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Sample records for exercise related transient

  1. Epidemlology of exercise-related transient abdominal pain at the Sydney City to Surf community run.

    PubMed

    Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R

    2005-06-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (p< 0.01) by runners (30%) than walkers (16%). ETAP was mostly described as well-localised (88%) and of an aching (25%), sharp (22%) or cramping (22%) sensation. The most commonly-reported sites of the pain were the right (46%) and left lumbar (23%) regions of the abdomen. Forty-two percent of the respondents who experienced ETAP reported that the pain was detrimental to their performance. Reports of ETAP decreased with age (r= -0.23, p< 0.01) but were unrelated to gender, body mass index or the time taken to complete the event. Among respondents who ran, those who consumed a large mass of food relative to body weight in the time interval 1-2 hr before the event were more likely to develop symptoms of ETAP (p < 0.05). The nutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.

  2. Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2017-06-20

    Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.

  3. The SCEC geodetic transient detection validation exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Rowena B.; Murray, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the number and size of continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) networks has grown substantially worldwide. A steadily increasing volume of freely available GPS measurements, combined with the application of new approaches for mining these data for signals of interest, has led to the identification of a large and diverse collection of time‐varying Earth processes. One phenomenon that has been observed is transient fault slip (also termed slow slip events or silent earthquakes) occurring over time spans of days to years (e.g., Linde et al., 1996; Hirose et al., 1999; Dragert et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2002; Kostoglodov et al., 2003; Douglas et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Ide et al., 2007; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Schwartz and Rokosky, 2007; Szeliga et al., 2008). Such events have been widely observed in subduction zones but are also found in other tectonic settings (Linde et al., 1996; Cervelli et al., 2002; Murray and Segall, 2005; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Montgomery‐Brown et al., 2009; Shelly, 2010; and references therein). Although retrospective study of slow‐slip events using geodetic observations is driving the formulation of new models for fault‐zone behavior and constitutive laws (e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000; Liu and Rice, 2007; Lapusta and Liu, 2009; Segall and Bradley, 2012a), much of the research on near‐real‐time detection and characterization of anomalous behaviors along fault zones has focused solely on the use of seismic tremor (e.g., Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al., 2006; Ito et al., 2007).

  4. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing < 40% metabolic capacity. In comparison, three healthy control subjects that harbored heterozygous polymorphisms for [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 or homozygous for wild FMO3 showed normal (> 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  5. Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

    2014-10-01

    Transient responses of ventilation (V̇e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V̇e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V̇e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V̇e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V̇e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V̇e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V̇e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V̇e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1α gene in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1α transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, were higher in the trained than the untrained leg prior to exercise. Exercise induced a marked transient increase (P < 0.05) in PGC-1α transcription (10- to > 40-fold) and mRNA content (7- to 10-fold), peaking within 2 h after exercise. Activation of PGC-1α was greater in the trained leg despite the lower relative workload. Interestingly, exercise did not affect nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) mRNA, a gene induced by PGC-1α in cell culture. HKII, mitochondrial transcription factor A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, and calcineurin Aα and Aβ mRNA were elevated (≈2- to 6-fold; P < 0.05) at 6 h of recovery in the untrained leg but did not change in the trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1α transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator, these findings suggest that PGC-1α may coordinate the activation of metabolic genes in human muscle in response to exercise. PMID:12563009

  7. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1alpha gene in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2003-02-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1alpha transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, were higher in the trained than the untrained leg prior to exercise. Exercise induced a marked transient increase (P < 0.05) in PGC-1alpha transcription (10- to > 40-fold) and mRNA content (7- to 10-fold), peaking within 2 h after exercise. Activation of PGC-1alpha was greater in the trained leg despite the lower relative workload. Interestingly, exercise did not affect nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) mRNA, a gene induced by PGC-1alpha in cell culture. HKII, mitochondrial transcription factor A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, and calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta mRNA were elevated (approximately 2- to 6-fold; P < 0.05) at 6 h of recovery in the untrained leg but did not change in the trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1alpha transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator, these findings suggest that PGC-1alpha may coordinate the activation of metabolic genes in human muscle in response to exercise.

  8. The influence of transient change of total body water on relative body fats based on three bioelectrical impedance analyses methods. Comparison between before and after exercise with sweat loss, and after drinking.

    PubMed

    Demura, S; Yamaji, S; Goshi, F; Nagasawa, Y

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of change of total body water caused by exercise and drinking, on relative body fat (%BF) based on three bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) methods, between hand and foot (H-F), between hand and hand (H-H), and between foot and foot (F-F). The subjects were 30 Japanese healthy young adults aged 18 to 23 years (15 males, 15 females). Measurements were made three times for each BIA method; before and after exercise with sweat, and after drinking, and also twice according to the under water weighing (UW) method, before exercise and after drinking. A pedaling exercise, with a bicycle ergometer, was used for 60 minutes as the exercise. The relationship of %BF between the UW method and each BIA method was mid-range or more (r=0.765-0.839). However, %BF based on the H-F and F-F BIA methods were higher than that based on the UW method. After drinking, %BF of all the BIA methods were higher than the UW method. %BF of the BIA methods after exercise indicated values lower than those before exercise. %BF of the H-F and H-H BIA methods after drinking were a little higher than those before exercise, indicating that those measurements reflect a slight change of body water. It was demonstrated that %BF of any BIA method reflect the change of body water caused by exercise, sweating, and drinking.

  9. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-07-30

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function.

  10. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  11. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  12. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  13. Dynamic asymmetries of cardiac output transients in response to muscular exercise in man.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Whipp, B J

    1994-01-01

    1. We determined the kinetics of cardiac output (Q) with respect to oxygen uptake (VO2) at the on- and off-transients of constant-load exercise. Six subjects performed constant-load exercise which consisted of 5 min rest, 5 min one-legged pedalling at 50 W and a 5 min recovery period. 2. The transient responses were characterized by first-order kinetics. There was no significant difference between the time constants for VO2 (tau VO2) at the on- (33.9 +/- 3.5 s, mean +/- S.E.M.) and off-transient (37.2 +/- 2.9 s). The time constant for Q (tau Q, 29.4 +/- 3.2 s) was consistently shorter than tau VO2 at the on-transient. However, tau Q was appreciably longer at the off-transient (44.3 +/- 3.6 s) than the on-transient. 3. The results support the contention that the time constant for the on-transient of Q is appreciably faster than that for VO2 and hence there seems little justification for the notion that the time constants for the kinetics of VO2 are determined by the limitations of blood flow in the transient. The asymmetry of Q kinetics, with the off-transient tau Q being appreciably slower than the on-transient tau Q, serves to maintain a sufficiently high oxygen flow to the muscle during recovery from exercise at a time when the muscle oxygen uptake remains high. PMID:7869250

  14. Human lung density is not altered following normoxic and hypoxic moderate-intensity exercise: implications for transient edema.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Alastair N H; Sheel, A William; Mayo, John R; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on extravascular lung water as it may relate to pulmonary gas exchange. Ten male humans underwent measures of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2 max) in two conditions: normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia of 15% O2 (H). Lung density was measured by quantified MRI before and 48.0 +/- 7.4 and 100.7 +/- 15.1 min following 60 min of cycling exercise in N (intensity = 61.6 +/- 9.5% Vo2 max) and 55.5 +/- 9.8 and 104.3 +/- 9.1 min following 60 min cycling exercise in H (intensity = 65.4 +/- 7.1% hypoxic Vo2 max), where Vo2 max = 65.0 +/- 7.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (N) and 54.1 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (H). Two subjects demonstrated mild exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) [minimum arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 min) = 94.5% and 93.8%], and seven subjects demonstrated moderate EIAH (SaO2 min = 91.4 +/- 1.1%) as measured noninvasively during the Vo2 max test in N. Mean lung densities, measured once preexercise and twice postexercise, were 0.177 +/- 0.019, 0.181 +/- 0.019, and 0.173 +/- 0.019 g/ml (N) and 0.178 +/- 0.021, 0.174 +/- 0.022, and 0.176 +/- 0.019 g/ml (H), respectively. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in lung density following exercise in either condition or between conditions. Transient interstitial pulmonary edema did not occur following sustained steady-state cycling exercise in N or H, indicating that transient edema does not result from pulmonary capillary leakage during sustained submaximal exercise.

  15. "Molecular Clock" Analogs: A Relative Rates Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Although molecular clock theory is a commonly discussed facet of evolutionary biology, undergraduates are rarely presented with the underlying information of how this theory is examined relative to empirical data. Here a simple contextual exercise is presented that not only provides insight into molecular clocks, but is also a useful exercise for…

  16. Slower heart rate and oxygen consumption kinetic responses in the on- and off-transient during a discontinuous incremental exercise: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Simões, Rodrigo P; Bonjorno, José C; Beltrame, Thomas; Catai, Aparecida M; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the kinetic responses of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) are an important tool for the evaluation of exercise performance and health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on the HR and VO(2) kinetics during the rest-exercise transition (on-transient) and the exercise-recovery transition (off-transient), in addition to investigating the influence of exercise intensity (mild and moderate) on these variables. A total of 14 young (23±3 years) and 14 elderly (70±4 years) healthy men performed an incremental exercise testing (ramp protocol) on a cycle-ergometer to determine the maximal power (MP). Discontinuous exercise testing was initiated at 10% of the MP with subsequent increases of 10% until exhaustion. The measurement of HR, ventilatory and metabolic variables and blood lactate were obtained at rest and during the discontinuous exercise. The lactate threshold was determined in each subject and was similar between the groups (30±7% of MP in the young group and 29±5% of MP in the elderly group, p>0.05). The HR and VO(2) kinetics (on- and off-transient) were slower in the elderly group compared to the young group (p<0.05). Additionally, in the young group, the values of HR and VO(2) kinetics were higher in the moderate compared to the mild exercise intensity. We concluded that the elderly group presented with slower HR and VO(2) kinetics in relation to the young group for both on- and off-transients of the dynamic exercise. Moreover, in the young group, the kinetic responses were slower in the moderate intensity in relation to the mild intensity.

  17. Exercise induces a transient increase in transcription of the GLUT-4 gene in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D; Dohm, G L

    1993-12-01

    Endurance exercise training elicits an increase in mitochondrial density as well as GLUT-4 glucose transporter protein content in skeletal muscle. Corresponding increases in mRNA for respiratory enzymes and GLUT-4 indicate that pretranslational control mechanisms are involved in this adaptive process. To directly test whether transcription of the GLUT-4 gene is activated in response to exercise training, nuclei were isolated from red hindlimb skeletal muscle of rats after 1 wk of exercise training (8% grade, 32 m/min, 40 min, twice/day). Rats were killed either 30 min, 3 h, or 24 h after the last training session. GLUT-4 transcription, determined by nuclear run-on analysis, was unaltered after 30 min, increased by 1.8-fold after 3 h, but was no longer different from controls 24 h after exercise. A similar transient increase in GLUT-4 transcription was evident, but less pronounced (1.4-fold), in untrained rats after a single bout of exercise, suggesting that the postexercise induction in GLUT-4 gene transcription is enhanced by exercise training. GLUT-4 protein content was increased 1.7-fold after 1 wk of training in the absence of any corresponding change in GLUT-4 mRNA, providing evidence that the initial increase in GLUT-4 expression involves translational and/or posttranslational control mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that muscle GLUT-4 expression in response to exercise training is subject to both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. We propose that the increase in GLUT-4 mRNA evident with extended periods of training may result from a shift to pretranslational control and is the cumulative effect of repeated postexercise transient increases in GLUT-4 gene transcription.

  18. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  19. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  20. Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Rodacki, André L F; Souza, Ricardo M; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Cristopoliski, Fabiano; Fowler, Neil E

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to analyse the effects of a single stretching exercise session on a number of gait parameters in elderly participants in an attempt to determine whether these exercises can influence the risk of fall. Fifteen healthy women living in the community volunteered to participate in the study. A kinematic gait analysis was performed immediately before and after a session of static stretching exercises applied on hip flexor/extensor muscles. Results showed a significant influence of stretching exercises on a number of gait parameters, which have previously been proposed as fall predictors. Participants showed increased gait velocity, greater step length and reduced double support time during stance after performing stretching exercises, suggesting improved stability and mobility. Changes around the pelvis (increased anterior-posterior tilt and rotation range of motion) resulting from the stretching exercises were suggested to influence the gait parameters (velocity, step length and double support time). Therefore, stretching exercises were shown to be a promising strategy to facilitate changes in gait parameters related to the risk of fall. Some other gait variables related to the risk of fall remained unaltered (e.g., toe clearance). The stable pattern of segmental angular velocities was proposed to explain the stability of these unchanged gait variables. The results indicate that stretching exercises, performed on a regular (daily) basis, result in gait adaptations which can be considered as indicative of reduced fall risk. Other studies to determine whether regular stretching routines are an effective strategy to reduce the risk of fall are required.

  1. Exercise stress testing after stroke or transient ischemic attack: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Gäverth, Johan; Parker, Robin; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    To provide insight into exercise stress testing after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in terms of feasibility, safety, and protocols used. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies published from inception to March 2014, and reference lists were hand searched. To be included in the review, the articles needed to include participants diagnosed with stroke or TIA and have any form of test to assess exercise capacity. The scoping review methodology does not include critical appraisal of the literature but was chosen to reflect all aspects of exercise stress testing after stroke or TIA. Two reviewers performed screening for eligible studies independently, and 1 reviewer extracted the data. We found a total of 112 studies involving 5008 participants describing symptom-limited (n=103), submaximal (n=9), and field (n=6) exercise stress test protocols. Some of the studies reported on data from >1 protocol. Metabolic analysis was included in 87% of the studies involving symptom-limited tests, 40% of submaximal studies, and 29% of field tests. Monitoring of blood pressure, perceived exertion, and electrocardiographic responses was done in 54%, 42%, and 95% of all studies, respectively. A mere 10% of all studies reported on electrocardiographic abnormalities detected during testing. No serious adverse events were reported. Symptom-limited exercise stress testing appears to be safe in patients with stroke or TIA and provides a more valid measure of exercise capacity than submaximal and field tests. The level of disability may compromise feasibility, and test modality should be chosen carefully to optimize test results. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise, sleep and cancer-related fatigue: Are they related?

    PubMed

    Medysky, Mary E; Temesi, John; Culos-Reed, Susan Nicole; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2017-04-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a commonly reported and debilitating side effect of cancer and/or cancer treatment. Sleep disorders are also highly reported in the cancer population; however it is unknown if sleep is associated with fatigue. In the general population, exercise has been shown to improve sleep, however in the cancer population this idea is under investigation. The primary purposes of this review were to: (i) review the prevalence and causes of sleep disorders in cancer patients and survivors, (ii) examine the relationship between sleep and CRF and (iii) review the impact of exercise interventions on sleep in cancer patients and survivors. A scoping review of the literature was conducted regarding exercise interventions in cancer patients and survivors with sleep as at least one outcome measure. A search of the literature revealed limited studies (n=21) assessing the effect of exercise on sleep disorders in the cancer population. Methodological issues are evident because assessing sleep is often not the main outcome of interest. The reviewed studies revealed that exercise positively impacts sleep quality and quantity. There seems to be possible relationship between sleep disorders, exercise and CRF. Further investigation of this relationship is necessary, specifically using objective measurement tools, in large, controlled studies, focusing on sleep as the primary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Relatively simple, precise methods to analyze temperature transients in ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Voss, M A.; Reed Hainsworth, F

    2001-04-01

    Relatively complex core-shell models have been used to precisely characterize times and temperatures for ectotherms. There is a simpler method using a second-order analysis of heat flux. We derive the method from an equivalent mechanical system, correct some previously published inaccuracies, and show how to use the method by analyzing thermal transients for House Wren eggs under natural conditions.

  4. Modeling chlorophyll a fluorescence transient: relation to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stirbet, A; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Govindjee

    2014-04-01

    To honor Academician Alexander Abramovitch Krasnovsky, we present here an educational review on the relation of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient to various processes in photosynthesis. The initial event in oxygenic photosynthesis is light absorption by chlorophylls (Chls), carotenoids, and, in some cases, phycobilins; these pigments form the antenna. Most of the energy is transferred to reaction centers where it is used for charge separation. The small part of energy that is not used in photochemistry is dissipated as heat or re-emitted as fluorescence. When a photosynthetic sample is transferred from dark to light, Chl a fluorescence (ChlF) intensity shows characteristic changes in time called fluorescence transient, the OJIPSMT transient, where O (the origin) is for the first measured minimum fluorescence level; J and I for intermediate inflections; P for peak; S for semi-steady state level; M for maximum; and T for terminal steady state level. This transient is a real signature of photosynthesis, since diverse events can be related to it, such as: changes in redox states of components of the linear electron transport flow, involvement of alternative electron routes, the build-up of a transmembrane pH gradient and membrane potential, activation of different nonphotochemical quenching processes, activation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, and other processes. In this review, we present our views on how different segments of the OJIPSMT transient are influenced by various photosynthetic processes, and discuss a number of studies involving mathematical modeling and simulation of the ChlF transient. A special emphasis is given to the slower PSMT phase, for which many studies have been recently published, but they are less known than on the faster OJIP phase.

  5. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  6. Inflammatory markers and exercise: differences related to exercise type.

    PubMed

    King, Dana E; Carek, Peter; Mainous, Arch G; Pearson, William S

    2003-04-01

    To examine the relationship between elevated inflammatory markers (CRP, fibrinogen, and white blood cell levels) and various forms of exercise for the adult U.S. population while controlling for factors that might influence the relationship. An analysis of the adults age 17 and over who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III was conducted. The main goal of the analysis was to determine whether exercise type was associated with systemic markers of inflammation. Bivariate statistics using chi-square to evaluate different types of exercise according to the presence of elevated and nonelevated inflammatory markers was initially performed. In addition, multivariate models were constructed using each type of exercise activity as the predictor variable and each inflammatory marker as the dependent variable. A total of 4072 people were included in the analysis. In bivariate analyses, compared with nonexercisers in a specific exercise type, a significant lower likelihood of elevated inflammatory markers was found among regular participants in jogging, swimming, cycling, aerobic dancing, calisthenics, and weight lifting but not for gardening. After controlling for possible confounding factors including age, race, sex, body mass index, smoking, and health status in logistic regression analysis, only regular participants in jogging and aerobic dancing remained significantly less likely to have elevated cardiovascular markers. The results of this study indicate that some forms of physical activity are associated with a lower likelihood of elevation of inflammatory markers, although we cannot exclude the possibility that differences may be due to exercise intensity or duration. Future research should be directed toward further exploration of the effects of different types of exercise activity on inflammatory markers and the role of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Influence of combined exercise and gravity transients and apnea on hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Uwe; Dräger, Tobias; Steegmanns, Ansgar; Koesterer, Thomas; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-07-01

    Hemodynamic responses to combined heavy dynamic leg exercise (hiP), breath holding (BH) and gravity-induced blood volume shifts direction were studied. Thirteen subjects were studied at normal gravity and 12 during parabolic flight, performing 20 s hiP or combined hiP&BH (stimulus period) from a baseline of 30 W at normal gravity (1 G(z+)). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses to BH were similar between gravity conditions, but stroke volume (SV) differed markedly between gravity conditions: at 1 G(z+) SV was higher [112 +/- 16 ml (mean +/- SD)] during BH, than during eupnea [101 +/- 17 ml (P < 0.05, N = 13)]. In weightlessness the corresponding SV values were 105 +/- 16 and 127 +/- 20 ml, respectively (P < 0.05, N = 6). Transthoracic electrical conductance (TTC) was used as index for intrathoracic volume. TTC fell significantly during BH. This decrease was attenuated in weightlessness. It is concluded that the transient microgravity temporarily reduces the efficiency of the muscle pump so that the deep inspiration at the onset of the high-intensity exercise and breath-hold period cannot augment venous return as it could during identical manoeuvres at normal gravity.

  8. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.

  9. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  10. Transient cutaneous vasodilatation and hypotension after drinking in dehydrated and exercising men

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Okumoto, Tadashi; Takeno, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Inaki, Mitsuharu; Masuki, Shizue; Nose, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether oropharyngeal stimulation by drinking released the dehydration-induced suppression of cutaneous vasodilatation and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in exercising subjects, and assessed the effects of hypovolaemia or hyperosmolality alone on these responses. Seven young males underwent four hydration conditions. These were two normal plasma volume (PV) trials: normal plasma osmolality (Posmol, control trial) and hyperosmolality (ΔPosmol = +11 mosmol (kg H2O)−1); and two low PV trials: isosmolality (ΔPV = −310 ml) and hyperosmolality (ΔPV = −345 ml; ΔPosmol = +9 mosmol (kg H2O)−1), attained by combined treatment with furosemide (frusemide), hypertonic saline and/or 24 h water restriction. In each trial, the subjects exercised at 60% peak aerobic power for ∼50 min at 30°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity. When oesophageal temperature (Toes) reached a plateau after ∼30 min of exercise, the subjects drank 200 ml water at 37.5°C within a minute. Before drinking, forearm vascular conductance (FVC), calculated as forearm blood flow divided by MAP, was lowered by 20–40% in hypovolaemia, hyperosmolality, or both, compared with that in the control trial, despite increased Toes. After drinking, FVC increased by ∼20% compared with that before drinking (P < 0.05) in both hyperosmotic trials, but it was greater in normovolaemia than in hypovolaemia (P < 0.05). However, no increases occurred in either isosmotic trial. MAP fell by 4–8 mmHg in both hyperosmotic trials (P < 0.05) after drinking, but more rapidly in normovolaemia than in hypovolaemia. PV and Posmol did not change during this period. Thus, oropharyngeal stimulation by drinking released the dehydration-induced suppression of cutaneous vasodilatation and reduced MAP during exercise, and this was accelerated when PV was restored. PMID:16123108

  11. Transient cutaneous vasodilatation and hypotension after drinking in dehydrated and exercising men.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Okumoto, Tadashi; Takeno, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Inaki, Mitsuharu; Masuki, Shizue; Nose, Hiroshi

    2005-10-15

    We examined whether oropharyngeal stimulation by drinking released the dehydration-induced suppression of cutaneous vasodilatation and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in exercising subjects, and assessed the effects of hypovolaemia or hyperosmolality alone on these responses. Seven young males underwent four hydration conditions. These were two normal plasma volume (PV) trials: normal plasma osmolality (P(osmol), control trial) and hyperosmolality (DeltaP(osmol) = +11 mosmol (kg H(2)O)(-1)); and two low PV trials: isosmolality (DeltaPV = -310 ml) and hyperosmolality (DeltaPV = -345 ml; DeltaP(osmol) = +9 mosmol (kg H(2)O)(-1)), attained by combined treatment with furosemide (frusemide), hypertonic saline and/or 24 h water restriction. In each trial, the subjects exercised at 60% peak aerobic power for approximately 50 min at 30 degrees C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity. When oesophageal temperature (T(oes)) reached a plateau after approximately 30 min of exercise, the subjects drank 200 ml water at 37.5 degrees C within a minute. Before drinking, forearm vascular conductance (FVC), calculated as forearm blood flow divided by MAP, was lowered by 20-40% in hypovolaemia, hyperosmolality, or both, compared with that in the control trial, despite increased T(oes). After drinking, FVC increased by approximately 20% compared with that before drinking (P < 0.05) in both hyperosmotic trials, but it was greater in normovolaemia than in hypovolaemia (P < 0.05). However, no increases occurred in either isosmotic trial. MAP fell by 4-8 mmHg in both hyperosmotic trials (P < 0.05) after drinking, but more rapidly in normovolaemia than in hypovolaemia. PV and P(osmol) did not change during this period. Thus, oropharyngeal stimulation by drinking released the dehydration-induced suppression of cutaneous vasodilatation and reduced MAP during exercise, and this was accelerated when PV was restored.

