in 2012 to 2014, with complete data for 5066 and 4793 women in the self-reported and eCO-measured exposure groups, respectively. Self-reported exposure was associated with earlier delivery (-0.19 weeks; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32 to -0.05) and reduced birth weight (-56 g, 95% CI: -97 to -16 g) but no increase in the risk of PTB or SGA. There was no evidence for an association between eCO-measured exposure and any of the outcome measures. This information is important when advising women and their families and adds further support to continued public health efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke.

  9. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  10. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  11. An Exploratory Analysis of the Smoking and Physical Activity Outcomes From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Exercise Assisted Reduction to Stop Smoking Intervention in Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tom Paul; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Green, Colin; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Economically disadvantaged smokers not intending to stop may benefit from interventions aimed at reducing their smoking. This study assessed the effects of a behavioral intervention promoting an increase in physical activity versus usual care in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Disadvantaged smokers who wanted to reduce but not quit were randomized to either a counseling intervention of up to 12 weeks to support smoking reduction and increased physical activity (n = 49) or usual care (n = 50). Data at 16 weeks were collected for various smoking and physical activity outcomes. Primary analyses consisted of an intention to treat analysis based on complete case data. Secondary analyses explored the impact of handling missing data. Compared with controls, intervention smokers were more likely to initiate a quit attempt (36 vs. 10%; odds ratio 5.05, [95% CI: 1.10; 23.15]), and a greater proportion achieved at least 50% reduction in cigarettes smoked (63 vs. 32%; 4.21 [1.32; 13.39]). Postquit abstinence measured by exhaled carbon monoxide at 4-week follow-up showed promising differences between groups (23% vs. 6%; 4.91 [0.80; 30.24]). No benefit of intervention on physical activity was found. Secondary analyses suggested that the standard missing data assumption of "missing" being equivalent to "smoking" may be conservative resulting in a reduced intervention effect. A smoking reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged smokers which involved personal support to increase physical activity appears to be more effective than usual care in achieving reduction and may promote cessation. The effect does not appear to be influenced by an increase in physical activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach – ‘prevention is better than cure’ – would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would

  13. Supervised exercise to reduce agitation in severely cognitively impaired persons.

    PubMed

    Aman, Edris; Thomas, David R

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have shown an improvement in depression, activities of daily living, and agitation in cognitively impaired subjects who undergo a long-term exercise program. These studies have not considered the short-term effects of exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of a limited, supervised exercise program on agitation, depression, and activities of daily living in cognitively impaired patients residing in the special needs unit of a nursing home. This study was a prospective comparative study. A 3-week exercise program was implemented at the special needs units of 2 nursing homes. The exercise program involved 30 minutes of exercise (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance), 3 days per week. There were 50 residents in this study (76% female, 24% male) and they had a mean age of 79.2 +/- 9.7 years. The subjects had a mean SLUMS (Saint Louis Mental Status Examination) score of 1.5 +/- 2.1 (SLUM score range 0-30, 30 meaning full cognitive faculty). Each subject had his or her depression, agitation, activities of daily living, and 6-meter walk time measured before and after the 3-week exercise program. The Cornell Scale for Depression, Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS)/Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and ADCS-ADL (Alzheimer's disease cooperative study-activities of daily living) were used to measure depression, agitation, and activities of daily living, respectively. Multiple paired t tests were calculated for each outcome measurement. The post-study scales showed an improvement in the 6-meter walk test and, using the PAS (0-16, 0 meaning no agitation), an improvement in agitation. The improvement in agitation in the entire population was P less than .05; mean PAS pre-study scores were 5.8 +/- 4.8 and mean PAS poststudy scores were 4.5 +/- 3.7 . Among the patients with PAS Pre-Exercise Program Scores greater than 3, thus categorized as agitated, there was a greater decrease in agitation; PAS Pre-Study Scores

  14. OS109. Lifestyle intervention after complicated pregnancy successfully improves saturated fat-intake, but not exercise and smoking habits: results of the pro-active study.

    PubMed

    Berks, D; Hoedjes, M; Raat, H; Franx, A; Duvekot, H J; Steegers, E A

    2012-07-01

    months postpartum saturated fat-intake was significantly reduced by 3.6g/day (95%>CI 1.8-5.4) in cases compared to controls. Exercise was improved in cases compared to controls, but it did not reach significance (277 MET's (-2699-3254)). Although smoking decreased from 14.5% to 10.4% in cases, it was not significant and comparable to the decrease in controls (15.0% to 8.4%). The formative evaluation showed that the most important motivator to improve lifestyle was the increased risk of future cardiovascular and metabolic disease (70%) and the increased risk for recurrence in a next pregnancy (57%). Main barriers were an already busy life (40%), distance (35%) and duration (38%) of travelling to the hospital and to early postpartum to pay attention to lifestyle (26%). Lifestyle intervention after complicated pregnancy may be effective in improving saturated fat-intake. Other interventions, specially aimed at postpartum women, are needed to improve exercise and smoking habits. More research is needed to develop lifestyle intervention program specifically aimed at these women. New possibilities of multimedia are promising. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The use of a novel tobacco treatment process to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; DeGrandpré, Yves; Porter, Andrew; Griffiths, Alexander; McAdam, Kevin; Voisine, Richard; Côté, France; Proctor, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) - tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant precursors, such as proteins and polyphenols, in tobacco. We describe a treatment process involving aqueous tobacco extraction and treatment with protease; filtration of the extract to remove peptides, amino acids and polyphenols, and recombination of extract and treated tobacco. The process reduced levels of protein nitrogen (59%), polyphenols (33-78%) and nicotine (12%) while sugars increased 16%. ISO mainstream smoke yields of 43 toxicants were measured from cigarettes containing treated tobaccos; lower yields of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (16-20%), acrylonitrile, ammonia, aromatic amines, pyridine, quinolene and hydrogen cyanide (33-51%), tobacco specific nitrosamines (25-32%); phenolics (24-56%), benzene (16%), toluene (25%) and cadmium (34%) were obtained. There were significantly increased yields of formaldehyde (49%) and isoprene (17%). Reductions in sidestream yields of nitrogenous smoke toxicants and increases in sidestream yields of several carbonyls, benzo(a)pyrene and isoprene were also observed.

  16. Effects of Different Types of Antismoking Ads on Reducing Disparities in Smoking Cessation Among Socioeconomic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed which types of mass media messages might reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among disadvantaged population subgroups. Methods. We followed 1491 adult smokers over 24 months and related quitting status at follow-up to exposure to antismoking ads in the 2 years prior to the baseline assessment. Results. On average, smokers were exposed to more than 200 antismoking ads during the 2-year period, as estimated by televised gross ratings points (GRPs). The odds of having quit at follow-up increased by 11% with each 10 additional potential ad exposures (per 1000 points, odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 1.23; P < .05). Greater exposure to ads that contained highly emotional elements or personal stories drove this effect (OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.02, 1.29; P < .05), which was greater among respondents with low and mid-socioeconomic status than among high–socioeconomic status groups. Conclusions. Emotionally evocative ads and ads that contain personalized stories about the effects of smoking and quitting hold promise for efforts to promote smoking cessation and reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking. PMID:19833980

  17. Effects of different types of antismoking ads on reducing disparities in smoking cessation among socioeconomic subgroups.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Sarah J; Biener, Lois; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2009-12-01

    We assessed which types of mass media messages might reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among disadvantaged population subgroups. We followed 1491 adult smokers over 24 months and related quitting status at follow-up to exposure to antismoking ads in the 2 years prior to the baseline assessment. On average, smokers were exposed to more than 200 antismoking ads during the 2-year period, as estimated by televised gross ratings points (GRPs). The odds of having quit at follow-up increased by 11% with each 10 additional potential ad exposures (per 1000 points, odds ratio [OR]=1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00, 1.23; P<.05). Greater exposure to ads that contained highly emotional elements or personal stories drove this effect (OR=1.14; 95% CI 1.02, 1.29; P<.05), which was greater among respondents with low and mid-socioeconomic status than among high-socioeconomic status groups. Emotionally evocative ads and ads that contain personalized stories about the effects of smoking and quitting hold promise for efforts to promote smoking cessation and reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking.

  18. Prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome in a southern Chinese population. Relation to exercise, smoking, and educational level.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhao, Li-Qin; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hong-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Qin; Holthofer, Harry; Zou, He-Qun

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the impact of exercise, smoking, and educational level on the risk of MetS in a southern Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai City, China from June to August 2012. Data on exercise, smoking, and educational level, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels were collected. The prevalence of MetS (as defined by the International Diabetes Federation) was determined. Data necessary to evaluate MetS, the socio-economic characteristics, and lifestyle were obtained for 4645 subjects aged 18-75 years old. A total of 19.8% of the participants had MetS. The adjusted odds of having MetS were lower among males (adjusted odds: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-1.01) compared with females. Those participants who currently smoked had a higher risk of developing MetS compared with non-smokers (adjusted odds: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.13-2.50). Those who had no physical exercise had a higher risk of developing MetS compared with those who physically exercised more than 60 minutes/day (adjusted odds: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.12-2.23;). Compared with those with no education, every category of attained educational level had a lower risk of developing MetS (p<0.001). The findings in this study revealed that current smokers had a greater risk of developing MetS compared with non-smokers. Increased physical activity and higher levels of education attained served as protective factors for the population.

  19. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Peck, Richard M; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-02-08

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014) regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight) babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007) and AHRQ (2013) on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon.

  20. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Peck, Richard M.; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014) regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight) babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007) and AHRQ (2013) on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon. PMID:28208749

  1. [Pre-operative smoking cessation does not always reduce the incidence of surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Kuri, Michioki; Yamada, Terumasa; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tanigami, Hironobu; Kishi, Yoshihiko

    2011-02-01

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend pre-operative smoking cessation to reduce the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). However, whether pre-operative smoking cessation reduces the incidence of SSI for gastrointestinal surgery is unclear. We investigated whether pre-operative smoking cessation reduces the incidence of SSI among patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. The study subjects were 512 consecutive patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery at Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases. SSI occurrence was determined by the hospital SSI surveillance team. Pre-operative smoking status was obtained by interview, and the patients were divided into four groups. Information on age, sex, operation time, operational organ, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS), elective or emergency surgery, co-existing procedures, use of scopes, ileo-colostomy, properties of drain tube, use of floss, and wound contamination was obtained from the medical records. The relationship between smoking status and incidence of SSI, and risk factors associated with the incidence of SSI were investigated. SSI occurred in 83 patients. Pre-operative smoking status had no relation with the incidence of SSI. Operation time, gallbladder and pancreatic surgery, colon surgery, emergency surgery, co-existing procedures, ilea-colostomy, closed drain, usage of floss, and wound contamination were related significantly with SSI. Pre-operative smoking cessation does not reduce the incidence of SSI. However, since continuation of smoking has no benefits for the safety of surgery, anesthesiologists must advice patients to quit smoking before surgery.

  2. Cigarette smoke extract reduces VEGF in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thaikoottathil, J V; Martin, R J; Zdunek, J; Weinberger, A; Rino, J G; Chu, H W

    2009-04-01

    Reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs of severe emphysema patients. Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are exposed to various environmental insults like cigarette smoke and bacterial infections, but their direct effect on VEGF production in well-differentiated primary human AEC remains unclear. The current authors determined the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) alone and in combination with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) on VEGF production in well-differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) in air-liquid interface cultures. Secretion and expression of VEGF were determined by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Cell growth, apoptosis, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase (PK)C signalling pathways were evaluated to further dissect VEGF regulation under CSE treatment. CSE significantly reduced VEGF secretion in NHBE and SAEC. In SAEC, Mp alone significantly increased the VEGF, while the presence of CSE attenuated Mp-induced VEGF production. While ERK inhibitor reduced VEGF secretion only in NHBE, a PKC inhibitor significantly decreased VEGF secretion in both NHBE and SAEC. In conclusion, direct cigarette smoke extract exposure significantly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor production in well-differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells, in part through modifying extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase C signalling pathways.

  3. Reduced-calorie dietary weight loss, exercise, and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E; Blackburn, George L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m(2), exercising < 100 minutes/wk) were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to (1) reduced-calorie weight loss diet ("diet"; n = 118), (2) moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("exercise"; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("diet + exercise"; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P < .001) with diet, 4.9% (P = .10) with exercise, and 20.3% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P < .001) with diet and 25.8% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P < .001) with diet and 26.0% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P < .001) with diet and 15.6% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.

  4. Reduced modulation of pain in older adults following isometric and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory based studies show that acute aerobic and isometric exercise reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli in young healthy individuals, indicative of a hypoalgesic response. However, little is known regarding the effect of aging on exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in EIH following submaximal isometric exercise, and moderate and vigorous aerobic exercise. Healthy older and younger adults completed one training session and four testing sessions consisting of either a submaximal isometric handgrip exercise, vigorous or moderate intensity stationary cycling, or quiet rest (control). The following measures were taken pre and post exercise/quiet rest: 1) pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), 2) suprathreshold pressure pain ratings, 3) pain ratings during 30-s of prolonged noxious heat stimulation, and 3) temporal summation of heat pain. The results revealed age differences in EIH following isometric and aerobic exercise, with younger adults experiencing greater EIH compared to older adults. The age differences in EIH varied across pain induction techniques and exercise type. These results provide evidence for abnormal pain modulation following acute exercise in older adults. PERSPECTIVE This article enhances our understanding of the influence of a single bout of exercise on pain sensitivity and perception in healthy older compared to younger adults. This knowledge could potentially help clinicians optimize exercise as a method of pain management. PMID:26993959

  5. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-10-01

    A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1 month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250 ng/ml, P<0.005) with no significant change in cigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant). In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Reducing levels of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke: a new Healthy People 2010 objective.

    PubMed

    Richter, Patricia; Pechacek, Terry; Swahn, Monica; Wagman, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    We developed and implemented a national surveillance system to monitor and reduce the levels of toxicchemicals in tobacco smoke. A developmental Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) objective was revised to report on levels of three categories of chemicals--tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds--in the smoke of leading U.S. cigarette brands. Unit-based sales-weighted average levels were calculated for each chemical category. The target for the new HP 2010 objective is a 10% reduction in unit-based sales-weighted average levels of each chemical category. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided the baseline, target data, and laboratory analyses. A national data source, national baseline data, and target were presented to the Healthy People Steering Committee during 2005 Midcourse Review. Approval of the revised objective initiated the surveillance of three major classes of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. The approved objective provides a feasible, innovative approach for monitoring and supporting measurable population-based reductions in levels of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco smoke.

  7. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    smoking cessation interventions for use in primary care settings. Both included the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) if desired. The Brief Counselor...BCAP), or a Self-Guided Program (SGP), with the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) available to all participants. Participants in the BCAP attend...of motivational interviewing, behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy with an emphasis on reducing alcohol consumption as a strategy

  8. Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies have found an array of endocrine disturbances related to energy deprivation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Purpose: We examined the catecholamine response to exercise in five eumenorrheic (EU) and five amenorrheic (AM) athletes, matched by age (mean T SEM: EU = 29.8 T 2.5 ...

  9. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

  10. Exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of sleep-disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Karim M.; Malhotra, Atul; Barnet, Jodi H; Quan, Stuart F.; Peppard, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of exercise on sleep-disordered breathing is unknown. While diet and weight loss have been shown to reduce the severity of sleep-disordered breathing, it is unclear whether exercise has an independent effect. Methods A population-based longitudinal epidemiologic study of adults measured the association between exercise and incidence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Hours of weekly exercise were assessed by two mailed surveys (1988 and 2000). Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed by 18-channel in-laboratory polysomnography at baseline and at follow up. Results Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression, adjusting for body mass index, age, sex, and other covariates. Hours of exercise were associated with reduced incidence of mild (Odds Ratio = 0.76, p= 0.011) and moderate (Odds Ratio = 0.67, p= 0.002) sleep-disordered breathing. Also a decrease in exercise duration was associated with worsening sleep-disordered breathing, as measured by the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (ß = 2.368, p= 0.048). Adjustment for body mass index attenuated these effects. Conclusions Exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of mild and moderate sleep-disordered breathing and decreasing exercise is associated with worsening of sleep-disordered breathing. The effect of exercise on sleep-disordered breathing appears to be largely, but perhaps not entirely, mediated by changes in body habitus. PMID:22482846

  11. Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  12. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid, aerobic or resistance exercise from colitis in second hand smoke exposed young rats.

    PubMed

    Özbeyli, Dilek; Berberoglu, Ayşe Cansu; Özen, Anıl; Erkan, Oktay; Başar, Yunus; Şen, Tunahan; Akakın, Dilek; Yüksel, Meral; Kasımay Çakır, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    The role of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure on ulcerative colitis is not known. Our aim was to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA), chronic aerobic (AE) or resistance exercise (RE) on SHS exposed rats with colitis. Sprague-Dawley male rats (150-200 g, n=54) were selected for colitis induction. Among the colitis groups, one group was exposed to SHS (6 d/wk, 4 cigarettes/d) and the other was not. The SHS group was divided into subgroups as follows: sedentary; AE (swimming; 3 d/wk); and RE (climbing with weight; 3 d/wk). After 5 weeks, colitis was induced by intrarectal acetic acid. All groups had subgroups that were given subcutaneously ALA (50 mg/kg per day) or vehicle for 3 days. Following decapitation, colon tissues were sampled to examine malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminenscence, macroscopic scoring and histologic examination. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. The increased macroscopic and microscopic scores, MPO, MDA, luminol and lucigenin measurements in colitis and SHS-colitis groups were decreased via ALA (P<.05-.001). AE declined macroscopic and microscopic scores, MDA, lucigenin compared to colitis and SHS-colitis groups (P<.01-.001). RE reduced microscopic score, MPO, MDA, luminol, lucigenin (P<.05-.001) that were increased with colitis. Decreased GSH levels (P<.01) in the SHS-colitis group approached to control levels when given ALA. According to our results SHS and colitis induction increased inflammatory damage. SHS did not worsen it more than colitis. Our results suggest that ALA, AE or RE might be protective for SHS exposed ulcerative colitis conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  14. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura J.; Myers, Vicki; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Kott, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02). Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02). Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM) in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:26694440

  15. Reducing the burden of smoking world-wide: effectiveness of interventions and their coverage.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhat; Chaloupka, Frank J; Corrao, Marlo; Jacob, Binu

    2006-11-01

    Cigarette smoking and other tobacco use imposes a huge and growing public health burden globally. Currently, approximately 5 million people are killed annually by tobacco use; by 2030, estimates based on current trends indicate that this number will increase to 10 million, with 70% of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Numerous studies from high-income countries, and a growing number from low- and middle-income countries, provide strong evidence that tobacco tax increases, dissemination of information about health risks from smoking, restrictions on smoking in public places and in work-places, comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion and increased access to cessation therapies are all effective in reducing tobacco use and its consequences. Despite this evidence, tobacco control policies have been unevenly applied--due partly to political constraints. This paper provides a summary of these issues, beginning with an overview of trends in global tobacco use and its consequences and followed by a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of tobacco control policies in reducing tobacco use. A description of the types and comprehensiveness of policies currently in place and a discussion of some of the factors correlated with the strength and comprehensive of these policies follows.

  16. Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Ruth Victoria; Daley, Amanda J; Jolly, Kate

    2017-10-01

    There is currently no specific guidance on the role of exercise in managing postpartum depression in the UK and US, and international guidance is inconsistent. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic exercise on postpartum depressive symptoms. Systematic review and meta-analysis. There was no restriction to study site or setting. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched. Titles and abstracts, then full-text articles, were screened against inclusion criteria: RCTs measuring depressive symptoms in mothers ≤1 year postpartum; and interventions designed to increase aerobic exercise compared with usual care or other comparators. Included studies were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted. Pre-planned subgroup analyses explored heterogeneity. Thirteen RCTs were included, with 1734 eligible participants. Exercise significantly reduced depressive symptoms when all trials were combined (standardised mean difference -0.44; 95% confidence interval = -0.75 to -0.12). Exploration of heterogeneity did not find significant differences in effect size between women with possible depression and in general postpartum populations; exercise only and exercise with co-interventions; and group exercise and exercise counselling. This systematic review provides support for the effectiveness of exercise in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms. Group exercise, participant-chosen exercise, and exercise with co-interventions all may be effective interventions. These results should be interpreted with caution because of substantial heterogeneity and risk of bias. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  17. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  19. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p's<0.001 and 0.011), and decreased the belief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p's<0.001), however, indicated that among smokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... they become pregnant are less likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus, a type of diabetes that occurs only ...

  1. Exercise training reduces severity of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice via nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kana; Kishimoto, Chiharu; Okabe, Taka-aki; Hattori, Miki; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki; Kita, Toru

    2007-07-01

    Exercise training may protect against the development of atherosclerosis, although the precise mechanisms are still unknown. The present study assessed the hypothesis that exercise training would reduce the severity of experimental atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E (apoE)-deficient mice via nitric oxide (NO). ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet underwent exercise training (30 min swimming) 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The exercise group were also given oral N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME; 25 mg x kg (-1) x day(-1)), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Fatty streak plaque lesions developed in ApoE-deficient mice fed the high-fat diet, and were suppressed in the mice that underwent swimming training. In contrast, atherosclerotic lesions were not ameliorated in mice that had exercise training plus oral L-NAME treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of endothelial NO increased in mice undergoing exercise compared with the mice that did not exercise, and that the expression was suppressed in the mice having exercise plus oral L-NAME treatment. Differences in lesion area did not correlate with any significant alterations in serum lipid levels. Exercise training suppressed atherosclerosis via the NO system.

  2. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  3. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  4. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia ( 0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery ∼25% and decreased 11 ± 4 mmHg (P < 0.001) together with OCI (6.2 ± 0.7 to 4.8 ± 0.5, P < 0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P < 0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8 ± 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) and OCI to 3.8 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P < 0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor. PMID:20403976

  5. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

    2010-06-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery 25% and decreased 11+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001) together with OCI (6.2+/-0.7 to 4.8+/-0.5, P<0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and OCI to 3.8+/-0.5 (P<0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  7. Exercise: A Good Way to Fight Aging and Smoking | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Learn how to start an exercise routine that can help you feel and look younger AND stay quit! Health benefits of exercising No matter how old you are, regular physical activity can help you look younger and stay more fit than people who aren't active. Regular exercise can also be good medicine in your fight to stay off cigarettes. You will sleep better, be less likely to gain weight, and have more energy. Physical activity also helps to:

  8. Fatiguing exercise initiated later in life reduces incidence of fibrillation and improves sleep quality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Feng, Yue; Wen, Deng Tai; Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiu Shan

    2015-08-01

    As the human body ages, the risk of heart disease and stroke greatly increases. While there is evidence that lifelong exercise is beneficial to the heart's health, the effects of beginning exercise later in life remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether exercise training started later in life is beneficial to cardiac aging in Drosophila. We examined 4-week-old wild-type virgin female flies that were exposed to exercise periods of either 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Using M-mode traces to analyze cardiac function by looking at parameters including heart rate, rhythmicity, systolic and diastolic diameter, and interval and fractional shortening, we found that cardiac function declined with age, shown by an increase in the number of fibrillation events and a decrease in fractional shortening. About 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise per day displayed a reduced incidence of fibrillation events, and only physical exercise lasting 2.5-h period increased fractional shortening and total sleep time in Drosophila. These data suggested that training exercise needs to be performed for longer duration to exert physiological benefits for the aging heart. Additionally, climbing ability to assess the exercise-induced muscle fatigue was also measured. We found that 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise caused exercise-induced fatigue, and fatiguing exercise is beneficial for cardiac and healthy aging overall. This study provides a basis for further study in humans on the impact of beginning an exercise regimen later in life on cardiac health.

  9. Dual home screening and tailored environmental feedback to reduce radon and secondhand smoke: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Wright, Ashton Potter; Robertson, Heather E; Rinker, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Combined exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and radon increases lung cancer risk 10-fold. The authors assessed the feasibility and impact of a brief home screening and environmental feedback intervention to reduce radon and SHS (Freedom from Radon and Smoking in the Home [FRESH]) and measured perceived risk of lung cancer and synergistic risk perception (SHS x radon). Participants (N = 50) received home radon and SHS kits and completed baseline surveys. Test results were shared using an intervention guided by the Teachable Moment Model. Half of the participants completed online surveys two months later. Most (76%) returned the radon test kits; 48% returned SHS kits. Of the returned radon test kits, 26% were >4.0 pCi/L. Of the returned SHS kits, 38% had nicotine > .1 microg/m3. Of those with high radon, more than half had contacted a mitigation specialist or planned contact. Of those with positive air nicotine, 75% had adopted smoke-free homes. A significant increase occurred in perceived risk for lung cancer and synergistic risk perception after FRESH.

  10. Bacteriophage cocktail reduces Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis counts in raw and smoked salmon tissues.

    PubMed

    Galarce, Nicolas E; Bravo, Jonathan L; Robeson, James P; Borie, Consuelo F

    2014-01-01

    The use of bacteriophages for the biocontrol of food-borne pathogens is increasingly gaining acceptance. In this study, the effectiveness of bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis counts was evaluated in raw and smoked salmon tissues. Groups of 25 samples each were contaminated with S. Enteritidis, treated with a phage mix and then incubated for ten days at 18 °C and 4 °C. A significant bacterial reduction was obtained on days 3, 6 and 10 in raw salmon samples incubated at 18 °C (from 0.75 to 3.19 log10 CFU/g) and at 4 °C (from 2.82 to 3.12 log10 CFU/g), whereas in smoked salmon lower reductions were achieved (from 1.02 to 1.96 log10 CFU/g at 18 °C and from 0.50 to 1.16 log10 CFU/g at 4 °C). These results show the potential effectiveness of this bacteriophage cocktail as a biocontrol agent against S. Enteritidis in raw and smoked salmon tissues. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    PubMed Central

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P < 0.05). In response to exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P < 0.05). The MSM group had higher IL-1β at baseline when compared to YSM, although IL-1ra was greater for YSM at baseline (P < 0.05). Finally, the post-exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, smoker’s exhibit elevated MCP-1 and IL-1β that seem to be evident with a longer smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  12. [Positive effects of physical exercise on reducing the relationship between subcutaneous abdominal fat and morbility risk].

    PubMed

    González Calvo, G; Hernández Sánchez, S; Pozo Rosado, P; García López, D

    2011-01-01

    The consequences related to the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels create a considerable organic damage. Among the physiological consequences we can highlight heart diseases, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, which drastically reduce life expectancy and quality. Evidence shows that health improvement is correlated to greater levels of physical activity. However, physical exercise can create oxidative damage on organs and muscular tissue, more relevant in subjects with a high percentage of abdominal fat. This piece of work determines which are the fundamental variables of the exercise program in order to optimize its advantages while minimizing oxidative stress. To know the key variables in the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels, and the role of exercise in prevention and improvement of such issue. SPECIFIC PURPOSES: 1) to identify the key variables in an exercise program aimed at reducing abdominal fat; 2) to understand the relationship between abdominal fat, health and exercise; 3) to review the latest research related to physical exercise and its effect on abdominal adipose tissue. A search and identification of original and reviewed articles will be carried out in indexed impact journals within the main databases. Regular physical exercise, most notably aerobic one, reduces body adipose tissue deposits in general, and abdominal ones in particular, both in obese and overweight subjects.

  13. Gene deletion of P2Y4 receptor lowers exercise capacity and reduces myocardial hypertrophy with swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Horckmans, Michael; Léon-Gómez, Elvira; Robaye, Bernard; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Dessy, Chantal; Communi, Didier

    2012-10-01

    Nucleotides released within the heart under pathological conditions can be involved in cardioprotection or cardiac fibrosis through the activation purinergic P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors, respectively. We previously demonstrated that adult P2Y(4)-null mice display a microcardia phenotype related to a cardiac angiogenic defect. To evaluate the functional consequences of this defect, we performed here a combination of cardiac monitoring and exercise tests. We investigated the exercise capacity of P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null mice in forced swimming and running tests. Analysis of their stress, locomotion, and resignation was realized in open field, black and white box, and tail suspension experiments. Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated after repeated and prolonged exercise in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null hearts. We showed that P2Y(4)-null mice have a lower exercise capacity in both swimming and treadmill tests. This was not related to decreased motivation or increased stress, since open field, white and black box, and mouse tail suspension tests gave comparable results in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null mice. Heart rate and blood pressure rose normally in P2Y(4)-null swimming mice equipped with a telemetric implant. On the contrary, we observed a delayed recovery of postexercise blood pressure after exercise in P2Y(4)-null mice. The heart rate increment in response to catecholamines was also similar in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null implanted mice, which is consistent with a similar level of cardiac β-receptor expression. Interestingly, the heart of P2Y(4)-null mice displayed a reduced sympathetic innervation associated with a decreased norepinephrine level. We also demonstrated that exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was lower in P2Y(4)-null mice after repeated and prolonged exercise. This was associated with a lower increase in cardiomyocyte size and microvessel density. In conclusion, besides its role in cardiac development, P2Y(4

  14. Attempts To Reduce Cigarette Smoking among College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jeanette; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Fruhwirth, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study utilizes college student volunteers in a three-week smoking cessation program. The volunteers were given two American Cancer Society brochures about smoking cessation, a guide for a comprehensive plan to quit smoking developed by Glaxo Wellcome, the American Lung Association's Quit Smoking Action Plan, a list of common nicotine…

  15. Regular Exercise Reduces Endothelial Cortical Stiffness in Western Diet-Fed Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Habibi, Javad; Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Hayden, Melvin R; Jia, Guanghong; Garro, Mona; DeMarco, Vincent G; Manrique, Camila; Booth, Frank W; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Sowers, James R

    2016-11-01

    We recently showed that Western diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance promotes endothelial cortical stiffness in young female mice. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that regular aerobic exercise would attenuate the development of endothelial and whole artery stiffness in female Western diet-fed mice. Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized into sedentary (ie, caged confined, n=6) or regular exercise (ie, access to running wheels, n=7) conditions for 16 weeks. Exercise training improved glucose tolerance in the absence of changes in body weight and body composition. Compared with sedentary mice, exercise-trained mice exhibited reduced endothelial cortical stiffness in aortic explants (sedentary 11.9±1.7 kPa versus exercise 5.5±1.0 kPa; P<0.05), as assessed by atomic force microscopy. This effect of exercise was not accompanied by changes in aortic pulse wave velocity (P>0.05), an in vivo measure of aortic stiffness. In comparison, exercise reduced femoral artery stiffness in isolated pressurized arteries and led to an increase in femoral internal artery diameter and wall cross-sectional area (P<0.05), indicative of outward hypertrophic remodeling. These effects of exercise were associated with an increase in femoral artery elastin content and increased number of fenestrae in the internal elastic lamina (P<0.05). Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that the aortic endothelium is highly plastic and, thus, amenable to reductions in stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in the absence of changes in in vivo whole aortic stiffness. Comparatively, the same level of exercise caused destiffening effects in peripheral muscular arteries, such as the femoral artery, that perfuse the working limbs. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Preischemic exercise reduces brain damage by ameliorating metabolic disorder in ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Dornbos, David; Zwagerman, Nathan; Guo, Miao; Ding, Jamie Y; Peng, Changya; Esmail, Fatema; Sikharam, Chaitanya; Geng, Xiaokun; Guthikonda, Murali; Ding, Yuchuan

    2013-06-01

    Physical exercise preconditioning is known to ameliorate stroke-induced injury. In addition to several other mechanisms, the beneficial effect of preischemic exercise following stroke is due to an upregulated capacity to maintain energy supplies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in exercise and control groups. After 1-3 weeks of exercise, several enzymes were analyzed as a gauge of the direct effect of physical exercise on cerebral metabolism. As a measure of metabolic capacity, an ADP/ATP ratio was obtained. Glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3) were monitored to assess glucose influx, and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was measured to determine the rate of glycolysis. Hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels were also determined. These same analyses were performed on preconditioned and control rats following an ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) insult. Our results show that GLUT1, GLUT3, PFK, AMPK, and HIF-1α were all increased following 3 weeks of exercise training. In addition, the ADP/ATP ratio was chronically elevated during these 3 weeks. After I/R injury, HIF-1α and AMPK were significantly higher in exercised rats. The ADP/ATP ratio was reduced in preconditioned rats in the acute phase after stroke, suggesting a lower level of metabolic disorder. GLUT1 and GLUT3 were also increased in the acute phase in exercise rats, indicating that these rats were better able to increase rates of metabolism immediately after ischemic injury. In addition, PFK expression was increased in exercise rats showing an enhanced glycolysis resulting from exercise preconditioning. Altogether, exercise preconditioning increased the rates of glucose metabolism, allowing a more rapid and more substantial increase in ATP production following stroke.

  17. Reduced hemodynamic coupling and exercise are associated with vascular stiffening in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bellofiore, Alessandro; Dinges, Eric; Naeije, Robert; Mkrdichian, Hamorabi; Beussink-Nelson, Lauren; Bailey, Melissa; Cuttica, Michael J.; Sweis, Ranya; Runo, James R.; Keevil, Jon G.; Francois, Christopher J.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inadequate right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary arterial (PA) functional responses to exercise are important yet poorly understood features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study combined invasive catheterization with echocardiography to assess RV afterload, RV function and ventricular-vascular coupling in subjects with PAH. Methods Twenty-six subjects with PAH were prospectively recruited to undergo right heart catheterization and Doppler echocardiography at rest and during incremental exercise, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest. Measurements at rest included basic hemodynamics, RV function and coupling efficiency (η). Measurements during incremental exercise included pulmonary vascular resistance (Z0), characteristic impedance (ZC, a measure of proximal PA stiffness) and proximal and distal PA compliance (CPA). Results In PAH patients, the proximal PAs were significantly stiffer at maximum exercise (ZC = 2.31 ± 0.38 vs. 1.33 ± 0.15 mmHg min/ml/m2 at rest; p=0.003) and PA compliance was decreased (CPA = 0.88 ± 0.10 vs. 1.32 ± 0.17 mL/mmHg/m2 at rest; p=0.0002). Z0 did not change with exercise. As a result, the resistance-compliance (RC) time decreased with exercise (1.00 ± 0.07 at vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 s; p<10−6). When patients were grouped according to resting coupling efficiency, those with poorer η exhibited stiffer proximal PAs at rest, a lower maximum exercise level, and more limited CPA reduction at maximum exercise. Conclusions In PAH, exercise causes proximal and distal PA stiffening, which combined with preserved Z0 results in decreased RC time with exercise. Stiff PAs at rest may also contribute to poor hemodynamic coupling, reflecting reduced pulmonary vascular reserve that contributes to limit the maximum exercise level tolerated. PMID:27566296

  18. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  19. Lessons learned from recruiting socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers into a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore the role of Exercise Assisted Reduction then Stop (EARS) smoking.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tom P; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian H

    2015-02-12

    Research is needed on what influences recruitment to smoking reduction trials, and how to increase their reach. The present study aimed to i) assess the feasibility of recruiting a disadvantaged population, ii) examine the effects of recruitment methods on participant characteristics, iii) identify resource requirements for different recruitment methods, and iv) to qualitatively assess the acceptability of recruitment. This was done as part of a pilot two-arm trial of the effectiveness of a novel behavioral support intervention focused on increasing physical activity and reducing smoking, among disadvantaged smokers not wishing to quit. Smokers were recruited through mailed invitations from three primary care practices (62 participants) and one National Health Stop Smoking Service (SSS) database (31 participants). Six other participants were recruited via a variety of other community-based approaches. Data were collected through questionnaires, field notes, work sampling, and databases. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics of participants. We randomized between 5.1 and 11.1% of those invited through primary care and SSS, with associated researcher time to recruit one participant varying from 18 to 157 minutes depending on time and intensity invested.Only six participants were recruited through a wide variety of other community-based approaches, with an associated researcher time of 469 minutes to recruit one participant. Targets for recruiting a disadvantaged population were met, with 91% of the sample in social classes C2 to E (NRS social grades, UK), and 41% indicating mental health problems. Those recruited from SSS were more likely to respond to an initial letter, had used cessation aids before, and had attempted to quit in the past year. Overall, initial responders were more likely to be physically active than those who were recruited via follow-up telephone calls. No other demographics or behaviour characteristics were

  20. Acute exercise ameliorates reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas; Stoy, Meline; Graetz, Barbara; Scheel, Michael; Wittmann, André; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lang, Undine E; Dimeo, Fernando; Hellweg, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in depression and anxiety. Antidepressants and exercise increase BDNF expression, and both have an antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. To further characterize the association of anxiety, BDNF and exercise, we studied panic disorder patients (n=12) and individually matched healthy control subjects (n=12) in a standardized exercise paradigm. Serum samples for BDNF analyses were taken before and after 30min of exercise (70 VO(2max)) or quiet rest. The two conditions were separated by 1 week and the order was randomized. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed. There was a negative correlation of BDNF concentrations and subjective arousal at baseline (r=-0.42, p=0.006). Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with panic disorder had significantly reduced BDNF concentrations at baseline and 30min of exercise significantly increased BDNF concentrations only in these patients. Our results suggest that acute exercise ameliorates reduced BDNF concentrations in panic disorder patients and raise the question whether this is also found after long-term exercise training and if it is related to the therapeutic outcome.

  1. The inertia of self-regulation: a game-theoretic approach to reducing passive smoking in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Shiell, A; Chapman, S

    2000-10-01

    Two alternate regulatory approaches can be used to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplaces. The first is voluntary, self-regulation introduced by management, which is supported by common law and occupational health legislation that emphasises the employers' 'duty of care'. The second is public health legislation that bans smoking outright in enclosed places. In Australia, self-regulation has succeeded in restricting tobacco smoking in most indoor workplaces but has been a relative failure in the hospitality industry. Claims that this reflects consumer preference by diners, club and hotel patrons are not backed by survey evidence, typically showing large majority support for non-smoking establishments. Insights from game theory show why reliance on the duty of care is unlikely to succeed even when establishment operators collectively support a non-smoking policy. Using plausible assumptions about the net costs of unilaterally introducing smoking restrictions, what makes good sense for society as a whole is likely to be the least profitable option for an individual operator acting alone. Operators find themselves in the classic prisoner's dilemma. If the aim of policy is to restrict smoking in public places in order to protect the health of employees then game-theory predicts that public health legislation banning smoking in enclosed places will be more effective than self-regulation and reliance on the duty of care.

  2. Future initiatives to reduce lung cancer incidence in the United Kingdom: smoking cessation, radon remediation and the impact of social change.

    PubMed

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Timson, Karen; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin Gm; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Smoking and radon cause lung cancer, with smoking being the more significant risk factor. Although programmes to identify UK houses with raised radon levels and to encourage remedial action started in 1990, uptake has been limited and those most at risk, smokers and young families, are not being reached. The risks from smoking and radon are multiplicative. Public health campaigns have reduced smoking prevalence significantly. Since most radon-induced lung cancers occur in smokers, reducing the number of smokers will reduce the number of radon-induced lung cancers. This article considers the impact of reducing smoking prevalence on the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes, combining this with demographic trends and regional variations to assess implications for future public health. Results on cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation and radon remediation programmes were combined with government figures for smoking prevalence to estimate the number of cancers averted and the cost-effectiveness of such programmes, taking into account demographic changes, including increasing life expectancy. Regional variations in smoking prevalence and smoking cessation programmes were reviewed, comparing these to the geographic variation of radon. The continuing impact of smoking cessation programmes in reducing smoking prevalence will reduce the number of radon-induced lung cancers, but with a lag. Smoking cessation programmes are more cost-effective than radon remediation programmes, presenting an additional opportunity to reduce radon risk to smokers. Regional data show no correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels. Reduced smoking prevalence reduces the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes. This, coupled with limited uptake of radon remediation, suggests that radon remediation programmes should be targeted, and that an integrated public health policy for smoking and radon is appropriate. Lack of correlation between smoking prevalence and radon

  3. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Vincent J; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold

    2013-12-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity.

  4. A Dyadic Exercise Intervention to Reduce Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029

  5. Providing coaching and cotinine results to preteens to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hovell, Melbourne F; Wahlgren, Dennis R; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A; Hughes, Suzanne C; Matt, Georg E; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Swan, Gary E; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-09-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ≥ 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior.

  6. Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ≥ 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

  7. The Role of Public Policies in Reducing Smoking Prevalence in California: Results from the California Tobacco Policy Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes over 60% of the reduction to price increases, over 25% of the overall effect to media policies, 10% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5,000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population. PMID:17055104

  8. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence in California: results from the California tobacco policy simulation model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2007-07-01

    Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes 59% of the reduction to price increases, 28% of the overall effect to media policies, 11% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population.

  9. Equity impact of interventions and policies to reduce smoking in youth: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Embase, Eric, Medline, Psycinfo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and tobacco control experts. Published January 1995 to October 2013. Primary studies of interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in youth (11-25 years) of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed; characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A narrative synthesis by intervention/policy type. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequity), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequity), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear.Thirty-eight studies of 40 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (12); price/tax (7); mass media campaigns (1); advertising controls (4); access controls (5); school-based programmes (5); multiple policies (3), individual-level cessation support (2), individual-level support for smokefree homes (1). The distribution of equity effects was: 7 positive, 16 neutral, 12 negative, 4 mixed, 1 unclear. All 7 positive equity studies were US-based: price/tax (4), age-of-sales laws (2) and text-messaging cessation support (1). A British school-based intervention (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)) showed mixed equity effects (neutral and positive). Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Very few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control interventions/policies on young people. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Reaching families at their homes for an intervention to reduce tobacco smoke exposure among infants.

    PubMed

    Kastirke, Nadin; John, Ulrich; Goeze, Christian; Sannemann, Janine; Ulbricht, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    The methods of reaching families for a home intervention trial (HIT) were analyzed in this study. The study aimed to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure among infants in one region of Germany. The systematic screening data of smoking among families in their homes were compared with reference data of a representative household sample of the state in which the study was conducted. The characteristics of participating and non-participating families were analyzed. All households (N = 3,570) containing at least one infant age 3 years or younger were selected using the residents` registration files and invited to participate in a screening assessment. Among these families, 3,293 (92.2 %) were contacted and from that group, 2,641 families participated in the screening. Compared with the reference sample, the screened sample included a higher proportion of families with employment and with more than 10 years of education. Participation in the HIT was recommended if at least one parent reported smoking one or more cigarettes per day during the previous 4 weeks. Among the 1,282 families that met the inclusion criteria, 71.5 % took part in the screening. Participating families, compared with non-participating families, were older, included more families with two parents living in the household, and had higher rates of employment. The effect size of the final regression model was small (Cohen's f (2) = 0.01). In conclusion, proactive approaches that are delivered at home may yield a high reach of the target population and particularly of socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

  11. Does raising awareness in families reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in wheezy children?

    PubMed Central

    Can, Demet; Gunay, Ilker; Karkıner, Canan Sule Unsal; Gunay, Turkan; Cimrin, Dilek; Nalcabasmaz, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is thought to increase the severity and number of attacks in wheezy children. Objective assessments are needed to change the behavior of families to reduce the exposure of wheezy children to ETS. Aim To determine whether informing families about their children’s urinary cotinine levels curtailed the exposure of children to ETS. Material and methods A survey was used to determine the ETS exposure level, and the urinary cotinine level of each patient was tested. Children with positive urinary cotinine levels were included in the second part of the study. The families were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group that was advised about urinary cotinine levels by telephone and a non-intervention group that was not so advised. The groups were followed-up 2 months later, and urinary cotinine levels were measured once again. Results The intervention group contained 65 children of average age of 24.4 ±8.9 months, of whom 46 (70.8%) were male. The non-intervention group contained 69 children of average age of 25.3 ±9.8 months (p > 0.05), of whom 52 (75.4%) were male. The urinary cotinine levels at the time of the second interview were lower in both groups. The number of cigarettes that fathers smoked at home decreased in the intervention group (p = 0.037). Conclusions Presenting objective evidence on ETS exposure to families draws attention to their smoking habits. Measurement of cotinine levels is cheap, practical, and noninvasive. Combined with education, creating awareness by measuring cotinine levels may be beneficial. PMID:28951711

  12. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  13. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  14. Physical design analysis and mainstream smoke constituent yields of the new potential reduced exposure product, Marlboro UltraSmooth.

    PubMed

    Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Thomas, Brian F; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-11-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) purport to lower toxicant emissions, but without clinical and long-term health outcome data, claims for reduced harm status of PREPs depend heavily on standard machine yield smoke constituent data. Two prototypes of the new carbon-filtered PREP Marlboro UltraSmooth (MUS) were investigated using both standard (FTC/ISO) and intensive (Health Canada) machine methods to measure gas/vapor- and particulate-phase smoke constituents. Basic physical design characteristics that may influence smoke constituent yields, such as ventilation, pressure drop (resistance to draw), quantity of tobacco, and quantity and type of carbon, were measured. The possible presence of added chemical flavorant compounds was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. MUS prototypes were found to have several key differences in physical design compared with a conventional cigarette, including higher ventilation, lower draw resistance, and in the case of the Salt Lake City prototype, the use of vitreous carbon beads and the presence of chemical flavorants on both the beads and an embedded filter fiber. When tested under the standard regimen, gas-phase constituents of MUS prototypes were reduced compared with a conventional low-yield cigarette. However, far smaller reductions in gas-phase constituents were observed under the intensive regimen, suggesting that the carbon technology used in MUS is less effective when smoked under more intensive conditions. Particulate-phase constituents were not reduced by the carbon filter under either machine-smoking regimen. The data suggest that MUS has been designed to reduce toxic yields while preserving consumer appeal. However, MUS is less effective in reducing toxic smoke constituents when smoked under intensive conditions.

  15. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26) in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted. PMID:25590146

  16. Reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure of preschool children: a randomized controlled trial of class-based health education and smoking cessation counseling for caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-13

    To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5-6 years in China. In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5-6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children's urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, children's urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = -3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers' 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.26) in the intervention than control group. Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted.