  12. Exercise-related complications in sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Tripette, Julien; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Hue, Olivier; Diaw, Mor; Samb, Abdoulaye; Diop, Saliou; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the epidemiological data regarding the exercise-related complication in exercising sickle cell trait carriers, and focuses on the different potential mechanisms that could be involved in these adverse events, such as hemorheological alterations, inflammation, vascular adhesion of circulating blood cells, oxidative stress and impaired nitric oxide metabolism. We also discuss the effects of different modulating factors such as vascular function, environment (hot temperature), hydration status, physical fitness, exercise intensity and genetic factors.

  13. Exercise-Related Sudden Death: Cardiovascular Evaluation of Exercisers (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    A primary goal of the cardiovascular evaluation of exercisers is to identify conditions that carry the risk of exercise-related sudden death. These conditions, which are found in a careful evaluation of the patient, are identifed and described in detail. (Author/JL)

  14. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  15. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  16. Methods of prescribing relative exercise intensity: physiological and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mann, Theresa; Lamberts, Robert Patrick; Lambert, Michael Ian

    2013-07-01

    Exercise prescribed according to relative intensity is a routine feature in the exercise science literature and is intended to produce an approximately equivalent exercise stress in individuals with different absolute exercise capacities. The traditional approach has been to prescribe exercise intensity as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax) and these methods remain common in the literature. However, exercise intensity prescribed at a %VO2max or %HRmax does not necessarily place individuals at an equivalent intensity above resting levels. Furthermore, some individuals may be above and others below metabolic thresholds such as the aerobic threshold (AerT) or anaerobic threshold (AnT) at the same %VO2max or %HRmax. For these reasons, some authors have recommended that exercise intensity be prescribed relative to oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R), heart rate reserve (HRR), the AerT, or the AnT rather than relative to VO2max or HRmax. The aim of this review was to compare the physiological and practical implications of using each of these methods of relative exercise intensity prescription for research trials or training sessions. It is well established that an exercise bout at a fixed %VO2max or %HRmax may produce interindividual variation in blood lactate accumulation and a similar effect has been shown when relating exercise intensity to VO2R or HRR. Although individual variation in other markers of metabolic stress have seldom been reported, it is assumed that these responses would be similarly heterogeneous at a %VO2max, %HRmax, %VO2R, or %HRR of moderate-to-high intensity. In contrast, exercise prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would be expected to produce less individual variation in metabolic responses and less individual variation in time to exhaustion at a constant exercise intensity. Furthermore, it would be expected that training prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would provide a more homogenous training

  17. Respiratory-related activation of human abdominal muscles during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Kirk A; Feingold, Howard; Fuller, David D; Jenkins, Megan; Mateika, Jason H; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that abdominal muscles are active during the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle during exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded during incremental exercise to exhaustion and during 30 min of constant work rate exercise at an intensity of 85 % of the peak oxygen consumption rate (V̇O2). High amplitude intramuscular EMG activities of both abdominal muscles could be evoked with postural manoeuvres in all subjects. During cycling, respiratory-related activity of the external obliques was evoked in four of seven subjects, whereas rectus abdominis activity was observed in six of the seven subjects. We measured only the activity that was confined exclusively to the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Expiratory activity of both muscles increased with exercise intensity, although peak values averaged only 10-20 or 20-40 % of the peak activity (obtained during maximal, voluntary expiratory efforts) for the external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles, respectively. To estimate how much of the recorded abdominal muscle activity was supporting leg movements during exercise, we compared the activity at the very end of incremental exercise to that recorded during the first five respiratory cycles after the abrupt cessation of exercise, when ventilation was still very high. Although external oblique activity was reduced after exercise stopped, clear expiratory activity remained. Rectus abdominis activity remained high after exercise cessation, showing a gradual decline that approximated the decline in ventilation. During constant work rate exercise, EMG activities increased to 40-50 and 5-10 % of peak in rectus and external oblique muscles, respectively, and then plateaued for the remainder of the bout in spite of a continual upward drift in V̇O2 and pulmonary ventilation. Linear regression analysis showed that the rise in respiratory-related expiratory muscle activity

  18. How I Manage Exercise-Related Menstrual Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shangold, Mona M.

    1986-01-01

    Amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea are often related to heavy exercise, but these conditions can signal a serious pathologic condition. Tests to pinpoint causes of menstrual dysfunctions are listed, and treatments to establish a proper hormone balance are described. (MT)

  19. Uncovering the exercise-related proteome signature in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Ana Isabel; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Vitorino, Rui; Duarte, José Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Exercise training has been recommended as a nonpharmacological strategy for the prevention and attenuation of skeletal muscle atrophy in distinct pathophysiological conditions. Despite the well-established phenotypic alterations, the molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodeling are poorly characterized. Proteomics based on mass spectrometry have been successfully applied for the characterization of skeletal muscle proteome, representing a pivotal approach for the wide characterization of the molecular networks that lead to skeletal muscle remodeling. Nevertheless, few studies were performed to characterize the exercise-induced proteome remodeling of skeletal muscle, with only six research papers focused on the cross-talk between exercise and pathophysiological conditions. In order to add new insights on the impact of distinct exercise programs on skeletal muscle proteome, molecular network analysis was performed with bioinformatics tools. This analysis highlighted an exercise-related proteome signature characterized by the up-regulation of the capacity for ATP generation, oxygen delivery, antioxidant capacity and regulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Chronic endurance training up-regulates the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation system, whereas the release of calcium ion into cytosol and amino acid metabolism are the biological processes up-regulated by a single bout of exercise. Other issues as exercise intensity, load, mode and regimen as well as muscle type also influence the exercise-induced proteome signature. The comprehensive analysis of the molecular networks modulated by exercise training in health and disease, taking in consideration all these variables, might not only support the therapeutic effect of exercise but also highlight novel targets for the development of enhanced pharmacological strategies.

  20. Effects of early exercise engagement on vascular risk in patients with transient ischemic attack and nondisabling stroke.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Woolley, Brandon; Stoner, Lee; Wong, Lai-kin; McGonigal, Gerard

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a randomized, parallel-group clinical trial assessed the efficacy of a health-enhancing physical activity program (exercise and education) on vascular risk factors and aerobic fitness in patients who have experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or nondisabling stroke. Sixty patients (69±11 years) completed a baseline (BL) vascular risk stratification and aerobic fitness examination (cycle test) within 2 weeks of symptom onset. Subjects were then randomized to either an 8-week, twice weekly exercise program or to a usual-care control (CON) group. Postintervention (PI) assessments were completed immediately after the intervention and at 3-month follow-up. A series of primary (systolic blood pressure [SBP]) and secondary (vascular risk factors like total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoproteins, etc.; Framingham risk score; peak oxygen uptake) outcome measures were assessed. Significantly greater reductions in SBP (mean change±SD; -10.4±9.2 mm Hg) and TC (-.53±.90 mmol/L) were observed between BL and PI assessments for the exercise group compared with the CON group (-1.9±15.4 mm Hg and -.08±.59 mmol/L, respectively) (P<.05). These improvements were maintained between the PI and the 3-month follow-up assessment (P>.05). Significant improvements in aerobic fitness were also observed and maintained at the 3-month follow-up assessment after regular exercise participation (P<.05). The early engagement in exercise resulted in significant improvements in vascular risk factors and fitness in those diagnosed with TIA. As these beneficial effects were maintained up to 3 months after completing the exercise program, exercise should be considered a useful additive treatment strategy for newly diagnosed TIA patients. Future research should examine the long-term efficacy of such programs.

  1. Transient endothelial dysfunction induced by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption may be attenuated by a single bout of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Varsamis, Pia; Walther, Guillaume; Share, Bianca; Taylor, Frances; Stewart, Simon; Lorenzen, Christian; Loader, Jordan

    2017-07-31

    This study assessed whether aerobic exercise would attenuate microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Eleven healthy males participated in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. Cutaneous microvascular endothelial function was assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with post-occlusive reactive hyperemia before and after a) consumption of water; b) consumption of a commercial SSB; c) 30min of aerobic exercise followed by water consumption; and d) 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by SSB consumption. Blood glucose and arterial pressure responses were also monitored. Volumes of water and SSB consumed (637.39±29.15 mL) were individualized for each participant, ensuring SSB consumption delivered 1 g of sucrose per kg of body weight. Exercise was performed at 75% of the maximal oxygen uptake heart rate. Compared to water consumption, the commercial SSB elevated blood glucose concentrations in both sedentary (4.69±0.11 vs. 7.47±0.28 mmol/L, P<0.05) and exercised states (4.95±0.13 vs. 7.93±0.15 mmol/L, P<0.05). However, the decrease in microvascular endothelial function observed following sedentary SSB consumption, expressed as the percentage increase from baseline (208.60±22.40 vs. 179.83±15.80%, P=0.01) and the change in peak hyperemic blood flux from basal to post-intervention assessments (-0.04±0.03 vs. -0.12±0.02 ΔCVC, P=0.01), was attenuated following 30min of aerobic exercise. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that a single bout of aerobic exercise may prevent transient SSB-mediated microvascular endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat-related illness in sports and exercise.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2014-12-01

    Exertional heat-related illness (EHRI) is comprised of several states that afflict physically active persons when exercising during conditions of high environmental heat stress. Certain forms of EHRI may become life threatening if not treated. Exertional heat stroke (EHS), characterized by a core body temperature of >40 ° C and mental status changes, is the most severe form of EHRI. EHS must be treated immediately with rapid body cooling to reduce morbidity and mortality. Many EHRI cases are preventable by following heat acclimatization guidelines, modifying sports and exercise sessions during conditions of high environmental heat stress, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding exertion in the heat when ill, and by educating sports medicine personnel, coaches, parents, and athletes on the early recognition and prevention of EHRI. Heat exhaustion, exercise-associated collapse, exercise-associated muscle cramps, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis are also described.

  3. Effects of long‑term post‑ischemic treadmill exercise on gliosis in the aged gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Yang Hee; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2017-06-01

    Therapeutic exercise is an integral component of the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. The objective of the present study was to use immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of post‑ischemic exercise on neuronal damage or death and gliosis in the aged gerbil hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia. Aged gerbils (male; age, 22‑24 months) underwent ischemia and were subjected to treadmill exercise for 1 or 4 weeks. Neuronal death was detected in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus using cresyl violet and Fluoro‑Jade B histofluorescence staining. No significant difference in neuronal death was identified following 1 or 4 weeks of post‑ischemic treadmill exercise. However, post‑ischemic treadmill exercise affected gliosis (the activation of astrocytes and microglia). Glial fibrillary acidic protein‑immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1‑immunoreactive microglia were activated in the CA1 and polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus of the group without treadmill exercise. Conversely, 4 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly alleviated ischemia‑induced astrocyte and microglial activation; however, 1 week of treadmill exercise did not alleviate gliosis. These findings suggest that long‑term post‑ischemic treadmill exercise following transient cerebral ischemia does not influence neuronal protection; however, it may effectively alleviate transient cerebral ischemia‑induced astrocyte and microglial activation in the aged hippocampus.

  4. Feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy, and voluntary exercise participation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seok; Buckworth, Janet; Focht, Brian; Ko, Bomna

    2013-12-01

    This study used a path analysis approach to examine the relationship between feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy beliefs, and exercise participation. A cross-sectional mailing survey design was used to measure feelings of physical and mental energy, task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs, and voluntary moderate and vigorous exercise participation in 368 healthy, full-time undergraduate students (mean age = 21.43 ± 2.32 years). The path analysis revealed that the hypothesized path model had a strong fit to the study data. The path model showed that feelings of physical energy had significant direct effects on task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs as well as exercise behaviors. In addition, scheduling self-efficacy had direct effects on moderate and vigorous exercise participation. However, there was no significant direct relationship between task self-efficacy and exercise participation. The path model also revealed that scheduling self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between feelings of physical energy and exercise participation.

  5. Impact of obesity and exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Herath, Kanchana; Peswani, Namrata; Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy often develop fatigue from their treatment that may persist for months. While the positive effects of physical activity in cancer patients are increasingly recognized, the impact of obesity on chemotherapy-induced fatigue has not been well studied. Female age 35-75 years with stage I-III breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in an IRB-approved study. Patient fatigue was self-reported using a 14-question fatigue symptom inventory. Patients were queried about fatigue and their level of exercise before, during, and after completion of chemotherapy. BMI was measured prior to their first cycle of chemotherapy. Of the 47 evaluable patients, 37 reported performing exercise on a regular basis. Following chemotherapy, 53 % of the exercise group and 80 % of the non-exercise group displayed a worsening of their FS. In patients with a BMI < 25, the fatigue score (FS) after chemotherapy was 27.6 in the exercise group versus 40.5 in the non-exercise group. In patients with a BMI > 25, the FS after chemotherapy was 25.96 in the exercise group versus 32.6 in the non-exercise group. Our study indicates a trend towards fatigue reduction with exercise even in patients who are overweight. Thus, an elevated BMI at diagnosis does not preclude a breast cancer patient from experiencing the same positive effects from exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue as patients with normal BMIs. This indicates an important role of physicians in the primary care setting to encourage patients to initiate physical activity when offering cancer-screening services.

  6. The role of transient outward K+ current in electrical remodelling induced by voluntary exercise in female rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Stones, Rachel; Billeter, Rudolf; Zhang, Henggui; Harrison, Simon; White, Ed

    2009-11-01

    Regular exercise can lead to electrical remodelling of the heart. The cellular mechanisms associated with these changes are not well understood, and are difficult to study in human tissue but are important given that exercise is recommended to the general population. We have investigated the role played by the transient outward K+ current (I(to)) in the changes in electrical activity seen in response to voluntary exercise training in rats. Female rats undertook 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running exercise (TRN) or were sedentary controls (SED). Monophasic action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from the surface of whole hearts. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of I(to); mRNA and protein levels of selected targets in sub-epicardial (EPI) and sub-endocardial myocardium of SED and TRN hearts were compared. In TRN rats, heart weight:body weight was significantly increased and epicardial MAPs significantly prolonged. I(to) density was reduced in TRN EPI myocytes, such that the transmural gradient of I(to) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Computer modelling of these changes in I(to) predicted the observed changes in action potential profile. However, transmural gradients in mRNA and protein expression for Kv4.2 or mRNA levels of the Kv4.2 regulators; KChIP2 and Irx-5 were not significantly altered by voluntary exercise. We conclude that voluntary exercise electrical remodelling is caused, at least in part, by a decrease in EPI I(to), possibly because of fewer functional channels in the membrane, which results in a fall in the transmural action potential duration gradient.

  7. Transient Increase in Homocysteine but Not Hyperhomocysteinemia during Acute Exercise at Different Intensities in Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Egan, Brendan; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel Enrique; Peñalvo, José Luis; González-Medina, Antonio; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; O’Gorman, Donal J.; Úbeda, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B12, and B6) in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18–27 yr) took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI) and 80% VO2peak (high intensity, HI). Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h), during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min), and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h). Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0–10.1) µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0) and HI (9.4 (8.2–10.6) µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0), coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B12, and B6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations. PMID:23236449

  8. Effects of exercise intensity on spatial memory performance and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in transient brain ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Shih, Pei-Cheng; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is commonly noted in stroke survivors, and can lead to delay of functional recovery. Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing. Previous evidence showed that in normal rats, low intensity exercise can improve synaptic plasticity better than high intensity exercise. However, the effects of exercise intensities on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory after brain ischemia remain unclear. In this study, we investigated such effects in brain ischemic rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to induce brain ischemia. After the MCAO procedure, rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (Sed), low-intensity exercise (Low-Ex), or high-intensity exercise (High-Ex) group. Treadmill training began from the second day post MCAO procedure, 30 min/day for 14 consecutive days for the exercise groups. The Low-Ex group was trained at the speed of 8 m/min, while the High-Ex group at the speed of 20 m/min. The spatial memory, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin-I, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and dendritic structures were examined to document the effects. Serum corticosterone level was also quantified as stress marker. Our results showed the Low-Ex group, but not the High-Ex group, demonstrated better spatial memory performance than the Sed group. Dendritic complexity and the levels of BDNF and PSD-95 increased significantly only in the Low-Ex group as compared with the Sed group in bilateral hippocampus. Notably, increased level of corticosterone was found in the High-Ex group, implicating higher stress response. In conclusion, after brain ischemia, low intensity exercise may result in better synaptic plasticity and spatial memory performance than high intensity exercise; therefore, the intensity is suggested to be considered

  9. Exercise and osteoporosis-related fractures: perspectives and recommendations of the sports and exercise scientist.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2011-02-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures represent a major health concern, particularly in elderly populations. Direct and indirect costs (amounting to nearly $17 billion in 2005), increased morbidity, and loss of independence place substantial burden on the health care system. Observational studies have shown that a physically active lifestyle is associated with a 30% to 50% decrease in vertebral or hip fractures, and a recent meta-analysis that determined the effects of exercise on fracture incidence further confirmed these results. However, because no randomized controlled exercise trials have selected fractures as a primary endpoint, causality between a sedentary lifestyle and fractures may be potentially confounded by participants' poor health status. With regard to fall reduction and bone strength as the main surrogates for fracture risk, many randomized controlled trials and corresponding meta-analyses have reported significant positive outcomes. Interestingly, no study that has assessed fall-related injuries has focused specifically on interventions that aimed to reduce fall impact. There is ongoing debate as to which factor, osteoporosis or falls, is more important for fracture prevention. This may be dependent on the region prone to fracture and the subjects' health status. In randomized controlled trials on exercise, the type, mode, and composition of exercise parameters are predictors of study outcome. Unfortunately, many exercise trials on fall prevention have not adequately described the exercise protocol used, which makes it difficult to determine which fall prevention protocol was most effective. A recent meta-analysis recommended Tai Chi and/or a mix of balance and resistance exercises for fall prevention. More sophisticated protocols are required to impact bone strength. Corresponding state-of-the-art protocols have focused on periodized high-impact/high-intensity resistance protocols performed at least twice per week. In the frail elderly, high

  10. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    PubMed

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-17

    Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (p<0.05), but not after AG. This was reflected by typical EEG patterns after exercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post p<0.01, post15 p<0.001) and beta activity (post15 p<0.001) increased after AG compared to a decrease in frontal alpha (post15 p<0.05) and beta activity (post p<0.01) after exercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning.

  12. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  13. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  14. Regulation of Gene Expression by Exercise-Related Micrornas.

    PubMed

    Masi, Laureane Nunes; Serdan, Tamires Duarte Afonso; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine; Silveira, Leonardo Dos Reis; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Curi, Rui; Gorjão, Renata; Hirabara, Sandro Massao

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression control by microRNAs (miRs) is an important mechanism for maintenance of cellular homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions as well as in response to different stimuli including nutritional factors and exercise. MiRs are involved in regulation of several processes such as growth and development, fuel metabolism, insulin secretion, immune function, miocardium remodeling, cell proliferation, differenciation, survival, and death. These molecules have also been proposed to be potential biomarkers and/or therapeutical targets in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. MiRs are released by most cells and potentially act on intercellular communication to borderer or distant cells. Various studies have been performed to elucidate the involvement of miRs in exercise-induced effects. The aims of this review are: 1) to bring up the main advances for the comprehension of the mechanisms of action of miRs; 2) to present the main results on miR involvement in physical exercise; 3) to discuss the physiological effects of miRs modified by exercise. The state of the art and the perspectives on miRs associated with physical exercise will be presented. Thus, this review is important for updating recent advances and driving further strategies and studies on the exercise-related miR research.

  15. Factors Related to the Leisure Exercise Behavior of "Returning" Women College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody Powers; Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation studied several aspects of the Exercise Behavior Model by investigating 65 college women's exercise behavior in relation to perceived control over exercise behavior, selected values, and attitudes toward physical activity. Results of this exploratory study are reported. (JMK)

  16. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  17. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with MS about their perspectives on aquatics exercise. Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Discover More Here are a few related topics that may interest you Accessible Nature Trails Learn More Finding Another Sport To Love Learn More Accessible Bicycling Learn More ...

  18. A Laboratory Exercise with Related Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    A laboratory experiment, based on a simple electric circuit that can be used to demonstrate the existence of real-world "related rates" problems, is outlined and an equation for voltage across the capacitor terminals during discharge is derived. The necessary materials, setup methods, and experimental problems are described. A student laboratory…

  19. Evaluating and Treating Exercise-Related Menstrual Irregularities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Kimberly G.

    2002-01-01

    Menstrual abnormalities are extremely common in both athletic and non-athletic adolescents and young women. Exercise- related menstrual abnormality is linked with hypothalamic pituitary axis-dysfunction and is a diagnosis of exclusion. In athletes, treatment of secondary menstrual abnormalities and associated health concerns such as bone density…

  20. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  1. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  2. Evaluating and Treating Exercise-Related Menstrual Irregularities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Kimberly G.

    2002-01-01

    Menstrual abnormalities are extremely common in both athletic and non-athletic adolescents and young women. Exercise- related menstrual abnormality is linked with hypothalamic pituitary axis-dysfunction and is a diagnosis of exclusion. In athletes, treatment of secondary menstrual abnormalities and associated health concerns such as bone density…

  3. Exercise and comorbidity: the i3-S strategy for developing comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Joost; de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. We previously developed comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in osteoarthritis. We now broaden this approach into a general strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. The i3-S strategy consists of four steps. The first three steps involve creating an inventory of comorbid disease, an inventory of contraindications and restrictions on exercise therapy, and an inventory of potential adaptations to exercise therapy. In the fourth step, this information is synthesized into guidance on comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in the index disease. The adaptations concern physiological, behavioural and environmental factors. In view of the general effectiveness of exercise therapy and the high prevalence of comorbidity in older people, there is a great need for comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy. We recommend to use and evaluate the i3-S strategy in future research. Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. Researchers and clinicians can use this strategy to develop guidance on the adaptation of exercise therapy to comorbidity.

  4. Reported Exercise-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Demet; Guggenheim, Refoel; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Wildhaber, Johannes H.; Moeller, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Unlimited physical activity is one of the key issues of asthma control and management. We investigated how reliable reported exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) are in predicting exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic children. Methods In this prospective study, 179 asthmatic children aged 7 - 15 years were asked for specific questions on respiratory symptoms related to exercise and allocated into two groups according to whether they complained about symptoms. Group I (n = 134) consisted of children answering “yes” to one or more of the questions and group II (n = 45) consisted of children answering “no” to all of the questions. Results Sixty-four of 179 children showed a positive exercise challenge test (ECT). There was no difference in the frequency of a positive test between children in group I (n = 48) and group II (n = 12) (P = 0.47). The sensitivity of a positive report for ERRS to predict a positive ECT was only 37%, with a specificity of 0.72. Conclusion According to current guidelines, the report or lack of ERRS has direct consequences on treatment decisions. However, the history of ERRS did not predict EIB and one-third of asthmatic children without complaints of ERRS developed EIB during the ECT. This raises the question of the need for objective measures of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in pediatric asthma management. PMID:28392861

  5. Increased xanthine oxidase-related ROS production and TRPV1 synthesis preceding DOMS post-eccentric exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Retamoso, Leandro T; Silveira, Mauro E P; Lima, Frederico D; Busanello, Guilherme L; Bresciani, Guilherme; Ribeiro, Leandro R; Chagas, Pietro M; Nogueira, Cristina W; Braga, Ana Claudia M; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro S; Fighera, Michele R; Royes, Luiz Fernando F

    2016-05-01

    It is well-known that unaccustomed exercise, especially eccentric exercise, is associated to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whether DOMS is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is still an open question. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between TRPV1 and xanthine oxidase-related ROS production in muscle and DOMS after a bout of eccentric exercise. Male Wistar rats performed a downhill running exercise on a treadmill at a -16° tilt and a constant speed for 90min (5min/bout separated by 2min of rest). Mechanical allodynia and grip force tests were performed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72h after the downhill running. Biochemical assays probing oxidative stress, purine degradation, xanthine oxidase activity, Ca(2+) ATPase activity and TRPV1 protein content were performed in gastrocnemius muscle at 12, 24, and 48h after the downhill running. Our statistical analysis showed an increase in mechanical allodynia and a loss of strength after the downhill running. Similarly, an increase in carbonyl, xanthine oxidase activity, uric acid levels and TRPV1 immunoreactivity were found 12h post-exercise. On the other hand, Ca(2+) ATPase activity decreased in all analyzed times. Our results suggest that a possible relationship between xanthine oxidase-related ROS and TRPV1 may exist during the events preceding eccentric exercise-related DOMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Review - Selenium - Its metabolism and relation to exercise.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Akil, Mustafa; Bicer, Mursel

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), which is commonly found in nature, is one of the essential trace elements necessary for the normal development of human and animal organisms. Selenium was first defined in 1818 by the Swedish chemist Berzelius in sulfuric acid residues. At the end of 1960s, the role of selenium in human health began to attract attention and human diseases that resembled animal diseases responding to selenium was started to be investigated. Selenium, which is highly important for human health, is necessary for a variety of metabolic processes, including thyroid hormone metabolism, protection against oxidative stress and immunity functions. Selenium is a molecule that activates glutathione peroxidase, and thus, it is involved in the antioxidant mechanisms that prevent oxidant damage. Exhaustive physical exercise is known to cause oxidant damage, probably by promoting free radical production in many tissues, including muscle, liver, heart and lungs in animals. The increase in oxidative stress during exercise and recognition of selenium's stimulation of antioxidant activity inevitably suggest a relation between selenium and exercise. The present review aims to provide information on selenium metabolism and the relation between selenium and exercise.

  7. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety.

  8. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenhao

    2013-01-01

    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals’ dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804

  9. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  10. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  11. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Middle-aged adults (N = 202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (P(trend) < 0.05). Decreased waist circumference was associated with improved bodily pain and general health but with reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (P(trend) < 0.02). Monitoring adherence and tailoring exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance.

  12. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M.; Mason, Caitlin E.; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Methods Middle-aged adults (N=202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Results Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend≤0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (Ptrend≤0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (Ptrend<0.05). Decreased waist circumference was associated with improved bodily pain and general health but with reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend≤0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (Ptrend<0.02). Conclusions Monitoring adherence and tailoring exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance. PMID:23036856

  13. Cancer-related fatigue: can exercise physiology assist oncologists?

    PubMed

    Lucía, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Pérez, Margarita

    2003-10-01

    Most patients with cancer experience fatigue, a severe activity-limiting symptom with a multifactorial origin. To avoid cancer-related fatigue, patients are frequently advised to seek periods of rest and to reduce their amount of physical activity. This advice is reminiscent of that formerly given to patients with heart disease. However, such recommendations can paradoxically compound symptoms of fatigue, since sedentary habits induce muscle catabolism and thus cause a further decrease in functional capacity. By contrast, there is scientific evidence that an exercise programme of low to moderate intensity can substantially reduce cancer-related fatigue and improve the quality of life of these patients. Current knowledge, combined with findings soon to be published, could launch new opportunities for patients with cancer. In this new century, exercise physiology could soon prove to be very useful for oncologists.

  14. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed

    Overall, Rupert W; Walker, Tara L; Leiter, Odette; Lenke, Sina; Ruhwald, Susann; Kempermann, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing) nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  15. Simple exercise test for the prediction of relative heat tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, W.L.; Lewis, D.A.; Anderson, R.K.; Kamon, E.

    1986-04-01

    A medical screening exercise test is presented which accurately predicts relative heat tolerance during work in very hot environments. The test consisted of 15-20 min of exercise at a standard absolute intensity of about 600 kcal/hr (140W) with the subject wearing a vapor-barrier suit. Five minutes after the subject exercised, recovery heart rate was measured. When this heart rate is used, a physiological limit (+/- approximately 5 min) can be predicted with 95% confidence for the most intense work-heat conditions found in nuclear power stations. In addition, site health and safety personnel can establish qualification criteria for work on hot jobs, based on the test results. The test as developed can be performed in an office environment with the use of a minimum of equipment by personnel with minimal expertise and training. Total maximal test duration is about 20-25 min per person and only heart rate need be monitored (simple pulse palpation will suffice). Test modality is adaptable to any ergometer, the most readily available and least expensive of which is bench-stepping. It is recommended that this test be available for use for those persons who, based upon routine medical examination or past history, are suspected of being relatively heat intolerant.

  16. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Transient thermodynamics of electromagnetic media in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Barrabes, C.

    1985-04-01

    This paper is devoted to a study of the constitutive equations of relativistic electromagnetic media, when submitted to transitory processes, following the causal thermodynamics of Mueller--Israel. The formalism of differential geometry is used to describe the kinematical and dynamical evolution of the medium and the thermodynamical description is given in terms of local functional relations. According to the hypothesis of Mueller--Israel, the second-order terms in the deviation from thermodynamical equilibrium are taken into account in the expression of the entropy current. The relaxation terms which then appear in the transport equations restore the causality. Several cases corresponding to various kinds of media are investigated.

  18. Sport-Related Concussion Induces Transient Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L; Yarbrough, Mary Beth; Perez, Jose; Evans, Kelsey; Buckley, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that concussions may disrupt autonomic cardiovascular control. This study investigated the initial effects of concussion on cardiovascular function using three autonomic reflex tests. Twenty three recreational athletes (12 females, 11 males) were divided into concussed (n = 12) and control (n = 11) groups. Concussed participants performed forced breathing, standing and Valsalva autonomic tests four times: 1) within 48 hours of injury, 2) 24 hours later, 3) 1 week after injury and 4) 2 weeks after injury. The controls performed the same tests on the same schedule. Differences in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to the tests were continuously measured using finger photoplethysmography and were analyzed using repeated measures MANOVAs and ANOVAs. Within 48 hours of injury, the concussed group had significantly greater resting SBP (t21 = 2.44, P = 0.02, d = 1.03), HR (t21 = 2.33, P = 0.03, d = 1.01) and SBP responses to standing (t21 = 2.98, P = 0.01, d = 1.24), and 90% SBP normalization times (t21 = 2.64, P = 0.02, d = 1.10) after the Valsalva, but those group differences subsided 24 hours later. There was also a significant interaction with the HR responses to forced breathing (F3,60 = 4.13, P = 0.01, ηp(2) = 0.17), indicating the concussed responses declined relative to the control's over time. The results demonstrate that concussion disrupted autonomic cardiovascular control and that autonomic reflex tests are practical means by which to evaluate that dysfunction.

  19. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Hoffmann, J.P.; Fleming, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse-grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin-fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5-m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse-grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  1. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant... to exercise discretion to waive the applicable ground(s) of inadmissibility. USCIS may not waive...

  2. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant... to exercise discretion to waive the applicable ground(s) of inadmissibility. USCIS may not waive...

  3. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  4. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  5. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  6. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  7. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  8. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise.

  9. Relative logic cell placement for mitigation of charge sharing-induced transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddie, Bradley T.; Robinson, William H.

    2016-10-01

    Design of modern integrated circuits increasingly requires consideration of radiation effects, especially in space and other high-risk environments. With fabrication technologies scaling down both feature sizes and critical charge, a radiation strike in sub-100 nm technologies may affect multiple, physically adjacent nodes. With increasing clock speeds, transient errors in the processing datapath also increase in risk. Modeling single-event multiple-transients (SEMT) for pre-fabrication reliability characterization has become a more common design step, and this work adds to the state-of-the-art by providing a fast and physically-informed characterization flow that captures the effects of single-event multiple-node charge collection through experimentally observed transport mechanisms. Beyond characterization, the study of SEMT vulnerabilities reveals the electronic design automation (EDA) step of standard logic cell placement as a design space for hardening against SEMT-induced errors. This work: (1) analyzes the vulnerability of benchmark circuits against SEMT errors, (2) evaluates the impact of logic on transient propagation, (3) explores EDA placement techniques, and (4) builds an automated design flow for relative placement of cells to mask transient errors, while maintaining compatibility with other radiation hardening techniques. Zero cost to area and marginal impact on timing enable this new cell placement algorithm that masks 30% of SEMT-induced errors.

  10. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  11. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  12. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  13. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  14. Nonlinear denoising of transient signals with application to event-related potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effern, A.; Lehnertz, K.; Schreiber, T.; Grunwald, T.; David, P.; Elger, C. E.

    2000-06-01

    We present a new wavelet-based method for the denoising of event-related potentials (ERPs), employing techniques recently developed for the paradigm of deterministic chaotic systems. The denoising scheme has been constructed to be appropriate for short and transient time sequences using circular state space embedding. Its effectiveness was successfully tested on simulated signals as well as on ERPs recorded from within a human brain. The method enables the study of individual ERPs against strong ongoing brain electrical activity.

  15. Pathological Motivations for Exercise and Eating Disorder Specific Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Brian; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Hausenblas, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen; Mitchell, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations among pathological motivations for exercise with eating disorder (ED) specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Method Survey data assessing ED severity (i.e., Eating Disorder Diagnostic Survey), ED specific HRQOL (i.e., Eating Disorders Quality of Life Instrument), and pathological motivations for exercise (i.e., Exercise Dependence Scale) were collected from female students (N = 387) at seven universities throughout the United States. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among exercise dependence, ED-specific HRQOL and ED severity, and the interaction of exercise dependence and ED severity on HRQOL scores. Results The overall model examining the impact of ED severity and exercise dependence (independent variables) on HRQOL (dependent variable) was significant and explained 16.1% of the variance in HRQOL scores. Additionally, the main effects for ED severity and exercise dependence and the interaction among ED severity and exercise dependence were significant, suggesting that the combined effects of ED severity and exercise dependence significantly impacts HRQOL. Discussion Our results suggest that pathological motivations for exercise may exacerbate ED’s detrimental impact on HRQOL. Our results offer one possible insight into why exercise may be associated with deleterious effects on ED HRQOL. Future research is needed to elucidate the relationship among psychological aspects of exercise, ED, and HRQOL. PMID:24136170

  16. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  17. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  18. [Impaired exercise-induced blood pressure control in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    An almost directly proportional increase in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate with exercise intensity has been reported in healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and pure autonomic failure (PAF) characterized by autonomic failure exhibit exercise-induced hypotension (EIH), prolonged hypotension following the cessation of exercise and exaggerated orthostatic hypotension after exercise. EIH, which can be the earliest symptom of PAF, provides a clue to the diagnosis of autonomic failure. Exercise-induced hypertension, which may be due to adrenergic receptor supersensitivity, may also be observed. BP during and after exercise was significantly lower in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in healthy subjects. Some PD patients exhibited symptoms related to EIH. PD patients who did not achieve 85% of target HR with treadmill testing lacked BP elevations during sub-maximal and peak exercise. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in exercise-induced BP elevations between PD patients with and without cardiac sympathetic denervation. Since BP control during exercise in PD was not affected by dosing with levodopa, exercise-related BP abnormalities in PD appear to manifest with the disease. These findings suggest that PD has impaired exercise-induced BP control, but not to the extent of MSA and PAF.

  19. Dynamic asymmetry of phosphocreatine concentration and O(2) uptake between the on- and off-transients of moderate- and high-intensity exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Kowalchuk, J M; Howe, F A; Griffiths, J R; Whipp, B J

    2002-06-15

    The on- and off-transient (i.e. phase II) responses of pulmonary oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) to moderate-intensity exercise (i.e. below the lactate threshold, theta;(L)) in humans has been shown to conform to both mono-exponentiality and 'on-off' symmetry, consistent with a system manifesting linear control dynamics. However above theta;(L) the V(O(2)) kinetics have been shown to be more complex: during high-intensity exercise neither mono-exponentiality nor 'on-off' symmetry have been shown to appropriately characterise the V(O(2)) response. Muscle [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) responses to exercise, however, have been proposed to be dynamically linear with respect to work rate, and to demonstrate 'on-off' symmetry at all work intenisties. We were therefore interested in examining the kinetic characteristics of the V(O(2)) and [PCr] responses to moderate- and high-intensity knee-extensor exercise in order to improve our understanding of the factors involved in the putative phosphate-linked control of muscle oxygen consumption. We estimated the dynamics of intramuscular [PCr] simultaneously with those of V(O(2)) in nine healthy males who performed repeated bouts of both moderate- and high-intensity square-wave, knee-extension exercise for 6 min, inside a whole-body magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) system. A transmit-receive surface coil placed under the right quadriceps muscle allowed estimation of intramuscular [PCr]; V(O(2)) was measured breath-by-breath using a custom-designed turbine and a mass spectrometer system. For moderate exercise, the kinetics were well described by a simple mono-exponential function (following a short cardiodynamic phase for V(O(2))), with time constants (tau) averaging: tauV(O(2))(,on) 35 +/- 14 s (+/- S.D.), tau[PCr](on) 33 +/- 12 s, tauV(O(2))(,off) 50 +/- 13 s and tau[PCr](off) 51 +/- 13 s. The kinetics for both V(O(2)) and [PCr] were more complex for high-intensity exercise. The fundamental phase expressing average tau values of tau

  20. A randomised controlled trial of aerobic exercise after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke to prevent cognitive decline: the MoveIT study protocol.

    PubMed

    Boss, H M; Van Schaik, S M; Deijle, I A; de Melker, E C; van den Berg, B T J; Scherder, E J A; Bosboom, W M J; Weinstein, H C; Van den Berg-Vos, R M

    2014-12-31

    Patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke are at risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. Currently, there is no known effective strategy to prevent this cognitive decline. Increasing evidence exists that physical exercise is beneficial for cognitive function. However, in patients with TIA or stroke who are at risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, only a few trials have been conducted. In this study, we aim to investigate whether a physical exercise programme (MoveIT) can prevent cognitive decline in patients in the acute phase after a TIA or minor ischaemic stroke. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial will be conducted to investigate the effect of an aerobic exercise programme on cognition compared with usual care. 120 adult patients with a TIA or minor ischaemic stroke less than 1 month ago will be randomly allocated to an exercise programme consisting of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme and regular follow-up visits to a specialised physiotherapist during the period of 1 year or to usual care. Outcome measures will be assessed at the baseline, and at the 1-year and 2-year follow-up. The primary outcome is cognitive functioning measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and with additional neuropsychological tests. Secondary outcomes include maximal exercise capacity, self-reported physical activity and measures of secondary prevention. The study received ethical approval from the VU University Amsterdam Ethics committee (2011/383). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. We will also disseminate the main results to our participants in a letter. The Nederlands Trial Register NTR3884. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Serial right ventricle /sup 201/Tl imaging after exercise: relation to anatomy of the right coronary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-12-01

    The relation of the appearance of the right ventricle on serium /sup 201/Tl myocardial imaging to coronary artery anatomy was examined in 88 consecutive patients undergoing exercise /sup 201/Tl testing and coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. Transient defects in the right ventricle were found in 8 patients. All had high grade (greater than or equal to 90%) stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery. Nonvisualization of right ventricular (RV) activity occurred in 10 patients. Nine of the 10 (90%) had significant (greater than or equal to 50% stenosis) disease of the proximal right coronary artery and 7 (70%) had high grade stenosis. The right ventricle appeared normal in 70 patients. Twenty-nine (41%) of these patients had significant proximal right coronary artery disease. Right ventricular appearance was not affected by the presence or absence of disease of the left anterior descending or left circumflex artery or by the appearance of the left ventricle. Thus, with serial RV thallium-201 myocardial imaging after exercise, we found that (1) RV transient defects suggest the presence of high grade proximal right coronary artery stenosis, (2) non-visualization of RV activity also predicts significant proximal right coronary disease, and (3) the right ventricle frequently appears normal despite proximal right coronary artery disease and therefore this finding does not exclude such disease.

  2. Comparison between a steady-state and a transient flow model and related radionuclide concentration predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, M.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Radionuclide concentration predictions in aquifers play an important role in estimating impact of planned surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF), who also coordinates and leads the corresponding research. Long-term concentration predictions are based on a steady-state flow solution obtained by a cascade of multi-scale models from the catchment to the detailed (site) scale performed in MODFLOW. To test the concept and accuracy of the groundwater flow solution and conservativeness of the concentration predictions obtained therewith, a transient model, considered more realistic, was set up in a sub-domain of the intermediate scale steady-state model. Besides the modelling domain reduction, the transient model was and exact copy of the steady-state model, having the infiltration as the only time-varying parameter. The transient model was run for a twenty-year period, whereas the results were compared to the steady-state results based on infiltration value and observations averaged over the same period. The comparison of the steady-state and transient flow solutions includes the analyses of the goodness of fit, the parameter sensitivities, relative importance of the individual observations and one-percent sensitivity maps. The steady-state and transient flow solutions were subsequently translated into a site-scale transport model, used to predict the radionuclide concentrations in a hypothetical well in the aquifers. The translation of the flow solutions between the models of distinct scales was performed using the Local grid refinement method available in MODFLOW. In the site-scale models, MT3DMS transport simulations were performed to obtain respective concentration predictions in a hypothetical well, situated at 70 meters from the disposal tumuli. The equilibrium concentrations based on a constant source flux achieved using a steady-state solution were then

  3. Endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression and transiently decreases mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Miki; Tsunekawa, Haruka; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Murakami, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Working muscle conserves adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscle contraction by attenuating protein synthesis through several different pathways. Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is one candidate protein that can itself attenuate muscle protein synthesis during muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated whether endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression in association with decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex I (mTORC1) signaling and global protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. After overnight fasting, rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 60 min, and were killed before and immediately, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after exercise. REDD1 mRNA and corresponding protein levels increased rapidly immediately after exercise, and gradually decreased back to the basal level over a period of 6 h in the gastrocnemius muscle. Phosphorylation of mTOR Ser2448 and S6K1 Thr389 increased with the exercise, but diminished in 1–3 h into the recovery period after cessation of exercise. The rate of protein synthesis, as determined by the surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) method, was not altered by exercise in fasted muscle. These results suggest that REDD1 attenuates exercise‐induced mTORC1 signaling. This may be one mechanism responsible for blunting muscle protein synthesis during exercise and in the early postexercise recovery period. PMID:25539833

  4. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (p<0.001). These findings are important as several chronic health conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomized controlled trial to assess the central hemodynamic response to exercise in patients with transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, J; Tzeng, Y-C; Lambrick, D; Woolley, B; Allan, P D; O'Donnell, T; Lanford, J; Wong, L; Stoner, L

    2017-01-01

    Early exercise engagement elicits meaningful changes in peripheral blood pressure in patients diagnosed with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. However, central hemodynamic markers may provide clinicians with important diagnostic and prognostic information beyond that provided by peripheral blood pressure readings. The purpose of this single-centre, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial was to determine the effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on central and peripheral hemodynamic variables in patients with TIA or minor stroke. In this study, 47 participants (66±10 years) completed a baseline assessment, which involved the measurement of central and peripheral hemodynamic parameters, undertaken in the morning, in a fasted state. Participants were randomized to either a 12-week exercise or control group on completion of the baseline assessment. An identical follow-up assessment was completed post intervention. Central hemodynamic variables were assessed using an oscillometric device at both assessments. Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant interaction for central and peripheral blood pressure and augmentation index (all P<0.05; ηp2.09–.11), with the exercise group presenting lower values than the control group post intervention (118±17 vs 132±28 mm Hg for central blood pressure; 125±19 vs 138±28 mm Hg for peripheral blood pressure; 104±49 vs 115±67% for augmentation index). The present study demonstrates that participation in an exercise program soon after stroke/TIA diagnosis may elicit significant beneficial changes to a patient's central systolic blood pressure and augmentation index. This may positively impact upon the treatment strategies implemented by clinicians in the care of patients with TIA and minor stroke. PMID:27680390

  6. Exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions following transient cerebral ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in rats.

    PubMed

    Tahamtan, Mahshid; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Taghipour, Zahra; Taghavi, Mohsen; Khodadadi, Hassan; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that exercise decreases ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Since behavioral deficits are the main outcome in patients after stroke, our study was designed to investigate whether exercise preconditioning improves the acute behavioral functions and also brain inflammatory injury following cerebral ischemia. Male rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly allocated into five experimental groups. Exercise was performed on a treadmill 30min/day for 3 weeks. Ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion method. Recognition memory was assessed by novel object recognition task (NORT) and step-through passive avoidance task. Sensorimotor function and motor movements were evaluated by adhesive removal test and ledged beam-walking test, respectively. Brain inflammatory injury was evaluated by histological assessment. In NORT, the discrimination ratio was decreased after ischemia (P < 0.05) and exercise preconditioning improved it in ischemic animals. In the passive avoidance test, a significant reduction in response latency was observed in the ischemic group. Exercise preconditioning significantly decreased the response latency in the ischemic rats (P < 0.001). In the adhesive removal test, latency to touch and remove the sticky labels from forepaw was increased following induction of ischemia (all P < 0.001) and exercise preconditioning decreased these indices compared to the ischemic group (all P < 0.001). In the ledged beam-walking test, the slip ratio was increased following ischemia (P < 0.05).  In the ischemia group, marked neuronal injury in hippocampus was observed. These neuropathological changes were attenuated by exercise preconditioning (P < 0.001). Our results showed that exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions and maintains more viable cells in the dorsal hippocampus of the ischemic brain.

  7. Exercise behavior and related factors in career women - the case of a bank in Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang, Mei

    2004-09-01

    With the trend of premature aging of physiological functions on the rise and a variety of chronic diseases continuing to spread, health promotion has become the top concern among public health experts. Regular exercise plays a pivotal role in both health promotion and disease prevention. This study aims to investigate the exercise behavior of career women and related factors. The samples were drawn from the female employees of a bank in Taipei, totaling 361 persons, all aged between 20 and 56. The result shows that only 8.6 % of the respondents exercise regularly and that among the reasons for not doing any exercise, " Don ' t have time for it " tops the list. Self-efficacy in exercise is found to be the common factor for predicting both exercise regularity and total exercise amount. Exercise intervention programs thus must be developed on the basis of female self-efficacy with a " family-oriented " activity design. It is therefore suggested that employers promote exercise and encourage exercise behaviors to help enhance employee self-efficacy as well as employee health.

  8. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P < 0.001). PAWP increased similarly at light exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P < 0.05 condition-sex interaction). The change in PAWP relative to the increase in cardiac output did not exceed 2 mm Hg·L·min in any volunteer at moderate exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  9. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue.