  17. REFRESH--reducing families' exposure to secondhand smoke in the home: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Inga; Semple, Sean; Mills, Lynsey M; Ritchie, Deborah; Shaw, April; O'Donnell, Rachel; Bonella, Philippa; Turner, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2013-09-01

    To study a novel intervention (REFRESH) aimed at reducing children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in their homes. A randomised feasibility study. Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire. A total of 59 smoking mothers with at least one child younger than 6 years. Participation took place between July 2010 and March 2011. Four home visits over a 1-month period, which involved two 24-h measurements of home air quality (PM2.5) and a motivational interview to encourage changes to smoking behaviour within the home in order to reduce child SHS exposure. The enhanced group received their air quality data as part of their motivational interview at visit 2; the control group received that information at visit 4. The main outcome measures were comparisons of the data from visits 2 and 4 on the 24-h average concentration of PM2.5, the peak concentration of PM2.5, the percentage of time when household PM2.5 concentrations exceeded a health-based threshold of 35 μg/m(3) and child's salivary cotinine (in nanograms per millilitre). The views of the mothers from the enhanced group about their understanding of the intervention and the measures used were also analysed to assess the acceptability and utility of the intervention. Of the recruited 54 participants, 48 completed the study: 27 from the control group and 21 from the enhanced group. Both groups experienced reductions in PM2.5 concentrations. When testing paired samples for the enhanced group, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between visit 2 and visit 4 values for maximum PM2.5 (p=0.006) and for percentage of time over 35 μg/m(3) (p=0.017), with average PM2.5 approaching significance (p=0.056). There was no significant difference for salivary cotinine. The qualitative findings showed that mothers were able to understand the data they were shown and were shocked by the values measured in their homes despite being aware of the effects of SHS exposure. They appreciated the intervention taking place in their homes as

  18. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  19. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of failed implantation and reduced IVF success

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vahratian, Anjel; Berry, Katharine F.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infertility and early pregnancy loss are prevalent as is exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (STS). Previous research has suggested a relationship between STS exposure and early pregnancy loss, but studies have been limited by small study sizes and/or imprecise methods for exposure estimation. IVF allows for the collection of follicular fluid (FF), the fluid surrounding the pre-ovulatory oocyte, which may be a more biologically relevant sample media than urine or serum in studies of early reproduction. METHODS In a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, we measured cotinine in FF collected during 3270 IVF treatment cycles from 1909 non-smoking women between 1994 and 2003 to examine the relationship between STS exposure and implantation failure. RESULTS In adjusted models, we found a significant increase in the risk of implantation failure among women exposed to STS compared with those unexposed [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20–1.92; risk ratio (RR) = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.10–1.25]. We also found a significant decrease in the odds for a live birth among STS-exposed women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57–0.99; RR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.66–0.99). CONCLUSIONS Female STS exposure, estimated through the measurement of cotinine in FF, is associated with an increased risk of implantation failure and reduced odds of a live birth. PMID:21771769

  20. Reduced-Calorie Dietary Weight Loss, Exercise, and Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R.; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E.; Blackburn, George L.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m2, exercising < 100 minutes/wk) were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to (1) reduced-calorie weight loss diet (“diet”; n = 118), (2) moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (“exercise”; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (“diet + exercise”; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Results Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m2, respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P < .001) with diet, 4.9% (P = .10) with exercise, and 20.3% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P < .001) with diet and 25.8% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P < .001) with diet and 26.0% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P < .001) with diet and 15.6% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Conclusion Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers. PMID:22614972

  1. Intervention to Lower Household Wood Smoke Exposure in Guatemala Reduces ST-Segment Depression on Electrocardiograms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirk R.; Stone, Peter; Díaz, Anaité; Arana, Byron; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Background: A large body of evidence suggests that fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a cause of cardiovascular disease, but little is known in particular about the cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels in developing countries. RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) was a randomized trial of a chimney woodstove that reduces wood smoke exposure. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that the stove intervention, compared with open fire use, would reduce ST-segment depression and increase heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: We used two complementary study designs: a) between-groups comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within control subjects who used open fires during the trial and received chimney stoves after the trial. Electrocardiogram sessions that lasted 20 hr were repeated up to three times among 49 intervention and 70 control women 38–84 years of age, and 55 control subjects were also assessed after receiving stoves. HRV and ST-segment values were assessed for each 30-min period. ST-segment depression was defined as an average value below –1.00 mm. Personal fine PM [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] exposures were measured for 24 hr before each electrocardiogram. Results: PM2.5 exposure means were 266 and 102 μg/m3 during the trial period in the control and intervention groups, respectively. During the trial, the stove intervention was associated with an odds ratio of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.90) for ST-segment depression. We found similar associations with the before-and-after comparison. The intervention was not significantly associated with HRV. Conclusions: The stove intervention was associated with reduced occurrence of nonspecific ST-segment depression, suggesting that household wood smoke exposures affect ventricular repolarization and potentially cardiovascular health. PMID

  2. Exercise reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity-related liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Warabi, Eiji; Shoda, Junichi

    2013-12-01

    Weight reduction remains the most common therapy advocated for the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. Recently, a beneficial effect of exercise regimens for liver dysfunction, independent of weight reduction, has been reported. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether exercise training without dietary restriction in obese, middle-age men influences the pathophysiology of abnormal liver function. A total of 108 subjects who completed a 12-wk exercise training program without any dietary restriction were analyzed in this study; these results were compared with those of 104 subjects who completed a 12-wk dietary restriction program. Furthermore, 42 of these subjects (from both groups) who had abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score were analyzed to obtain a more concrete outcome for exercise-training effects. In exercise training, although the magnitude of body-weight reduction (-3.1% vs -8.5%), waist circumference (-4.0% vs -7.1%), and visceral adipose tissue area (-12.2% vs -22.5%) was significantly more modest than that achieved by dietary restriction, exercise training elicited equivalent reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels (-20.6% vs -16.1% and -25.7% vs -34.0%) and equivalent improvement of insulin resistance (-29.7% vs -26.9%). Moreover, exercise training remarkably increased the serum adiponectin level (+33.4% vs +15.1%). Importantly, for subjects with abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis, exercise training was effective in reducing the serum levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers: ferritin and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (-25.0% vs +1.1% and -33.5% vs -10.5%). Exercise training benefits the management of obesity-related liver diseases independent of detectable weight reduction. Particularly, these effects seem to be acquired through an improvement in the hepatic

  3. Creatine supplementation does not reduce muscle damage or enhance recovery from resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Eric S; Conti, Michael P; Miles, Mary P

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that creatine supplementation reduces muscle damage and inflammation following running but not following high-force, eccentric exercise. Although the mechanical strain placed on muscle fibers during high-force, eccentric exercise may be too overwhelming for creatine to exert any protective effect, creatine supplementation may protect skeletal muscle stressed by a resistance training challenge that is more hypoxic in nature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of muscle damage (i.e., strength, range of motion, muscle soreness, muscle serum protein activity, C-reactive protein) to determine whether creatine supplementation offers protective effects on skeletal muscle following a hypoxic resistance exercise test. Twenty-two healthy, weight-trained men (19-27 years) ingested either creatine or a placebo for 10 days. Following 5 days of supplementation, subjects performed a squat exercise protocol (5 sets of 15-20 repetitions at 50% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Assessments of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase activity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, maximal strength, range of motion (ROM), and muscle soreness (SOR) with movement and palpation were conducted pre-exercise and during a 5-day follow up. Following the exercise test, maximal strength and ROM decreased, whereas SOR and CK increased. Creatine and placebo-supplemented subjects experienced significant decreases in maximal strength (creatine: 13.4 kg, placebo: 17.5 kg) and ROM (creatine: 2.4 degrees , placebo: 3.0 degrees ) immediately postexercise, with no difference between groups. Following the exercise test, there were significant increases in SOR with movement and palpation (p < 0.05 at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise), and CK activity (p < 0.05 at 24 and 48 hours postexercise), with no differences between groups at any time. These data suggest that oral creatine supplementation does not

  4. DNA solution(R) in cigarette filters reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in mainstream tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Lodovici, M; Akpan, V; Caldini, S; Akanju, B; Dolara, P

    2007-09-01

    Tobacco consumption represents a major health hazard to humans and, despite anti-smoking campaigns, the number of smokers remains high; thus the reduction of toxic compounds from tobacco smoke may reduce the health hazards of smoking. In the last 25 years cigarette manufacturers have introduced a variety of filter designs to reduce toxic and carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke (normal filters, NF). However, large quantities of harmful constituents are inefficiently retained by commonly used cigarette filters. Following a patented method we modified commercial cigarette filters (modified filter, MF) by injecting a DNA solution into the filter tips; we then evaluated the reduced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in mainstream tobacco smoke of MF relative to NF. The PAH measured were: fluoranthene (FLUO), pyrene (PY), benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A), chrysene (CRY), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzo(b)fluoranthene (B(b)F), benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BGP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA). The levels of PAH in cigarette smoke after MF were significantly reduced (P<0.001) compared to NF, using a variety of cigarette brands in a smoking machine (44.5%+/-8.4 % and 41.8%+/-5% for total and carcinogenic PAH, respectively, means+/-SE). Using B(a)P(TEF) values the reduction in PAH concentrations were similar for all cigarette brands with the exception of Camel, where the reduction was lower considering B(a)P(TEF) values. Amongst carcinogenic PAH, B(a)A, B(b)F and B(k)F) were reduced by 50-58%, CRY, B(a)P and DBA by about 40%. In conclusion MF filters treated with DNA have the potential of decreasing the exposure to PAH in cigarette smoke. Since, unlike some previously proposed biological filters MF do not retain additional nicotine, the main addictive compound of tobacco smoke, these filters may not induce increased smoking to compensate for the reduction in the nicotine delivery to smokers.

  5. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    HONKALA, SANNA M.; MOTIANI, KUMAIL K.; ESKELINEN, JARI-JOONAS; SAVOLAINEN, ANNA; SAUNAVAARA, VIRVA; VIRTANEN, KIRSI A.; LÖYTTYNIEMI, ELIISA; KAPANEN, JUKKA; KNUUTI, JUHANI; KALLIOKOSKI, KARI K.; HANNUKAINEN, JARNA C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). Methods A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7–30.0 kg·m−2, age = 40–55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8–33.5 kg·m−2, age = 43–53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by 1H-MRS. Results At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = −42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (−5%) and PAT (−6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Conclusion Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC. PMID:28628064

  6. Muscle blood flow is reduced with dehydration during prolonged exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Nielsen, Bodil

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined whether the blood flow to exercising muscles becomes reduced when cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance decline with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. A secondary aim was to determine whether the upward drift in oxygen consumption (V̇O2) during prolonged exercise is confined to the active muscles.Seven euhydrated, endurance-trained cyclists performed two bicycle exercise trials in the heat (35 °C; 40–50% relative humidity; 61 ± 2% of maximal V̇O2), separated by 1 week. During the first trial (dehydration trial, DE), they bicycled until volitional exhaustion (135 ± 4 min, mean ± s.e.m.), while developing progressive dehydration and hyperthermia (3.9 ± 0.3% body weight loss; 39.7 ± 0.2 °C oesophageal temperature, Toes). In the second trial (control trial), they bicycled for the same period of time while maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids and stabilizing Toes at 38.2 ± 0.1 °C after 30 min exercise.In both trials, cardiac output, leg blood flow (LBF), vascular conductance and V̇O2 were similar after 20 min exercise. During the 20 min-exhaustion period of DE, cardiac output, LBF and systemic vascular conductance declined significantly (8–14%; P < 0.05) yet muscle vascular conductance was unaltered. In contrast, during the same period of control, all these cardiovascular variables tended to increase. After 135 ± 4 min of DE, the 2.0 ± 0.6 l min−1 lower blood flow to the exercising legs accounted for approximately two-thirds of the reduction in cardiac output. Blood flow to the skin also declined markedly as forearm blood flow was 39 ± 8% (P < 0.05) lower in DE vs. control after 135 ± 4 min.In both trials, whole body V̇O2 and leg V̇O2 increased in parallel and were similar throughout exercise. The reduced leg blood flow in DE was accompanied by an even greater increase in femoral arterial-venous O2 (a-vO2) difference.It is concluded that blood flow to the exercising muscles declines

  7. The effect of detraining and reduced training on the physiological adaptations to aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D

    1989-11-01

    In previously sedentary individuals, regularly performed aerobic exercise results in significant improvements in exercise capacity. The development of peak exercise performance, as typified by competitive endurance athletes, is dependent upon several months to years of aerobic training. The physiological adaptations associated with these improvements in both maximal exercise performance, as reflected by increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and submaximal exercise endurance include increases in both cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Despite prolonged periods of aerobic training, reductions in maximal and submaximal exercise performance occur within weeks after the cessation of training. These losses in exercise performance coincide with declines in cardiovascular function and muscle metabolic potential. Significant reductions in VO2max have been reported to occur within 2 to 4 weeks of detraining. This initial rapid decline in VO2max is likely related to a corresponding fall in maximal cardiac output which, in turn, appears to be mediated by a reduced stroke volume with little or no change in maximal heart rate. A loss in blood volume appears to, at least partially, account for the decline in stroke volume and VO2max during the initial weeks of detraining, although changes in cardiac hypertrophy, total haemoglobin content, skeletal muscle capillarisation and temperature regulation have been suggested as possible mediating factors. When detraining continues beyond 2 to 4 weeks, further declines in VO2max appear to be a function of corresponding reductions in maximal arterial-venous (mixed) oxygen difference. Whether reductions in oxygen delivery to and/or extraction by working muscle regulates this progressive decline is not readily apparent. Changes in maximal oxygen delivery may result from decreases in total haemoglobin content and/or maximal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance. The declines in skeletal muscle oxidative

  8. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants

    PubMed Central

    Kutzner, Ines; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N.; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36–55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in

  9. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Ines; Richter, Anja; Gordt, Katharina; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in the

  10. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  11. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PROGRESSIVELY REDUCED NICOTINE CONTENT CIGARETTES ON SMOKING BEHAVIORS, BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE, AND SUBJECTIVE RATINGS

    PubMed Central

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Tang, Kathy Z.; Dumont, Rachel L.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Carmella, Steven G.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. FDA has the authority to reduce cigarette nicotine content if found to benefit public health. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarette use does not appear to increase harm exposure, but studies have not rigorously assessed smoking behavior or utilized a comprehensive panel of biomarkers. This study examined the effects of progressively decreasing RNC cigarettes on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure, and subjective ratings. Methods 158 daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in a 35-day randomized, unblinded, parallel study. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 80) that smoked progressively decreasing RNC cigarettes during three 10-day periods, or control group (n =78) that smoked their own brand throughout the study. Results Daily cigarette consumption significantly increased for the intermediate RNCs (P’s < 0.001) but approached baseline rate for the lowest RNC (P = 0.686); in contrast, puffing behavior significantly decreased at intermediate levels and increased for the lowest RNC (P’s < 0.001). Cotinine and NNAL significantly decreased by RNC period (P’s ≤ 0.001–0.02), while CO boost initially increased (P’s = 0.001–0.005). 1-HOP did not change by period (P = 0.109). Conclusions Smoking behaviors changed by RNC period via CPD and puffing behavior. Biomarkers of exposure generally decreased with nicotine content. Impact Findings suggest that RNC use does not ubiquitously reduce smoking behaviors or biomarkers, yet the lowest RNC level tested may reduce harm exposure. This emphasizes the importance of utilizing multiple behavioral and biological measures to address the impact of RNC cigarette smoking. PMID:27197288

  12. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  13. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o2max) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved (P < 0.05) cycling performance by 5 ± 1%. Protein oxidation was unaltered on day 12, while resting SAPK/JNK phosphorylation was reduced (P < 0.05), suggesting a reduction in cellular stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended (P < 0.10) to increase resting protein content of manganese superoxide dismutase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), while mRNA expression of MuRF-1 was elevated (P < 0.05). Following training (day 12), the acute exercise-induced transcriptional response of TNF-α, NF-κB, MuRF-1, and PGC1α was attenuated (P < 0.05) compared with day 1 Collectively, these data suggest that short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Exercise, smoking, and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak bone mass. Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Välimäki, M. J.; Kärkkäinen, M.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Laitinen, K.; Alhava, E.; Heikkinen, J.; Impivaara, O.; Mäkelä, P.; Palmgren, J.; Seppänen, R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the contribution to peak bone mass of exercise, smoking, and calcium intake in adolescents and young adults. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study with end point measurement (bone mineral density) after 11 years' follow up for lifestyle. SETTING--Five university hospital clinics. SUBJECTS--264 (153 females, 111 males) subjects aged 9 to 18 years at the beginning of the follow up and 20 to 29 years at the time of measurement of bone mineral density. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x ray absorptiometry; measures of physical activity and smoking and estimates of calcium intake repeated three times during follow up. RESULTS--In the groups with the lowest and highest levels of exercise the femoral bone mineral densities (adjusted for age and weight) were 0.918 and 0.988 g/cm2 for women (P = 0.015, analysis of covariance) and 0.943 and 1.042 g/cm2 for men (P = 0.005), respectively; at the lumbar spine the respective values were 1.045 and 1.131 (P = 0.005) for men. In men the femoral bone mineral densities (adjusted for age, weight, and exercise) were 1.022 and 0.923 g/cm2 for the groups with the lowest and highest values of smoking index (P = 0.054, analysis of covariance). In women the adjusted femoral bone mineral density increased by 4.7% together with increasing calcium intake (P = 0.089, analysis of covariance). In multiple regression analysis on bone mineral density of the femoral neck, weight, exercise, age, and smoking were independent predictors for men; with weight, exercise, and age for women. These predictors together explained 38% of the variance in bone mineral density in women and 46% in men. At the lumbar spine, weight, smoking, and exercise were predictors for men; and only weight for women. CONCLUSIONS--Regular exercise and not smoking is important in achieving maximal peak bone mass in adolescents and young adults. PMID:8069139

  15. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Schaffer, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance. PMID:25478210

  16. Tissue taurine depletion alters metabolic response to exercise and reduces running capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  17. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other

  18. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A H; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter

    2014-11-15

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population.

  19. Endurance Exercise Reduces Hepatic Fat Content and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Sun, Xiaomin; Kubo, Takafumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hepatic fat accumulation increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21-resistant state caused by fatty liver underlies the pathogenesis of these diseases. Previous studies suggested that a higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with both lower hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels; however, the effect of endurance exercise on hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 concentration has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate whether endurance exercise reduced hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels. This is a randomized crossover trial. The study setting was an institutional practice. Thirty-three elderly Japanese men participated in the study. The intervention was a 5-week endurance exercise program comprising three cycle ergometer sessions per week. Hepatic fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum FGF21 level was determined by ELISA. A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased the hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss, and the changes were higher in the exercise period than in the control period (P = .021 and P = .026, respectively). Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the change in hepatic fat content was significantly and positively correlated with change in serum FGF21 levels (r = 0.366, P = .006). A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss in elderly men, and exercise-induced hepatic fat reduction mediated the reduction in serum FGF21 levels. These findings suggest that endurance exercise modulates hepatic fat content and FGF21 resistance, regardless of obesity status.

  20. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  1. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-01

    High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. Physical exertion was reduced more in WORK than HOME (p<0.01). Between-group differences in physical exertion at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) was -0.5 points (95% CI -0.8 to -0.2). Within-group effect size (Cohen's d) in WORK and HOME was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. High calcium diet reduces blood pressure in exercised and nonexercised hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, K; Arvola, P; Wuorela, H; Ruskoaho, H; Vapaatalo, H; Pörsti, I

    1996-02-01

    The effects of long-term high calcium diet and physical exercise and their combined effects on the development of hypertension, plasma and tissue atrial natriuretic peptide, and arterial function were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats with Wistar-Kyoto rats serving as normotensive controls. Hypertensive rats were made to exercise by running on a treadmill up to 900 m/day. Calcium supplementation was instituted by increasing the calcium content of the chow from 1.1% to 2.5%. During the 23-week study, calcium supplementation attenuated the rise in blood pressure in both trained and nontrained hypertensive animals, whereas exercise training had no significant effect on blood pressure. The high calcium diet alone was associated with reduced plasma and ventricular tissue contents of atrial natriuretic peptide, both of which were increased by exercise. Responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro were examined at the end of the study. Neither increased dietary calcium nor endurance training affected the contractile sensitivity of endothelium-intact preparations to potassium chloride or norepinephrine. However, a high calcium diet enhanced the arterial relaxation induced by the return of potassium to the organ bath upon precontraction with potassium-free solution, and also moderately augmented relaxations to acetylcholine, sodium nitrite, and isoproterenol. Exercise training did not affect the potassium relaxation rate, but enhanced responses to acetylcholine, isoproterenol, and sodium nitrite. In conclusion, enhanced arterial potassium relaxation, a response reflecting the function of the vascular sodium pump, paralleled well the long-term blood pressure lowering action of increased dietary calcium intake in exercised and nonexercised hypertensive rats. However, augmented arterial relaxation to agonists could also be observed in the absence of reduced blood pressure following regular physical exercise.

  3. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  4. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vagner R. R.; Katashima, Carlos K.; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G. B.; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L.; Velloso, Licio A.; Saad, Mario A.; da Silva, Adelino S. R.; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging. PMID:28854149

  5. Reduced Exposure to Harmful and Potentially Harmful Smoke Constituents With the Tobacco Heating System 2.1

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gizelle; Magnette, John; Picavet, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). Methods: This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined. Results: The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand. Conclusions: THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform. Implications: Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of

  6. Does switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars reduce tobacco smoke exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Ockene, J K; Pechacek, T F; Vogt, T; Svendsen, K

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoking histories, reported depth of inhalation, number of pipe and cigars (PC) smoked, serum thiocyanate (SCN) and expired air carbon monoxide (CO) levels were examined in PC male smokers enrolled in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum SCN levels for all PC smokers were higher than for non-smokers and lower than for current cigarette smokers. Levels were related to the amount of product smoke. Prior cigarette smokers had higher SCN levels when compared to PC users who had never smoked cigarettes, smoked a larger number of tobacco products per day, and reported inhaling into the chest more often. Prospective data on baseline cigarette smokers demonstrated that smokers who stopped all tobacco products had a greater drop in SCN and CO than those who switched to PC. The findings strongly suggest that cessation of all tobacco products is the best strategy for decreasing exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:3499090

  7. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Denise; Kumar, Arun; Carpenter, Hannah; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Skelton, Dawn A; Cook, Juliette R; Stevens, Zoe; Belcher, Carolyn M; Haworth, Deborah; Gawler, Sheena J; Gage, Heather; Masud, Tahir; Bowling, Ann; Pearl, Mirilee; Morris, Richard W; Iliffe, Steve; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-11-28

    Fear of falling is common in older people and associated with serious physical and psychosocial consequences. Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive and purposive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness) may reduce fear of falling by improving strength, gait, balance and mood, and reducing the occurrence of falls. To assess the effects (benefits, harms and costs) of exercise interventions for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (July 2013), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 3 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 Week 30), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), AMED (1985 to August 2013), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (accessed 7 August 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (accessed 7 August 2013). We applied no language restrictions. We handsearched reference lists and consulted experts. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that recruited community-dwelling people (where the majority were aged 65 and over) and were not restricted to specific medical conditions (e.g. stroke, hip fracture). We included trials that evaluated exercise interventions compared with no intervention or a non-exercise intervention (e.g. social visits), and that measured fear of falling. Exercise interventions were varied; for example, they could be 'prescriptions' or recommendations, group-based or individual, supervised or unsupervised. Pairs of review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and extracted data. We combined effect sizes across studies using the fixed-effect model, with the random-effect model used where significant statistical heterogeneity was present. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rate outcomes. We

  8. α1-Antitrypsin reduces rhinovirus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Berman, Reena; Jiang, Di; Wu, Qun; Chu, Hong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections target airway epithelium and are the leading cause of acute exacerbations of COPD. Cigarette smoke (CS) increases the severity of viral infections, but there is no effective therapy for HRV infection. We determined whether α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces HRV-16 infection in CS-exposed primary human airway epithelial cells. Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and patients diagnosed with COPD were cultured at air-liquid interface to induce mucociliary differentiation. These cells were treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin for 2 hours and then exposed to air or whole cigarette smoke (WCS) with or without HRV-16 (5×10(4) 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose [TCID50]/transwell) infection for 24 hours. WCS exposure significantly increased viral load by an average of fivefold and decreased the expression of antiviral genes interferon-λ1, OAS1, and MX1. When A1AT was added to WCS-exposed cells, viral load significantly decreased by an average of 29-fold. HRV-16 infection significantly increased HRV-16 receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression in air-exposed cells, which was decreased by A1AT. A1AT-mediated reduction of viral load was not accompanied by increased epithelial antiviral gene expression or by inhibiting the activity of 3C protease involved in viral replication or maturation. Our findings demonstrate that A1AT treatment prevents a WCS-induced increase in viral load and for the first time suggest a therapeutic effect of A1AT on HRV infection.

  9. [Effect of smoking on PaO2 at rest and during moderate exercise].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S; Keita, M; Tuo, N; Dah, C; Siransy, E A; Bogui, P

    2002-01-01

    The most data on smoker's arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) were carried out at rest and from non arterial blood sample. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare smokers and nonsmoker's arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) at rest and during a moderate exercise. 98 male smokers between 23 and 69 years old and 98 male nonsmokers with the same age bracket were recruited among subjects submitted to arterial blood gas analysis according to the following protocol: 2 arterial blood samples were taken at rest, with an interval of 5 minutes, followed by a third one taken at the end of a moderate effort (50 watts during 5 minutes) on a bicycle in the supine position. Wilcoxon's test was used to compare the measured biological parameters between smokers and nonsmokers. Unlike nonsmokers, smoker's PaO2 increased meaning fully during moderate exercise. However, like at rest, it remained lower than nonsmoker's PaO2.: 87.6 +/- 15.8 mmHg Versus 94.1 +/- 10.4 mmHg (p < 0.0001). These beneficial effects of exercise on smoker's PaO2, although limited among heavy smokers group, suggested that hypoxia observed at rest must be due to troubles in ventilation/perfusion ratio in the lungs. In comparison to nonsmokers, the most significantly hypoxia was founded in smokers between 40 and 59 years old. The variation of PaO2 in nonsmokers was normal in comparison with age, but strongly disturbed in smokers at rest as well as during a moderate exercise, despite the lack of correlation between PaO2 and the intensity of tobacco consumption (expressed as number of pack-years). Thus, the smokers' PaO2 deterioration concerned together its value and its variation in comparison with age.