  10. Exercise Self-Efficacy Moderates the Relation between Anxiety Sensitivity and Body Mass Index and Exercise Tolerance in Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Davis, Michelle L.; Rosenfield, David; Kauffman, Brooke Y.; Baird, Scarlett O.; Powers, Mark B.; Otto, Michael W.; Marcus, Bess H.; Church, Timothy S.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smokers. Smokers (n = 72; 50% female; Mcpd = 19.3, SD = 10.65) were recruited to participate in a smoking cessation treatment trial. During medical screen, we measured weight, height, and exercise tolerance (functional capacity) employing a standardized maximal exercise testing protocol. After adjusting for participant sex and cigarettes per day, exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI, such that the positive association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. The same pattern of results emerged for exercise tolerance. Exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance, such that the negative association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. Among smokers, anxiety sensitivity may be a risk variable that, directly and indirectly in the context of low self-efficacy for exercise, causes or maintains higher body weight and lower exercise tolerance. PMID:27725844

  11. Exercise training improves obesity-related lymphatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; Savetsky, Ira L; García Nores, Gabriela D; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Nitti, Matthew D; Gardenier, Jason C; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z; Jones, Lee W; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P < 0.01). Aerobic exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene

  12. Enhancing Vocabulary Acquisition Through Reading: A Hierarchy of Text-Related Exercise Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paribakht, T. Sima; Wesche, Marjorie

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classification scheme for reading-related exercises advocated in English-as-a-Foreign-Language textbooks. The scheme proposes a hierarchy of the degree and type of mental processing required by various vocabulary exercises. The categories of classification are selective attention, recognition, manipulation, interpretation and…

  13. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant....C. 1182(d)(14), if it determines that it is in the public or national interest to...

  14. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant....C. 1182(d)(14), if it determines that it is in the public or national interest to...

  15. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant....C. 1182(d)(14), if it determines that it is in the public or national interest to...

  16. Investigating the Relative Exercise Intensity of Exergames in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A

    2016-04-01

    The literature remains equivocal as to whether exergames elicit energy expenditure (EE) commensurate with physical activity guidelines. Such discrepancies may be attributable to a reliance on absolute exercise intensities, which fail to account for differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Thirty-four prepubertal children (20 boys, 14 girls; 10.8 ± 1.0 years old) completed a 30-minute exergame (two 15-minute games from "Kinect Adventures! Xbox 360" [Microsoft, Redmond, WA]) and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) throughout which breath-by-breath gas exchange was measured. Both games elicited moderate-intensity physical activity (5.7 ± 1.5 and 5.5 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]), with 36 percent demonstrating a mean EE in excess of 6.0 METs, commensurate with vigorous intensity. Furthermore, boys demonstrated higher EE during both games (boys versus girls: Game 1, 6.0 ± 1.7 versus 5.2 ± 1.0 METs; Game 2, 6.0 ± 1.4 versus girls, 4.9 ± 1.2 METs; P < 0.05). Hierarchical linear regression revealed sex, maturity, and fitness to be significant predictors of EE, accounting for 24 percent of the variance: relative exergame [Formula: see text] = 24.53 + (2.12 × Sex) - (0.42 × Maturity offset) - (0.16 × Relative peak [Formula: see text]). There was no correlation between absolute [Formula: see text] during the exergames and peak [Formula: see text], but [Formula: see text] expressed as a percentage of peak [Formula: see text] was correlated with peak [Formula: see text] during both Game 1 (r = -0.62, P < 0.01) and Game 2 (r = -0.59, P < 0.01). The present findings provide further evidence that exergames can elicit EE values commensurate with national physical activity guidelines and extend our understanding of the mediators of EE. Specifically, cardiorespiratory fitness and sex must both be considered in the design and implementation

  17. Novel Measure of Driver and Vehicle Interaction Demonstrates Transient Changes Related to Alerting

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Justin R.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control. PMID:25356659

  18. Exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

    PubMed

    Reinking, Mark F

    2006-09-01

    Exercise-related leg pain is a common complaint among athletes, but there is little evidence regarding risk factors for this condition in female collegiate athletes. To examine prospectively the effect of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the development of exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Subjects were 76 female collegiate athletes participating in fall season sports, including cross-country running, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball. Athletes were seen for a pre-season examination that included measures of height, weight, foot pronation, and calf muscle length as well as a questionnaire for disordered eating behaviors. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight (kg/m(2)). Those athletes who developed exercise-related leg pain during the season were seen for follow-up. All athletes who developed the condition and a matched group without such leg pain underwent bone mineral density and body composition testing. Statistical analyses of differences and relationships were conducted. Of the 76 athletes, 58 (76%) reported a history of exercise-related leg pain, and 20 (26%) reported occurrence of exercise-related leg pain during the season. A history of this condition was strongly associated with its occurrence during the season (odds ratio, 13.2). Exercise-related leg pain was most common among field hockey and cross-country athletes and least common among soccer players. There were no differences between athletes with and without such leg pain regarding age, muscle length, self-reported eating behaviors, body mass index, menstrual function, or bone mineral density. Athletes with exercise-related leg pain had significantly (P < .05) greater navicular drop compared with those without. Exercise-related leg pain was common among this group of female athletes. The results suggest that there are certain factors, including foot pronation, sport, and a history of this condition, that are

  19. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  20. Effects of horseback riding exercise on the relative alpha power spectrum in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun

    The present study aimed to identify the effects of horseback riding and mechanical horseback riding exercise on the relative α-power spectrum in the elderly. A total of 31 healthy elderly were randomly divided into horseback riding (n=15) and mechanical horseback riding exercise groups (n=16). The horseback riding exercise program was conducted for 25min twice a week for 12 weeks. Two-way repeated analysis of variance was used to identify the changes in measured variables before the exercise program, and after 6 and 12 weeks of the program. The horseback riding exercise group showed an increase in relative fast alpha power in the background electroencephalogram, and the mechanical horseback riding exercise group showed an increase in relative slow alpha power. Both horseback riding and mechanical horseback riding exercises activated the EEG in all domains, thus increasing concentration and restfulness. The results suggested that horseback riding and mechanical horseback riding exercise may have a positive effect on psychological stability in the elderly.

  1. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y; Pasquale, Louis R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  2. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Main outcome measure(s) Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Results Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03–2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67–21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95

  3. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity.

  4. Congestive hepatopathy after Fontan operation and related factors assessed by transient elastography.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung Won; Choi, Jae Young; Eun, Lucy Youngmin; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan; Kim, Seung Up

    2014-10-01

    Congestive hepatopathy after a Fontan operation can have a major effect on long-term morbidity. We evaluated congestive hepatopathy in patients with Fontan circulation using transient elastography to determine which risk factors for hepatopathy are related to liver stiffness (LS). We evaluated 46 patients with Fontan circulation and 26 with right side heart failure (RHF) and hepatic congestion using laboratory tests, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, ultrasonography, and transient elastography. The LS value was significantly greater in the Fontan group (21.1±8.0 kPa) than in the RHF group (10.0±9.0 kPa). The total bilirubin and albumin serum levels, white blood cell count, and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index correlated significantly with LS in the Fontan group. Of the risk factors, age at evaluation (r=0.42, P=.004), age at Fontan completion (r=0.51, P<.001), inferior vena cava diameter (r=0.35, P=.02), and spleen size (r=0.53, P=.002) correlated significantly with LS. Nineteen patients in the Fontan group (41.3%) had abnormal ultrasound findings, and the frequency of abnormal findings increased with increasing LS (P=.002). In the subgroup with the greatest LS value (≥30 kPa), 88.9% had abnormal ultrasound findings and 44.4% liver cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that age at Fontan procedure completion and total bilirubin were independent risk factors for hepatopathy. The present study revealed that congestive hepatopathy developed in a significant fraction of patients with long-term Fontan circulation and that transient elastography could be an easy and useful method to assess congestive hepatopathy in these patients. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroimaging Studies of Factors Related to Exercise: Rationale and design of a 9 month trial

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Martin, Laura E.; Breslin, Florence J.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Willis, Erik A.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Befort, Christie A.; Lambourne, Kate; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high resulting from chronic imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. On the expenditure side, regular exercise is associated with health benefits, including enhanced brain function. The benefits of exercise are not immediate and require persistence to be realized. Brain regions associated with health-related decisions, such as whether or not to exercise or controlling the impulse to engage in immediately rewarding activities (e.g., sedentary behavior), include reward processing and cognitive control regions. A 9 month aerobic exercise study will be conducted in 180 sedentary adults (n = 90 healthy weight [BMI= 18.5 to 26.0 kg/m2]; n = 90 obese [BMI=29.0 to 41.0 kg/m2) to examine the brain processes underlying reward processing and impulse control that may affect adherence in a new exercise regimen. The primary aim is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine reward processing and impulse control among participants that adhere (exercise >80% of sessions) and those that do not adhere to a nine-month exercise intervention with secondary analyses comparing sedentary obese and sedentary healthy weight participants. Our results will provide valuable information characterizing brain activation underlying reward processing and impulse control in sedentary obese and healthy weight individuals. In addition, our results may identify brain activation predictors of adherence and success in the exercise program along with measuring the effects of exercise and improved fitness on brain activation. PMID:24291150

  6. Neuroimaging studies of factors related to exercise: rationale and design of a 9 month trial.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Stephen D; Martin, Laura E; Breslin, Florence J; Honas, Jeffery J; Willis, Erik A; Lepping, Rebecca J; Gibson, Cheryl A; Befort, Christie A; Lambourne, Kate; Burns, Jeffrey M; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Washburn, Richard A; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high resulting from chronic imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. On the expenditure side, regular exercise is associated with health benefits, including enhanced brain function. The benefits of exercise are not immediate and require persistence to be realized. Brain regions associated with health-related decisions, such as whether or not to exercise or controlling the impulse to engage in immediately rewarding activities (e.g., sedentary behavior), include reward processing and cognitive control regions. A 9 month aerobic exercise study will be conducted in 180 sedentary adults (n = 90 healthy weight [BMI = 18.5 to 26.0 kg/m(2)]; n = 90 obese [BMI = 29.0 to 41.0 kg/m(2)) to examine the brain processes underlying reward processing and impulse control that may affect adherence in a new exercise regimen. The primary aim is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine reward processing and impulse control among participants that adhere (exercise >80% of sessions) and those that do not adhere to a nine-month exercise intervention with secondary analyses comparing sedentary obese and sedentary healthy weight participants. Our results will provide valuable information characterizing brain activation underlying reward processing and impulse control in sedentary obese and healthy weight individuals. In addition, our results may identify brain activation predictors of adherence and success in the exercise program along with measuring the effects of exercise and improved fitness on brain activation.

  7. Relationship between exercise-induced heart rate increase and the formation of microbubbles and high-intensity transient signals in mechanical heart valve implanted patients.

    PubMed

    Sünbül, Ayşegül; Kırbaş, Ahmet; Tanrıkulu, Nursen; Sengül, Cihan; Dağdeviren, Bahadır; Işık, Omer

    2014-08-29

    The formation and collapse of vapor-filled bubbles near a mechanical heart valve is called cavitation. Microbubbles can be detected in vivo by doppler ultrasonography (USG) as HITS (high intensity transient signals) in cranial circulation. We investigated the relationship between exercise induced heart rate increase and HITS formation in cranial circulation. Thirty-nine mechanical heart valve implanted (8 aortic valve replacement (AVR) + mitral valve replacement (MVR), 9 AVR, 22 MVR) patients aged 18-80 years old were included in our study. Microbubbles were counted in the left ventricular cavity via transthoracic echocardiography at rest per cardiac cycle. Afterwards transcranial Doppler USG was performed and HITS were counted in each patient's middle cerebral artery at 5 min duration. Subsequently an exercise test according to the Bruce protocol was performed. After achieving maximal heart rate, microbubbles in the left ventricle and HITS were counted again. Microbubbles in the left ventricle and transcranial HITS increased after exercise significantly compared to resting values (15.79 ±10.91 microbubbles/beat vs. 26.51 ±18.00 microbubbles/beat, p < 0.001; 6.13 ±8.07 HITS/5 min vs. 13.15 ±15.87 HITS/5 min, p = 0.001). There was a significant correlation between microbubbles and HITS counts after peak exercise (r = 0.55, p < 0.001). In our study, we found that the microbubbles were increasing as the heart rate increased and more HITS were propelled to the cerebral circulation. As previously shown, HITS can alter cognitive functions. Therefore heart rate control is essential in mechanical heart valve patients to protect neurocognitive functions.

  8. Examining the Moderating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relation Between Exercise and Self-Efficacy During the Initiation of Regular Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (p<.001) indicated that self-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850

  9. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Döhring, Juliane; Schmuck, Alexander; Bartsch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The transient global amnesia (TGA) is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 field of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18% (n = 24) patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73%) did show typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought

  10. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  11. The Prevalence of Exercise Prescription-Related Course Offerings in United States Pharmacy School Curricula: Exercise is Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.; Griffiths, Carrie L.; Gibson, Jacob L.; Luu, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is…

  12. The Prevalence of Exercise Prescription-Related Course Offerings in United States Pharmacy School Curricula: Exercise is Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.; Griffiths, Carrie L.; Gibson, Jacob L.; Luu, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is…

  13. Exercise during pregnancy and gestational diabetes-related adverse effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ruben; Pelaez, Mireia; Lopez, Carmina; Lucia, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effect of regular moderate-intensity exercise (three training sessions/week) on the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, primary outcome). We also examined if the exercise intervention modifies the association between GDM and birth weight and risk of macrosomia, gestational age, risk of caesarean delivery and maternal weight gain (secondary outcomes). We randomly assigned 510 healthy gravida to either an exercise intervention or a usual care (control) group (n=255 each). The exercise programme focused on moderate-intensity resistance and aerobic exercises (three times/week, 50-55 min/session). GDM diabetes was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria and the International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). The intervention did not reduce the risk of developing GDM (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.40) when using the WHO criteria. We observed that the intervention reduced by 58% the GDM-related risk (WHO criteria) of having a newborn with macrosomia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.04 to 78.90 vs 4.22, 95% CI 1.35 to 13.19) in exercise and control groups, respectively), and by 34% the GDM-related risk of having acute and elective caesarean delivery (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.84 vs 1.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 4.06 in exercise and control groups, respectively). Gestational age was similar across the treatment groups (control, exercise) and GDM category (GDM or non-GDM), and maternal weight gain was ∼12% lower in the exercise group independent of whether women developed GDM. The results were similar when the IADPSG criteria were used instead. Regular moderate-intensity exercise performed over the second-third trimesters of pregnancy can be used to attenuate important GDM-related adverse outcomes.

  14. Transient and steady-state relative permeabilities from two-phase flow experiments in planar pore networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakiroglou, C. D.; Avraam, D. G.; Payatakes, A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The water krw and oil kro relative permeability curves of a glass-etched planar pore network are estimated with history matching from transient displacement experiments performed at varying values of the capillary number, Ca, for two fluid systems: one of intermediate and one of strong wettability. The transient k,k are compared to corresponding ones measured with the steady-state method on the same porous medium [Avraam DG, Payatakes AC. Flow regimes and relative permeabilities during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. J Fluid Mech 1995;293:207-36; Avraam DG, Payatakes AC. Generalized relative permeability coefficients during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media and correlation with the flow mechanisms. Transport Porous Med 1995;20:135-68; Avraam DG, Payatakes AC. Flow mechanisms, relative permeabilities, and coupling effects in steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. The case of strong wettability. Ind Eng Chem Res 1999;38:778-86.], and potential differences from them are interpreted in the light of the differences between the transient growth pattern, and the steady-state two-phase flow regime. For intermediate wettability, the transient kro and krw exceed the corresponding steady-state functions at low Ca values and have the tendency to become smaller than the steady-state ones at high Ca values. For strong wettability, the transient kro and krw are increasing functions of Ca, the transient kro is higher than the steady-state one, whereas the transient krw decreases substantially and becomes lower than the steady-state one at low Ca values. The dynamic capillary pressure estimated from transient experiments is a decreasing function of Ca in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental studies.

  15. Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in lung cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paramanandam, V S; Dunn, V

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is a common, persistent and disabling side-effect of the cancer and its treatments. Exercise, once was contraindicated, is now the key non-pharmacological management for cancer-related fatigue. However, the role of exercise in lung cancer cohort is not clear. A computerised database search was undertaken using keyword search in the CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, AMED and Web of Science. Ten relevant articles were reviewed; the evidence on this cohort was found to be limited, warrants further research. However, the available evidence from other than lung cancer groups shows significant beneficial effects of exercises on cancer-related fatigue. Hence, exercises could possibly be used in the management of cancer-related fatigue in this cohort with due caution until more robust evidences are available.

  16. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  17. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  18. Tai Chi vs. combined exercise prescription: A comparison of their effects on factors related to falls.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Pelin; Ofluoglu, Demet; Aydogan, Seda; Akyuz, Gulseren

    2016-08-10

    Regular exercise training is one of the core components of multifactorial fall-prevention programs. To compare the effect of Tai Chi and combined exercise prescription that consists of three main components of an exercise prescription on static balance, dynamic balance, fear of falling and mood. Sixty older adults aged 55-76 were randomly assigned to Group 1 (Tai Chi exercise) or Group 2 (combined exercise prescription). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 12 weeks. Single Leg-Stance-Eyes Open (SLS-EO), Single Leg-Stance Eyes Closed (SLS-EC), computerized balance measurements, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the elderly (SAFFE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were assessed before and after the final training session. Both exercise groups yielded better results in dynamic balance assessments (TUG and BBS) at the 12th week (p< 0.05). Group 1 also showed significant improvements in the measurements of SLS-EO, SLS-EC, SAFFE, GDS, and BDS during the post-intervention period (all p< 0.05). When the groups were compared, a significant difference was found between groups in favor of Group 1 in terms of the SLS-EO and SAFFE (p< 0.05). It can be concluded that Tai Chi may be a more successful exercise intervention for factors-related to falls in older people.

  19. Selenite transiently represses transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Valeria; Del Vescovo, Valerio; Di Sanza, Claudio; Negri, Rodolfo; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    A striking response of potato leaves to aspersion with selenite was observed at the transcriptional level by means of cDNA microarrays analysis. This response is characterized by a general transient repression of genes coding for components of photosynthetic systems and of other light-regulated genes. In particular, maximal repression was observed 8 h after selenite aspersion, while 24 h after the treatment a complete recovery of normal transcriptional levels was detected. Another general feature of the transcriptional response to selenite is represented by the transcriptional induction of genes related to amino acid metabolism, and to stress defense; interestingly, two genes coding for glutathione S-transferases were found early-induced upon selenite treatment.

  20. [Study on relations between transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and pungent property of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Ren, Zhen-Zhen; Bao, Hong-Juan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The five-flavor theory of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and the flavor efficacy generation mechanism has long been focuses and difficulties in studies on traditional Chinese medicinal properties. In this paper, by using the pharmacophore-based virtual screening technique, the authors discussed the relations between the pungent property and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by studying the TCM components' role in regulating TRPV1 ion channel. The results showed that the matching relationship between TRPV1 agonist pharmacophore model and TCM chemical components could identify the active ingredients from pungent herbs. Therefore, the authors proposed that TRPV1 is one of the potential targets for efficient pungent herbs. The pungent property of TCMs is decided by its chemical components, and consistent with the inherited and additive characteristics.

  1. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.08-2 Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and... voting, or if the exercise of voting results in the imposition of unwarranted trading or...

  2. Exercise reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity-related liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Warabi, Eiji; Shoda, Junichi

    2013-12-01

    Weight reduction remains the most common therapy advocated for the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. Recently, a beneficial effect of exercise regimens for liver dysfunction, independent of weight reduction, has been reported. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether exercise training without dietary restriction in obese, middle-age men influences the pathophysiology of abnormal liver function. A total of 108 subjects who completed a 12-wk exercise training program without any dietary restriction were analyzed in this study; these results were compared with those of 104 subjects who completed a 12-wk dietary restriction program. Furthermore, 42 of these subjects (from both groups) who had abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score were analyzed to obtain a more concrete outcome for exercise-training effects. In exercise training, although the magnitude of body-weight reduction (-3.1% vs -8.5%), waist circumference (-4.0% vs -7.1%), and visceral adipose tissue area (-12.2% vs -22.5%) was significantly more modest than that achieved by dietary restriction, exercise training elicited equivalent reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels (-20.6% vs -16.1% and -25.7% vs -34.0%) and equivalent improvement of insulin resistance (-29.7% vs -26.9%). Moreover, exercise training remarkably increased the serum adiponectin level (+33.4% vs +15.1%). Importantly, for subjects with abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis, exercise training was effective in reducing the serum levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers: ferritin and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (-25.0% vs +1.1% and -33.5% vs -10.5%). Exercise training benefits the management of obesity-related liver diseases independent of detectable weight reduction. Particularly, these effects seem to be acquired through an improvement in the hepatic

  3. Tacrolimus Triggers Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1-Dependent Relapse of Pancreatitis-Related Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuka; Tsubota, Maho; Sugo, Hiiragi; Wakitani, Kohei; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Wada, Kyoichi; Takada, Mitsutaka; Oita, Akira; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expressed in nociceptors is directly phosphorylated and activated by protein kinase C, and involved in the signaling of pancreatic pain. On the other hand, Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels expressed in nociceptors are functionally upregulated by phosphorylation with protein kinase A and also play a role in pancreatitis-related pain. Calcineurin, a phosphatase, negatively regulates various channel functions including TRPV1, and calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome by tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant, has been a clinical problem. We thus examined the effect of tacrolimus on pancreatitis-related pain in mice. Repeated treatment with cerulein caused referred hyperalgesia accompanying acute pancreatitis, which was unaffected by tacrolimus. Pancreatitis-related symptoms disappeared in 24 h, whereas the referred hyperalgesia recurred following the administration of tacrolimus, which was abolished by the blockers of TRPV1 but not T-type Ca2+ channels. Thus, tacrolimus appears to cause the TRPV1-dependent relapse of pancreatitis-related pain, suggesting the involvement of calcineurin in the termination of pancreatic pain.

  4. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, Wade H

    2016-09-01

    Arm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise, but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to characterize the relationship of peak arm exercise heart rate responses to abnormal stress test findings, coronary revascularization, and mortality in patients unable to perform leg exercise. From 1997 until 2002, arm cycle ergometer stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans age 64.1 yr (11.0 yr) (mean (SD)), of whom 253 also underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Patients were categorized by frequency distributions of quartiles of percentage age-predicted peak heart rate (APPHR), heart rate reserve (HRR), and peak heart rate-systolic blood pressure product (PRPP). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression, abnormal MPI findings, coronary revascularization, and 12.0-yr (1.3 yr) Kaplan-Meier all-cause and cardiovascular mortality plots were then characterized by quartiles of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP. A reduced frequency of abnormal arm exercise ECG results was associated only with the lowest quartile of APPHR (≤69%) and HRR (≤43%), whereas higher frequency of abnormal MPI findings exhibited an inverse relationship trend with lower APPHR (P = 0.10) and HRR (P = 0.12). There was a strong inverse association of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP with all-cause (all P ≤ 0.01) and cardiovascular (P < 0.05) mortality. The frequency of coronary revascularization was unrelated to APPHR or HRR. Arm exercise ECG stress test sensitivity is only reduced at ≤69% APPHR or ≤43% HRR, whereas arm exercise MPI sensitivity and referral for coronary revascularization after arm exercise stress testing are not adversely affected by even a severely blunted peak heart rate. However, both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality are strongly and inversely related to APPHR and HRR.

  5. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, C.; Elgzyri, T.; Ström, K.; Almgren, P.; Parikh, H.; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T.; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C.; Tornberg, Å. B.; Wollmer, P.; Eriksson, K. F.; Groop, L.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH−). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH−. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH− insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH− groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH− group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH− compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH− participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals. PMID:26338460

  6. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals.

  7. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories about the relation of blood electrolytes and exercise to thermoregulation in man are reviewed. It is shown that the elevation of body temperature during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of the heat dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence of variations in plasma volume.

  8. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories about the relation of blood electrolytes and exercise to thermoregulation in man are reviewed. It is shown that the elevation of body temperature during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of the heat dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence of variations in plasma volume.

  9. The influence of fatigue-induced increase in relative work rate on temperature regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kacin, Alan; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2008-05-01

    Heat-loss responses during steady-load exercise are affected by an increase in relative work rate induced by muscle ischaemia or hypoxaemia. The present study investigated whether progressive increases in perception of exertion and relative oxygen uptake %VO2peak which occur during prolonged steady-load exercise as a result of progressively increased peripheral fatigue, might also affect the regulation of heat loss responses and hence the exercise-induced increase in mean body temperature. Ten male subjects first performed a ramp-test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to evaluate their initial peak oxygen uptake (Control VO2peak). On a separate day, 120 min of cycling at constant power output corresponding to 60% of Control VO2peak was performed in thermoneutral environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 50%, wind speed = 5 m s(-1)). This was immediately followed by another maximal performance test (Fatigue VO2peak). During prolonged exercise, median (range) rating of perceived exertion for whole-body (RPEwb) increased (P < 0.01) from initial 3.5 (1-5) to 5.5 (5-9) at the end of exercise. Fatigue VO2peak and peak power output were 9 (5) and 10 (5)% lower (P < 0.01) when compared to control values. At the onset of exercise, heat production, mechanical efficiency, heat loss and mean body temperature increased towards asymptotic values, thereafter remained constant throughout the 120 min exercise, despite the concomitant progressive increase in relative work rate, as reflected in increased RPEwb and relative oxygen uptake. It is thus concluded that the increase in relative work rate induced predominantly by peripheral muscle fatigue affects neither the level of increase in mean body temperature nor the regulation of heat loss responses during prolonged steady-load exercise.

  10. Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Aging populations are a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries. This issue raises serious concerns for both governments and the general population. Regular participation in physical activity and/or exercise training programs can minimize the physiological alterations that occur during aging and may contribute to improvements in health and well-being. The present review will discuss the role of regular exercise training in preventing age-related physiological decline and, consequently, associated chronic diseases. Compelling evidence that regular exercise and/or physical activity can improve quality of life, prevent or control the development of chronic disease and increase life expectancy is shown. In summary, regular exercise training and/or physical activity has an important influence on aging and may help to prevent age-related disorders. PMID:23778419

  11. Aerobic exercise training attenuates obesity-related hypogonadism in male rats.

    PubMed

    You, Tongjian; Disanzo, Beth L; Arsenis, Nicole C

    2013-07-01

    Hypogonadism is associated with obesity and other features of metabolic syndrome in males. The purpose of this study was to compare lean and obese male Zucker rats on their reproductive endocrine function in response to aerobic exercise training. Lean (Fa/Fa) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats at 2 months of age were randomly assigned to a sedentary and an aerobic exercise training group (lean sedentary, n = 7; lean exercise, n = 8; obese sedentary, n = 7; obese exercise, n = 7). The exercise group walked on a rat treadmill, starting at 10 m · min(-1) for 20 min and building up to 20 m · min(-1) for 60 min, five times per week for 8 wk. Serum levels of total and free testosterone and testicular levels of testosterone, as well as epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 release levels, were measured. There were significant obesity-by-exercise interactions on serum levels of total and free testosterone and testicular levels of testosterone (all P < 0.05). Compared to lean sedentary rats, obese sedentary rats had lower serum and testicular testosterone levels (0.72- to 0.74-fold, all P < 0.001). There were no group differences between lean sedentary and lean exercise rats on serum and testicular testosterone levels. However, compared to the obese sedentary group, the obese exercise group had higher serum and testicular testosterone levels (1.37- to 1.47-fold, all P < 0.05). In the whole cohort, serum and testicular testosterone levels were inversely related to epididymal adipose tissue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 secretion (r = -0.40 to r = -0.45, all P < 0.05). Our results support that aerobic exercise training could improve severe obesity-related hypogonadism in male Zucker rats. The underlying mechanism needs to be further clarified.

  12. Changes in the leukocyte methylome and its effect on cardiovascular-related genes after exercise.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-02-15

    Physical exercise has proven cardiovascular benefits, yet there is no clear understanding of the related molecular mechanisms leading to this. Here we determined the beneficial epigenetic effects of exercise after sprint interval training, a form of exercise known to improve cardiometabolic health. We quantified genome-wide leukocyte DNA methylation of 12 healthy young (18-24 yr) men before and after 4 wk (thrice weekly) of sprint interval training using the 450K BeadChip (Illumina) and validated gene expression changes in an extra seven subjects. Exercise increased subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal running performance, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in conjunction with genome-wide DNA methylation changes. Notably, many CpG island and gene promoter regions were demethylated after exercise, indicating increased genome-wide transcriptional changes. Among genes with DNA methylation changes, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor known to be involved in cardiovascular disease, was demethylated and showed decreased mRNA expression. Additionally, we found that in microRNAs miR-21 and miR-210, gene DNA methylation was altered by exercise causing a cascade effect on the expression of the mature microRNA involved in cardiovascular function. Our findings demonstrate that exercise alters DNA methylation in circulating blood cells in microRNA and protein-coding genes associated with cardiovascular physiology.

  13. Lactate administration reproduces specific brain and liver exercise-related changes.

    PubMed

    E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Selfridge, J Eva; Burns, Jeffrey M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2013-10-01

    The effects of exercise are not limited to muscle, and its ability to mitigate some chronic diseases is under study. A more complete understanding of how exercise impacts non-muscle tissues might facilitate design of clinical trials and exercise mimetics. Here, we focused on lactate's ability to mediate changes in liver and brain bioenergetic-associated parameters. In one group of experiments, C57BL/6 mice underwent 7 weeks of treadmill exercise sessions at intensities intended to exceed the lactate threshold. Over time, the mice dramatically increased their lactate threshold. To ensure that plasma lactate accumulated during the final week, the mice were run to exhaustion. In the liver, mRNA levels of gluconeogenesis-promoting genes increased. While peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression increased, there was a decrease in PGC-1β expression, and overall gene expression changes favored respiratory chain down-regulation. In the brain, PGC-1α and PGC-1β were unchanged, but PGC-1-related co-activator expression and mitochondrial DNA copy number increased. Brain tumor necrosis factor alpha expression fell, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor A expression rose. In another group of experiments, exogenously administered lactate was found to reproduce some but not all of these observed liver and brain changes. Our data suggest that lactate, an exercise byproduct, could mediate some of the effects exercise has on the liver and the brain, and that lactate itself can act as a partial exercise mimetic.

  14. Effect of resistance exercise training combined with relatively low vascular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sumide, Takahiro; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sawaki, Keisuke; Ohmura, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a low-intensity resistance exercise, combined with vascular occlusion, results in a marked increase in muscular size and strength. We investigated the optimal pressure for reduction of muscle blood flow with resistance exercise to increase the muscular strength and endurance. Twenty-one subjects were randomly divided into four groups by the different application of vascular occlusion pressure at the proximal of thigh: without any pressure (0-pressure group), with a pressure of 50mmHg (50-pressure group), with a pressure of 150mmHg (150-pressure group), and with a pressure of 250mmHg (250-pressure group). The isokinetic muscle strength at angular velocities of 60 and 180 degrees /s, total muscle work, and the cross-sectional knee extensor muscle area were assessed before and after exercise. Exercise was performed three times a week over an 8-week period at an intensity of approximately 20% of one-repetition maximum for straight leg raising and hip joint adduction and maximum force for abduction training. A significant increase in strength at 180 degrees /s was noted after exercise in all subjects who exercised under vascular occlusion. Total muscle work increased significantly in the 50- and 150-pressure groups (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). There was no significant increase in cross-sectional knee extensor muscle area in any groups. In conclusion, resistance exercise with relatively low vascular occlusion pressure is potentially useful to increase muscle strength and endurance without discomfort.

  15. Exercise Interventions to Reduce Cancer-Related Fatigue and Improve Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kelly; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and debilitating side effect of patients receiving treatment of cancer. It is reported that 60% to 100% of patients will develop CRF as a result of the treatment or the cancer itself. The effects last for years posttreatment and lower overall quality of life. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine whether exercise interventions could reduce CRF and improve overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among selected cancer patients. Clinical Key, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Cochrane Library, Mosby's Nursing Consult, and MEDLINE (Ovid) were the databases searched. Key terms searched were fatigue, exercise, cancer fatigue, holistic, spiritual, quality of life, and prevention. Findings from most studies suggest that exercise can decrease the effects of CRF among cancer patients, leading to an overall improved HRQOL. No negative results on the effects of exercise on CRF were reported. Nurses can be instrumental in developing holistic multidisciplinary exercise programs to assist in the management of CRF and improve HRQOL among cancer patients during and after cancer treatment. Recommendations for future research include the need for larger study sample sizes, a universal definition of fatigue, determination of the best exercise regimens, more consistent fatigue measures to facilitate better comparison across studies, and specifically assess patient improvements in overall mental and spiritual well-being within a holistic framework.

  16. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises.

  17. Effect of exercise programs with aerobic exercise sessions of similar intensity but different frequency and duration on health-related measures in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Manthou, Eirini; Gill, Jason M; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated health-related effects of exercise programs with exercise sessions of similar intensity but different frequency and duration. Thirty-four overweight women were randomized into either long-bout (LB) or short-bout (SB) exercise groups. Participants performed an 8-week supervised program, with the LB group exercising for 75 minutes twice per week, and the SB group for 30 minutes on 5 days of the week. The LB group completed 16 sessions at a heart rate (HR) of 127 ± 1 beat·min-1 and the SB group completed 40 sessions at a HR of 126 ± 1 beat·min-1. Weekly energy expenditure of exercise was not different between groups (LB group, 5.64 ± 0.34 MJ; SB group, 5.83 ± 0.23 MJ). Training significantly (P < .05) increased measures of cardiorespiratory fitness, decreased waist circumference, insulin resistance, and diastolic blood pressure. The group × time interaction was not significant for any of these factors, indicating that responses to exercise training did not differ between the SB and LB groups. Health-related outcomes of exercise programs with similar energy expenditure are independent of frequency and duration of exercise sessions. This provides individuals with a degree of flexibility in exercise program planning.

  18. Exercise prior to influenza vaccination for limiting influenza incidence and its related complications in adults.

    PubMed

    Grande, Antonio Jose; Reid, Hamish; Thomas, Emma E; Nunan, David; Foster, Charles

    2016-08-22

    Influenza is an infectious virus affecting both humans and animals. In humans, symptoms present as fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, muscle and joint pain, and malaise. The epidemiological profile of influenza is influenced by multiple factors, including transmissibility of the virus and the susceptibility of the population. Annually, influenza is estimated to infect 5% to 10% of adults, with higher rates in winter seasons in countries with seasonal variation. Exercise could be an intervention to enhance immune response and limit influenza incidence and its related complications. To assess the efficacy and safety of short and long-term exercise prior to influenza vaccination in enhancing influenza prevention in adults. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 11), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 3 November 2015), Embase (1974 to 3 November 2015), CINAHL (1981 to 3 November 2015), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, 1982 to 3 November 2015), PEDro (1980 to 3 November 2015), SPORTDiscus (1985 to 3 November 2015), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov (November 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of short- and long-term exercise prior to influenza vaccination for the general adult population were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted and checked data from the included trials using a standard form. We used the random-effects model due to differences in the type, duration, intensity and frequency of exercise in the analysis. We included six trials published between 2007 and 2014 that randomised 599 adult participants. Study size ranged from 46 to 158 participants. Participants were aged between 18 years and 80 years; we could not derive gender proportions, as participants' sex was not reported in all studies. One study was available in abstract form only.We did not find a significant

  19. Acute psychological and physical stress transiently enhances brachial artery flow-mediated dilation stimulated by exercise-induced increases in shear stress.

    PubMed

    Szijgyarto, Ingrid C; Poitras, Veronica J; Gurd, Brendon J; Pyke, Kyra E

    2014-08-01

    Exercise elevates conduit artery shear stress and stimulates flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, little is known regarding the impact of acute psychological and physical stress on this response. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST (speech and arithmetic tasks)) and a cold pressor test (CPT) with and without social evaluation (SE) on exercise-induced brachial artery FMD (EX-FMD). A total of 59 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: TSST, CPT, or CPT with SE. During 6 min of handgrip exercise, brachial artery EX-FMD was assessed before and 15 and 35 min poststress with echo and Doppler ultrasound. Shear stress was estimated as shear rate, calculated as brachial artery mean blood velocity/brachial artery diameter. Results are means ± SD. All conditions elicited significant physiological stress responses. Salivary cortisol increased from 4.6 ± 2.4 nmol/L to 10.0 ± 5.0 nmol/L (p < 0.001; condition effect: p = 0.292). Mean arterial pressure increased from 98.6 ± 12.1 mm Hg to 131.9 ± 18.7 mm Hg (p < 0.001; condition effect: p = 0.664). Exercise shear rate did not differ between conditions (p = 0.592), although it was modestly lower poststress (prestress: 72.3 ± 4.5 s(-1); 15 min poststress: 70.8 ± 5.4 s(-1); 35 min poststress: 70.6 ± 6.1 s(-1); trial effect: p = 0.011). EX-FMD increased from prestress to 15 min poststress in all conditions (prestress: 6.2% ± 2.8%; 15 min poststress: 7.9% ± 3.2%; 35 min poststress: 6.6% ± 2.9%; trial effect: p < 0.001; condition effect: p = 0.611). In conclusion, all conditions elicited similar stress responses that transiently enhanced EX-FMD. This response may help to support muscle perfusion during stress.

  20. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia ( 0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery ∼25% and decreased 11 ± 4 mmHg (P < 0.001) together with OCI (6.2 ± 0.7 to 4.8 ± 0.5, P < 0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P < 0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8 ± 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) and OCI to 3.8 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P < 0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor. PMID:20403976

  1. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

    2010-06-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery 25% and decreased 11+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001) together with OCI (6.2+/-0.7 to 4.8+/-0.5, P<0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and OCI to 3.8+/-0.5 (P<0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.

  2. Exercising away the blues: can it help multiple sclerosis-related depression?

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony; Rector, Neil; Motl, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The present review focuses on exercise as a treatment for depression in multiple sclerosis. While exercise has emerged as a potentially useful treatment in the general psychiatry-depression literature, the findings from a small number of multiple sclerosis-related treatment trials are equivocal. Methodological limitations, including the absence of depression as a primary endpoint, characterize all the studies completed to date. Given that limitations in study design can be rectified, it is time to put exercise to the test once more. Depressed multiple sclerosis patients and those involved in their care are looking for guidance here because the prevailing zeitgeist promotes the benefits of exercise to mood. But first, some clarity is needed.

  3. Effect of low-intensity training on transient kinetics of pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, A; Arima, S; Mitsuzono, R; Hirakoba, K

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear whether the slowed time constant of phase II in pulmonary oxygen uptake on-kinetics (V̇O2τ) in unfit and inactive men would be shortened by low exercise intensity (low-intensity) walking training. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the slowed V̇O2τ in sedentary population would speed up due to low-intensity walking training with high volume. Ten unfit and inactive male subjects (aged 26 to 50 yrs) underwent a low-intensity (30-40% of V̇O2max), long-duration (>60 min) training in the form of walking exercise 3-4 times a week for 12 weeks. We prospectively collected data on anthropometric, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), time constant of heart rate (HRτ) and V̇O2τ before training (0 wk; Pre) and every six weeks (6 wk; Mid, 12 wk; Post) from the beginning of the training. Anthropometric variables and V̇O2max showed no significant changes throughout the training program, whereas HRτ showed a tendency to be shortened with a progress of the training with no significant change. The slowed V̇O2τ at Pre (47.6±5.6 s) remained almost unchanged at Mid (48.8±4.9 s), but had a significant decrease at Post (40.5±7.9 s, P<0.05). In this study acceleration of the slowed V̇O2τ due to low-intensity walking training is thought to occur presumably owing to an improved matching of oxygen delivery to oxygen utilization at the site of gas exchange in active muscle tissue. We concluded that low-intensity walking training at beginning stage of training could contribute to the acceleration of the slowed V̇O2τ in unfit and inactive subjects.

  4. Low-intensity treadmill exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira; da Pureza, Demilto Yamaguchi; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Tang, Helen; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-05-01

    Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and the total volume of neurons in the whole SG have been examined. Arterial pressure and heart rate were also measured at the end of the exercise period. The present study showed that a low-intensity exercise training program caused a 12% decrease in the heart rate of trained rats. In contrast, there were no effects on systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or mean arterial pressure. As to quantitative changes related to physical exercise, the main findings were a 21% increase in the fractional volume occupied by neurons in the SG, and an 83% increase in the mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons in treadmill-trained rats, which shows a remarkable neuron hypertrophy. It seems reasonable to infer that neuron hypertrophy may have been the result of a functional overload imposed on the SG neurons by initial posttraining sympathetic activation. From the novel stereological data we provide, further investigations are needed to shed light on the mechanistic aspect of neuron hypertrophy: what role does neuron hypertrophy play? Could neuron hypertrophy be assigned to the functional overload induced by physical exercise?

  5. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  6. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt an

  7. Time‐resolved detection of stimulus/task‐related networks, via clustering of transient intersubject synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several methods are available for the identification of functional networks of brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time‐series. These typically assume a fixed relationship between the signal of the areas belonging to the same network during the entire time‐series (e.g., positive correlation between the areas belonging to the same network), or require a priori information about when this relationship may change (task‐dependent changes of connectivity). We present a fully data‐driven method that identifies transient network configurations that are triggered by the external input and that, therefore, include only regions involved in stimulus/task processing. Intersubject synchronization with short sliding time‐windows was used to identify if/when any area showed stimulus/task‐related responses. Next, a first clustering step grouped together areas that became engaged concurrently and repetitively during the time‐series (stimulus/task‐related networks). Finally, for each network, a second clustering step grouped together all the time‐windows with the same BOLD signal. The final output consists of a set of network configurations that show stimulus/task‐related activity at specific time‐points during the fMRI time‐series. We label these configurations: “brain modes” (bModes). The method was validated using simulated datasets and a real fMRI experiment with multiple tasks and conditions. Future applications include the investigation of brain functions using complex and naturalistic stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3404–3425, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26095530

  8. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ming; Bao, Shengde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p = 0.022). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p = 0.82) and different contrast agents (p = 0.619). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. PMID:27419129

  9. Longitudinal Cerebral Perfusion Change in Transient Global Amnesia Related to Left Posterior Medial Network Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Wang, Min Jeong; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Chun, In KooK; Yang, Youngsoon; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is not fully understood. Previous studies using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have reported inconclusive results regarding cerebral perfusion. This study was conducted to identify the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in TGA patients via longitudinal SPECT analysis. An association between the observed SPECT patterns and a pathophysiological mechanism was considered. Methods Based on the TGA registry database of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 22 TGA patients were retrospectively identified. The subjects underwent initial Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT within 4 days of an amnestic event and underwent follow-up scans approximately 6 months later. The difference in ECD uptake between the two scans was measured via voxel-based whole brain analysis, and the quantified ECD uptake was tested using a paired t-test. Results The TGA patients had significantly decreased cerebral perfusion at the left precuneus (P<0.001, uncorrected) and at the left superior parietal and inferior temporal gyrus according to the voxel-based whole brain analysis (P<0.005, uncorrected). A difference in the quantified ECD uptake between the 2 scans was also found at the left precuneus among the 62 cortical volumes of interest (P = 0.018, Cohen’s d = -0.25). Conclusion We identified left hemispheric lateralized hypoperfusion that may be related to posterior medial network disruption. These findings may be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:26690067

  10. Auditory P300 event related potentials in acute and transient psychosis-Comparison with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish; Modi, Manish

    2016-10-01

    Limited biological research data are available on acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) vis-à-vis schizophrenia. P300 event related potentials (ERP) have been extensively studied as an important neurophysiological parameter in schizophrenia. However, no P300 ERP studies comparing the two disorders are available. We compared auditory P300 ERP in patients remitted from ATPD with schizophrenia in remission and biologically unrelated healthy controls. In this case-control study design, 25 subjects remitted from ATPD were age-/gender-matched with healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia in remission. Clinical assessment and auditory P300 ERP (amplitude and latencies at central and parietal sites, reaction time) were recorded. The ERP parameters were compared across the three groups. All three groups showed significant differences in P300 amplitudes and latencies at central and parietal sites. Schizophrenia group differed significantly (p<0.001) from the ATPD group in all the P300 parameters. The ATPD group was found to have lower Pz latency (p<0.05) and lower mean reaction time (p<0.001) as compared to healthy controls. The results suggest that P300 could easily distinguish between ATPD and schizophrenia in remission, thus neurophysiologically differentiating the two disorders. Lower P300 latency and reaction time, which indicate hyper-arousability, distinguished ATPD from normal controls, with implications for a better understanding of ATPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The prevalence of exercise prescription-related course offerings in United States pharmacy school curricula: Exercise is Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J; Griffiths, Carrie L; Gibson, Jacob L; Luu, Jacqueline A

    2016-09-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is Medicine, a joint initiative between the American Medical Association and American College of Sports Medicine, was launched in 2007 to call on all health care providers to counsel patients and prescribe exercise in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease states. Pharmacists play an increasing role in direct patient care and are the most accessible health care providers in the community. Thus, pharmacists should be knowledgeable in counseling patients on the frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise that is appropriate for various conditions and disease states. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of didactic course offerings in United States pharmacy school curricula regarding training in exercise prescription. School websites were accessed for information regarding course offerings in PharmD programs. No United States pharmacy schools offered courses that were dedicted to the role of exercise in disease prevention or exercise prescription in disease management. Ninety percent of pharmacy schools did not offer courses with the keywords "exercise," "fitness, or "physical activity" in the title or description. The data suggest that student pharmacists are not adequately trained to counsel patients on the benefits of exercise or exercise prescription. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  12. Body-related envy: a social comparison perspective in sport and exercise.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Stamiris, Angela; Castonguay, Andree; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-02-01

    These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.

  13. Short-Duration X-ray Transients Observed with WATCH on Granat: Are Some of Them Related to Stellar Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Lapshov, Igor; Sunyaev, Rashid

    During 1990-92, the WATCH all-sky X-ray monitor on GRANAT has discovered 6 short-duration X-ray transients. We discuss their possible relationship to peculiar stars. Only one source, GRS 1100-77 seems to be related to a T Tauri star.

  14. Effects of Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Related Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Callisaya, Michele; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia. In addition, the type (e.g., aerobic, resistance), intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise are discussed. This review shows that although exercise has known benefits on the mechanisms linking T2DM to dementia, there are very few randomized controlled trials examining whether this is the case. It is concluded that the uptake of exercise for the brain has great potential to improve quality of life and provide significant cost savings, but further research is warranted to clarify the effects of exercise on T2DM and those on dementia.