  10. Influence of smoking and obesity on alveolar-arterial gas pressure differences and dead space ventilation at rest and peak exercise in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Sven; Ittermann, Till; Koch, Beate; Schäper, Christoph; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry; Könemann, Raik; Ewert, Ralf; Hansen, James E

    2013-06-01

    Besides exercise intolerance, the assessment of ventilatory and perfusion adequacy allows additional insights in the disease pathophysiology in many cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. Valid measurements of dead space/tidal volume ratios (VD/VT), arterial (a') - end-tidal (et) carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) pressure differences (p(a'-et)CO2) and (p(et-a')O2), and alveolar (A)-a' O2 pressure differences (p(A-a')O2) require using blood samples in addition to gas exchange analyses on a breath-by-breath-basis. Smoking and nutritional status are also important factors in defining disorders. Using a large healthy population we considered the impact of these factors to develop useful prediction equations. Incremental cycle exercise protocols were applied to apparently healthy volunteer adults who did not have structural heart disease or echocardiographic or lung function pathologies. Age, height, weight, and smoking were analysed for their influence on the target parameters in each gender. Reference values were determined by regression analyses. The final study sample consisted of 476 volunteers (190 female), aged 25-85 years. Smoking significantly influences p(A-a')O2 and p(a'-et)CO2 at rest and peak exercise, and VD/VT during exercise. Obesity influences upper limits of VD/VT, p(a'-et)CO2 and p(et-a')O2 at rest as well as p(A-a')O2 and p(et-a')O2 at exercise. Reference equations for never-smokers as well as for apparently healthy smokers considering influencing factors are given. Gender, age, height, weight, and smoking significantly influence gas exchange. Considering all of these factors this study provides a comprehensive set of reference equations derived from a large number of participants of a population-based study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  12. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A; Lowery, Ryan P; De Souza, Eduardo O; Partl, Jeremy M; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  13. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 1: Non-clinical and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Schorp, Matthias K; Tricker, Anthony R; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The following series of papers presents an extensive assessment of the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System EHCSS series-K cigarette vs. conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) as an example for an extended testing strategy for evaluation of reduced exposure. The EHCSS produces smoke through electrical heating of tobacco. The EHCSS series-K heater was designed for exclusive use with EHCSS cigarettes, and cannot be used to smoke (CC). Compared to the University of Kentucky Reference Research cigarette 2R4F and a series of commercial CC, mainstream cigarette smoke of both the non-menthol and menthol-flavored EHCSS cigarettes showed a reduced delivery of a series of selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC), mutagenic activity determined using the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay, and cytotoxicity in the Neutral Red Uptake Assay. Clinical evaluations confirmed reduced exposure to HPHC and excretion of mutagenic material under controlled clinical conditions. Reductions in HPHC exposure were confirmed in a real-world ambulatory clinical study. Potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk were also reduced under real-world ambulatory conditions. A modeling approach, 'nicotine bridging', was developed based on the determination of nicotine exposure in clinical evaluations which indicated that exposure to HPHC for which biomarkers of exposure do not exist would also be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Valença, Samuel Santos; Resende, Ângela Castro; Porto, Luís Cristóvão S; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Moreira, Daniele Dal Col; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2011-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release. We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects. We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent. The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

  15. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice.

  16. Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Kim, Jong-hee; Joshi, Kumar; Yeh, Alvin; Martinez, Daniel A.; Lawler, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Aging impairs function in the nonischemic heart and is associated with mechanical remodeling. This process includes accumulation of collagen (i.e., fibrosis) and dysregulation of active matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Exercise training (ET) improves cardiac function, but the pathways of protection remain poorly understood. Young (3 mo) and old (31 mo) FBNF1 rats were assigned into sedentary and exercise groups, with ET group rats training on a treadmill 45 min/d, 5 d/wk for 12 wk. Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM), histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blot analyses were performed on the left ventricle and septum. NLOM, IHC, and histological imaging revealed that ET reduced age-associated elevation of collagen type I fibers. Active MMP-1, active MMP-2, and MMP-14 in the ECM fraction of the left ventricle were reduced by aging, an effect abrogated by ET. Tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) was elevated with age but protected by ET. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), upstream regulator of TIMP-1, increased with age but was attenuated by ET. Therefore, exercise training could protect the aging heart against dysregulation of MMPs and fibrosis by suppressing elevation of TIMP-1 and TGF-β.—Kwak, H.-B., Kim, J.-H., Joshi, K., Yeh, A., Martinez, D. A., Lawler, J. M. Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart. PMID:21148111

  17. Slow breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the pressure responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Jones, C U; Sangthong, B; Pachirat, O; Jones, D A

    2015-01-01

    Slow breathing training reduces resting blood pressure, probably by modifying central autonomic control, but evidence for this is lacking. The pressor response to static handgrip exercise is a measure of autonomic control and the aim of this study was to determine whether slow breathing training modulates the pressor responses to exercise of untrained muscles. Twenty hypertensive patients trained for 8 weeks, 10 with unloaded slow breathing (Unloaded) and 10 breathing against an inspiratory load of 20 cm H(2)O (Loaded). Ten subjects were untrained controls. Subjects performed a 2 min handgrip pressor test (30 % MVC) pre- and post-training, and blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured before the contraction, at the end and following 2 min recovery. Resting systolic (sBP) and HR were reduced as a result of training, as reported previously. After training there was both a smaller pressor response to hand grip exercise and a more rapid recovery of sBP and HR compared to pre-training. There were no changes in the Controls and no differences between the Unloaded and Loaded groups. Combining the two training groups, the sBP response to handgrip exercise after training was reduced by 10 mm Hg (95 % CI: -7, -13) and HR by 5 bpm (95 % CI: -4, -6), all p<0.05. These results are consistent with slow breathing training modifying central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function.

  18. Resistance Exercise Reduces Body Fat and Insulin During Androgen-Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Dieckmann, Nathan; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Bennett, Jill A; Ryan, Christopher W; Beer, Tomasz M

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether exercise could reduce biomarkers of cancer progression in prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) on androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Randomized, controlled trial. Oregon Health and Science University School of Nursing. 51 PCSs randomized to one year of resistance and impact training or a stretching control group. The authors investigated changes in body composition and cancer-related biomarkers, and the influence of age and fat loss on changes in biomarkers. Body composition (total fat, trunk fat, and lean mass), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin. In the 36 PCSs with baseline and 12-month data, total fat (p = 0.02) and trunk fat (p = 0.06) mass decreased in the training group compared to gains in controls. Loss of total and trunk fat each mediated the relationship between groups and one-year change in insulin (p < 0.05). Age moderated the insulin response to exercise where insulin reductions were smaller with increasing age (p = 0.03). Resistance and impact exercise may reduce body fat among PCSs undergoing ADT, in turn exerting an insulin-lowering effect. Nurses should counsel PCSs to exercise to reduce the risk of obesity and associated conditions, including cancer progression.

  19. Short-term regular aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress produced by acute in the adipose microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc D; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2 wk of voluntary running (~6 km/day) for comparison with sedentary controls. Hindlimb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurements of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure) or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to high physiological laminar shear stress (20 dyn/cm(2)) or static condition and treated with ANG II + pharmacological inhibitors. Cells were analyzed for the detection of ROS or collected for Western blot determination of NOX II and SOD. Resistance arteries from exercised mice demonstrated preserved FID after high pressure exposure, whereas FID was impaired in control mouse arteries. Inhibition of ANG II or NOX II restored impaired FID in control mouse arteries. High pressure increased superoxide levels in control mouse arteries but not in exercise mouse arteries, which exhibited greater ability to convert superoxide to H2O2 Arteries from exercised mice exhibited less NOX II protein expression, more SOD isoform expression, and less sensitivity to ANG II. Endothelial cells subjected to laminar shear stress exhibited less NOX II subunit expression. In conclusion, aerobic exercise prevents high pressure-induced vascular dysfunction through an improved redox environment in the adipose microvasculature.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe potential mechanisms contributing to aerobic exercise-conferred protection against high intravascular pressure. Subcutaneous adipose microvessels from exercise mice express less NADPH oxidase (NOX) II and more superoxide

  20. Distractive auditory stimuli reduce the unpleasantness of dyspnea during exercise in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    von Leupoldt, Andreas; Taube, Karin; Schubert-Heukeshoven, Stephan; Magnussen, Helgo; Dahme, Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    Dyspnea is the primary symptom limiting exercise in patients with COPD. Recent research has demonstrated that psychological factors can substantially influence the perception of dyspnea, but little is known about the modulation of perceived intensity or unpleasantness of dyspnea by attentional distraction. Therefore, we examined the impact of distractive auditory stimuli on the perception of exercise-induced dyspnea and the affective state in patients with COPD during 6-min walking tests (6MWTs). Twenty patients with mild-to-severe COPD (mean FEV1, 55.9% predicted) underwent two 6MWTs. Under one exercise condition, distractive auditory stimuli were presented with headphones, while the other condition was performed without auditory distraction. Lung function (FEV1), heart rate (HR), pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2), perceived intensity of dyspnea (ie, visual analog scale for perceived intensity of dyspnea [VAS-I]), and perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea (visual analog scale for perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea [VAS-U]) were measured before and after exercise. In addition, the global level of dyspnea (Borg score), positive affectivity (PA), and negative affectivity were assessed after both conditions. A similar exercise level during both conditions was confirmed by comparable results in FEV1, HR, SpO2, and distances walked. During auditory distraction, Borg scores and increases in VAS-U were smaller, while PA was higher compared to the nondistraction condition (p<0.05). VAS-I did not show differences across conditions. Distractive auditory stimuli decrease the global level of exercise-induced dyspnea in patients with COPD by reducing the perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea and lead to an additional increase in PA. Auditory distraction might therefore serve as an intervention for the reduction of dyspnea during exercise in this patient group.

  1. Improved heart rate recovery despite reduced exercise performance following heavy training: A within-subject analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Bellenger, Clint R; Howe, Peter R C; Karavirta, Laura; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-03-01

    The recovery of heart rate (HRR) after exercise is a potential indicator of fitness which has been shown to respond to changes in training. This study investigated the within-individual association between HRR and exercise performance following three different training loads. 11 male cyclists/triathletes were tested after two weeks of light training, two weeks of heavy training and two days of rest. Exercise performance was measured using a 5-min maximal cycling time-trial. HRR was measured over 60s during supine recovery. Exercise performance decreased 2.2±2.5% following heavy training compared with post-light training (p=0.01), and then increased 4.0±4.2% following rest (p=0.004). Most HRR indices indicated a more rapid recovery of heart rate (HR) following heavy training, and reverted to post light training levels following two days of rest. HRR indices did not differ between post-light training and after the rest period (p>0.6). There were inverse within-subject relationships between indices of HRR and performance (r=-0.6, p≤0.004). Peak HR decreased 3.2±5.1bpm following heavy training (p=0.06) and significantly increased 4.9±4.3bpm following recovery (p=0.004). There was a moderate within-subject relationship between peak HR and exercise performance (r=0.7, p≤0.001). Controlling for peak HR reduced the relationships between HRR and performance (r=-0.4-0.5, p<0.05). This study demonstrated that HRR tracks short-term changes in exercise performance within-individuals, such that increases in HRR are associated with poorer exercise performance following heavy training. Peak HR can be compromised under conditions of fatigue, and needs to be taken into account in HRR analyses. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A home-based multidimensional exercise program reduced physical impairment and fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, K; Bourgois, J; Van Den Noortgate, N; Vanderstraeten, G; Willems, Tine; Cambier, D

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a guided and graded home-based exercise program for improving a range of physical outcomes in older people. Controlled clinical trial of 16 weeks. Two geographical areas in Gent, Belgium. 66 independent-living older people (age: 71-98) with a history of falls and moderate physical impairment. Twenty-four 30-minute training sessions were given by a trained physiotherapist over a period of 16 weeks in the participant's home. Different types of exercises on balance, aerobic performance, flexibility, and muscle strength were provided. Muscle strength, static and dynamic balance, aerobic performance, activities in daily living, fear of falling and avoidance of daily activities were assessed at baseline and after 16 weeks intervention. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the measured variables between exercise and control groups. After 16 weeks, the exercise group showed significantly improved ankle muscle strength, balance performance and aerobic capacity, and decreased fear of falling, dependency in daily activities and avoidance of daily activities compared to the control group. The improvements in knee muscle strength, timed chair stands, and functional reach were not significant. The home-based, individualized exercise program was effective in reducing several physical factors associated with falls in community-dwelling older people with moderate physical impairment. The decrease in fear of falling and other behavioural variables needs to be considered with care and needs further investigation.

  3. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  4. Physical exercise reduces synthesis of ADMA, SDMA, and L-Arg.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Scotti, Luca; Guagnano, Maria Teresa; Bosco, Gabriella; Bucciarelli, Valentina; Di Ilio, Emanuela; Speranza, Lorenza; Martini, Filippo; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and low plasma level of L-arginine (L-ARG) are all conditions likely to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production. Aim of this study is to evaluate ADMA, SDMA, and L-ARG plasmatic levels before and after physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied 30 patient with mean age 52 + 4.5 years. After inclusion in the study, before the execution of physical exercise, heparinized blood sample was drawn from an indwelling arterial line for determination of ADMA, L-ARG and SDMA (baseline values). Subsequently a blood sample was drawn after the physical exercise. The mean plasma concentrations of ADMA (0.68 + 0.06 vs 0.48 + 0.05 µmol/L) and SDMA (0.45 + 0.03 vs 0.30 + 0.03 µmol/L) were significantly lower after physical exercise in comparison to baseline value, while L-ARG mean levels were increased (44.20 + 10.5 vs 74.13 + 11.2 µmol/L). Physical exercise has a beneficial effect by reducing plasmatic ADMA and SDMA levels, and increasing L-ARG substrate for endothelial NO.

  5. Exercise training reduces alcohol consumption but does not affect HPA-axis activity in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Ziaka, Anastasia; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Mastorakos, Georgios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that physical exercise could have potential beneficial effects in substance abusers, which are based on both physiological and psychological theories. Although a few studies have examined the effect of exercise on alcohol intake and fitness in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there is a gap in the literature concerning the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that could be affected by physical exercise in this population. The purpose of the present study was to examine physiological and biochemical responses to exercise after an 8-week supervised exercise training (ET) intervention in heavy drinkers. The investigation was mainly focused on the relationship among exercise, opioids, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity and heavy alcohol drinking. Eleven (Age: 30.3±3.5yrs; Body Mass Index: 28.4±0.86kg/m(2)) male heavy drinkers volunteered to participated in an 8-week supervised intervention of moderate intensity exercise (50-60% of Heart Rate Reserve). All participants were exhibiting low physical activity and used to drink heavily. Before intervention, the participants were asked to record their daily alcohol intake without changing their physical activity levels for 4weeks (control condition). During the 8-week supervised ET intervention, participants were recording their daily alcohol intake and were motivated to increase gradually the duration and frequency of ET. Blood samples were collected prior to and after 4weeks of the control condition, the day before the beginning of the ET intervention, and at the end of the 4th and 8th week of ET intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for β-E, epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. Physiological and alcohol-related indices were also examined. The 8-week supervised ET intervention resulted in reduced alcohol consumption, reduced γ-GT levels, and fitness

  6. Barriers and Motivators to Reducing Secondhand Smoke Exposure in African American Families of Head Start Children: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…

  7. The day-to-day process of stopping or reducing smoking: A prospective study of self-changers

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Almost all descriptions of attempts to quit smoking have focused on what happens after an abrupt quit attempt and end once a smoker relapses. The current study examined the day-to-day process preceding a quit or reduction attempt in addition to the daily process after a failure to quit or reduce. Methods We recruited 220 adult daily cigarette smokers who planned to quit abruptly, to quit gradually, to reduce only, or to not change on their own. Participants called a voice mail system each night for 28 days to report cigarette use for that day and their intentions for smoking for the next day. No treatment was provided. Results Three main findings emerged: (a) The large majority of participants did not show a simple pattern of change but rather showed a pattern of multiple transitions among smoking, abstinence, and reduction over a short period of time; (b) most of those who reported an initial goal to quit abruptly actually reduced; and (c) daily intentions to quit strongly predicted abstinence, while daily intentions to reduce weakly predicted reduction. Discussion We conclude that the day-to-day process of attempts to change smoking among nontreatment seekers is much more dynamic than previously thought. This suggests that extended treatment beyond initial lapses and relapses and during postcessation reduction may be helpful. PMID:19561132

  8. Barriers and Motivators to Reducing Secondhand Smoke Exposure in African American Families of Head Start Children: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…

  9. Aging and exercise training reduce testes microvascular Po2 and alter vasoconstrictor responsiveness in testicular arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Stabley, John N.

    2011-01-01

    Testicular function and associated testosterone concentration decline with advancing age, and an impaired O2 supply may contribute, in part, to this reduction. We hypothesized that there would be a reduced microvascular Po2 (Po2m) in the testes from aged rats, and this reduced Po2m would be associated with impaired vasomotor control in isolated resistance arterioles. In addition, given the positive effect of exercise on microvascular Po2 and arteriolar function, we further hypothesized that there would be an enhanced Po2m in the testes from aged animals after aerobic exercise training. Testicular Po2m was measured in vivo via phosphorescence quenching in young and aged sedentary (SED) and exercise-trained (ET; 15 m/min treadmill walking, 15-degree incline, 5 days/wk for 10 wk) male Fischer-344 rats. Vasoconstriction to α-adrenergic [norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE)] and myogenic stimuli in testicular arterioles was assessed in vitro. In the SED animals, testicular Po2m was reduced by ∼50% with old age (aged SED 11.8 ± 1.9 vs. young SED 22.1 ± 1.1 mmHg; P = 0.0001). Contrary to our hypothesis, exercise training did not alter Po2m in the aged group and reduced testicular Po2m in the young animals, abolishing age-related differences (young ET, 10.0 ± 0.8 vs. aged ET, 10.7 ± 0.9 mmHg; P = 0.37). Vasoconstrictor responsiveness to NE and PE was diminished in aged compared with young (NE: young SED, 58 ± 2 vs. aged SED, 47 ± 2%; P = 0.001) (PE: young SED, 51 ± 3 vs. aged SED, 36 ± 5%; P = 0.008). Exercise training did not alter maximal vasoconstriction to NE in young or aged groups. In summary, advancing age is associated with a reduced testis Po2m and impaired adrenergic vasoconstriction. The diminished testicular microvascular driving pressure of O2 and associated vascular dysfunction provides mechanistic insight into the old age-related decrease in testicular function, and a reduced Po2m may contribute, in part, to reduced fertility markers after

  10. Exercise and BDNF reduce Aβ production by enhancing α-secretase processing of APP.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Saket M; Xu, Shaohua; Kritikou, Joanna S; Marosi, Krisztina; Brodin, Lennart; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aggregation of toxic forms of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Treatment strategies have largely been focused on inhibiting the enzymes (β- and γ-secretases) that liberate Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While evidence suggests that individuals who exercise regularly are at reduced risk for AD and studies of animal models demonstrate that running can ameliorate brain Aβ pathology and associated cognitive deficits, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. However, considerable evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates beneficial effects of exercise on neuroplasticity and cellular stress resistance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing. Using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and cultured human neural cells, we demonstrate that exercise and BDNF reduce production of toxic Aβ peptides through a mechanism involving enhanced α-secretase processing of APP. This anti-amyloidogenic APP processing involves subcellular redistribution of α-secretase and an increase in intracellular neuroprotective APP peptides capable of binding and inhibiting β-secretase. Moreover, our results suggest that BDNF's ability to promote neurite outgrowth is primarily exerted through pathways other than APP processing. Exercise and other factors that enhance BDNF signaling may therefore have both therapeutic and prophylactic value in the battle against AD. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 191. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Diaz, Esperanza; Pope, Daniel; Eisen, Ellen A.; Mann, Jennifer; Smith, Kirk R.; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is the third most frequent cause of death globally, with much of this burden attributable to household biomass smoke exposure in developing countries. As biomass smoke exposure is also associated with cardiovascular disease, lower respiratory infection, lung cancer, and cataracts, it presents an important target for public health intervention. METHODS: Lung function in Guatemalan women exposed to wood smoke from open fires was measured throughout the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial and continued during the Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) cohort study. In RESPIRE, early stove households received a chimney woodstove at the beginning of the 18-month trial, and delayed stove households received a stove at trial completion. Personal exposure to wood smoke was assessed with exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO) and personal CO tubes. Change in lung function between intervention groups and as a function of wood smoke exposure was assessed using random effects models. RESULTS: Of 306 women participating in both studies, acceptable spirometry was collected in 129 early stove and 136 delayed stove households (n = 265), with a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. Despite reduced wood smoke exposures in early stove households, there were no significant differences in any of the measured spirometric variables during the study period (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and annual change) after adjustment for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: In these young Guatemalan women, there was no association between lung function and early randomization to a chimney stove or personal wood smoke exposure. Future stove intervention trials should incorporate cleaner stoves, longer follow-up, or potentially susceptible groups to identify meaningful differences in lung function. PMID:26065915

  12. Carbocisteine reduces virus-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yageta, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukio; Morishima, Yuko; Ano, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Shigeo; Matsuyama, Masashi; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Carbocisteine (S-CMC) inhibits viral infection and prevents acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We recently demonstrated the protective effects of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 against influenza virus (FluV)-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). In our current study, we investigated the effects of S-CMC on Nrf2 activation in cultured macrophages, and in mice infected with influenza after exposure to CS. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-targeted antioxidant genes, such as heavy and light subunits of γ glutamyl cysteine synthetase and heme oxigenase-1, were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with S-CMC in peritoneal and alveolar macrophages of wild-type mice, but not in those of Nrf2-deficient mice. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in macrophages was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Phosphorylated Akt, Nrf2, and heme oxigenase-1 were induced in the alveolar macrophages of the lungs in wild-type mice after S-CMC administration. The extent of oxidative stress, inflammatory cell infiltration, pulmonary edema, and goblet cell hyperplasia was suppressed by S-CMC administration in the lungs of wild-type mice after exposure to both CS and FluV. Our findings suggest that S-CMC reduces pulmonary inflammation and mucus overproduction in mice exposed to CS after infection with FluV via the activation of Nrf2.

  13. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (<40mg/dl for men and <50mg/dl for women) and their age-matched control subjects showing normal HDL cholesterol levels. Each cardiometabolic risk factor was compared between the groups with and without hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Data for hypo-HDL cholesterolemic subjects not having habits of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Scenarios to Dramatically Reduce Smoking Prevalence: A Simulation Model of the Three-Part Cessation Process

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Graham, Amanda L.; Orleans, C. Tracy; Abrams, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used a simulation model to analyze whether the Healthy People 2010 goal of reducing smoking prevalence from the current 19.8% rate to 12% by 2010 could be accomplished by increasing quit attempts, increasing the use of treatments, or increasing the effectiveness of treatment. Methods. We expanded on previous versions of the tobacco control simulation model SimSmoke to assess the effects of an increase in quit attempts, treatment use, and treatment effectiveness to reduce smoking prevalence. In the model, we considered increases in each of these parameters individually and in combination. Results. Individually, 100% increases in quit attempts, treatment use, and treatment effectiveness reduced the projected 2020 prevalence to 13.9%, 16.7%, and 15.9%, respectively. With a combined 100% increase in all components, the goal of a 12% adult smoking prevalence could be reached by 2012. Conclusions. If we are to come close to reaching Healthy People 2010 goals in the foreseeable future, we must not only induce quit attempts but also increase treatment use and effectiveness. Simulation models provide a useful tool for evaluating the potential to reach public health targets. PMID:20466969

  15. Aerosol from Tobacco Heating System 2.2 has reduced impact on mouse heart gene expression compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Justyna; Boué, Stéphanie; Talikka, Marja; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Phillips, Blaine; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Experimental studies clearly demonstrate a causal effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular disease. To reduce the individual risk and population harm caused by smoking, alternative products to cigarettes are being developed. We recently reported on an apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mouse inhalation study that compared the effects of exposure to aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), and smoke from the reference cigarette (3R4F) on pulmonary and vascular biology. Here, we applied a transcriptomics approach to evaluate the impact of the exposure to 3R4F smoke and THS2.2 aerosol on heart tissues from the same cohort of mice. The systems response profiles demonstrated that 3R4F smoke exposure led to time-dependent transcriptomics changes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05; 44 differentially expressed genes at 3-months; 491 at 8-months). Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the heart tissue indicated that 3R4F exposure induced the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton organization and the contractile function of the heart, notably genes that encode beta actin (Actb), actinin alpha 4 (Actn4), and filamin C (Flnc). This was accompanied by the downregulation of genes related to the inflammatory response. None of these effects were observed in the group exposed to THS2.2 aerosol.