  15. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    PubMed

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  16. Relation of heart rate recovery after exercise testing to coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Yoon, Eun Sun; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether slow heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise testing as an estimate of impaired autonomic function is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC), an emerging marker of coronary atherosclerosis. We evaluated 2088 men who participated in a health-screening program that included measures of CAC and peak or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) during exercise testing and the HR at 2 min of recovery after peak exercise. We measured CAC using multidetector computed tomography to calculate the Agatston coronary artery calcium score. Advanced CAC was defined as a mean CAC >75th percentile for each age group. HRR was negatively correlated with CAC (r = -.14, p < .01). After adjusting for conventional risk factors, participants in the lowest quartile of HRR (<38 bpm) were 1.59 times (95% CI: 1.17-2.18; p < .05) more likely to have advanced CAC than their counterparts in the highest quartile of HRR (>52 bpm). Each 1 bpm decrease in HRR was associated with 1% increase in advanced CAC after adjusting for potential confounders. An attenuated HRR after exercise testing is associated with advanced CAC, independent of coronary risk factors and other related hemodynamic response. KEY MESSAGES Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal exercise testing, indicating decreased autonomic function, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular event and mortality. Slow HRR has been linked with the occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, but it remains unclear whether slow HRR is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC), an emerging marker of coronary atherosclerosis. An attenuated HRR after exercise testing was associated with advanced CAC, independent of coronary risk factors and other potential hemodynamic confounder, supporting the hypothesis that slow HRR is related to the burden of atherosclerotic coronary artery

  17. Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Cortes, Liliana; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise have differing effects on perceived hunger and circulating levels of appetite-related hormones. However, the effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on actual energy intake has never been compared. This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise, compared with aerobic exercise, on subsequent energy intake and appetite-regulating hormones. Ten active men completed 3 trials in a counterbalanced design: 45 min of resistance exercise (RES; free and machine weights), aerobic exercise (AER; running), or a resting control trial (CON). Following exercise or CON, participants had access to a buffet-style array of breakfast foods and drinks to consume ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of a range of appetite-regulating hormones were measured throughout each trial. Despite significantly higher energy expenditure with AER compared with RES (p < 0.05), there was no difference in total energy intake from the postexercise meal between trials (p = 0.779). Pancreatic polypeptide was significantly higher prior to the meal after both RES and AER compared with CON. In contrast, active ghrelin was lower following RES compared with both CON and AER (p ≤ 0.05), while insulin was higher following RES compared with CON (p = 0.013). In summary, the differential response of appetite-regulating hormones to AER and RES does not appear to influence energy intake in the postexercise meal. However, given the greater energy expenditure associated with AER compared with RES, AER modes of exercise may be preferable for achieving short-term negative energy balance.

  18. Exercise stereotypes and health-related outcomes in French people living with HIV: development and validation of an HIV Exercise Stereotypes Scale (HIVESS).

    PubMed

    Gray, Laura; Falzon, Charlène; Bergamaschi, Alessandro; Schuft, Laura; Durant, Jacques; Rosenthal, Eric; Pradier, Christian; Duracinsky, Martin; Rouanet, Isabelle; Colson, Serge S; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2016-11-14

    The main objective of the current study was to develop and validate a French exercise stereotype scale for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in order to gain visibility to the possible barriers and facilitators for exercise in PLHIV and thus enhance their quality of life. A series of four complementary studies was carried out with a total sample of 524 participants to: (a) develop a preliminary version of the HIV Exercise Stereotype Scale (HIVESS) (Stage 1), (b) confirm the factorial structure of the instrument (Stage 2), (c) evaluate the stability of the instrument (Stage 3), and (d) examine the construct and divergent validity of the scale (Stage 4). Results provided support for a 14-item scale with three sub-scales reporting stereotypes related to exercise benefits, exercise risks and lack of capacity for exercise with Cronbach's alphas of .77, .69 and .76 respectively. Results showed good factorial structure, strong reliability and indicators of convergent validity relating to self-efficacy, exercise and quality of life. The HIVESS presented satisfactory psychometric properties, constitutes a reliable and valid instrument to measure exercise stereotypes among PLHIV and has applications for future research and clinical practice.

  19. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (−10 ± 8%) and the time trial (−21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; −6 ± 8 and −12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; −21 ± 16 and −32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; −7 ± 11 and −12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction. PMID:27313522

  20. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.

  1. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P < 0.05). There were no differences in responses between trained older and young adults in the arm or leg at any exercise intensity (P > 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59-0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55-0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, William E.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P < 0.05). There were no differences in responses between trained older and young adults in the arm or leg at any exercise intensity (P > 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59–0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55–0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. PMID:27032899

  3. Transient population dynamics: Relations to life history and initial population state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Zinner, B.; Rockwell, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Most environments are variable and disturbances (e.g., hurricanes, fires) can lead to substantial changes in a population's state (i.e., age, stage, or size distribution). In these situations, the long-term (i.e., asymptotic) measure of population growth rate (??1) may inaccurately represent population growth in the short-term. Thus, we calculated the short-term (i.e., transient) population growth rate and its sensitivity to changes in the life-cycle parameters for three bird and three mammal species with widely varying life histories. Further, we performed these calculations for initial population states that spanned the entire range of possibilities. Variation in a population's initial net reproductive value largely explained the variation in transient growth rates and their sensitivities to changes in life-cycle parameters (all AICc ??? 6.67 units better than the null model, all R2 ??? 0.55). Additionally, the transient fertility and adult survival sensitivities tended to increase with the initial net reproductive value of the population, whereas the sub-adult survival sensitivity decreased. Transient population dynamics of long-lived, slow reproducing species were more variable and more different than asymptotic dynamics than they were for short-lived, fast reproducing species. Because ??1 can be a biased estimate of the actual growth rate in the short-term (e.g., 19% difference), conservation and wildlife biologists should consider transient dynamics when developing management plans that could affect a population's state, or whenever population state could be unstable.

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Lu, Hui J; Lin, Lu; Hu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most commonly reported and most distressing symptom in cancer patients. Currently, there are no effective strategies for managing this condition. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of aerobic exercise on CRF with the standard of care. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using the Cochrane Library, JBI Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The risk of bias was critically evaluated, and data were independently extracted by two reviewers. All of the analyses were performed using Review Manager 5. A total of 26 qualified studies that included 2830 participants (aerobic exercise, 1426; control, 1404) were included in the meta-analysis. Cancer patients who completed adjuvant therapy in the aerobic exercise group reported reduced CRF levels relative to patients undergoing the standard of care. Aerobic exercise had a moderate effect on CRF for patients not currently undergoing anticancer treatment. Supervised aerobic exercise, exercise for 20–30 min/session, or exercise three times/week had a small effect on CRF. Exercise for 50 min/session or exercise two sessions/week had a significant effect on patient CRF, whereas 8 weeks of exercise had a moderate effect. Aerobic exercise is effective for the management of CRF, especially for patients who have completed adjuvant therapy. Cancer patients can make more informed choices regarding their cancer-related fatigue management based on the best available evidence.

  5. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older adults who had exercise habits were classified into two groups: individual- and group-based exercise habits groups, and the health-related outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] The scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale, exercise self-efficacy, and dietary variety of older adults who had group-based exercise habits were better than those of older adults who had individual-based exercise habits. In addition, the exercise settings (individual- and group-based) were significantly associated with scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale (odds ratio = 0.76) and exercise self-efficacy (odds ratio = 1.26), even after adjusting for age and gender. [Conclusion] These results implied that habitual exercise in group settings may have an effective role in promoting exercise self-efficacy and mental health. PMID:26311955

  6. Neurobiological markers of exercise-related brain plasticity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Alves, Heloisa; Szabo, Amanda; Phillips, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; Olson, Erin A; Gothe, Neha; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined how a randomized one-year aerobic exercise program for healthy older adults would affect serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - putative markers of exercise-induced benefits on brain function. The study also examined whether (a) change in the concentration of these growth factors was associated with alterations in functional connectivity following exercise, and (b) the extent to which pre-intervention growth factor levels were associated with training-related changes in functional connectivity. In 65 participants (mean age=66.4), we found that although there were no group-level changes in growth factors as a function of the intervention, increased temporal lobe connectivity between the bilateral parahippocampus and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was associated with increased BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF for an aerobic walking group but not for a non-aerobic control group, and greater pre-intervention VEGF was associated with greater training-related increases in this functional connection. Results are consistent with animal models of exercise and the brain, but are the first to show in humans that exercise-induced increases in temporal lobe functional connectivity are associated with changes in growth factors and may be augmented by greater baseline VEGF.

  7. Effectiveness of Pilates-based exercises on upper extremity disorders related with breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zengin Alpozgen, A; Razak Ozdincler, A; Karanlik, H; Yaman Agaoglu, F; Narin, A N

    2016-06-23

    Breast cancer treatment causes upper extremity (UE) impairments. This study aims to assess the efficacy of Pilates-based exercises (PE) in comparison with combined exercise (CE) and home exercise (HE) groups, in the rehabilitation of UE disorders related with breast cancer treatment. Fifty-five patients were randomly allocated to PE, CE (consisting of strengthening, stretching and range of motion [ROM] exercises) and HE groups (consisting of CE group exercises). Pain (using visual analogue scale), ROM (using digital goniometer), muscle strength (using dynamometer and pinch gauge), functional status (using Constant-Murley scale and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale) were evaluated before and after intervention. For data analyses (using spss 21 version), one-way ANOVA, paired samples t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed (p ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant). The data obtained in this study revealed significant improvements in almost all the parameters measured in the PE and CE groups, and some improvements were superior to HE group. PE seemed to have resulted similar improvements in pain, muscle strength and functional status when compared to CE group. Therefore, PE seems to be an effective method of rehabilitation of patients with UE disorders related with breast cancer treatment, and might be considered for use as an alternative to CE in this population.

  8. Perceived variety, psychological needs satisfaction and exercise-related well-being.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Benjamin D; Standage, Martyn; Dowd, A Justine; Martin, Luc J; Sweet, Shane N; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Perceived variety represents a psychosocial experience that gives rise to, and supports the maintenance of, an individual's well-being. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure perceived variety in exercise (PVE), and examined whether ratings of PVE predict unique variance in indices of exercise-related well-being in addition to that explained by satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (for competence, relatedness and autonomy) embedded within self-determination theory (SDT). We also examined the extent to which variance in perceived variety is empirically distinct from (or subsumed by) competence, relatedness and autonomy in the context of exercise. A convenience sample of community adults (N = 507) completed online surveys twice over a six-week period (n = 367). PVE was found to prospectively predict unique variance in indices of exercise-related well-being, in addition to that explained by perceived competence, relatedness and autonomy. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic procedures, perceived variety was found to be empirically distinct from perceived competence, relatedness and autonomy. Results from this work suggest that perceived variety holds potential for theoretical and applied advancements in understanding and predicting well-being in exercise settings.

  9. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-05-12

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD's acute inflammatory phase.

  10. Radiotherapy for age related macular degeneration causes transient lens transparency changes

    PubMed Central

    Eter, N.; Wegener, A.; Schuller, H.; Spitznas, M.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—Evaluation of potential side effects of photon radiotherapy on the transparency of the lens.
METHODS—The anterior segments of 14 phakic eyes from patients suffering from subfoveal neovascularisation as a result of age related macular degeneration (AMD) were documented by Scheimpflug photography (Topcon SL-45, Kodak Tmax 400) before the start of radiotherapy as well as 6 and 12 months afterwards. All negatives were evaluated by microdensitometry, and peak heights for distinct layers of the lens were used for statistical comparison. External beam radiotherapy (6 MeV photons) consisted of a total dose of 20 Gy, delivered as 10 fractions of 2 Gy.
RESULTS—Six and 12 months following irradiation statistical comparison of the ratios in density change of lenses from irradiated versus non-irradiated fellow eyes revealed statistically significant (p⩽0.05) loss of transparency of layers 5 and 7 of the nuclear region. In layer 1 (capsuloepithelial complex) the changes were close to significance. At the 12 month examination, however, all of these significant changes had disappeared.
CONCLUSION—Six months following radiotherapy for AMD, both the anterior capsuloepithelial region and the nuclear layers showed precataractous changes. As most of these significant differences had disappeared after 12 months, it is obvious that these findings reflect acute radiation damage to the lens epithelial cells and an ionising effect on the proteins of the lens nucleus. Long term studies will have to be carried out to demonstrate whether or not this acute radiation damage, which is expressed as a transient increase in light scattering of some layers of the lens, actually does lead to permanent transparency changes, thus reflecting radiation cataractogenesis, and if so, after what time interval and to what extent cataract occurs.

 PMID:10873989

  11. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  12. Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Daniel R; Harrison, Blain C; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is currently used for injury risk prediction, although researchers have not studied its relationships to injury risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare FMS scores at rest to changes in static balance after exercise. Second, we examined FMS scores pre and post exercise. Twenty-five participants performed center of pressure (COP) measures and FMS testing. An acclimatization session for the FMS occurred on day 1, whereas day 2 involved COP measures for static balance and FMS testing before and after a 36-minute exercise protocol. Center of pressure standard deviations in the frontal (COPML-SD) and sagittal (COPAP-SD) planes, center of pressure velocity (COP-Velocity), center of pressure area (COP-Area), and FMS scores were recorded. No significant correlations occurred between preexercise FMS scores and change in COP measures. Preexercise hurdle step scores related to preexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46), COPAP-SD (p = -0.43), and COP-Area (p = -0.50). Preexercise in-line lunge scores related to postexercise COPAP-SD (p = -0.44) and COP-Velocity (p = -0.39), whereas preexercise active straight leg raise (ASLR) scores related to postexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46). Functional Movement Screen scores were not related to changes in static balance after exercise and may therefore not be useful to predict who will experience greater static balance deficits after exercise. Additionally, FMS scores did not differ before and after exercise. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a general static balance standpoint may find the hurdle step, in-line lunge, and ASLR useful. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a change in static balance standpoint may need to explore other screening tools.

  13. The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to early adverse events can result in the development of later psychopathology, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This may be due to accelerated cell aging, which can be catalogued by attritioned telomeres. Exercise enhances neurogenesis and has been proposed to buffer the effect of psychological stress on telomere length. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early developmental stress and voluntary exercise on telomere length in the ventral hippocampus (VH) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat. Forty-five male Sprague–Dawley rats were categorised into four groups: maternally separated runners (MSR), maternally separated non-runners (MSnR), non-maternally separated runners (nMSR) and non-maternally separated non-runners (nMSnR). Behavioural analyses were conducted to assess anxiety-like behaviour and memory performance in the rats, after which relative telomere length was measured using qPCR. Results Maternally separated (MS) rats exhibited no significant differences in either anxiety levels or memory performance on the elevated-plus maze and the open field compared to non-maternally separated rats at 49 days of age. Exercised rats displayed increased levels of anxiety on the day that they were removed from the cages with attached running wheels, as well as improved spatial learning and temporal recognition memory compared to non-exercised rats. Exploratory post-hoc analyses revealed that maternally separated non-exercised rats exhibited significantly longer telomere length in the VH compared to those who were not maternally separated; however, exercise appeared to cancel this effect since there was no difference in VH telomere length between maternally separated and non-maternally separated runners. Conclusions The increased telomere length in the VH of maternally separated non-exercised rats may be indicative of reduced cellular proliferation, which could, in turn, indicate hippocampal dysfunction. This effect on

  14. The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Botha, Martmari; Grace, Laurian; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A; Kidd, Martin; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J

    2012-12-27

    Exposure to early adverse events can result in the development of later psychopathology, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This may be due to accelerated cell aging, which can be catalogued by attritioned telomeres. Exercise enhances neurogenesis and has been proposed to buffer the effect of psychological stress on telomere length. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early developmental stress and voluntary exercise on telomere length in the ventral hippocampus (VH) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were categorised into four groups: maternally separated runners (MSR), maternally separated non-runners (MSnR), non-maternally separated runners (nMSR) and non-maternally separated non-runners (nMSnR). Behavioural analyses were conducted to assess anxiety-like behaviour and memory performance in the rats, after which relative telomere length was measured using qPCR. Maternally separated (MS) rats exhibited no significant differences in either anxiety levels or memory performance on the elevated-plus maze and the open field compared to non-maternally separated rats at 49 days of age. Exercised rats displayed increased levels of anxiety on the day that they were removed from the cages with attached running wheels, as well as improved spatial learning and temporal recognition memory compared to non-exercised rats. Exploratory post-hoc analyses revealed that maternally separated non-exercised rats exhibited significantly longer telomere length in the VH compared to those who were not maternally separated; however, exercise appeared to cancel this effect since there was no difference in VH telomere length between maternally separated and non-maternally separated runners. The increased telomere length in the VH of maternally separated non-exercised rats may be indicative of reduced cellular proliferation, which could, in turn, indicate hippocampal dysfunction. This effect on telomere length was not observed

  15. Neuroelectric adaptations to cognitive processing in virtual environments: an exercise-related approach.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Recently, virtual environments (VEs) are suggested to encourage users to exercise regularly. The benefits of chronic exercise on cognitive performance are well documented in non-VE neurophysiological and behavioural studies. Based on event-related potentials (ERP) such as the N200 and P300, cognitive processing may be interpreted on a neuronal level. However, exercise-related neuroelectric adaptation in VE remains widely unclear and thus characterizes the primary aim of the present study. Twenty-two healthy participants performed active (moderate cycling exercise) and passive (no exercise) sessions in three VEs (control, front, surround), each generating a different sense of presence. Within sessions, conditions were randomly assigned, each lasting 5 min and including a choice reaction-time task to assess cognitive performance. According to the international 10:20 system, EEG with real-time triggered stimulus onset was recorded, and peaks of N200 and P300 components (amplitude, latency) were exported for analysis. Heart rate was recorded, and sense of presence assessed prior to and following each session and condition. Results revealed an increase in ERP amplitudes (N200: p < 0.001; P300: p < 0.001) and latencies (N200: p < 0.001) that were most pronounced over fronto-central and occipital electrode sites relative to an increased sense of presence (p < 0.001); however, ERP were not modulated by exercise (each p > 0.05). Hypothesized to mirror cognitive processing, decreases of cognitive performance's accuracy and reaction time failed significance. With respect to previous research, the present neuroelectric adaptation gives reason to believe in compensative neuronal resources that balance demanding cognitive processing in VE to avoid behavioural inefficiency.

  16. Exercise modulates liver cellular and mitochondrial proteins related to quality control signaling.

    PubMed

    Santos-Alves, E; Marques-Aleixo, I; Rizo-Roca, D; Torrella, J R; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

    2015-08-15

    The effects of exercise on cardiac and skeletal muscle, including the increase on mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy signaling are well described. However, these same effects on liver mitochondria, important in the context of hepatocyte ability to mitigate drug-induced injury and obesity-related disorders, are not fully understood. Therefore, the effects of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance training--ET and voluntary physical activity--VPA) on liver cellular and mitochondrial quality control were analyzed. Eighteen male-adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sedentary (SED), ET (12-week treadmill) and VPA (12-week voluntary free wheel). Liver mitochondrial alterations were evaluated by semi-quantification of proteins involved in oxidative stress (SIRT3, p66shc, p66(Ser36)), biogenesis (citrate synthase, PGC-1α and mtTFA), dynamics (MFN1, OPA1 and DRP1) and auto(mito)phagy (Beclin-1, Bcl-2, LC3II/LC3I, p62, Parkin and PINK) signaling. Liver ultrastructural alterations were also evaluated. Both exercise models induced beneficial alterations on liver mitochondrial morphology and increased mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and mtTFA), autophagy-related proteins (Beclin-1, LC3-II, LC3II/LC3I), and DRP1 and SIRT3 proteins. Increased citrate synthase activity and OPA1, p62 and Parkin content as well as decreased PINK protein levels were only observed after ET. VPA decreased OPA1, Beclin-1/Bcl-2, Parkin and p66(Ser36). Mitochondrial density and circularity increased in both exercised groups. Both chronic exercise models increased proteins related with mitochondrial biogenesis and alteration proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy signaling, suggesting that exercise can induce liver mitochondrial adaptive remodeling and hepatocyte renewal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  18. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  19. Exercise-Related Sudden Death: Risks and Causes (Part 1 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    The causes of exercise-related sudden death are discussed. Multiple structural cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in athletes under 30; severe coronary artery disease is the culprit in deaths of those over 30. These diseases and the mechanisms of sudden death, as well as preventive measures, are detailed. (JL)

  20. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  1. Home exercise equipment-related injuries among children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Antonio; Snyder, Ashley J; Smith, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated home exercise equipment-related injuries to children in the United States. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were analyzed for children 18 years old and younger. An estimated 241 573 children with home exercise equipment-related injuries were treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2008, averaging 12 714 children per year. There was a statistically significant increase in the annual number (41.9%) and rate of home exercise equipment-related injuries during the study period. Children younger than 10 years accounted for 71.4% of these injuries. Laceration (37.2%) was the leading injury diagnosis, and the most commonly injured body regions were the head (28.6%), finger/hand (22.0%), and foot (10.9%). The majority of injuries were associated with stationary bicycles (26.5%), treadmills (25.3%), and jump ropes (21.5%). The increasing number and rate of home exercise equipment-related injuries to US children underscores the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries.

  2. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 after an acute physical exercise: relation with post-exercise energy intake in twins.

    PubMed

    Almada, C; Cataldo, L R; Smalley, S V; Diaz, E; Serrano, A; Hodgson, M I; Santos, J L

    2013-03-01

    Increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels have been described to occur during physical exercise. A relative reduction in energy intake after physical activity has also been reported after exercise, indicating a possible involvement of IL-6 as an anorexigenic factor. Given the possible effect of interleukins on appetite, we assessed whether a controlled physical activity bout is related with changes in IL-6, IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6sR), gp130 and interleukin-18 (IL-18) plasma levels, as well as their relation with post-exercise energy intake. A co-twin intervention study was carried out with five young male monozygotic twin pairs. One co-twin performed 45 min of submaximal exercise on a treadmill near the anaerobic threshold ending with 7 min at 90 % VO(2) max, while his co-twin remained non-active. Ad libitum energy intake was tested through a carbohydrate-rich meal test. Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline, immediately after exercise and after the meal ingestion. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-6sR, gp130 and IL-18 were measured via ELISA. IL-6 plasma levels increased after physical activity bout (2.6-fold change; p = 0.04). A less marked trend, although still significant, was observed for plasma levels of IL-6sR and gp130. Plasma levels of IL-18 did not significantly change during exercise. The twins who exercised exhibited significantly lower energy intake (181 versus 1,195 kcal; p = 0.04), compared to the co-twins who remained resting. The present study in monozygotic twins shows increased IL-6 plasma levels after acute physical exercise with a significant reduction in energy intake, supporting a linkage between IL-6 and acute post-exercise eating behaviour.

  3. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  4. On the Relation Between Transient Elastic Softening and Permeability Increase in fractured shale and granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere, J.; Madara, B.; Elsworth, D.; Johnson, P. A.; Marone, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic stressing of rocks is known to transiently increase permeability, and has potential application to improve the efficiency of geothermal energy production and oil/gas recovery. At larger scale, teleseismic waves have been observed to transiently increase permeability of aquifer systems. Seismic waves are also known to transiently decrease elastic moduli near fault zones. However, it remains unclear which parameters control the magnitude of permeability increase and how this magnitude can be predicted. We report on laboratory studies that monitor both permeability evolution and elastic properties in fractured granite and shale. We use L-shaped samples that are loaded with triaxial stresses of order 10 MPa and fractured in a triaxial cell. Deionized water is forced to flow along the resulting fracture path by applying a differential pore pressure along the shear direction. Dynamic stressing is applied via pore pressure or normal stress oscillations (20 s-duration, up to 1 Hz-frequency and 1 MPa-amplitude), while measuring flow rates and elastic wave velocities. Our observations enable transient increases in permeability to be determined following dynamic stressing and constrained via measurements of ultrasonic velocity. In particular, these preliminary results are discussed with former results suggesting that permeability enhancement is dictated by flow rate.