  16. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  17. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen J; Winyard, Paul; Vanhatalo, Anni; Blackwell, Jamie R; Dimenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Tarr, Joanna; Benjamin, Nigel; Jones, Andrew M

    2009-10-01

    Pharmacological sodium nitrate supplementation has been reported to reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise in humans. In this study, we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot juice (BR) would reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and enhance the tolerance to high-intensity exercise. In a double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled, crossover study, eight men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml/day of either BR (containing 11.2 +/- 0.6 mM of nitrate) or blackcurrant cordial (as a PL, with negligible nitrate content) for 6 consecutive days and completed a series of "step" moderate-intensity and severe-intensity exercise tests on the last 3 days. On days 4-6, plasma nitrite concentration was significantly greater following dietary nitrate supplementation compared with PL (BR: 273 +/- 44 vs. PL: 140 +/- 50 nM; P < 0.05), and systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (BR: 124 +/- 2 vs. PL: 132 +/- 5 mmHg; P < 0.01). During moderate exercise, nitrate supplementation reduced muscle fractional O2 extraction (as estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy). The gain of the increase in pulmonary O2 uptake following the onset of moderate exercise was reduced by 19% in the BR condition (BR: 8.6 +/- 0.7 vs. PL: 10.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P < 0.05). During severe exercise, the O2 uptake slow component was reduced (BR: 0.57 +/- 0.20 vs. PL: 0.74 +/- 0.24 l/min; P < 0.05), and the time-to-exhaustion was extended (BR: 675 +/- 203 vs. PL: 583 +/- 145 s; P < 0.05). The reduced O2 cost of exercise following increased dietary nitrate intake has important implications for our understanding of the factors that regulate mitochondrial respiration and muscle contractile energetics in humans.

  18. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2017-07-14

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  19. Equity impact of population-level interventions and policies to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    There is strong evidence about which tobacco control policies reduce smoking. However, their equity impact is uncertain. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of population-level interventions/policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adult smoking. Systematic review of studies of population-level interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in adults of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed. Results are presented in a narrative synthesis. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequality), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequality), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear. 117 studies of 130 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (44); price/tax (27); mass media campaigns (30); advertising controls (9); cessation support (9); settings-based interventions (7); multiple policies (4). The distribution of equity effects was: 33 positive, 36 neutral, 38 negative, 6 mixed, 17 unclear. Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Fourteen price/tax studies were equity positive. Voluntary, regional and partial smokefree policies were more likely to be equity negative than national, comprehensive smokefree policies. Mass media campaigns had inconsistent equity effects. Cigarette marketing controls were equity positive or neutral. Targeted national smoking cessation services can be equity positive by achieving higher reach among low SES, compensating for lower quit rates. Few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control policy/interventions. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for reducing smoking inequalities and to develop effective equity-orientated tobacco control strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Effectiveness of physical exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in youths: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. Smoking Is Associated with Acute and Chronic Prostatic Inflammation: Results from the REDUCE Study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Nickel, J Curtis; Gerber, Leah; Muller, Roberto L; Andriole, Gerald L; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Both anti- and proinflammatory effects of cigarette smoking have been described. As prostate inflammation is common, we hypothesized smoking could contribute to prostate inflammation. Thus, we evaluated the association of smoking status with acute and chronic inflammation within the prostate of men undergoing prostate biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed 8,190 men ages 50 to 75 years with PSA levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL enrolled in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Smoking status was self-defined as never, former, or current. Prostate inflammation was assessed by systematic central review blinded to smoking status. The association of smoking with inflammation in the baseline, 2-year, and 4-year biopsies was evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. At study enrollment, 1,233 (15%), 3,203 (39%), and 3,754 (46%) men were current, former, and never smokers, respectively. Current smokers were significantly younger and had smaller prostates than former and never smokers (all P < 0.05). Former smokers were significantly heavier than current and never smokers (P < 0.001). Acute and chronic prostate inflammations were identified in 1,261 (15%) and 6,352 (78%) baseline biopsies, respectively. In univariable analysis, current smokers were more likely to have acute inflammation than former (OR, 1.35; P, 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 1.36; P, 0.001). The results were unchanged at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In contrast, current smoking was linked with chronic inflammation in the baseline biopsy, but not at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In conclusion, among men undergoing prostate biopsy, current smoking was independently associated with acute and possibly chronic prostate inflammations.

  2. Gambling with our health: smoke-free policy would not reduce tribal casino patronage.

    PubMed

    Brokenleg, Isaiah Shaneequa; Barber, Teresa K; Bennett, Nancy L; Peart Boyce, Simone; Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie

    2014-09-01

    Tribal sovereignty exempts tribal casinos from statewide smoking bans. To conduct a tribally-led assessment to identify the characteristics of casino patrons at Lake of the Torches Resort Casino in Lac du Flambeau WI and their preferences for a smoke-free casino. A survey was administered from April to August 2011 to a stratified random sample of 957 members of the casino players club to assess their preferences for a smoke-free casino. These members were categorized into three groups: those who reported being likely to (1) visit more; (2) visit less; or (3) visit the same if the casino prohibited smoking. They were characterized by age, education, sex, race/ethnicity, annual income, players club level, and reasons for visiting the casino. Statistical analyses were conducted on weighted data in October to December 2011. Weighted logistic regression was calculated to control for potential confounding of patron characteristics. Of the 957 surveyed patrons, 520 (54%) patrons were likely to visit more; 173 (18%) patrons to visit less; and 264 (28%) patrons were indifferent to the smoke-free status. Patrons more likely to prefer a smoke-free casino tended to be white, elderly, middle class and above, and visit the casino restaurants. Patrons within the lower tiers of the players club, almost half of the players club members, also showed a higher preference for a smoke-free casino. This tribal casino would likely realize increased patronage associated with smoke-free status while also contributing to improved health for casino workers and patrons. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking decreases the response of human lung macrophages to double-stranded RNA by reducing TLR3 expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is associated with increased frequency and duration of viral respiratory infections, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. We investigated whether smoking reduces expression by human lung macrophages (Mø) of receptors for viral nucleic acids and, if so, the effect on CXCL10 production. Methods We collected alveolar macrophages (AMø) by bronchoalveolar lavage of radiographically-normal lungs of subjects undergoing bronchoscopies for solitary nodules (n = 16) and of volunteers who were current or former smokers (n = 7) or never-smokers (n = 13). We measured expression of mRNA transcripts for viral nucleic acid receptors by real-time PCR in those AMø and in the human Mø cell line THP-1 following phorbol myristate acetate/vitamin D3 differentiation and exposure to cigarette smoke extract, and determined TLR3 protein expression using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. We also used flow cytometry to examine TLR3 expression in total lung Mø from subjects undergoing clinically-indicated lung resections (n = 25). Of these, seven had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio (three former smokers, four current smokers); the remaining 18 subjects (14 former smokers; four current smokers) had COPD of GOLD stages I-IV. We measured AMø production of CXCL10 in response to stimulation with the dsRNA analogue poly(I:C) using Luminex assay. Results Relative to AMø of never-smokers, AMø of smokers demonstrated reduced protein expression of TLR3 and decreased mRNA for TLR3 but not TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, RIG-I, MDA-5 or PKR. Identical changes in TLR3 gene expression were induced in differentiated THP-1 cells exposed to cigarette smoke-extract in vitro for 4 hours. Among total lung Mø, the percentage of TLR3-positive cells correlated inversely with active smoking but not with COPD diagnosis, FEV1% predicted, sex, age or pack-years. Compared to AMø of never-smokers, poly(I:C)-stimulated production of CXCL10 was significantly

  4. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p < 0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  6. A shorter set reduces the loss of cardiac autonomic and baroreflex control after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Carballeira-Fernández, Eduardo; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Set configuration may affect the recovery pattern of cardiac vagal autonomic and reflex modulation after a resistance exercise, since it is closely associated with intensity and volume and determines the metabolic involvement of the session. We tested the hypothesis that longer set configurations have a higher impact on cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity compared with shorter set configurations. We studied the effects of three set configurations with the same components of work on the cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity. Seventeen subjects performed one control session and three experimental sessions of a leg-press exercise with the same volume (40 repetitions), resting time (720 s) and intensity (10RM load): (a) 5 sets of 8 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets (8S), (b) 10 sets of 4 repetitions with 80 s of rest between sets (4S) and (c) 40 sets of 1 repetition with 18.5 s of rest between each repetition (1S). Longer set configurations (8S and 4S) induced greater reductions of the vagal cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity (p ≤ .001) compared with a shorter set configuration (1S). Also, 1S had non-significant reductions versus the control session (p > .05). These findings suggest that a shorter set configuration can reduce the impact of resistance exercise on the post-exercise cardiac vagal autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity.

  7. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  8. Cissus quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Lee, Sang-Rok

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous, high-volume exercise is often associated with inflammation and joint pain. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of our study was to determine the therapeutic effects of CQ supplementation in healthy, exercise-trained men with joint-specific pain. Twenty-nine men between the ages of 20 and 46 years, who reportedly experienced chronic joint pain as a result of strenuous exercise, participated in our pilot study. All men received CQ 3200 mg daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their degree of joint pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis [WOMAC]). Clinical measures (eg, heart rate, blood pressure, blood biomarkers) were also collected for each subject pre- (baseline) and post-intervention. Subject ratings for multiple variables within the WOMAC Index improved (decreased) significantly (P < 0.05), with the subject mean total WOMAC score decreasing from 25.4 ± 2.4 to 17.4 ± 2.1 (~31%), pre- to post-intervention. No clinical measure was significantly impacted by use of CQ supplementation. An 8-week course of supplementation with CQ reduced joint pain in a sample of 29 young, otherwise healthy, exercise-trained men. Additional study is needed to extend these findings, including comparison with a placebo-controlled cohort, and possibly, examining effects of CQ use in women and older adult subjects.

  9. Raising Taxes to Reduce Smoking Prevalence in the US: A Simulation of the Anticipated Health and Economic Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Franz, Gregor A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate health and economic outcomes of raising the excise taxes on cigarettes. Methods We use a dynamic computer simulation model to estimate health and economic impacts of raising taxes on cigarettes (up to 100% price increase) for the entire population of USA over 20 years. We also perform sensitivity analysis on price elasticity. Results A 40% tax-induced cigarette price increase would reduce smoking prevalence from 21% in 2004 to 15.2% in 2025 with large gains in cumulative life years (7 million) and quality adjusted life years (13 million) over 20 years. Total tax revenue will increase by $365 billion in that span, and total smoking-related medical costs would drop by $317 billion, resulting in total savings of $682 billion. These benefits increase greatly with larger tax increases, and tax revenues continue to rise even as smoking prevalence falls. Conclusions Increasing taxes on cigarettes is a unique policy intervention that reduces smoking prevalence, generates additional tax revenue, and results in significant savings in medical care costs. PMID:17610918

  10. Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Carolin Friederike; Sperlich, Billy; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-07-01

    This review summarises research studies on the impact and beneficial effects of different types of exercise on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provides recommendations for the scientific and therapeutic communities. Although the design and the exercise interventions featured in these studies varied considerably, all showed that exercise reduced the symptoms of ADHD and led to improvements in social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The independent and combined effects of exercise training and reducing sedentary behavior on cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Lyden, Kate; Staudenmayer, John; Hickey, Amanda; Viskochil, Richard; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study examined if the combination of exercise training and reducing sedentary time (ST) results in greater changes to health markers than either intervention alone. Methods Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19M/39F) (mean ± SD; age 43.6 ± 9.9 y, BMI 35.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) completed the 12-week study and were randomly assigned to 1) EX: exercise 5-days/week for 40-minutes/session at moderate intensity; 2) rST: reduce ST and increase non-exercise physical activity; 3) EX-rST: combination of EX and rST and 4) CON: maintain behavior. Fasting lipids, blood pressure (BP), VO2 peak, BMI and 2-hr oral glucose tolerance tests were completed pre- and post-intervention. Results EX and EX-rST increased VO2 peak by ~10% and decreased systolic BP (both p<0.001). BMI decreased by −3.3% (95% CI: −4.6 to −1.9%) for EX-rST and −2.2% (−3.5 to 0.0%) for EX. EX-rST significantly increased C-ISI by 17.8% (2.8 to 32.8%) and decreased insulin area-under-the-curve by 19.4% (−31.4 to −7.3%). No other groups improved in insulin action variables. rST group decreased ST by 7% (~50 min/day), however BP was the only health-related outcome that improved. Conclusions EX and EX-rST improved VO2 peak and BMI providing further evidence that moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. The within-group analysis provides preliminary evidence that exercising and reducing ST may result in improvements in metabolic biomarkers that are not seen with exercise alone, though between group differences did not reach statistical significance. Future studies, with larger samples, should examine health-related outcomes resulting from greater reductions in ST over longer intervention periods. PMID:24971677

  12. Acute Mucociliary Clearance Response to Aerobic Exercise in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ercy M C; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ito, Juliana T; Lima, Fabiano F; Rodrigues, Fernanda M M; Manzano, Beatriz M; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Cecílio, Michel J; Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra C; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the main defense mechanism of the respiratory system, and it is influenced by several stimuli, including aerobic exercise and cigarette smoking. We evaluated the acute response of mucociliary clearance to aerobic exercise in smokers and nonsmokers compared with that found after acute smoking and smoking combined with exercise. Also, we investigated whether there was a correlation between mucociliary clearance and the autonomic nervous system under these conditions. Twenty-one smokers were evaluated for mucociliary clearance by saccharin transit time (STT), and the response of the autonomic nervous system was evaluated by heart rate variability after aerobic exercise, after exercise followed by smoking, after acute smoking, and after rest. For comparison, 17 nonsmokers were also assessed during exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with the Tukey test or the Friedman test followed by the Dunn test was used to evaluate the STT, autonomic response, and other variables to exercise and/or smoking in smokers. A paired t test or Wilcoxon test was used to analyze responses to exercise in nonsmokers. Correlations were evaluated using Pearson or Spearman coefficients. The STT was reduced after exercise in both groups, with similar responses between them. Other stimuli also reduced the STT. The STT showed a negative correlation with sympathetic activity in smokers and a positive correlation with the parasympathetic system in nonsmokers. Although impaired in smokers, mucociliary clearance responded to the stimulus of exercise, as demonstrated by similar STTs compared with nonsmokers. This response was correlated with the autonomic nervous system in both groups. In smokers, mucociliary clearance also responded to the stimuli of smoking and exercise followed by smoking. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Cigarette smoking reduced renal function deterioration in hypertensive patients may be mediated by elevated homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingqing; Peng, Guicheng; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Weiqing; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (HCY) and smoking are both important risk factors for hypertensive patients. However, whether they have crossing effect on renal function deterioration of hypertensive patients and what is the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, 3033 participants diagnosed as essential hypertension with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)> 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 from southern China were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We collected the demographic and clinical data. In addition, the mediation effects were analyzed. The results showed that, comparing with non-smokers, smokers had significant higher levels of HCY (13.10 (11.20−16.87) vs. 11.00 (8.90−13.40) umol/L, P < 0.001) and lower eGFR (79.71 (66.83−91.05) vs. 82.89 (69.80−95.85) ml/min/1.73m2, P < 0.001). HCY levels and smoking were independently associated with decreased eGFR. Meanwhile, eGFR levels were significantly negatively correlated with HCY (P < 0.001), and this correlation might be stronger in current smokers. Current smoker consuming over 20 cigarettes per day would accelerate early renal function deterioration (OR = 1.859, P = 0.019). The mediation effects analysis further showed that the association between smoking and renal function deterioration was mediated by HCY. And elevated HCY was accounted for 56.94% of the estimated causal effect of smoking on renal function deterioration in hypertensive patients. Our findings indicated that cigarette smoking was associated with renal function deterioration in hypertensive patients, and the association between cigarette smoking and renal function deterioration was probably mediated by elevated HCY. Therefore, HCY-lowering therapy may be beneficial for renal function deterioration in hypertensive smoking patients. PMID:27852066

  14. Exercise training reduces the acute physiological severity of post‐menopausal hot flushes

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tom G.; Cable, N. Timothy; Aziz, Nabil; Atkinson, Greg; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Low, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points A post‐menopausal hot flush consists of profuse physiological elevations in cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating that are accompanied by reduced brain blood flow. These responses can be used to objectively quantify hot flush severity.The impact of an exercise training intervention on the physiological responses occurring during a hot flush is currently unknown.In a preference‐controlled trial involving 21 post‐menopausal women, 16 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training was found to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and attenuate cutaneous vasodilatation, sweating and the reductions in cerebral blood flow during a hot flush.It is concluded that the improvements in fitness that are mediated by 16 weeks of exercise training reduce the severity of physiological symptoms that occur during a post‐menopausal hot flush. Abstract A hot flush is characterised by feelings of intense heat, profuse elevations in cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating, and reduced brain blood flow. Exercise training reduces self‐reported hot flush severity, but underpinning physiological data are lacking. We hypothesised that exercise training attenuates the changes in cutaneous vasodilatation, sweat rate and cerebral blood flow during a hot flush. In a preference trial, 18 symptomatic post‐menopausal women underwent a passive heat stress to induce hot flushes at baseline and follow‐up. Fourteen participants opted for a 16 week moderate intensity supervised exercise intervention, while seven participants opted for control. Sweat rate, cutaneous vasodilatation, blood pressure, heart rate and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) were measured during the hot flushes. Data were binned into eight equal segments, each representing 12.5% of hot flush duration. Weekly self‐reported frequency and severity of hot flushes were also recorded at baseline and follow‐up. Following training, mean hot flush sweat rate decreased by 0.04 mg cm2 min−1 at the chest

  15. Walk or run? Is high-intensity exercise more effective than moderate-intensity exercise at reducing cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed

    Rankin, A J; Rankin, A C; MacIntyre, P; Hillis, W S

    2012-05-01

    The benefits of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease are irrefutable. However, the optimum 'dose' of exercise in order to derive the maximum cardiovascular benefit is not certain. Current national and international guidelines advocate the benefits of moderate-intensity exercise. The relative benefits of vigorous versus moderate-intensity exercise have been studied in large epidemiological studies, addressing coronary heart disease and mortality, as well as smaller randomized clinical trials which assessed effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There is evidence that exercise intensity, rather than duration or frequency, is the most important variable in determining cardioprotection. Applying this evidence into practice must take into account the impact of baseline fitness, compliance and the independent risk associated with a sedentary lifestyle. This review aims to evaluate the role of exercise intensity in the reduction of cardiovascular risk, and answer the question: should you be advising your patients to walk or run?

  16. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners: effects of a worksite intervention RCT.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p < 0.05) between-group reductions from baseline to follow-up were found for high-sensitive C-reactive protein (-0.54 ± 0.20 µg/ml; 95% CI -0.94, -0.14), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.32 ± 0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI -0.54, -0.10) and the ratios of LDL/HDL (-0.30 ± 0.08; 95% CI -0.46, -0.14), and LDL/TC cholesterol (-0.04 ± 0.02; 95% CI -0.07, -0.01). This study indicates that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.

  17. Efficacy of group-adapted physical exercises in reducing back pain in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Teresa; Morone, Giovanni; Iosa, Marco; Grasso, Maria Rosaria; Buzi, Emigen; Zangrando, Federico; Paolucci, Stefano; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Fusco, Augusto

    2014-08-01

    The clinical effects of osteoporosis include pain, fractures, and physical disability, causing a loss of independence and necessitating long-term care. Whereas the effects of exercise therapy in decreasing body mass index and preventing fractures are well established, there is no consensus on back pain and quality of life in women with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a brief course of rehabilitation, comprising group-adapted physical exercises, with regard to back pain, disability, and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who had no evidence of fractures. The enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: the treatment group underwent ten sessions of rehabilitative exercises, and the control group received an instructional booklet with descriptions and figures of exercises that were to be performed at home. Sixty patients completed the trial and assessments, including a 6-month follow-up. The treatment was effective versus the control group, significantly improving pain (Visual Analogue Scale: p < 0.001 at the end of the treatment and at the follow-up; McGill Pain Questionnaire: p = 0.018 at the follow-up), disability (Oswestry Disability Questionnaire: p < 0.001 at the end and follow-up), and quality of life (Shortened Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire: p = 0.021 at the end of treatment; p = 0.005 at follow-up). Our results suggest that group rehabilitation reduces back pain and improves functional status and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, maintaining these outcomes for 6 months. The use of physical exercises might strengthen the habit to training.

  18. Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Methodology Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging. PMID:20967266

  19. Reduced Exposure to Harmful and Potentially Harmful Smoke Constituents With the Tobacco Heating System 2.1.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, Frank; Baker, Gizelle; Magnette, John; Picavet, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined. The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand. THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform. Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of burning can offer a potentially lower risk of delivering

  20. Trampoline exercise vs. strength training to reduce neck strain in fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Ylinen, Jari; Siitonen, Simo

    2006-01-01

    Fighter pilots' muscular strength and endurance are subjected to very high demands. Pilots' fatigued muscles are at higher risk for injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different training methods in reducing muscular loading during in-flight and cervical loading testing (CLT). There were 16 volunteer Finnish Air Force cadets who were divided into 2 groups: a strength training group (STG) and a trampoline training group (TTG). During the 6-wk training period, the STG performed dynamic flexion and extension and isometric rotation exercises, and the TTG performed trampoline bouncing exercises. During in-flight and CLT, muscle strain from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae muscles was recorded with EMG. In-flight muscle strain in the STG after the training period decreased in the sternocleidomastoid 50%, cervical erector spinae 3%, trapezius 4%, and thoracic erector spinae 8%. In the TTG, the decrease was 41%, 30%, 20%, and 6%, respectively. In CLT, the results were similar. After a 3-mo follow-up period with intensive high +Gz flying, EMG during CLT was still lower than in baseline measurements. Both training methods were found to be effective in reducing muscle strain during in-flight and CLT, especially in the cervical muscles. There was no statistically significant difference between the training groups. Introduced exercises expand muscles' capacities in different ways and the authors recommend both strength and trampoline training programs to be included in fighter pilots' physical education programs.

  1. Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress.

  2. NOS inhibition increases bubble formation and reduces survival in sedentary but not exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O

    2003-01-15

    Previously we have shown that chronic as well as a single bout of exercise 20 h prior to a simulated dive protects rats from severe decompression illness (DCI) and death. However, the mechanism behind this protection is still not known. The present study determines the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on bubble formation in acutely exercised and sedentary rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure. A total of 45 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned into exercise or sedentary control groups, with and without NOS inhibition, using L-NAME (0.05 or 1 mg ml(-1)) (a nonselective NOS inhibitor). Exercising rats ran intervals on a treadmill for 1.5 h, 20 h prior to the simulated dive. Intervals alternated between 8 min at 85-90 % of maximal oxygen uptake, and 2 min at 50-60 %. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a pressure chamber, at a rate of 200 kPa min(-1) to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the "surface" (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min(-1). Immediately after reaching the surface the animals were anaesthetised and the right ventricle was insonated using ultrasound. The study demonstrated that sedentary rats weighing more than 300 g produced a large amount of bubbles, while those weighing less than 300 g produced few bubbles and most survived the protocol. Prior exercise reduced bubble formation and increased survival in rats weighing more than 300 g, confirming the results from the previous study. During NOS inhibition, the simulated dive induced significantly more bubbles in all sedentary rats weighing less than 300 g. However, this effect could be attenuated by a single bout of exercise 20 h before exposure. The present study demonstrates two previously unreported findings: that administration of L-NAME allows substantial bubble formation and decreased survival in sedentary rats, and that a single bout of exercise

  3. The GABA B agonist baclofen reduces cigarette consumption in a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled smoking reduction study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Teresa R.; Harper, Derek; Kampman, Kyle; Kildea, Susan; Jens, Will; Lynch, Kevin; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose

    2009-01-01

    The surge in dopamine in ventral striatal regions in response to drugs of abuse and drug-associated stimuli is a final common pathway of addiction processes. GABA B agonists exert their effects indirectly, by quieting dopaminergic afferents. The ability of the GABA B agonist, baclofen to ameliorate nicotine and drug motivated behavior is established within the animal literature, however its potential to do so in humans is understudied, particularly with respect to its possible utility as a smoking cessation agent. We conducted a nine-week double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of baclofen for smoking reduction (N=30/group) in smokers contemplating, but not quite ready to quit. Baclofen was titrated upwards to 20 mg q.i.d. over a period of twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). A significant group by time effect of medication was observed. Baclofen was superior to placebo in reducing CPD (β=0.01, t=1.97, p<0.05). The most common side effect reported during baclofen treatment is transient drowsiness, however there were no differences between groups in mild, moderate, or severe sedation. Craving was significantly lowered at end of treatment in all smokers (p<0.02). Retention did not differ between groups. In line with a multitude of preclinical studies examining the effects of baclofen on drug-motivated behavior, baclofen reduced CPD. In agreement with other studies examining craving and drug use, reductions in CPD were accompanied by a reduction in craving, a major motivator underlying continued smoking and relapse. These preliminary results demonstrate provisional evidence of the utility of baclofen to aid in smoking cessation and indicate further investigation. PMID:19398283

  4. The GABA B agonist baclofen reduces cigarette consumption in a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled smoking reduction study.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Teresa R; Harper, Derek; Kampman, Kyle; Kildea-McCrea, Susan; Jens, Will; Lynch, Kevin G; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose

    2009-07-01

    The surge in dopamine in ventral striatal regions in response to drugs of abuse and drug-associated stimuli is a final common pathway of addiction processes. GABA B agonists exert their effects indirectly, by quieting dopaminergic afferents. The ability of the GABA B agonist, baclofen to ameliorate nicotine and drug motivated behavior is established within the animal literature, however its potential to do so in humans is understudied, particularly with respect to its possible utility as a smoking cessation agent. We conducted a nine-week double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of baclofen for smoking reduction (N=30/group) in smokers contemplating, but not quite ready to quit. Baclofen was titrated upwards to 20mg q.i.d. over a period of twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). A significant group by time effect of medication was observed. Baclofen was superior to placebo in reducing CPD (beta=0.01, t=1.97, p<0.05). The most common side effect reported during baclofen treatment is transient drowsiness, however there were no differences between groups in mild, moderate, or severe sedation. Craving was significantly lowered at end of treatment in all smokers (p<0.02). Retention did not differ between groups. In line with a multitude of preclinical studies examining the effects of baclofen on drug-motivated behavior, baclofen reduced CPD. In agreement with other studies examining craving and drug use, reductions in CPD were accompanied by a reduction in craving, a major motivator underlying continued smoking and relapse. These preliminary results demonstrate provisional evidence of the utility of baclofen to aid in smoking cessation and indicate further investigation.

  5. Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Ekblom, Björn

    2010-01-15

    The anion nitrate-abundant in our diet-has recently emerged as a major pool of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-independent NO production. Nitrate is reduced stepwise in vivo to nitrite and then NO and possibly other bioactive nitrogen oxides. This reductive pathway is enhanced during low oxygen tension and acidosis. A recent study shows a reduction in oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise attributable to dietary nitrate. We went on to study the effects of dietary nitrate on various physiological and biochemical parameters during maximal exercise. Nine healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (age 30+/-2.3 years, VO(2max) 3.72+/-0.33 L/min) participated in this study, which had a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Subjects received dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol/kg/day) or placebo (NaCl) for 2 days before the test. This dose corresponds to the amount found in 100-300 g of a nitrate-rich vegetable such as spinach or beetroot. The maximal exercise tests consisted of an incremental exercise to exhaustion with combined arm and leg cranking on two separate ergometers. Dietary nitrate reduced VO(2max) from 3.72+/-0.33 to 3.62+/-0.31 L/min, P<0.05. Despite the reduction in VO(2max) the time to exhaustion trended to an increase after nitrate supplementation (524+/-31 vs 563+/-30 s, P=0.13). There was a correlation between the change in time to exhaustion and the change in VO(2max) (R(2)=0.47, P=0.04). A moderate dietary dose of nitrate significantly reduces VO(2max) during maximal exercise using a large active muscle mass. This reduction occurred with a trend toward increased time to exhaustion implying that two separate mechanisms are involved: one that reduces VO(2max) and another that improves the energetic function of the working muscles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teenage Smoking: Higher Excise Tax Should Significantly Reduce the Number of Smokers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    O tt It I ing k)llII CCGAO - Report to the Hoi 61’ableMichael A. Andr vvs, House of Represe itatives " T989 TEENAG E SMOKING Higher Excise Tax...respondsto your request that we (1) describe the extent and consequences of smoking by teenagers and (2) assess the potential impact of an increase in the...federal cigarette excise tax on the number of teenage smokers. We briefed your staff on this issue on February 28, 1989, and agreed to present our

  7. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Øyane, Nicolas M F; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-11-12

    Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects. This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p < .05), and against obesity (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.01). The AUDIT-C score was significantly and positively associated with hours worked per week (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). We found a positive significant association between night work load and BMI. This suggests that workers with a heavy night work load might need special attention and frequent health checks due to higher risk of undesirable health effects.

  8. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

  9. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

  10. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80–89mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18–35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% ± 2.8% and 8.1% ± 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% ± 3.2% and 9.2% ± 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573±161 dynes s/cm2 and 612±167 dynes s/cm2 (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotid–radial PWV by 1.02±0.32 m/sec and 0.92±0.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoral–distal PWV by 1.04±0.31 m/sec and 1.34±0.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  11. Exposure to sublethal blast overpressure reduces the food intake and exercise performance of rats.

    PubMed

    Bauman, R A; Elsayed, N; Petras, J M; Widholm, J

    1997-07-25

    Exposure to blast overpressure can typically inflict generalized damage on major organ systems, especially gas-containing organs such as the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of the present study was to use rat's food intake and exercise wheel running as behavioral correlates of the perhaps more subtle damage to these organ systems induced by sublethal blast overpressure. Toward this end, all rats were exposed to a 12-h light/dark cycle and food was available only in the dark period. Prior to exposure, rats in the (E)xercise group were required to execute five rotations of an activity wheel for a food pellet; wheel turns that occurred at times other than when a rat was feeding were recorded separately and labeled exercise running. In the (S)edentary and (A)nesthesia groups, wheel running was not possible and rats were required to execute five leverpresses for a single pellet. A compressed air-driven shock tube was used to expose rats to a supra-atmospheric wave of air pressure. The tube was separated into two sections by a polyester membrane, the thickness of which determined peak and duration of overpressure. All rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg of phenobarbital. After reaching a deep plane of anesthesia, they were individually tied in a stockinet across one end of the shock tube. In preliminary tests, the membrane thickness was 1000 (A)ngstroms and rats in Group L(ethality) were exposed to a 129 kPa (peak amplitude) wave of overpressure. Three of six rats survived exposure to this peak pressure; pathology was evident in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract of all non-survivors. Rats in Groups E and S were tested with a 500 A membrane, which resulted in an 83 kPa peak amplitude. All rats survived exposure to this lower peak pressure. On the day of exposure to blast, the relative reduction of intake during the first 3 h of the dark period was significantly greater for Group E than for Groups S and A; the intake of Groups E and S remained reduced

  12. Exercise training reduces peripheral arterial stiffness and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Casey, Darren P; Braith, Randy W

    2013-09-01

    Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80-89 mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18-35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% ± 2.8% and 8.1% ± 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% ± 3.2% and 9.2% ± 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573±161 dynes s/cm(2) and 612±167 dynes s/cm(2) (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotid-radial PWV by 1.02±0.32 m/sec and 0.92±0.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoral-distal PWV by 1.04±0.31 m/sec and 1.34±0.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

  13. Resistance Exercise Reduces Seizure Occurrence, Attenuates Memory Deficits and Restores BDNF Signaling in Rats with Chronic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Fernandes, Jansen; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy. The number of seizures was quantified by video-monitoring and long-term memory was assessed by an inhibitory avoidance test. Using western blotting, multiplex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we determined the effects of a 4-week resistance exercise program on IGF-1 and BDNF levels and ERK, CREB, mTOR activation in the hippocampus of rats with epilepsy. Rats with epilepsy submitted to resistance exercise showed a decrease in the number of seizures compared to non-exercised epileptic rats. Memory deficits were attenuated by resistance exercise. Rats with epilepsy showed an increase in IGF-1 levels which were restored to control levels by resistance exercise. BDNF levels and ERK and mTOR activation were decreased in rats with epilepsy and resistance exercise restored these to control levels. In conclusion, resistance exercise reduced seizure occurrence and mitigated memory deficits in rats with epilepsy. These resistance exercise-induced beneficial effects can be related to changes in IGF-1 and BDNF levels and its signaling protein activation. Our findings indicate that the resistance exercise might be included as complementary therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment.

  14. Does eccentric exercise reduce pain and improve strength in physically active adults with symptomatic lower extremity tendinosis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980-2006), CINAHL (1982-2006), Web of Science (1995-2006), SPORT Discus (1980-2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution of tendinosis symptoms remains questionable.

  15. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  16. A 3 year follow-up study of health care students' sense of coherence and related smoking, drinking and physical exercise factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Utriainen, Pekka

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.

  17. Does successful smoking cessation reduce anxious arousal among treatment-seeking smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Morales, Patricia C.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited work that has examined the effect of quitting smoking on anxious arousal, an underlying dimension of anxiety symptoms and psychopathology. Method Smokers (n = 185, 54.1% female) enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment trial were monitored post-cessation in terms of abstinence status (biochemically verified; at Weeks 1, 2, and Month 1 post-quit) and severity of panic-relevant symptoms (self-reported; at Month 1 and 3 post-quit). Structural equation models were conducted, adjusting for participant sex, age, treatment condition, and pre-cessation nicotine dependence, presence of depressive/anxiety disorders, anxious arousal, and anxiety sensitivity. Results After adjusting for covariates, participants who remained abstinent for one month (n = 80; 43.2%) relative to those who did not (n = 105; 56.8%) demonstrated significant reductions in anxious arousal at Month 1 (β=−26, p = .04) and Month 3 post-quit (β = −36, p = .006); abstinence status had a nonsignificant effect on anxious arousal severity at Month 3 after controlling for Month 1 anxious arousal (β = −.18, p = .09). Discussion Findings align with theoretical models of smoking-anxiety interplay and suggest that smoking cessation can result in reductions in anxious arousal. PMID:26460537

  18. Paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary fibrosis increases exercise metabolic cost, reducing aerobic performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Glória; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Zin, Walter Araujo; Gripp, Fernando; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2009-12-01

    Rats exposed to the quaternary herbicide paraquat (PQ) exhibit oxidative stress and lung injury. In the present study, we investigated the effect of multiple exposures to PQ on aerobic performance during progressive exercise on a treadmill in rats. PQ was dissolved in saline (SAL) (10 mg/ml) and administered intraperitoneally 7 mg/kg body wt to Wistar rats (n = 5) once a week for one month. Control rats received SAL (0.7 ml/kg body wt., intraperitoneally, n = 5) over the same time period. The animals were submitted to aerobic evaluation on a treadmill using a progressive protocol until fatigue prior to the administration of the first dose of PQ or SAL and repeated at 1 week and 40 days following the last dose of the herbicide. Twenty-four hours after the last performance tests, the animals were sacrificed, lungs removed and divided in two groups: PQ and SAL for histopathological analysis. The animals exposed to PQ exhibited decrease in aerobic performance and mechanical efficiency (ME) as well as increase in oxygen consumption during exercise in comparison to the controls forty days after the last dose of PQ. Lung histologic changes included atelectasis, interstitial edema, and inflammation cells in PQ group. The collagen system fibers, fraction area of alveolar collapse and influx of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in lung parenchyma were higher in PQ compared to SAL. In conclusion, multiple exposures to PQ induce pulmonary fibrosis, reduce the aerobic performance and mechanical efficiency and increase the metabolic cost of exercise in rats.

  19. Postoperative Respiratory Exercises Reduce the Risk of Developing Pulmonary Complications in Patients Undergoing Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Vellosillo-Ortega, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Muneta, Carlos; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of an intensive postoperative physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises in patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Quasi-experimental study. Tertiary referral academic hospital. 208 patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Control group patients (n=102) received standard medical/nursing care, and experimental group patients (n=106) added to the standard clinical pathway a daily physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises until discharge. Analyzed outcomes were the frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) more amenable to physiotherapy (pneumonia, atelectasis and respiratory insufficiency) and length of hospital stay (LOS). Both groups were comparable regarding preoperative and surgical characteristics. Incidence of PPCs was 20.6% in control and 6.6% in experimental group (P=.003). Median (IQR) LOS in control group was 14 (7) days (Huber M estimator 14.21) and 12 (6) days (Huber M estimator 12.81) in experimental. Logistic regression model identified the evaluated physiotherapy program (P=.017; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.081-0.780) and % FEV1 (P=.042; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.941-0.999) as protective factors for the development of PPCs in patients undergoing lobectomy. Implementing a postoperative intensive physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises reduces the risk of PPCs and resultant LOS on patients undergoing lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  1. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    PubMed

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  2. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Māori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help.

    PubMed

    van Esdonk, Tineke; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Māori community health workers ("Aunties") to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Māori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the 'kumara-vine' (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a "Māori way" which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties' believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties' knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach.

  3. Ivabradine reduces myocardial stunning in patients with exercise-inducible ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Maranta, F; Tondi, L; Agricola, E; Margonato, A; Rimoldi, O; Camici, Paolo G

    2015-11-01

    Ivabradine is an effective treatment for angina in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and for heart failure. Experiments in a canine model have shown that ivabradine reduces both acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and post-ischaemic stunning. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ivabradine on LV dysfunction and stunning in patients with CAD and exercise-inducible ischaemia. Fifteen patients with ejection fraction >40 % and heart rate >70 bpm were enrolled. After pharmacologic washout, echocardiography was performed at rest, at peak treadmill exercise and during recovery until return to baseline. After 2 weeks of ivabradine (7.5 mg bid) stress echocardiography was repeated at the same workload achieved during washout. Peak global and segmental (ischaemic vs. remote normal segments) LV longitudinal strain (LS) was assessed by 2D speckle tracking analysis. At washout, LS was significantly impaired in ischaemic compared to remote segments at peak stress and for several minutes during recovery. After ivabradine a smaller, albeit still significant, impairment of LS in ischaemic segments was observed at peak whilst no difference with remote segments was present during recovery. Furthermore, the average global LS value improved significantly after treatment. In conclusion, ivabradine reduces both acute LV dysfunction and stunning in patients with CAD and exercise-inducible ischaemia. We hypothesise that this mechanism might contribute to reduce chronic LV dysfunction in patients with CAD. In this setting the drug might limit the development of hibernating myocardium which is believed to result from repeated episodes of ischaemia and stunning.

  4. Voluntary exercise reduces the neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in maternally separated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile; Russell, Vivienne Ann

    2010-01-01

    Maternal separation has been associated with development of anxiety-like behaviour and learning impairments in adult rats. This has been linked to changes in brain morphology observed after exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids during the stress-hyporesponsive period (P4 to P14). In the present study, adult rats that had been subjected to maternal separation (180 min/day for 14 days) during the stress-hyporesponsive period, received unilateral infusions of a small dose of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 5 μg/4 μl saline) into the medial forebrain bundle. The results showed that voluntary exercise had a neuroprotective effect in both non-stressed and maternally separated rats in that there was a decrease in forelimb akinesia (step test) and limb use asymmetry (cylinder test). Maternal separation increased forelimb akinesia and forelimb use asymmetry and reduced the beneficial effect of exercise on forelimb akinesia. It also reduced exploratory behaviour, consistent with anxiety-like behaviour normally associated with maternal separation. Exercise appeared to reduce dopamine neuron destruction in the lesioned substantia nigra when expressed as a percentage of the non-lesioned hemisphere. However, this appeared to be due to a compensatory decrease in completely stained tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the contralateral, non-lesioned substantia nigra. In agreement with reports that maternal separation increases the 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopamine terminals in the striatum, there was a small increase in dopamine neuron destruction when expressed as a percentage of the non-lesioned hemisphere but there was no difference in dopamine cell number, suggesting that exposure to maternal separation did not exacerbate dopamine cell loss. PMID:20206210

  5. Moderate exercise training reduces arterial chemoreceptor reflex drive in mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, E; Izdebski, J; Cybulska, I; Makowiecka-Ciesla, M; Trzebski, A

    2006-11-01

    The aim of our study was to check the responsiveness the chemoreceptor reflex in 28 young mildly hypertensive men (HTS), aged 18-32 years and 25 normotensive male subjects (NTS) aged 19-32 years, before and after 3-months dynamic exercise training. We tested the hypothesis that dynamic training reduces arterial chemoreceptor drive in mild hypertension. Circulatory response to 3-min hyperoxic inactivation of arterial chemoreceptors induced by 70% oxygen breathing was measured before and after training. Arterial blood pressure (BP) was recorded continuously by Finapres method, stroke volume and arm blood flow were registered by impedance reography, heart rate by ECG. Both groups were submitted to moderate 3-months dynamic exercise training. Before training the hyperoxic breathing caused in HTS a significant decrease in systolic BP by 6+/-1 mmHg p<0.01, in diastolic BP by 2+/-0.6 mmHg p<0.01, and in total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) by 0.24+/-0.04 TPRU (p<0.01). After training hyperoxia augmented systolic BP by 2.64+/-1.9 mmHg (NS), diastolic BP by 2+/-1 mmHg p<0.05, and TPR by 0.043+/-0.05 TPRU (ANOVA). In NTS before training brief hyperoxia produced insignificant change in BP and TPR. In NTS after training hyperoxia increased systolic BP by 4.2 mm Hg+/-1.23 p<0.01 and diastolic BP by 3.1+/-0.6 mmHg p<0.01 respectively and TPR by 0.053+/-0.02 TPRU. Our results confirm earlier finding on the enhanced arterial chemoreceptor reflex drive in mild human hypertension. We conclude that normalizing arterial blood pressure in subjects with mild hypertension which occurred after 3-months dynamical exercise training is due to attenuation of the sympathoexcitatory chemoreceptor reflex drive by exercise training. The mechanism of this effect requires further study.

  6. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  7. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-10-20

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  8. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise.

  9. Isometric Exercise for the Cervical Extensors Can Help Restore Physiological Lordosis and Reduce Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Alpayci, Mahmut; İlter, Server

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether isometric neck extension exercise restores physiological cervical lordosis and reduces pain. Sixty-five patients with loss of cervical lordosis were randomly assigned to exercise (27 women, 7 men; mean age, 32.82 ± 8.83 yrs) and control (26 women, 5 men; mean age, 33.48 ± 9.67 yrs) groups. Both groups received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 10 days. The exercise group received additional therapy as a home exercise program, which consisted of isometric neck extension for 3 mos. Neck pain severity and cervical lordosis were measured at baseline and at 3 mos after baseline. Compared with baseline levels, cervical lordosis angle was significantly improved in the exercise group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group (P = 0.371) at the end of 3 mos. Moreover, the exercise group was significantly superior to the control group considering the number of patients in whom cervical lordosis angle returned to physiological conditions (85.2% vs. 22.5%; P < 0.001). At the end of 3 mos, pain intensity was significantly reduced in both groups compared with baseline levels (for all, P < 0.001). Nevertheless, considering the change from baseline to month 3, the reduction in pain was about twice in the exercise group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Isometric neck extension exercise improves cervical lordosis and pain.