  5. Evaluating Daily Load Stimulus Formulas in Relating Bone Response to Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Six formulas representing what is commonly referred to as "daily load stimulus" are identified, compared and tested in their ability to relate skeletal mechanical loading to bone maintenance and osteogenic response. Particular emphasis is placed on exercise- induced skeletal loading and whether or not the formulas can adequately capture the known experimental observations of saturation of continuous cyclic loading, rest insertion between repetitions (cycles), recovery of osteogenic potential following saturation, and multiple shorter bouts versus a single long bout of exercise. To evaluate the ability of the formulas to capture these characteristics, a set of exercise scenarios with type of exercise bout, specific duration, number of repetitions, and rest insertion between repetitions is defined. The daily load values obtained from the formulas for the loading conditions of the set of scenarios is illustrated. Not all of the formulas form estimates of daily load in units of stress or in terms of strain at a skeletal site due to the loading force from a specific exercise prescription. The comparative results show that none of the formulas are able to capture all of the experimentally observed characteristics of cyclic loading. However, the enhanced formula presented by Genc et al. does capture several characteristics of cyclic loading that the others do not, namely recovery of osteogenic potential and saturation. This could be a basis for further development of mathematical formulas that more adequately approximates the amount of daily stress at a skeletal site that contributes to bone adaptation.

  6. Exercise-mode-related changes in task-switching performance in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the relationships between exercise modes and executive functions in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly individuals in the open-skill group, 22 in the closed-skill group, and 21 in the sedentary-behavior (control) group were recruited in the current study, and performed a task-switching paradigm during which the switches occurred unpredictably and infrequently, while the behavioral and electrophysiological performances were assessed simultaneously. The results indicated that although there were no group differences in accuracy rates, the two exercise groups exhibited shorter reaction times (RTs), and larger P2 and P3 amplitudes across all conditions compared to the control group. In addition, the exercise-mode differences revealed a relatively smaller specific cost, and faster motor RTs and larger P3 amplitudes, in the switch condition for the open-skill group in comparison with the closed-skill and control groups. These findings suggest that regularly participating in physical exercise can enhance behavioral and electrophysiological performance with regard to executive control in the elderly, and provide further evidence for the beneficial effects of open-skill exercise on the task-switching paradigm.

  7. Exercise-mode-related changes in task-switching performance in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the relationships between exercise modes and executive functions in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly individuals in the open-skill group, 22 in the closed-skill group, and 21 in the sedentary-behavior (control) group were recruited in the current study, and performed a task-switching paradigm during which the switches occurred unpredictably and infrequently, while the behavioral and electrophysiological performances were assessed simultaneously. The results indicated that although there were no group differences in accuracy rates, the two exercise groups exhibited shorter reaction times (RTs), and larger P2 and P3 amplitudes across all conditions compared to the control group. In addition, the exercise-mode differences revealed a relatively smaller specific cost, and faster motor RTs and larger P3 amplitudes, in the switch condition for the open-skill group in comparison with the closed-skill and control groups. These findings suggest that regularly participating in physical exercise can enhance behavioral and electrophysiological performance with regard to executive control in the elderly, and provide further evidence for the beneficial effects of open-skill exercise on the task-switching paradigm. PMID:25798097

  8. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  9. Impact of exercise training on neuroplasticity-related growth factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, H; Brioche, T; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Montal, A; Jovaní, C; Martínez-Costa, C; Gomez-Cabrera, M C; Viña, J

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of exercise training on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as cAMP response element-binding (CREB) activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in adolescents. Nine trained and seven sedentary male adolescents, matched in age (14.0±2.2 years), were recruited for the study. Trained boys performed higher physical activity levels (expressed both as total energy expenditure and as physical activity energy expenditure) and showed significant bradycardia when compared with sedentary ones. We found that BDNF and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in trained adolescents than in sedentary ones. However, no effect of training was found in the activation of CREB in PBMCs. We demonstrated the increase of neuroplasticity-related proteins due to exercise training in adolescents. Our results emphasize the significance and impact of exercise in this developmental period.

  10. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes.

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure response to ramp exercise and exercise capacity in relation to age, gender, and mode of exercise in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Haruki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Koike, Akira; Makita, Shigeru; Omiya, Kazuto; Kato, Yuko; Adachi, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Harada, Naomi; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure to the ramp exercise test are not known and the current understanding of peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold (AT) values in the normal Japanese population is insufficient. A total of 749 healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-78 years underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test using a cycle ergometer or treadmill ergometer with ramp protocols. HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen uptake VO2 at rest, at AT, and at peak exercise were determined. HR and SBP at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer and treadmill ergometer test decreased with age. Work rate at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer increased with body weight and decreased with age. VO2 at AT and at peak exercise were higher in treadmill ergometer testing than in cycle ergometer testing, and were not affected by exercise protocol. Both of these decreased with age. The normal responses of HR and SBP to ramp exercise testing are reported for the first time. AT, peak VO2, and VO2 at each stage are shown for a healthy population. Some of these parameters were influenced by weight, gender, and age, as well as mode of exercise and the protocol used. These results provide useful reference values for interpreting the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  13. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  14. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  15. Heart Rate Acceleration and Recovery Indices are Not Related to the Development of Ventricular Premature Beats During Exercise Test.

    PubMed

    Buyukterzi, Zafer; Ozeke, Ozcan; Ozlu, Mehmet Fatih; Canga, Aytun; Gurel, Ozgul Malcok; Guler, Tumer Erdem; Kaya, Veli; Ozcan, Firat; Cay, Serkan; Topaloglu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun

    2014-07-01

    Changes in heart rate (HR) during exercise and recovery from exercise are mediated by the balance between sympathetic and vagal activity. HR acceleration (HRA) and recovery (HRR) are important measures of cardiac autonomic dysfunction and directly correlated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. It is not known if the autonomic nervous system related to ventricular arrhythmias during exercise. The purpose was to evaluate the HRA and HRR in patients with and without premature ventricular complex (PVC) during exercise, and to examine the factors that might affect HRA and HRR. The records of consecutive patients undergoing routine exercise test were reviewed. The characteristics and the HRA and HRR were compared between patients with and without PVC during exercise. A total of 232 patients (145 men) were recruited; 156 (103 men) developed PVCs during the exercise. Max HR was significantly lower in men with PVCs than in those without, which were not mirrored in women. There was no difference in HRA and HRR between the patients with and without exercise-induced PVCs in both genders. Compared to the men with PVCs, women had higher body mass index, shorter total exercise time, and higher HRA indices after the 3 and 6 minutes exercise. In patients with PVCs, the HRA and HRR indices were similar regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease and the phase of exercise test where PVC developed. Although exercise performance may be different between the genders, the HRA or HRR indices were not related to the development of PVC during exercise in both genders. Exercise-induced arrhythmias; Heart rate acceleration; Heart rate recovery.

  16. Transient tracking of low and high-order eccentricity-related components in induction motors via TFD tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climente-Alarcon, V.; Antonino-Daviu, J.; Riera-Guasp, M.; Pons-Llinares, J.; Roger-Folch, J.; Jover-Rodriguez, P.; Arkkio, A.

    2011-02-01

    The present work is focused on the diagnosis of mixed eccentricity faults in induction motors via the study of currents demanded by the machine. Unlike traditional methods, based on the analysis of stationary currents (Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA)), this work provides new findings regarding the diagnosis approach proposed by the authors in recent years, which is mainly focused on the fault diagnosis based on the analysis of transient quantities, such as startup or plug stopping currents (Transient Motor Current Signature Analysis (TMCSA)), using suitable time-frequency decomposition (TFD) tools. The main novelty of this work is to prove the usefulness of tracking the transient evolution of high-order eccentricity-related harmonics in order to diagnose the condition of the machine, complementing the information obtained with the low-order components, whose transient evolution was well characterised in previous works. Tracking of high-order eccentricity-related harmonics during the transient, through their associated patterns in the time-frequency plane, may significantly increase the reliability of the diagnosis, since the set of fault-related patterns arising after application of the corresponding TFD tool is very unlikely to be caused by other faults or phenomena. Although there are different TFD tools which could be suitable for the transient extraction of these harmonics, this paper makes use of a Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD)-based algorithm in order to carry out the time-frequency decomposition of the startup current signal, since this is a tool showing an excellent trade-off between frequency resolution at both high and low frequencies. Several simulation results obtained with a finite element-based model and experimental results show the validity of this fault diagnosis approach under several faulty and operating conditions. Also, additional signals corresponding to the coexistence of the eccentricity and other non-fault related phenomena making

  17. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  18. Fast transients - A search in X-rays for short flares, bursts, and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The HEAO 1 A-2 database on fast high energy X-ray transients was examined for any discernible regularities. The data were taken over the interval 1977-79 with six collimated multiwire, multilayer, proportional counters that had a sensitivity sufficient for detecting events lasting 1-5 sec at energies as low as 8-120 keV. The entire sky was surveyed completely three times in the observational period. Best-fit position, error box corners, mean transient flux and quiescent flux data are provided for all six of the type 3 events that were found. All the sources were within the Galaxy. The duration of the events ranged from 60-2000 sec. The limited number of events observed leads to estimates of 10,000-200,000 events per year. It is suggested that all the events originate from hard flares occurring at a rate of 20,000/yr on dMe/dKe stars.

  19. Stair Descending Exercise Using a Novel Automatic Escalator: Effects on Muscle Performance and Health-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Vrabas, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status. PMID:23437093

  20. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.

  1. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  2. Effects of exercise on ocular physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Gale, Jesse; Wells, Anthony P; Wilson, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Regular exercise is a healthy lifestyle choice with numerous benefits to general health. Ophthalmologists may face questions of the benefits or risks of exercise to eyes. Here the effects of acute exertion and regular physical activity on ocular physiology and disease are reviewed. Intraocular pressure is transiently reduced by dynamic exercise. For the great majority of patients exercise is beneficial to the eyes by reducing risk of central retinal vein occlusion and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and by improving control of systemic hypertension and diabetes. Ophthalmologists should be advocates of regular exercise with appropriate eye protection.

  3. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  4. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. Methods One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. Results A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Conclusion Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence. PMID:28451013

  5. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  6. Exercise efficiency relates with mitochondrial content and function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Boss, Andreas; Fares, Elie-Jacques; Greggio, Chiara; Gremion, Gerald; Schlüter, Leo; Hans, Didier; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Amati, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aerobic exercise has been shown to increase exercise efficiency, thus allowing less energy expenditure for a similar amount of work. The extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondria play a role in this is not fully understood, particularly in an elderly population. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of exercise efficiency with mitochondrial content and function. We hypothesized that the greater the mitochondrial content and/or function, the greater would be the efficiencies. Thirty-eight sedentary (S, n = 23, 10F/13M) or athletic (A, n = 15, 6F/9M) older adults (66.8 ± 0.8 years) participated in this cross sectional study. O2peak was measured with a cycle ergometer graded exercise protocol (GXT). Gross efficiency (GE, %) and net efficiency (NE, %) were estimated during a 1-h submaximal test (55% O2peak). Delta efficiency (DE, %) was calculated from the GXT. Mitochondrial function was measured as ATPmax (mmol/L/s) during a PCr recovery protocol with 31P-MR spectroscopy. Muscle biopsies were acquired for determination of mitochondrial volume density (MitoVd, %). Efficiencies were 17% (GE), 14% (NE), and 16% (DE) higher in A than S. MitoVD was 29% higher in A and ATPmax was 24% higher in A than in S. All efficiencies positively correlated with both ATPmax and MitoVd. Chronically trained older individuals had greater mitochondrial content and function, as well as greater exercise efficiencies. GE, NE, and DE were related to both mitochondrial content and function. This suggests a possible role of mitochondria in improving exercise efficiency in elderly athletic populations and allowing conservation of energy at moderate workloads. PMID:26059033

  7. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise.

  8. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Aims Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. Methods The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task—MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR—SHR—simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR—HHR—simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)—the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations—was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Results Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). Conclusions The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase. PMID:28076389

  9. Reduction in trunk fat predicts cardiovascular exercise training-related reductions in C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Vieira, V J; Hu, L; Valentine, R J; McAuley, E; Evans, E M; Baynard, T; Woods, J A

    2009-05-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine (1) if 10 months of cardiovascular exercise training (Cardio) reduces CRP in a group of older adults, (2) if such a reduction is related to improvements in trunk fat, fitness, and/or psychosocial variables, and (3) if the effect of Cardio on CRP differs between men and women. Community-dwelling residents (n=127; 60-83 yrs) were randomized to a Flex group (n=61) where they participated in 2-75 min supervised sessions per wk during which they performed non-cardiovascular flexibility and balance exercises or a Cardio group (n=66) where they participated in three supervised sessions per wk during which they performed cardiovascular exercises for approximately 45-60 min at 60-70% maximal oxygen uptake. The main outcome measures were serum CRP, cardiovascular fitness, total and central adiposity, and self-reported psychosocial function. Cardio experienced a reduction in CRP (-0.5mg/L), as well as improvements in fitness (+7%) and total (-1.5%) and central (i.e., trunk) (-2.5%) adiposity. These relationships were not modified by sex. Regression analyses indicated that only the reduction in trunk fat was significantly related to the reduction in CRP. Ten months of cardiovascular exercise training reduced CRP in previously sedentary older adults and this effect was partially mediated by a reduction in trunk fat.

  10. [The effect of yoga exercise intervention on health related physical fitness in school-age asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness.

  11. Promoting graded exercise as a part of multimodal treatment in patients diagnosed with stress-related exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Arvidson, Elin; Lindwall, Magnus; Lindegård, Agneta

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, by using patient cohort data, the changes in exercise habits during a 12-month multimodal treatment period, in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion. Randomised controlled trials have greatly contributed to the fact that both physicians and patients regard regular exercise participation as a highly valuable and effective treatment for mental health disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about the adherence to physical activity recommendations for patients with stress-related mental problems in a clinical setting. Knowledge about what can be achieved within the clinical context, and how current treatments can be improved, is crucial for clinicians, researchers, educators, managers and policy makers involved in nursing practice. Longitudinal analysis of patient cohort data. The sample consisted of 169 patients (79% women; mean age = 42·7 years) who were referred to a stress clinic due to stress-related exhaustion. All patients received multimodal treatment with similar components. Two different approaches to promote exercise were used in the clinical work (general comprehensive instruction either with or without an 18-week coached exercise programme). The self-reported overall exercise level was assessed at baseline and at three, six and 12 months after the first visit. Group by time effects were examined with repeated measures analyses of variance. The frequency, duration and intensity of exercise increased substantially during the first three months of multimodal treatment. Although exercise levels tended to decrease thereafter, there was still a significant time effect at the 12-month follow-up showing that follow-up exercise levels were higher than at baseline. Both general exercise instructions and coached exercise were effective in promoting exercise involvement. Exercise can be successfully promoted as a part of multimodal treatment in patients with stress-related exhaustion. © 2015 John

  12. Daily exercise attenuates the development of arterial blood pressure related cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, H L; Rodenbaugh, D W; DiCarlo, S E

    2000-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that daily spontaneous running (DSR) attenuates the development of blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease risk factors (BP-related CVD risk factors) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After 8 weeks of DSR or sedentary control, rats were chronically instrumented with arterial catheters. Daily exercise attenuated the development of all measures of BP-related CVD risk factors. Specifically DSR attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure (delta--22 mmHg), systolic blood pressure variability (delta--2.5 mmHg), and systolic blood pressure load (delta--27%). Similarly, DSR attenuated the increase in diastolic blood pressure (delta--15 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure variability (delta--1.19 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure load (delta--17%). Finally, DSR attenuated the development of tachycardia (delta--63 bpm). These data demonstrate that daily exercise attenuates the development of hypertension and tachycardia in animals predisposed to hypertension.

  13. Attenuation of age-related changes in mouse neuromuscular synapses by caloric restriction and exercise.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Gregorio; Tapia, Juan C; Kang, Hyuno; Clemenson, Gregory D; Gage, F H; Lichtman, Jeff W; Sanes, Joshua R

    2010-08-17

    The cellular basis of age-related behavioral decline remains obscure but alterations in synapses are likely candidates. Accordingly, the beneficial effects on neural function of caloric restriction and exercise, which are among the most effective anti-aging treatments known, might also be mediated by synapses. As a starting point in testing these ideas, we studied the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a large, accessible peripheral synapse. Comparison of NMJs in young adult and aged mice revealed a variety of age-related structural alterations, including axonal swellings, sprouting, synaptic detachment, partial or complete withdrawal of axons from some postsynaptic sites, and fragmentation of the postsynaptic specialization. Alterations were significant by 18 mo of age and severe by 24 mo. A life-long calorie-restricted diet significantly decreased the incidence of pre- and postsynaptic abnormalities in 24-mo-old mice and attenuated age-related loss of motor neurons and turnover of muscle fibers. One month of exercise (wheel running) in 22-mo-old mice also reduced age-related synaptic changes but had no effect on motor neuron number or muscle fiber turnover. Time-lapse imaging in vivo revealed that exercise partially reversed synaptic alterations that had already occurred. These results demonstrate a critical effect of aging on synaptic structure and provide evidence that interventions capable of extending health span and lifespan can partially reverse these age-related synaptic changes.

  14. A novel outlier detection method for identifying torque-related transient patterns of in vivo muscle behavior.

    PubMed

    Sheng Han; Xin Chen; Sheng Zhong; Yongjin Zhou; Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel outlier detection method, named l1-regularized outlier isolation and regression (LOIRE), to examine torque-related transient patterns of in vivo muscle behavior from multimodal signals, including electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US), during isometric muscle contraction. Eight subjects performed isometric ramp contraction of knee up to 90% of the maximal voluntary contraction, and EMG, MMG and US were simultaneously recorded from the rectus femoris muscle. Five features, including two root mean square amplitudes from EMG and MMG, muscle cross sectional area, muscle thickness and width from US were extracted. Then, local polynomial regression was used to obtain the signal-to-torque relationships and their derivatives. By assuming the signal-to-torque functions are basically quadratic, the LOIRE method is applied to identify transient torque-related patterns of EMG, MMG and US features as outliers of the linear derivative-to-torque functions. The results show that the LOIRE method can effectively reveal transient patterns in the signal-to-torque relationships (for example, sudden changes around 20% MVC can be observed from all features), providing important information about in vivo muscle behavior.

  15. Can exercise-related improvements in immunity influence cancer prevention and prognosis in the elderly?

    PubMed

    Bigley, Austin B; Spielmann, Guillaume; LaVoy, Emily C P; Simpson, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    Cancer incidence increases with advancing age. Over 60% of new cancers and 70% of cancer deaths occur in individuals aged 65 years or older. One factor that may contribute to this is immunosenescence - a canopy term that is used to describe age-related declines in the normal functioning of the immune system. There are multiple age-related deficits in both the innate and adaptive systems that may play a role in the increased incidence of cancer. These include decreased NK-cell function, impaired antigen uptake and presentation by monocytes and dendritic cells, an increase in 'inflammaging', a decline in the number of naïve T-cells able to respond to evolving tumor cells, and an increase in functionally exhausted senescent cells. There is consensus that habitual physical exercise can offer protection against certain types of cancer; however the evidence linking immunological mechanisms, exercise, and reduced cancer risk remain tentative. Multiple studies published over the last two decades suggest that exercise can mitigate the deleterious effects of age on immune function, thus increasing anti-cancer immunity. The potential ameliorative effect of exercise on these mechanisms include evidence that physical activity is able to stimulate greater NK-cell activity, enhance antigen-presentation, reduce inflammation, and prevent senescent cell accumulation in the elderly. Here we discuss the role played by the immune system in preventing and controlling cancer and how aging may retard these anti-cancer mechanisms. We also propose a pathway by which exercise-induced alterations in immunosenescence may decrease the incidence of cancer and help improve prognosis in cancer patients.

  16. Endogenous α-calcitonin-gene-related peptide promotes exercise-induced, physiological heart hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Schuler, B; Rieger, G; Gubser, M; Arras, M; Gianella, M; Vogel, O; Jirkof, P; Cesarovic, N; Klohs, J; Jakob, P; Brock, M; Gorr, T A; Baum, O; Hoppeler, H; Samillan-Soto, V; Gassmann, M; Fischer, J A; Born, W; Vogel, J

    2014-05-01

    It is unknown how the heart distinguishes various overloads, such as exercise or hypertension, causing either physiological or pathological hypertrophy. We hypothesize that alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide (αCGRP), known to be released from contracting skeletal muscles, is key at this remodelling. The hypertrophic effect of αCGRP was measured in vitro (cultured cardiac myocytes) and in vivo (magnetic resonance imaging) in mice. Exercise performance was assessed by determination of maximum oxygen consumption and time to exhaustion. Cardiac phenotype was defined by transcriptional analysis, cardiac histology and morphometry. Finally, we measured spontaneous activity, body fat content, blood volume, haemoglobin mass and skeletal muscle capillarization and fibre composition. While αCGRP exposure yielded larger cultured cardiac myocytes, exercise-induced heart hypertrophy was completely abrogated by treatment with the peptide antagonist CGRP(8-37). Exercise performance was attenuated in αCGRP(-/-) mice or CGRP(8-37) treated wild-type mice but improved in animals with higher density of cardiac CGRP receptors (CLR-tg). Spontaneous activity, body fat content, blood volume, haemoglobin mass, muscle capillarization and fibre composition were unaffected, whereas heart index and ventricular myocyte volume were reduced in αCGRP(-/-) mice and elevated in CLR-tg. Transcriptional changes seen in αCGRP(-/-) (but not CLR-tg) hearts resembled maladaptive cardiac phenotype. Alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide released by skeletal muscles during exercise is a hitherto unrecognized effector directing the strained heart into physiological instead of pathological adaptation. Thus, αCGRP agonists might be beneficial in heart failure patients. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in exercising horses in relation to hydration status and exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Nyman, S; Kokkonen, U M; Dahlborn, K

    1998-04-01

    To investigate effects of hydration status and exercise intensity on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration in exercising horses. 4 trained Standardbreds. Horses performed a 40-minute exercise test at 65 to 70% maximal heart rate (HRmax; no incline) and a 12-minute test at approximately 90% HRmax (3.5 degrees incline). The 40-minute test was performed with ad libitum access to drinking water (normohydration), after water had been withheld for 24 hours (dehydration), and 30 minutes after 12 L of water at body temperature had been given via nasogastric tube (hyperhydration). The 12-minute test was only performed with normohydrated horses. Plasma ANP concentration was higher toward the end of exercise during hyperhydration than during the other 2 hydration states, and the area under the plasma ANP concentration curve was significantly greater during hyperhydration than during dehydration. The maximal plasma ANP value induced during the 12-minute test was similar to that of the 40-minute test. After the 12-minute test, plasma ANP concentration did not decrease during the first 30 minutes of recovery, whereas after the 40-minute test, plasma ANP concentration decreased by approximately 30% during the same period. Hydration status can affect plasma ANP concentration in horses during submaximal exercise. Maximal plasma ANP concentration was similar at the 2 exercise intensities studied, but the postexercise return to baseline values differed. Changes in hydration status can cause alterations in plasma concentration of ANP, one of the hormones involved in the control of cardiovascular functions during exercise.