  10. Are recent attempts to quit smoking associated with reduced drinking in England? A cross-sectional population survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Brennan, Alan; Drummond, Colin; Gillespie, Duncan; Hickman, Matthew; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Michie, Susan

    2016-07-22

    Alcohol consumption during attempts at smoking cessation can provoke relapse and so smokers are often advised to restrict their alcohol consumption during this time. This study assessed at a population-level whether smokers having recently initiated an attempt to stop smoking are more likely than other smokers to report i) lower alcohol consumption and ii) trying to reduce their alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional household surveys of 6287 last-year smokers who also completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Respondents who reported attempting to quit smoking in the last week were compared with those who did not. Those with AUDIT-C≥5 were also asked if they were currently trying to reduce the amount of alcohol they consume. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and current smoking status, smokers who reported a quit attempt within the last week had lower AUDIT-C scores compared with those who did not report an attempt in the last week (βadj = -0.56, 95 % CI = -1.08 to -0.04) and were less likely to be classified as higher risk (AUDIT-C≥5: ORadj = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.38 to 0.85). The lower AUDIT-C scores appeared to be a result of lower scores on the frequency of 'binge' drinking item (βadj = -0.25, 95 % CI = -0.43 to -0.07), with those who reported a quit attempt within the last week compared with those who did not being less likely to binge drink at least weekly (ORadj = 0.54, 95 % CI = 0.29 to 0.999) and more likely to not binge drink at all (ORadj = 1.70, 95 % CI = 1.16 to 2.49). Among smokers with higher risk consumption (AUDIT-C≥5), those who reported an attempt to stop smoking within the last week compared with those who did not were more likely to report trying to reduce their alcohol consumption (ORadj = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.48 to 6.01). Smokers who report starting a quit attempt in the last week also report lower alcohol consumption, including less

  11. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Pregnant Women in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Tong, Elisa K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei; Lee, Anita H

    2016-05-01

    Nonsmoking pregnant women in China have significant exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Few interventions have focused on pregnant women reducing their SHS exposure. This clustered randomized controlled trial, conducted at eight hospitals in Sichuan, China, compared a prenatal health education intervention with usual clinical care as a control. The primary outcome was self-reported "no SHS exposure" before and 3 months after birth. The intervention consisted of three large group educational sessions, standardized clinician advice, brief monthly follow-up calls, and educational materials and resources. A random sample of participants was biochemically validated before birth with hair nicotine, a long-term biomarker of smoke exposure. Overall, 1181 participants were randomized to intervention (n = 526) and control (n = 655) groups. More participants in the intervention group than the control group reported no SHS exposure 3 months after birth (Total: 77.9% vs. 52.6%, P < .001; Home: 81.2% vs. 53.3%, P < .001). The intervention group also had greater changes in improved smoke-free homes and SHS knowledge and attitudes. Controlling for covariates, the intervention group was less likely to report SHS exposure than the control group (Total: OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.31 to 0.71; Home: OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.53), and this effect was sustained 3 months after birth. The adjusted log concentration of hair nicotine for the intervention group decreased by 0.28 log µg/g more than the control group. Our smoke-free health education intervention for nonsmoking pregnant women significantly reduced SHS exposure before and after birth. This intervention model can become part of a standard protocol for the care of pregnant women in hospital settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP) trial: a randomised controlled trial of physical activity for smoking cessation in pregnancy with an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Michael; Lewis, Sarah; Aveyard, Paul; Manyonda, Isaac; West, Robert; Lewis, Beth; Marcus, Bess; Riaz, Muhammad; Taylor, Adrian H; Barton, Pelham; Daley, Amanda; Essex, Holly; Esliger, Dale; Coleman, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the main preventable cause of poor birth outcomes. Improved methods are needed to help women to stop smoking during pregnancy. Pregnancy provides a compelling rationale for physical activity (PA) interventions as cessation medication is contraindicated or ineffective, and an effective PA intervention could be highly cost-effective. To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a PA intervention plus standard behavioural support for smoking cessation relative to behavioural support alone for achieving smoking cessation at the end of pregnancy. Multicentre, two-group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation with follow-up at the end of pregnancy and 6 months postnatally. Randomisation was stratified by centre and a computer-generated sequence was used to allocate participants using a 1 : 1 ratio. 13 hospitals offering antenatal care in the UK. Women between 10 and 24 weeks' gestation smoking five or more cigarettes a day before pregnancy and one or more during pregnancy. Participants were randomised to behavioural support for smoking cessation (control) or behavioural support plus a PA intervention consisting of supervised treadmill exercise plus PA consultations. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported, continuous smoking abstinence between a quit date and end of pregnancy, validated by expired carbon monoxide and/or salivary cotinine. Secondary outcomes were maternal weight, depression, birth outcomes, withdrawal symptoms and urges to smoke. The economic evaluation investigated the costs of the PA intervention compared with the control intervention. In total, 789 women were randomised (n = 394 PA, n = 395 control). Four were excluded post randomisation (two had been enrolled twice in sequential pregnancies and two were ineligible and randomised erroneously). The intention-to-treat analysis comprised 785 participants (n

  13. The Effectiveness of Neck Stretching Exercises Following Total Thyroidectomy on Reducing Neck Pain and Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Hatice; Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigün, Emine; Oztürk, Erkan; Yildiz, Ramazan; Görgülü, Semih

    2016-06-01

    Although there are a limited number of studies showing effects of neck stretching exercises following a thyroidectomy in reducing neck discomfort symptoms, no study has specifically dealt with and examined the effect of neck stretching exercises on neck pain and disability. To analyze the effect of neck stretching exercises, following a total thyroidectomy, on reducing neck pain and disability. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. The participants were randomly assigned either to the stretching exercise group (n = 40) or to the control group (n = 40). The stretching exercise group learned the neck stretching exercises immediately after total thyroidectomy. The effects of the stretching exercises on the participants' neck pain and disability, neck sensitivity, pain with neck movements as well as on wound healing, were evaluated at the end of the first week and at 1 month following surgery. When comparing neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores, neck sensitivity and pain with neck movement before thyroidectomy, after 1 week and after 1-month time-points, it was found that patients experienced significantly less pain and disability in the stretching exercise group than the control group (p < .001). At the end of the first week, the NPDS scores (mean [SD] = 8.82 [12.23] vs. 30.28 [12.09]), neck sensitivity scores (median [IR] = 0 [.75] vs. 2.00 [4.0]) and pain levels with neck movements (median [IR] = 0 [2.0] vs. 3.5 [5.75]) of the stretching exercise group were significantly lower than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the scores at the 1-month evaluation (p > .05). Neck stretching exercises done immediately after a total thyroidectomy reduce short-term neck pain and disability symptoms. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-08-12

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day(-1) for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO2PEAK; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO2 of 1500 ml min(-1) increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P < 0.001). After TRAIN when subjects pedaled at an identical submaximal rate of oxygen consumption, cardiac output increased by 8% (95% CI 4-11%; P < 0.01) and stroke volume by 10% (95% CI, 6-14%; P < 0.005) being above the CONT group values at that time point. TRAIN reduced submaximal exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min(-1); P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (83 ± 8-75 ± 8 mmHg; P < 0.001) and systemic vascular resistances (P < 0.01) below CONT values. Double product was reduced only after TRAIN (18.2 ± 3.2-17.4 ± 2.4 bt min(-1) mmHg 10(-3); P < 0.05). The data suggest that intense aerobic interval training improves hemodynamics during submaximal exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  15. Reducing falls among older people in general practice: The ProAct65+ exercise intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gawler, S; Skelton, D A; Dinan-Young, S; Masud, T; Morris, R W; Griffin, M; Kendrick, D; Iliffe, S

    2016-01-01

    Falls are common in the older UK population and associated costs to the NHS are high. Systematic reviews suggest that home exercise and group-based exercise interventions, which focus on progressively challenging balance and increasing strength, can reduce up to 42% of falls in those with a history of falls. The evidence is less clear for those older adults who are currently at low risk of falls. ProAct65+, a large, cluster-randomised, controlled trial, investigated the effectiveness of a home exercise programme (Otago Exercise Programme (OEP)) and a group-based exercise programme (Falls Management Exercise (FaME)) compared to usual care (UC) at increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This paper examines the trial's secondary outcomes; the effectiveness of the interventions at reducing falls and falls-related injuries. 1256 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65+) were recruited through GP practices in two sites (London and Nottingham). Frequent fallers (≥3 falls in last year) and those with unstable medical conditions were excluded, as were those already reaching the UK Government recommended levels of physical activity (PA) for health. Baseline assessment (including assessment of health, function and previous falls) occurred before randomisation; the intervention period lasted 24 weeks and there was an immediate post-intervention assessment; participants were followed up every six months for 24 months. Falls data were analysed using negative binomial modelling. Falls data were collected prospectively during the intervention period by 4-weekly diaries (6 in total). Falls recall was recorded at the 3-monthly follow-ups for a total of 24 months. Balance was measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention period using the Timed Up & Go and Functional Reach tests. Balance confidence (CONFbal), falls risk (FRAT) and falls self-efficacy (FES-I) were measured by questionnaire at baseline and at all subsequent assessment points. 294

  16. Retrospective analysis of changing characteristics of treatment-seeking smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M; Crew, Erin E; Bryson, Susan W; Lembke, Anna; Bailey, Steffani R; Prochaska, Judith J; Henriksen, Lisa; Fortmann, Stephen P; Killen, Joel D; Killen, Diana T; Hall, Sharon M; David, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to empirically compare successive cohorts of treatment-seeking smokers who enrolled in randomised clinical trials in a region of the USA characterised by strong tobacco control policies and low smoking prevalence, over the past three decades. Design Retrospective treatment cohort comparison. Setting Data were collected from 9 randomised clinical trials conducted at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, between 1990 and 2013. Participants Data from a total of 2083 participants were included (Stanford, n=1356; University of California San Francisco, n=727). Primary and secondary outcomes One-way analysis of variance and covariance, χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics among study cohorts. Results Similar trends were observed at both settings. When compared to earlier trials, participants in more recent trials smoked fewer cigarettes, were less nicotine-dependent, reported more depressive symptoms, were more likely to be male and more likely to be from a minority ethnic/racial group, than those enrolled in initial trials (all p's<0.05). Analysis of covariances revealed that cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence and current depressive symptom scores were each significantly related to trial (all p's<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that more recent smoking cessation treatment-seeking cohorts in a low prevalence region were characterised by less smoking severity, more severe symptoms of depression and were more likely to be male and from a minority racial/ethnic group. PMID:27357195

  17. Reduced Influence of Monetary Incentives on Go/NoGo Performance During Smoking Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Lydon, David M; Roberts, Nicole J; Geier, Charles F

    2015-09-01

    Smokers may experience decreased sensitivity to nondrug incentives during acute smoking deprivation. This decreased sensitivity may undermine attempts to encourage continued abstinence by enhancing cognitive processes through the use of monetary incentives. This study assessed whether the capacity for monetary incentives to enhance cognitive performance was compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers. Eighteen smokers performed an incentivized Go/NoGo task on 2 occasions, once after smoking as usual prior to the session, and once after undergoing 12-hr abstinence. Participants could earn up to $5.00 ($2.50 per session) based on their performance on reward blocks of the Go/NoGo task. Performance was significantly more accurate on incentivized NoGo, frequent-Go, and infrequent-Go trials relative to neutral trials during the smoke as usual session. Participants also produced fewer premature, impulsive responses on rewarded versus neutral blocks during the smoke as usual session. No significant difference between reward and neutral blocks was observed on any of the 4 performance indices during the abstinent session. The ability for monetary incentives to enhance inhibitory control may be compromised during acute abstinence in smokers. These findings may have implications for contingency management treatment programs which are thought to promote continued abstinence partly by facilitating the allocation of cognitive resources to processes that encourage continued abstinence by increasing the value associated with continued abstinence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion reduces motivation to smoke cigarettes across stages of addiction.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, Viswanath V; Casey, Kevin F; O'Hara, Caitlin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Benkelfat, Chawki; Fellows, Lesley K; Leyton, Marco

    2011-11-01

    The neurobiology of tobacco use is poorly understood, possibly in part because the relevant mechanisms might differ depending on past nicotine exposure and degree of addiction. In the present study we investigated whether these factors might affect the role of dopamine (DA). Using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion method (APTD), DA synthesis was transiently decreased in three groups of abstinent smokers (n=47): (1) early low-frequency smokers, who had smoked a maximum of five cigarettes per day for less than one year, (2) stable low-frequency smokers smoking at the same level as early low-frequency smokers for at least 3 years, and (3) stable high-frequency smokers, who smoked a minimum of 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 5 years. Motivation to obtain tobacco was measured using a progressive ratio breakpoint schedule for nicotine-containing and de-nicotinized cigarettes. Compared with a nutritionally balanced control mixture, APTD decreased the self-administration of nicotine-containing cigarettes, and this occurred in all three groups of smokers. The results suggest that DA influenced the willingness to sustain effort for nicotine reward, and this was seen in participants at all three levels of cigarette addiction. In the transition from sporadic to addicted use, the role of DA in the motivation to seek drug may change less than previously proposed.

  19. Acute Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Depletion Reduces Motivation to Smoke Cigarettes Across Stages of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Viswanath V; Casey, Kevin F; O'Hara, Caitlin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Benkelfat, Chawki; Fellows, Lesley K; Leyton, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiology of tobacco use is poorly understood, possibly in part because the relevant mechanisms might differ depending on past nicotine exposure and degree of addiction. In the present study we investigated whether these factors might affect the role of dopamine (DA). Using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion method (APTD), DA synthesis was transiently decreased in three groups of abstinent smokers (n=47): (1) early low-frequency smokers, who had smoked a maximum of five cigarettes per day for less than one year, (2) stable low-frequency smokers smoking at the same level as early low-frequency smokers for at least 3 years, and (3) stable high-frequency smokers, who smoked a minimum of 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 5 years. Motivation to obtain tobacco was measured using a progressive ratio breakpoint schedule for nicotine-containing and de-nicotinized cigarettes. Compared with a nutritionally balanced control mixture, APTD decreased the self-administration of nicotine-containing cigarettes, and this occurred in all three groups of smokers. The results suggest that DA influenced the willingness to sustain effort for nicotine reward, and this was seen in participants at all three levels of cigarette addiction. In the transition from sporadic to addicted use, the role of DA in the motivation to seek drug may change less than previously proposed. PMID:21775977

  20. Coingestion of carbohydrate and protein during training reduces training stress and enhances subsequent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew H; Leveritt, Michael D; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Shing, Cecilia M

    2013-06-01

    Researchers have focused primarily on investigating the effects of coingesting carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) during recovery and, as such, there is limited research investigating the benefits of CHO+PRO coingestion during exercise for enhancing subsequent exercise performance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether coingestion of CHO+PRO during endurance training would enhance recovery and subsequent exercise performance. Ten well-trained male cyclists (aged 29.7 ± 7.5 years; maximal oxygen uptake, 66.2 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) took part in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Each trial consisted of a 2.5-h morning training bout during which the cyclists ingested a CHO+PRO or energy-matched CHO beverage followed by a 4-h recovery period and a subsequent performance time trial (total work, 7 kJ·kg(-1)). Blood was collected before and after exercise. Time-trial performance was 1.8% faster in the CHO+PRO trial compared with the CHO trial (p = 0.149; 95% CI, -13 to 87 s; 75.8% likelihood of benefit). The increase in myoglobin level from before the training bout to after the training bout was lower in the CHO+PRO trial (0.74 nmol·L(-1); 95% CI, 0.3-1.17 nmol·L(-1)) compared with the CHO trial (1.16 nmol·L(-1); 95% CI, 0.6-1.71 nmol·L(-1)) (p = 0.018). Additionally, the decrease in neutrophil count over the recovery period was greater in the CHO+PRO trial (p = 0.034), and heart rate (p < 0.022) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (p < 0.01) were lower during training in the CHO+PRO trial compared with the CHO trial. Ingesting PRO, in addition to CHO, during strenuous training lowered exercise stress, as indicated by reduced heart rate, RPE, and muscle damage, when compared with CHO alone. CHO+PRO ingestion during training is also likely to enhance recovery, providing a worthwhile improvement in subsequent cycling time-trial performance.

  1. Cigarette smoking following a prolonged mental task exaggerates vasoconstriction in glabrous skin in habitual smokers.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Kouhei; Sone, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, to test the hypothesis that cigarette smoking and physical exercise induce different influences on peripheral vasomotor control after mental stress, we examined the physiological responses, including skin vasomotor responses, to smoking and exercise in six healthy smokers. The smokers performed 2 hr of mental arithmetic tasks (MT) followed by smoking or bicycle exercise (108 +/- 7W) for 10 min or a time control (i.e., rest without smoking) under thermally comfortable conditions (25 degrees C). Skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored at glabrous (palm) and nonglabrous (forearm, forehead) sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was evaluated from the ratio of blood flow to mean arterial pressure (MAP). The prolonged MT increased MAP from 77.7 +/- 2.7 mmHg to 86.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg and reduced CVC in the palm by 27.4 +/- 5.6%, but did not change those in the forearm and forehead. Smoking after MT further decreased CVC in the palm, and the smoking-induced reduction in CVC persisted until 20 min after smoking. Meanwhile, CVC in the forearm and forehead transiently and minimally decreased during smoking. Exercise after MT increased CVC at the three sites, and the exercise-induced elevation of CVC in the palm persisted until 30 min after exercise. In the time control experiments, each variable remained unchanged throughout the recovery period of MT. It was suggested that smoking causes additional vasoconstriction in glabrous skin after prolonged MT, while the exercise-associated vasodilator effect counteracts the vasoconstrictor action of MT. We speculate that long-term mental stress and smoking behavior may synergistically develop chronic stress-induced vascular dysfunction, and the stress-related disorders may be reduced by habitual enforcement of moderate exercise.

  2. Lessons learned from the London Exercise and Pregnant (LEAP) Smokers randomised controlled trial process evaluation: implications for the design of physical activity for smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Giatras, Nikoletta; Wanninkhof, Elisabeth; Leontowitsch, Miranda; Lewis, Beth; Taylor, Adrian; Cooper, Sue; Ussher, Michael

    2017-01-17

    The challenges of delivering interventions for pregnant smokers have been poorly documented. Also, the process of promoting a physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers has not been previously recorded. This study describes the experiences of researchers conducting a randomised controlled trial of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy and explores how the effectiveness of future interventions could be improved. Two focus groups, with independent facilitators, were conducted with six researchers who had enrolled pregnant smokers in the LEAP trial, provided the interventions, and administered the research measures. Topics included recruitment, retention and how the physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers was delivered and how it was adapted when necessary to suit the women. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes emerged related to barriers or enablers to intervention delivery: (1) nature of the intervention; (2) personal characteristics of trial participants; (3) practical issues; (4) researchers' engagement with participants; (5) training and support needs. Researchers perceived that participants may have been deterred by the intensive and generic nature of the intervention and the need to simultaneously quit smoking and increase physical activity. Women also appeared hampered by pregnancy ailments, social deprivation, and poor mental health. Researchers observed that their status as health professionals was valued by participants but it was challenging to maintain contact with participants. Training and support needs were identified for dealing with pregnant teenagers, participants' friends and family, and post-natal return to smoking. Future exercise interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy may benefit by increased tailoring of the intervention to the characteristics of the women, including their psychological profile, socio

  3. Efficacy of Chinese Eye Exercises on Reducing Accommodative Lag in School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Ming; Kang, Meng-Tian; Peng, Xiao-xia; Li, Si-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Li, Lei; Yu, Jing; Qiu, Li-Xin; Sun, Yun-Yun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Sun, Xin; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial. Methods A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine); sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints); and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage). Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score. Results Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10D) than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03D) and eyes closed group (0.07D) (P = 0.04). The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0%) than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8%) and the eyes closed group (34.9%) (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287 PMID:25742161

  4. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduced the Compensatory Effects of IGF-I Growth Signaling in the Aging Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ping; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Han, Chien-Kuo; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Padma, V. Vijaya; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aging is a physiological process that involves progressive impairment of normal heart functions due to increased vulnerability to damage. This study examines secondhand smoke exposure in aging rats to determine the age-related death-survival balance. Methods: Rats were placed into a SHS exposure chamber and exposed to smog. Old age male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 cigarettes for 30 min, day and night, continuing for one week. After 4 weeks the rats underwent morphological and functional studies. Left ventricular sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. TUNEL detected apoptosis cells and protein expression related death and survival pathway were analyzed using western blot. Results: Death receptor-dependent apoptosis upregulation pathways and the mitochondria apoptosis proteins were apparent in young SHS exposure and old age rats. These biological markers were enhanced in aging SHS-exposed rats. The survival pathway was found to exhibit compensation only in young SHS-exposed rats, but not in the aging rats. Further decrease in the activity of this pathway was observed in aging SHS-exposed rats. TUNEL apoptotic positive cells were increased in young SHS-exposed rats, and in aging rats with or without SHS-exposure. Conclusions: Aging reduces IGF-I compensated signaling with accelerated cardiac apoptotic effects from second-hand smoke. PMID:26392808

  5. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduced the Compensatory Effects of IGF-I Growth Signaling in the Aging Rat Hearts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ping; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Han, Chien-Kuo; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Padma, V Vijaya; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aging is a physiological process that involves progressive impairment of normal heart functions due to increased vulnerability to damage. This study examines secondhand smoke exposure in aging rats to determine the age-related death-survival balance. Rats were placed into a SHS exposure chamber and exposed to smog. Old age male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 cigarettes for 30 min, day and night, continuing for one week. After 4 weeks the rats underwent morphological and functional studies. Left ventricular sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. TUNEL detected apoptosis cells and protein expression related death and survival pathway were analyzed using western blot. Death receptor-dependent apoptosis upregulation pathways and the mitochondria apoptosis proteins were apparent in young SHS exposure and old age rats. These biological markers were enhanced in aging SHS-exposed rats. The survival pathway was found to exhibit compensation only in young SHS-exposed rats, but not in the aging rats. Further decrease in the activity of this pathway was observed in aging SHS-exposed rats. TUNEL apoptotic positive cells were increased in young SHS-exposed rats, and in aging rats with or without SHS-exposure. Aging reduces IGF-I compensated signaling with accelerated cardiac apoptotic effects from second-hand smoke.

  6. Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fealy, Ciaran E; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pagadala, Mangesh; Flask, Chris A; McCullough, Arthur J; Kirwan, John P

    2012-07-01

    Increased hepatocyte apoptosis is a hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and contributes to the profibrogenic state responsible for the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Strategies aimed at reducing apoptosis may result in better outcomes for individuals with NAFLD. We therefore examined the effect of a short-term exercise program on markers of apoptosis-plasma cytokeratin 18 (CK18) fragments, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), soluble Fas (sFas), and sFas ligand (sFasL)-in 13 obese individuals with NAFLD [body mass index 35.2 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), >5% intrahepatic lipid (IHL) assessed by (1)H-MR spectroscopy]. Exercise consisted of treadmill walking for 60 min/day on 7 consecutive days at ∼85% of maximal heart rate. Additionally, subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) test before and after the exercise intervention. The Matsuda index was used to assess insulin sensitivity. We observed significant decreases in CK18 fragments (558.4 ± 106.8 vs. 323.4 ± 72.5 U/l, P < 0.01) and ALT (30.2 ± 5.1 vs. 24.3 ± 4.8 U/l, P < 0.05), and an increase in whole body fat oxidation (49.3 ± 6.1 vs. 69.4 ± 7.1 mg/min, P < 0.05), while decreases in circulating sFasL approached statistical significance (66.5 ± 6.0 vs. 63.0 ± 5.7 pg/ml, P = 0.06), as did the relationship between percent change in circulating CK18 fragments and ALT (r = 0.55, P = 0.05). We also observed a significant correlation between changes in fat oxidation and circulating sFasL (rho = -0.65, P < 0.05). There was no change in IHL following the intervention (18.2 ± 2.5 vs. 17.5 ± 2.1%, NS). We conclude that short-term exercise reduces a circulatory marker of hepatocyte apoptosis in obese individuals with NAFLD and propose that changes in the proapoptotic environment may be mediated through improved insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative capacity.

  7. Long-term effects of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in weight-reduced obese men.

    PubMed

    Van Aggel-Leijssen, Dorien P; Saris, Wim H; Hul, Gabby B; Van Baak, Marleen A

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuation of low-intensity exercise training on weight maintenance, substrate metabolism, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation in weight-reduced obese men. Preceding this part of the study, subjects lost 15 +/- 6 kg of body weight by energy restriction with or without low-intensity exercise training. Twenty-nine subjects (diet group, n = 15; diet + exercise group, n = 14) participated in the follow-up study of 40 weeks in which the former diet + exercise group continued their exercise training program. Pre- and postfollow-up, measurements of body weight, body composition, maximal aerobic capacity and substrate oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery with or without infusion of the beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol (PRP), were performed. Over the follow-up period, body weight, fat mass, and fat free mass increased in both groups (P <.0001) without differences between groups. Attendance at exercise training sessions was negatively correlated with regain of body weight (r = -.6, P <.05). Relative fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery were maintained over the follow-up period in both groups. Continuation of low-intensity exercise training after weight reduction did not limit regain of body weight, unless exercise training was frequently performed. Relative (beta-adrenergic-mediated) fat oxidation and energy expenditure were maintained at postdiet level whether or not low-intensity exercise training was performed during follow-up. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with MS about their perspectives on aquatics exercise. Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Discover More Here are a few related topics that may interest you Accessible Nature Trails Learn More Finding Another Sport To Love Learn More Accessible Bicycling Learn More ...

  9. Acute resistance exercise reduces heart rate complexity and increases QTc interval.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, K S; Sosnoff, J J; Jae, S Y; Gates, G J; Fernhall, B

    2008-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise (RE) has been shown to reduce cardiac vagal control. Whether this would in turn affect QTc interval (an index of ventricular depolarization/repolarization) or heart rate complexity is not known. Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate complexity (SampEn), and QT interval (rate corrected using Bazett, Fridericia, Hodges, and Framingham) were measured before and 5 min after an acute RE bout in twelve healthy young men. Normalized high frequency power of HRV (an index of cardiac parasympathetic modulation; HF (nu)), and SampEn were reduced following RE (p < 0.05). Bazett corrected QTc interval increased following RE (p < 0.05). Change in HF (nu) from rest to recovery was correlated with both change in SampEn (r = 0.51, p < 0.05) and change in QTc interval for each method of correction (r = - 0.67 to - 0.70, p < 0.05). Acute RE reduced HF spectral power of HRV and this was related to both reduced heart rate complexity and increased QTc length. Thus, during recovery from acute RE, there is prolongation of depolarization and repolarization of the ventricles concomitant with reduced cardiac irregularity, and this may be related to a reduction in cardiac vagal control.

  10. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Nabben, Miranda; Schmitz, Joep P J; Ciapaite, Jolita; Le Clercq, Carlijn M P; van Riel, Natal A; Haak, Harm R; Nicolay, Klaas; de Coo, Irenaeus F; Smeets, Hubert J M; Praet, Stephan F; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2017-02-08

    Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of mitochondrial myopathy patients. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated if 1 week of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Ten mitochondrial myopathy patients (40 ± 5 years, maximal whole-body oxygen uptake = 21.2 ± 3.2 mL/min/kg body weight, maximal workload = 122 ± 26 W) received 8.5 mg/kg body weight/day of inorganic nitrate (~7 mmol) for 8 days. Whole-body oxygen consumption at 50% of the maximal workload, in vivo skeletal muscle oxidative capacity (evaluated from post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and ex vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers (measured with high-resolution respirometry) were determined before and after nitrate supplementation. Despite a 6-fold increase in plasma nitrate levels, nitrate supplementation did not affect whole-body oxygen cost during submaximal exercise. Additionally, no beneficial effects of nitrate were found on in vivo or ex vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This is the first time that the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate for mitochondrial myopathy patients was evaluated. We conclude that 1 week of dietary nitrate supplementation does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve mitochondrial function in the group of patients tested.

  11. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.05) and lower HR variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (SDNN), PHT: 41 ± 18 vs. NT: 60 ± 19 ms, p < 0.05]. At post-intervention, peak oxygen consumption and muscular strength increased (p < 0.05), while body mass index decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). However, SBP decreased (118 ± 8 mmHg, p < 0.05 vs. preintervention) and total HR variability tended to increase (total power: 1,397 ± 570 vs. 2,137 ± 1,110 ms(2), p = 0.08) only in the group with PHT; consequently, HR variability became similar between groups at post-intervention (p > 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p < 0.05) and reduction in low-frequency power [LF (n.u.); r = 0.46, p < 0.05]. In conclusion, diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  12. Four weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise reduce muscle injury risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Breno de A R Alvares, João; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-04-26

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at muscle strains prevention. However, possible effects of NHE programmes on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training programme on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into two equal sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE programme, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention. The knee flexor and extensor strength was assessed through isokinetic dynamometry, the biceps femoris long head muscle architecture through ultrasound images, and the hamstring flexibility through sit-and-reach test. The results showed that CG subjects had no significant change in any outcome. TG presented higher percent changes than CG for hamstring isometric peak torque (9%; effect size=0.27), eccentric peak torque (13%; effect size=0.60), eccentric work (18%; effect size=0.86), and functional hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (13%; effect size=0.80). The NHE programme led also to increased fascicle length (22%; effect size=2.77) and reduced pennation angle (-17%; effect size=1.27) in biceps femoris long head of the TG, without significant changes on muscle thickness. In conclusion, a short-term NHE training programme (4 weeks; 8 training sessions) counteracts multiple hamstring injury risk factors in physically active young adults.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  14. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements.

  15. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  16. Pyridostigmine reduces QTc interval during recovery from maximal exercise in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Renata R T; Serra, Salvador M; Porphirio, Graciema; Mendes, Fernanda S N S; Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2006-02-08

    Following a randomized, cross-over, and double-blind design, 14 patients with coronary heart disease were submitted, to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a treadmill, 2 h after the oral administration of either placebo or pyridostigmine bromide (45 mg), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. One observer, who was blind to the experimental condition, measured RR and QT intervals over the 12 electrocardiographic leads in the first and third minute of active recovery from exercise. Paired t test was used to compare each variable measured in the same moment after placebo and pyridostigmine. Pyridostigmine reduced the QTc interval in the first minute of active recovery when compared to placebo (P=0.004). Two patients, whose heart rate recovery (1st minute) was below normal values (patient 1=4 bpm; patient 2=7 bpm; i.e. <12 bpm) presented with correction of this variable after pyridostigmine ingestion (patient 1=22 bpm; patient 2=36 bpm). Prospective trials should evaluate the impact of cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine on mortality.

  17. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties.

  18. Lactate accumulation following isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Gavin R; Coleman, Damian; Wiles, Jonathan D; Swaine, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to assess lactate accumulation during isometric exercise, and to quantify the shifts in accumulation following isometric training; and (b) to relate any training-induced changes in lactate accumulation to reductions in resting blood pressure. Eleven male participants undertook isometric training for a 4-week period using bilateral-leg exercise. Training caused reductions in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial resting blood pressure (of -4.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.01; -2.6 ± 3.0 mmHg, P = 0.01; and -2.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.001 respectively; mean ± s). These were accompanied by changes in muscle activity, taken as electromyographic activity to reach a given lactate concentration (from 114 ± 22 to 131 ± 27 mV and from 136 ± 25 to 155 ± 34 mV for 3 and 4 mmol · L(-1) respectively. Training intensity expressed relative to peak lactate was correlated with reduced resting systolic and mean arterial blood pressure. Training caused significant shifts in lactate accumulation, and reductions in resting blood pressure are strongly related to training intensity, when expressed relative to pre-training peak lactate. This suggests that higher levels of local muscle anaerobiosis may promote the training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure.

  19. Pilot study using hair nicotine feedback to reduce Latino children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susan I; Conway, Terry L; Elder, John P; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2007-01-01

    This was a pilot study to assess the usability and impact of a feedback-based environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reduction approach for Latino families. A one-group, pre-post design was used. Information from hair samples from children analyzed for nicotine was used to create three feedback versions presented in a counterbalanced fashion. The intervention was conducted by a promotora in the participants' homes, with mailed materials and over the phone. Fifty Latino parent-child pairs were recruited. Parents were Spanish-speaking smoking adults (typically the mother) who reported exposing their children to ETS. Intervention efforts included home visits to provide nicotine feedback and counseling, two mailers presenting alternative versions of the feedback, and a supportive telephone call delivered over a 6-week period. Pre-post assessments conducted by a bicultural measurement technician measured parent reports of children's ETS exposure and children's hair nicotine. Parents' liking/usability of the three feedback formats was measured at the post-assessment. Paired t-tests assessed pre-post changes in exposure outcomes. Parents' reports of exposure and children's hair nicotine levels showed statistically significant reductions. Parents liked all three feedback formats, particularly a comparative graphic format. Consistency of the positive findings suggests that this feedback approach to ETS reduction warrants further study with a more rigorous design.

  20. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-11-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1, 12 subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6 mg/kg body wt; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2, 6 subjects performed one low-intensity (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na(+) with microdialysis. In S1 Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 16% better (P < 0.05) in CAF compared with PLA. In CAF, plasma K(+) at the end of the Yo-Yo IR2 test was 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l with no difference between the trials. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) were higher (P < 0.05) in CAF than PLA at rest and remained higher (P < 0.05) during exercise. Peak blood glucose (8.0 ± 0.6 vs. 6.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l) and plasma NH(3) (137.2 ± 10.8 vs. 113.4 ± 13.3 μmol/l) were also higher (P < 0.05) in CAF compared with PLA. In S2 interstitial K(+) was 5.5 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.3, 5.8 ± 0.5, and 5.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l at the end of the 20-W and three 50-W periods, respectively, in CAF, which were lower (P < 0.001) than in CON (7.0 ± 0.6, 7.5 ± 0.7, 7.5 ± 0.4, and 7.0 ± 0.6 mmol/l, respectively). No differences in interstitial Na(+) were observed between CAF and CON. In conclusion, caffeine intake enhances fatigue resistance and reduces muscle interstitial K(+) during intense intermittent exercise.

  1. Moderate-intensity exercise reduces fatigue and improves mobility in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Amy M; Peiris, Casey L; Shields, Nora; Prendergast, Luke A; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-04-01

    Is there a dose-response effect of exercise on inflammation, fatigue and activity in cancer survivors? Systematic review with meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Adults diagnosed with cancer, regardless of specific diagnosis or treatment. Exercise interventions including aerobic and/or resistance as a key component. The primary outcome measures were markers of inflammation (including C-reactive protein and interleukins) and various measures of fatigue. The secondary outcomes were: measures of activity, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including activities of daily living and measures of functional mobility (eg, 6-minute walk test, timed sit-to-stand and stair-climb tests). Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Forty-two trials involving 3816 participants were included. There was very low-quality to moderate-quality evidence that exercise results in significant reductions in fatigue (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52) and increased walking endurance (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.28). A significant negative association was found between aerobic exercise intensity and fatigue reduction. A peak effect was found for moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving walking endurance. No dose-response relationship was found between exercise and markers of inflammation or exercise duration and outcomes. Rates of adherence were typically high and few adverse events were reported. Exercise is safe, reduces fatigue and increases endurance in cancer survivors. The results support the recommendation of prescribing moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to reduce fatigue and improve activity in people with cancer. PROSPERO CRD42015019164. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  3. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  4. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; P<0.05 for both]. The level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, but was found to correlate negatively with the level of nicotine dependence in current smokers (r=-0.47, P=0.03). The median score for the mental health dimension of SF-36 was worse in passive {72 [interquartile range (IQR) 56 to 96] points} and current [76 (IQR 55 to 80) points] smokers compared with ex-smokers [88 (IQR 70 to 100) points] (median differences -16 points, 95% CI -22.2 to -3.0 and -12 points, 95% CI -22.8 to -2.4, respectively; P<0.05 for both). Among elderly individuals, current smokers had lower exercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  5. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    PubMed Central

    Déry, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Gibala, Martin; Gillen, Jenna; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; MacQueen, Glenda; Becker, Suzanna

    2013-01-01

    Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as “similar.” Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as “similar.” Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as “similar,” while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information. PMID:23641193

  6. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  7. Exercise training reduces sympathetic modulation on cardiovascular system and cardiac oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Mariane; Schenkel, Paulo C; Campos, Cristina; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Casarini, Dulce E; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Irigoyen, Maria C; Rigatto, Katya

    2008-11-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) show increased cardiac sympathetic activity, which could stimulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac damage, and apoptosis. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced cardiac oxidative stress seems to be involved in SHR cardiac hypertrophy development. Because exercise training (ET) decreases sympathetic activation and oxidative stress, it may alter cardiac hypertrophy in SHR. The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether ET alters cardiac sympathetic modulation on cardiovascular system and whether a correlation exists between cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy. Male SHRs (15-weeks old) were divided into sedentary hypertensive (SHR, n = 7) and exercise-trained hypertensive rats (SHR-T, n = 7). Moderate ET was performed on a treadmill (5 days/week, 60 min, 10 weeks). After ET, cardiopulmonary reflex responses were assessed by bolus injections of 5-HT. Autoregressive spectral estimation was performed for systolic arterial pressure (SAP) with oscillatory components quantified as low (LF: 0.2-0.75 Hz) and high (HF: 0.75-4.0 Hz) frequency ranges. Cardiac NE concentration, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities, and total nitrates/nitrites were determined. ET reduced mean arterial pressure, SAP variability (SAP var), LF of SAP, and cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiopulmonary reflex responses. Cardiac lipid peroxidation was decreased in trained SHRs and positively correlated with NE concentrations (r = 0.89, P < 0.01) and heart weight/body weight ratio (r = 0.72, P < 0.01), and inversely correlated with total nitrates/nitrites (r = -0.79, P < 0.01). Moreover, in trained SHR, cardiac total nitrates/nitrites were inversely correlated with NE concentrations (r = -0.82, P < 0.01). ET attenuates cardiac sympathetic modulation and cardiac hypertrophy, which were associated with reduced oxidative stress and increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability.

  8. Reduced oxygen uptake during steady state exercise after 21-day mountain climbing expedition to 6,194 m.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, M J; Green, H J; Naylor, H L; Otto, C; Hughson, R L

    2001-04-01

    We investigated the effect of a 21-day climbing expedition to 6,194 m on the oxygen uptake (V022) and leg blood flow (LBF) responses to submaximal exercise in five healthy, fit men during two-leg kicking exercise a 0-W and 50-W. Tests were completed 1 week before and 3 days after altitued acclimatization. The adaptation of VO2 at exercise onset was described by the time to 63% of the new steady state. Steady state VO2 during 50-W exercise was less post-climb (1290+/- 29 mL/min, mean +/- SE) than pre-climb (1413+/- 63 mL/min, P <.05). VO2 adapted more slowly at the onset of 50-W exercise post climb. There were no differences in the steady state LBF during the 50-W exercise, the increase above baseline, or the adaptation post-climb. Respiratory exchange ratio was greater at 50-W post-climb compared to pre-climb. Reduced steady state V02 during exercise after exposure to high altitude is consistent with an increase in metabolic efficiency.

  9. Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling exercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Motl, Robert W; Broglio, Steven P; Ely, Matthew R

    2004-06-01

    This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of ingesting two doses of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain and blood pressure during moderate intensity cycling exercise. Low caffeine consuming college-aged males (N=12) ingested one of two doses of caffeine (5 or 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight) or placebo and 1 h later completed 30 min of moderate intensity cycling exercise (60% VO2peak). The order of drug administration was counter-balanced. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately before and 1 h after drug administration. Perceptions of leg muscle pain as well as work rate, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded during exercise. Caffeine increased resting systolic pressure in a dose-dependent fashion but these blood pressure effects were not maintained during exercise. Caffeine had a significant linear effect on leg muscle pain ratings [F(2,22)=14.06; P < 0.0001; eta2=0.56 ]. The mean (+/-SD) pain intensity scores during exercise after ingesting 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, 5 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, and placebo were 2.1+/-1.4, 2.6+/-1.5, and 3.5+/-1.7, respectively. The results support the conclusion that caffeine ingestion has a dose-response effect on reducing leg muscle pain during exercise and that these effects do not depend on caffeine-induced increases in systolic blood pressure during exercise.

  10. Apocynin and ebselen reduce influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Oostwoud, L. C.; Gunasinghe, P.; Seow, H. J.; Ye, J. M.; Selemidis, S.; Bozinovski, S.; Vlahos, R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 104.5 PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD. PMID:26877172

  11. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces or eliminates Listeria monocytogenes contamination on lettuce, apples, cheese, smoked salmon and frozen foods.

    PubMed

    Perera, Meenu N; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    ListShield™, a commercially available bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated as a bio-control agent for L. monocytogenes in various Ready-To-Eat foods. ListShield™ treatment of experimentally contaminated lettuce, cheese, smoked salmon, and frozen entrèes significantly reduced (p < 0.05) L. monocytogenes contamination by 91% (1.1 log), 82% (0.7 log), 90% (1.0 log), and 99% (2.2 log), respectively. ListShield™ application, alone or combined with an antioxidant/anti-browning solution, resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 93% (1.1 log) reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination on apple slices after 24 h at 4 °C. Treatment of smoked salmon from a commercial processing facility with ListShield™ eliminated L. monocytogenes (no detectable L. monocytogenes) in both the naturally contaminated and experimentally contaminated salmon fillets. The organoleptic quality of foods was not affected by application of ListShield™, as no differences in the color, taste, or appearance were detectable. Bio-control of L. monocytogenes with lytic bacteriophage preparations such as ListShield™ can offer an environmentally-friendly, green approach for reducing the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of various foods that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes.

  12. Reduced exposure to secondhand smoke at casinos in Puerto Rico after the implementation of a workplace smoking ban in 2007: a pre-post design.

    PubMed

    Marín, Heriberto A; Díaz-Toro, Elba C

    2011-12-01

    Tobacco use and the involuntary exposition to secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the leading causes of cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the smoke free workplace ban implemented in March of 2007 in Puerto Rico on the exposure of casino workers to secondhand smoke measured in terms of fine particulate matter and cotinine level. This study used a pre-post comparison design to measure exposure to secondhand smoke before (February, 2007) and after (December, 2007 to February, 2008) the workplace smoking ban was implemented. The samples included level of cotinine in saliva from 20 randomly sampled casino union workers and indoor concentrations of fine particulate matter (2.5 microm diameter, PM2.5) in 10 casinos located in the San Juan metropolitan area. Paired t-tests were used to test any statistically significant change in particulate matter and cotinine levels before and after the ban went into effect. The average PM2.5 level in San Juan metropolitan area casinos decreased by 88.5% (95% CI: 63.9%, 96.3%) and the average cotinine level for the sample of nonsmoking casino workers decreased by 52.1% (95% CI: 40.6%, 61.4%). Both reductions were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The implementation of the smoke free workplace ban in 2007 resulted in a significant reduction of the exposure to secondhand smoke to casino workers in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico.

  13. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations.

  14. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation and Mucin Hypersecretion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yingmin; Liu, Kenneth W. K.; Yeung, Sze C.; Li, Xiang; Ip, Mary S. M.; Mak, Judith C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechins in Chinese green tea, has been studied for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of EGCG on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion in the CS-exposed rat model. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into either sham air (SA) or CS exposure. EGCG (50 mg/kg b.wt.) was given by oral gavage every other day in both SA and CS-exposed animals. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were determined in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by biochemical assays or ELISA. Lung morphological changes were examined by Periodic Acid-Schiff, Masson’s Trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Western blot analysis was performed to explore the effects of EGCG on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathway. Results: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment attenuated CS-induced oxidative stress, lung cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 release and neutrophil recruitment. CS exposure caused an increase in the number of goblet cells in line with MUC5AC upregulation, and increased lung collagen deposition, which were alleviated in the presence of EGCG. In addition, CS-induced phosphorylation of EGFR in rat lung was abrogated by EGCG treatment. Conclusion: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment ameliorated CS-induced oxidative stress and neutrophilic inflammation, as well as airway mucus production and collagen deposition in rats. The present findings suggest that EGCG has a therapeutic effect on chronic airway inflammation and abnormal airway mucus production probably via inhibition of EGFR signaling pathway. PMID:28932196

  15. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields.

  16. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    . With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain.

  17. Reduced neural response to food cues following exercise is accompanied by decreased energy intake in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S N; Silvert, L; Keller, K L; Genin, P M; Morio, B; Pereira, B; Duclos, M; Boirie, Y; Thivel, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise has been found to favor a transient anorexigenic effect in obese adolescents. Although the role of some gastro-peptides has been suggested as an explanation for this observed reduced energy intake after exercise, it is unknown whether neural pathways involved in the regulation of food intake are modulated in youth. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and aerobic capacities were assessed in 19 obese adolescent boys. Participants were randomized to remain at rest in a sitting position (CON condition) or to exercise 45 min at 65% of their maximal capacities (EX condition) by the end of the morning. An attentional computer task with electroencephalography recording was completed immediately after the exercise or sitting period to measure an event-related component (P3b) reflecting the level of cognitive engagement in the processing of food cues. A lunch test-meal was offered ad libitum and appetite feelings assessed at regular intervals using visual analog scales. The 45-min cycling exercise set at 65% VO2max induced a mean energy expenditure of 399±75 kcal. Both absolute (P<0.05) and relative (P<0.001) subsequent energy intake were significantly reduced after EX (1037±260 and 639±256 kcal, respectively) compared with CON (1116±243 and 1011±239 kcal, respectively). The energy ingested derived from each macronutrient and self-reported appetite remained unchanged. Although the amplitudes of the P3b component evoked by food and non-food visual stimuli were not significantly different during CON, the response to food cues was significantly reduced compared with non-food stimuli after exercise (P<0.01). An acute exercise favors decreased neural response to food cues compared with non-food ones in obese adolescents that may contribute to their subsequently reduced energy intake.

  18. A Web-Based Program to Increase Knowledge and Reduce Cigarette and Nargila Smoking Among Arab University Students in Israel: Mixed-Methods Study to Test Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. Methods A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. Results A total of 225 participants—response rate of 63.2% (225/356)—completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would

  19. A web-based program to increase knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking among Arab university students in Israel: mixed-methods study to test acceptability.

    PubMed

    Essa-Hadad, Jumanah; Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf

    2015-02-20

    Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. A total of 225 participants-response rate of 63.2% (225/356)-completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would recommend the program to their friends

  20. Short-term ubiquinol supplementation reduces oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise in healthy adults: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Alvaro; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Kajarabille, Naroa; Chirosa, Ignacio; Guisado, Isabel M; Javier Chirosa, Luis; Guisado, Rafael; Ochoa, Julio J

    2016-11-12

    Studies about Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) supplementation on strenuous exercise are scarce, especially those related with oxidative stress associated with physical activity and virtually nonexistent with the reduced form, Ubiquinol. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, whether a short-term supplementation with Ubiquinol can prevent oxidative stress associated to strenuous exercise. The participants (n = 100 healthy and well trained, but not on an elite level) were classified in two groups: Ubiquinol (experimental group), and placebo group (control). The protocol consisted of conducting two identical strenuous exercise tests with a rest period between tests of 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected from the participants before supplementation (basal value) (T1), after supplementation (2 weeks) (T2), after first physical exercise test (T3), after 24 h of rest (T4), and after second physical exercise test (T5).The increase observed in the lactate, isoprostanes, DNA damage, and hydroperoxide levels reveals the severity of the oxidative damage induced by the exercise. There was a reduction in the isoprostanes, 8-OHdG, oxidized LDL, and hydroperoxydes in the supplemented Ubiquinol group, an increase in total antioxidant status, fat soluble antioxidant (both plasma and membrane), and CAT activity. Also, NO in the Ubiquinol-supplemented group was maintained within a narrow range. Oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise is accumulative and increases transiently in subsequent sessions of physical activity. A short-term supplementation (2 weeks) with Ubiquinol (200 mg/day) before strenuous exercise, decreases oxidative stress and increases plasma NO, fact that could improve endothelial function, energetic substrate supply, and muscle recovery after strenuous exercise. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):612-622, 2016.

  1. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, E; Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Larsen, R G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-04-28

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise, but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Twelve healthy subjects (five women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (five sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis anterior muscle was recorded. Blood flow was assessed by ultrasound Doppler on the anterior tibialis artery (ATA) and within the anterior tibialis muscle tissue before and immediately after 1-second MVC, 5-seconds MVC, and 5-minutes thigh cuff occlusion. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded on the tibialis anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day 0 (pre-exercise), day 2, and day 6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day 1 and day 2 compared with day 0 (P<.001). Compared with pre-exercise (day 0), reduced PPT (~25%, P<.002), MVC (~22%, P<.002), ATA diameter (~8%, P<.002), ATA post-contraction/occlusion blood flow (~16%, P<.04), and intramuscular peak blood flow (~23%, P<.03) were found in the DOMS leg on day 2 but not in the control leg. These results showed that eccentric contractions decreased vessel diameter, impaired the blood flow response, and promoted hyperalgesia. Thus, the results suggest that the blood flow reduction may be involved in the increased pain response after eccentric exercise. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Long-term Wood Smoke Exposure Lowers Blood Pressure among Guatemalan Women

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, John P.; Smith, Kirk R.; Díaz, Anaité; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective RESPIRE, a randomized trial of an improved cookstove, was conducted in Guatemala to assess health effects of long-term reductions in wood smoke exposure. Given the evidence that ambient particles increase blood pressure, we hypothesized that the intervention would lower blood pressure. Methods Two study designs were used: a) between-group comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within subjects before and after they received improved stoves. From 2003 to 2005, we measured personal fine particle (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; PM2.5) exposures and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among women > 38 years of age from the chimney woodstove intervention group (49 subjects) and traditional open wood fire control group (71 subjects). Measures were repeated up to three occasions. Results Daily average PM2.5 exposures were 264 and 102 μg/m3 in the control and intervention groups, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, an asset index, smoking, secondhand tobacco smoke, apparent temperature, season, day of week, time of day, and a random subject intercept, the improved stove intervention was associated with 3.7 mm Hg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −8.1 to 0.6] and 3.0 mm Hg lower DBP (95% CI, −5.7 to −0.4) compared with controls. In the second study design, among 55 control subjects measured both before and after receiving chimney stoves, similar associations were observed. Conclusion The between-group comparisons provide evidence, particularly for DBP, that the chimney stove reduces blood pressure, and the before-and-after comparisons are consistent with this evidence. PMID:17637912

  3. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  4. Hypoglycemia during moderate intensity exercise reduces counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cade, W Todd; Khoury, Nadia; Nelson, Suzanne; Shackleford, Angela; Semenkovich, Katherine; Krauss, Melissa J; Arbeláez, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Hypoglycemia, which occurs commonly during and following exercise in people with diabetes, is thought to be due to attenuated counterregulation in the setting of therapeutic insulin excess. To better understand the pathophysiology of counterregulation, we aimed to determine if dextrose administration to maintain euglycemia during moderate intensity exercise alters the attenuation of counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia in healthy adults : Counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia were assessed in 18 healthy adults after bed rest and following exercise with (n = 9) and without (n = 9) dextrose infusion. Responses were measured during a stepped euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamp 24 h after either bed rest or two 90-min bouts of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake : Hypoglycemia occurred during the second bout of exercise without dextrose infusion. Plasma glucagon and epinephrine responses to stepped hypoglycemia after antecedent exercise without dextrose infusion were significantly lower at the 45 mg/dL glycemic level compared