  18. Exercise training alters DNA methylation patterns in genes related to muscle growth and differentiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Jähnert, Markus; Schulze, Gunnar; Selbig, Joachim; Hallahan, Nicole; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-05-15

    The adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise training is tightly controlled and therefore requires transcriptional regulation. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism known to modulate gene expression, but its contribution to exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle is not well studied. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in muscle of trained mice (n = 3). Compared with sedentary controls, 2,762 genes exhibited differentially methylated CpGs (P < 0.05, meth diff >5%, coverage >10) in their putative promoter regions. Alignment with gene expression data (n = 6) revealed 200 genes with a negative correlation between methylation and expression changes in response to exercise training. The majority of these genes were related to muscle growth and differentiation, and a minor fraction involved in metabolic regulation. Among the candidates were genes that regulate the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (Plexin A2) as well as genes that participate in muscle hypertrophy (Igfbp4) and motor neuron innervation (Dok7). Interestingly, a transcription factor binding site enrichment study discovered significantly enriched occurrence of CpG methylation in the binding sites of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin. These findings suggest that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of muscle adaptation to regular exercise training. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Heart failure in chemotherapy-related cardiomyopathy: Can exercise make a difference?

    PubMed

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Medical therapies in oncology have resulted in better survival resulting in a large population who are at risk of early and late cardiac complications of chemotherapy. Cardiotoxicity related to chemotherapy can manifest decades after treatment with a threefold higher mortality rate as compared to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The leading cause of death in cancer survivors seems to be cardiac. Early detection and intervention could prevent progression of heart failure to end stage disease requiring advanced therapies such as implantation of ventricular assist devices or cardiac transplantation. This review focuses on the role of exercise in cardioprotection in this population. The current practice of depending on ejection fraction for diagnosis of heart failure is suboptimal to detect subclinical disease. It is also important to diagnose and treat early diastolic dysfunction as this tends to lead to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hence we suggest an algorithm here that is based on using strain rate and tissue Doppler imaging modalities to detect subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Further research is warranted in terms of defining exercise prescriptions in this population. Human studies with multicenter participation in randomized controlled trials should be done to elucidate the intricacies of aerobic exercise intervention in cardiotoxicity dependent heart failure. It is also necessary to assess the utility of exercise interventions in the different chemotherapeutic regimens as they impact the outcomes.

  20. The acute muscular response to blood flow-restricted exercise with very low relative pressure.

    PubMed

    Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Counts, Brittany R; Dankel, Scott J; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-03-02

    To investigate the acute responses to blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise across low, moderate and high relative pressures. Muscle thickness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were assessed following exercise with six different BFR pressures: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 90% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP). There were differences between each time point within each condition for muscle thickness, which increased postexercise [+0·47 (0·40, 0·54) cm] and then trended towards baseline. For MVC, higher pressures resulted in greater decrements than lower pressures [e.g. 10% AOP: -20·7 (-15·5, -25·8) Nm versus 90% AOP: -24 (-19·1, -28·9) Nm] postexercise. EMG amplitude increased from the first three repetitions to the last three repetitions within each set. When using a common BFR protocol with 30% 1RM, applying BFR does not seem to augment acute responses over that of exercise alone when exercise is taken to failure. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Simple Validation of Transient Plume Models Using Molecular Beam-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2008-12-31

    A simple effort using molecular beam data to compare the results of two different transient free molecule point source models was performed, motivated by a desire to determine the utility of such formulations for a variety of time-dependent applications. These models are evaluated against effusive molecular beam time-of-flight data, as well as behavior observed in pulsed laser ablation experiments and high-fidelity direct simulation Monte Carlo results. Such comparisons indicate that the physical behavior of these time-dependent expansions require taking a surface-enforced directional bias into account. This bias has been absent in a number of investigative formulations, both historical and current.

  2. Design of structure/control systems with transient response constraints exhibiting relative minima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Jin, I. M.

    1992-01-01

    Structural optimization problems involving dynamic behavior constraints often exhibit nonconvex design spaces. The direct application of a global optimization algorithm requires a large number of function evaluations which in term require a large number of dynamic structural analyses. This work presents a strategy aimed at finding the global optimum for problems with transient dynamic behavior constraints based on approximation concepts. The method consists of generating and solving a sequence of approximate problems using a global optimizer. The approximations are explicit and capture the inherent nonconvexity of the exact functions. A simple example problem is presented.

  3. Acute Inflammatory Response to Low-, Moderate-, and High-Load Resistance Exercise in Women With Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; Singh, Benjamin; Hayes, Sandi; Peake, Jonathan M; Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Nosaka, Kazunori; Cornish, Bruce; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Newton, Robert U

    2016-09-01

    Background Resistance exercise is emerging as a potential adjunct therapy to aid in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between the acute and long-term benefits of resistance exercise on BCRL are not well understood. Purpose To examine the acute inflammatory response to upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL and to compare these effects between resistance exercises involving low, moderate, and high loads. The impact on lymphedema status and associated symptoms was also compared. Methods A total of 21 women, 62 ± 10 years old, with BCRL participated in the study. Participants completed low-load (15-20 repetition maximum [RM]), moderate-load (10-12 RM), and high-load (6-8 RM) exercise sessions consisting of 3 sets of 6 upper-body resistance exercises. Sessions were completed in a randomized order separated by a 7- to 10-day wash-out period. Venous blood samples were obtained to assess markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Lymphedema status was assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy and arm circumferences, and associated symptoms were assessed using Visual Analogue Scales for pain, heaviness, and tightness. Measurements were conducted before and 24 hours after the exercise sessions. Results No significant changes in creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were observed following the 3 resistance exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in arm swelling or symptom severity scores across the 3 resistance exercise conditions. Conclusions The magnitude of acute exercise-induced inflammation following upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL does not vary between resistance exercise loads. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Prevention of tumorigenesis in mice by exercise is dependent on strain background and timing relative to carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Zhao, Liyang; Jung, Kuo-Chen; Hua, Kunjie; Threadgill, David W.; Kim, Yunjung; de Villena, Fernando Pardo Manuel; Pomp, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Among cancer diagnoses, colorectal cancer (CRC) is prevalent, with a lifetime risk of developing CRC being approximately 5%. Population variation surrounding the mean risk of developing CRCs has been associated with both inter-individual differences in genomic architecture and environmental exposures. Decreased risk of CRC has been associated with physical activity, but protective responses are variable. Here, we utilized a series of experiments to examine the effects of genetic background (strain), voluntary exercise (wheel running), and their interaction on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced intestinal tumor number and size in mice. Additionally, we investigated how the timing of exercise relative to AOM exposure, and amount of exercise, affected tumor number and size. Our results indicated that voluntary exercise significantly reduced tumor number in a strain dependent manner. Additionally, among strains where exercise reduced tumor number (A/J, CC0001/Unc) the timing of voluntary exercise relative to AOM exposure was crucial. Voluntary exercise prior to or during AOM treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number, but exercise following AOM exposure had no effect. The results indicate that voluntary exercise should be used as a preventative measure to reduce risk for environmentally induced CRC with the realization that the extent of protection may depend on genetic background. PMID:28225043

  5. Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianyang; Price, Margaret P; Taugher, Rebecca J; Grigsby, Daniel; Ash, Jamison J; Stark, Austin C; Hossain Saad, Md Zubayer; Singh, Kritika; Mandal, Juthika; Wemmie, John A; Welsh, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22564.001 PMID:28650315

  6. Transient Splenial Lesion of the Corpus Callosum Related to Migraine with Aura in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Ünver, Olcay; Kutlubay, Büşra; Besci, Tolga; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Baltacıoğlu, Feyyaz; Türkdoğan, Dilşad

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are rare radiological findings first described in association with epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and viral encephalitis. However, subsequently more cases were described associated with diverse clinical conditions. We describe a 13-year-old girl suffering from migraine with aura presenting with headache, right-sided hemiparesis and encephalopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ovoid lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The patient's neurological symptoms resolved within 3 days without therapy and the lesion disappeared in follow up magnetic resonance images obtained 3 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Migraine with aura was considered to be the cause of the lesion. To our knowledge the present case is the first report of a pediatric patient with a diagnosis of migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A diagnosis of transient lesion of the corpus callosum should be suspected in patients with migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A mild course and a good prognosis might be expected in the presence of a splenial lesion of the corpus callosum.

  7. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... terms of a statement of investment policy is an exercise of fiduciary responsibility and, as such... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of investment policy, including proxy voting policies or guidelines...

  8. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... terms of a statement of investment policy is an exercise of fiduciary responsibility and, as such... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of investment policy, including proxy voting policies or guidelines...

  9. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... terms of a statement of investment policy is an exercise of fiduciary responsibility and, as such... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of investment policy, including proxy voting policies or guidelines...

  10. Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials Can Be Explained by Temporal Superposition of Transient Event-Related Responses

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Almudena; Pazo-Alvarez, Paula; Darriba, Alvaro; Campo, Pablo; Gross, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background One common criterion for classifying electrophysiological brain responses is based on the distinction between transient (i.e. event-related potentials, ERPs) and steady-state responses (SSRs). The generation of SSRs is usually attributed to the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the stimulus train. However, a more parsimonious account suggests that SSRs might result from the linear addition of the transient responses elicited by each stimulus. This study aimed to investigate this possibility. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded brain potentials elicited by a checkerboard stimulus reversing at different rates. We modeled SSRs by sequentially shifting and linearly adding rate-specific ERPs. Our results show a strong resemblance between recorded and synthetic SSRs, supporting the superposition hypothesis. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of entrainment of a neural oscillation at the stimulation frequency. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that visual SSRs can be explained as a superposition of transient ERPs. These findings have critical implications in our current understanding of brain oscillations. Contrary to the idea that neural networks can be tuned to a wide range of frequencies, our findings rather suggest that the oscillatory response of a given neural network is constrained within its natural frequency range. PMID:21267081

  11. Relation between heart rate recovery after exercise testing and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Lins, Tereza Cristina; Valente, Lucila Maria; Sobral Filho, Dário Celestino; Barbosa e Silva, Odwaldo

    2015-01-01

    Impaired heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise testing is considered a predictor of cardiovascular mortality as it reflects vagus nerve dysfunction. To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HR recovery after exercise. We analyzed the records of 2443 patients of both sexes, aged between 20 and 59 years, in sinus rhythm, not using negative chronotropic agents and with no myocardial ischemic response to exercise testing carried out at a specialist clinic, between 2005 and 2011. BMI was categorized as normal (18.5-<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-≤30 kg/m(2)) or obese (>30 kg/m(2)). The different BMI groups were compared in terms of HR recovery after exercise, which was calculated as the difference between maximum HR during exercise and in the first minute of recovery. Recovery was considered impaired when the difference was ≤12 bpm. Eighty-seven (3.6%) patients presented impaired recovery, which was three times more prevalent in the obese group and twice as prevalent in the overweight group compared with the normal group (p<0.001 and p=0.010, respectively). Obese patients presented higher basal HR and lower maximum HR, as well as reduced chronotropic reserve (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, impaired HR recovery was associated with overweight (relative risk [RR]=1.8; p=0.035), obesity (RR=2; p=0.016), number of metabolic equivalents (RR=0.82; p<0.001) and resting HR (RR=1.05; p<0.001). The hazard ratio for hypertension was 2 (p=0.083, NS). Impaired HR recovery was associated with higher BMI, demonstrating that obese individuals present vagus nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners: effects of a worksite intervention RCT.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p < 0.05) between-group reductions from baseline to follow-up were found for high-sensitive C-reactive protein (-0.54 ± 0.20 µg/ml; 95% CI -0.94, -0.14), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.32 ± 0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI -0.54, -0.10) and the ratios of LDL/HDL (-0.30 ± 0.08; 95% CI -0.46, -0.14), and LDL/TC cholesterol (-0.04 ± 0.02; 95% CI -0.07, -0.01). This study indicates that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.

  13. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    PubMed Central

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to a specific perceptual, emotional, attentional, or cognitive process and observing it in a non-judgmental, non-personal way. In addition, students could choose to participate, for bonus credit, in a longer exercise designed to expand upon the weekly class activity. In the exercise, students continued their “personal brain investigations” for 10 min a day, 4 days a week. They wrote “lab reports” on their daily observations, obtained feedback from the teacher, and at the end of the year reviewed their reports and reflected upon their experiences during the semester. Out of 265 students, 102 students completed the bonus track and their final reflections were analyzed using qualitative methodology. In addition, 91 of the students answered a survey at the end of the course, 43 students participated in a quiz 1 year after course graduation, and the final grades of all students were collected and analyzed. Overall, students reported satisfaction from the exercises and felt they contributed to their learning experience. In the 1-year follow-up, the bonus-track students were significantly more likely than their peers to remember class material. The qualitative analysis of bonus-track students' reports revealed that the bonus-track process elicited positive feelings, helped students connect with class material and provided them with personal insights. In addition, students acquired contemplative skills, such as increased awareness and attention, non-judgmental attitudes, and

  14. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Snyder, Claire; Geigle, Paula M; Berlanstein, Debra R; Topaloglu, Ozlem

    2012-08-15

    People with cancer undergoing active treatment experience numerous disease- and treatment-related adverse outcomes and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Exercise interventions are hypothesized to alleviate these adverse outcomes. HRQoL and its domains are important measures of cancer survivorship, both during and after the end of active treatment for cancer. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise on overall HRQoL outcomes and specific HRQoL domains among adults with cancer during active treatment. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO, LILACS, SIGLE, SportDiscus, OTSeeker, Sociological Abstracts from inception to November 2011 with no language or date restrictions. We also searched citations through Web of Science and Scopus, PubMed's related article feature, and several websites. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and other reviews in the field. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing exercise interventions with usual care or other type of non-exercise comparison intervention to maintain or enhance, or both, overall HRQoL or at least one distinct domain of HRQoL. Included trials tested exercise interventions that were initiated when adults with cancer were undergoing active cancer treatment or were scheduled to initiate treatment. Five paired review authors independently extracted information on characteristics of included trials, data on effects of the intervention, and assessed risk of bias based on predefined criteria. Where possible, we performed meta-analyses for HRQoL and HRQoL domains for the reported difference between baseline values and follow-up values using standardized mean differences (SMDs) and a random-effects model by length of follow-up. We also reported the SMD at follow-up between the exercise and control groups. Because investigators used many different HRQo

  15. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Exercise for Those With Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ben; Disipio, Tracey; Peake, Jonathan; Hayes, Sandra C

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise on cancer-related lymphedema and related symptoms, and to determine the need for those with lymphedema to wear compression during exercise. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, ScienceDirect, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for trials published before January 1, 2015. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and single-group pre-post studies published in English were included. Twenty-one (exercise) and 4 (compression and exercise) studies met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into tabular format using predefined data fields by 1 reviewer and assessed for accuracy by a second reviewer. Study quality was evaluated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Data were pooled using a random-effects model to assess the effects of acute and long-term exercise on lymphedema and lymphedema-associated symptoms, with subgroup analyses for exercise mode and intervention length. There was no effect of exercise (acute or intervention) on lymphedema or associated symptoms, with standardized mean differences from all analyses ranging between -0.2 and 0.1 (P values ≥.22). Findings from subgroup analyses for exercise mode (aerobic, resistance, mixed, other) and intervention duration (>12wk or ≤12wk) were consistent with these findings-that is, no effect on lymphedema or associated symptoms. There were too few studies evaluating the effect of compression during regular exercise to conduct a meta-analysis. Individuals with secondary lymphedema can safely participate in progressive, regular exercise without experiencing a worsening of lymphedema or related symptoms. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the current clinical recommendation to wear compression garments during regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. A step test to assess exercise-related oxygen desaturation in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Dal Corso, S; Duarte, S R; Neder, J A; Malaguti, C; de Fuccio, M B; de Castro Pereira, C A; Nery, L E

    2007-02-01

    A 6-min step test (6MST) may constitute a practical method for routinely assessing effort tolerance and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation (ERD) in the primary care of patients with interstitial lung disease. In total, 31 patients (19 males) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 25) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia were submitted, on different days, to two 6MSTs. Physiological responses were compared with those found on maximal and submaximal cycle ergometer tests at the same oxygen uptake (V'(O(2))). Chronic breathlessness was also determined, as measured by the baseline dyspnoea index (BDI). Responses to 6MST were highly reproducible: 1.3+/-2.0 steps x min(-1), +/-5 beats x min(-1) (cardiac frequency), +/-50 mL x min(-1) (V'(O(2))), +/-7 L x min(-1) (minute ventilation) and +/-2% (arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2)))). The number of steps climbed in 6 min was correlated to peak V'(O(2)) and the BDI. There were significant associations among the tests in relation to presence (change in S(p,O(2)) between rest and exercise > or = 4%) and severity (S(p,O(2)) <88%) of ERD. Four patients, however, presented ERD only in response to 6MST. Resting diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference were the independent predictors of the number of steps climbed. A single-stage, self-paced 6-min step test provided reliable and reproducible estimates of exercise capacity and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation in interstitial lung disease patients.

  17. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E.; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing. PMID:26190989

  18. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  19. Transient laxity of an anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee related to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blecher, A M; Richmond, J C

    1998-01-01

    Transient laxity was documented around the end of pregnancy in a woman who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction 2 months before conception. This temporary laxity in the 3rd trimester and a few months postpartum corresponded to a time when substantial remodeling from large diameter to small diameter collagen fibers has been noted in the ACL graft ligamentization process. This is also a time of high levels of the hormone relaxin (member of the family of insulin-like growth factors), whose action in animals leads to dissociation of large collagen fibrils to smaller disorganized fibrils. The temporary laxity resolved. Careful observation of women who become pregnant in the first few months after ACL reconstruction is recommended.

  20. Individual and intervention-related factors associated with adherence to home exercise in chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beinart, Naomi A; Goodchild, Claire E; Weinman, John A; Ayis, Salma; Godfrey, Emma L

    2013-12-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce pain and increase function in patients with chronic low back pain. However up to 70% of patients do not engage in prescribed home exercise. Physiotherapists need to understand more about the complex factors influencing patients' adherence to prescribed home exercise to tailor their exercise interventions more effectively and support patients to self-manage. This review identifies factors associated with adherence to health care practitioner-prescribed home exercise in adults with chronic low back pain. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used for the reporting of this review. We explored literature in which the authors studied adherence to home exercise in adults with CLBP. Adherence to home exercise was the primary outcome. Additional outcome measures were recorded in the data extraction table. The following databases were searched: Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, PEDro, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Data were independently extracted and assessed for methodologic quality by two reviewers. Eleven randomized controlled trials, including 1,088 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Moderate evidence was found for one individual patient subfactor and three intervention-related subfactors associated with increased adherence to home exercise. These subfactors were greater health locus of control, supervision, participation in an exercise program, and participation in a general behavior change program incorporating motivational strategies. This is the first systematic review investigating adherence to prescribed home exercise in a chronic low back pain population. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions because the research lacks detailed descriptions of intervention content. The use of a taxonomy of behavior change techniques has been suggested to overcome this key problem. This review has highlighted the lack of standardized measures of adherence to

  1. Exercise Counteracts Aging-Related Memory Impairment: A Potential Role for the Astrocytic Metabolic Shuttle

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Pei-Chun; Calkins, Marcus J.; Wu, Shih-Ying; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas. PMID:27047373

  2. Exercise and inflammation-related epigenetic modifications: focus on DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, Steven; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Adams, Rozanne; Smith, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable phenotypes that occur as a result of modifications to DNA, thereby regulating gene expression independently of changes in base sequence due to manipulation of the chromatin structure. These modifications occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, and can cause transcriptional suppression or activation depending on the location within the gene. Environmental stimuli, such as diet and exercise, are thought to be able to regulate these mechanisms, with inflammation as a probable contributory factor. Research into these areas is still in its infancy however. This review will focus on DNA methylation in the context of inflammation (both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes) and exercise. The complexity and relative shortcomings of some existing techniques for studying epigenetics will be highlighted, and recommendations for future study approaches made.

  3. Impact of exercise with TheraBite device on trismus and health-related quality of life: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Charlotte; Finizia, Caterina; Pauli, Nina; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Andréll, Paulin

    2017-01-01

    Trismus is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer that affects many aspects of daily life negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device TheraBite on trismus, trismus-related symptomatology, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with head and neck cancer. Fifteen patients with trismus (maximum interincisal opening [MIO] ≤35 mm) after oncologic treatment for head and neck cancer, underwent a 10-week exercise program with the TheraBite device and were followed regularly. Time between oncologic treatment and start of TheraBite exercise ranged from 0.7 to 14.8 years (average 6.2 years). MIO, trismus-related symptoms, and HRQL was assessed before and after exercise and after 6 months. A significant improvement in MIO was observed post-exercise (3.5 mm, 15.3%, p = 0.0002) and after 6-month of follow-up (4.7 mm, 22.1%, p = 0.0029). A statistically significant correlation was found between increased MIO and fewer trismus-related symptoms. In conclusion, exercise with TheraBite improved MIO and trismus-related symptoms in patients with trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. Structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device seems to be beneficial for patients with trismus independent of time since oncologic treatment.

  4. Relations of exercise blood pressure response to cardiovascular risk factors and vascular function in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Thanassoulis, George; Lyass, Asya; Benjamin, Emelia J; Larson, Martin G; Vita, Joseph A; Levy, Daniel; Hamburg, Naomi M; Widlansky, Michael E; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2012-06-12

    Exercise blood pressure (BP) is an important marker of left ventricular hypertrophy, incident hypertension, and future cardiovascular events. Although impaired vascular function is hypothesized to influence the BP response during exercise, limited data exist on the association of vascular function with exercise BP in the community. Framingham Offspring cohort participants (n=2115, 53% women, mean age 59 years) underwent a submaximal exercise test (first 2 stages of the Bruce protocol), applanation tonometry, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation testing. We related exercise systolic and diastolic BP at second stage of the Bruce protocol to standard cardiovascular risk factors and to vascular function measures. In multivariable linear regression models, exercise systolic BP was positively related to age, standing BP, standing heart rate, smoking, body mass index, and the total cholesterol-to-high-density cholesterol ratio (P≤0.01 for all). Similar associations were observed for exercise diastolic BP. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (P=0.02), central pulse pressure (P<0.0001), mean arterial pressure (P=0.04), and baseline brachial flow (P=0.002) were positively associated with exercise systolic BP, whereas flow-mediated dilation was negatively associated (P<0.001). For exercise diastolic BP, forward pressure wave amplitude was negatively related (P<0.0001), whereas mean arterial pressure was positively related (P<0.0001). Increased arterial stiffness and impaired endothelial function are significant correlates of a higher exercise systolic BP response. Our findings suggest that impaired vascular function may contribute to exaggerated BP responses during daily living, resulting in repetitive increments in load on the heart and vessels and increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  5. Running for Exercise Mitigates Age-Related Deterioration of Walking Economy

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Justus D.; Beck, Owen N.; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Turney, Aria L.; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. Purpose To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. Methods 15 older adults (69±3 years) who walk ≥30 min, 3x/week for exercise, “walkers” and 15 older adults (69±5 years) who run ≥30 min, 3x/week, “runners” walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Results Older runners had a 7–10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p = .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p = .461) and ∼26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Conclusion Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy. PMID:25411850

  6. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  7. Ventricular tachycardia and exercise related syncope in children with structurally normal hearts: emphasis on repolarisation abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Noh, C. I.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, J. Y.; Yun, Y. S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To emphasize the importance of ventricular tachycardia associated with repolarisation abnormality in syncope associated with exercise. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of data on children presenting with syncope between 1985 and 1993. PATIENTS--5 apparently normal children with recurrent exercise related syncope associated with electrocardiographically abnormal TU complexes. RESULTS--3 children were diagnosed as having an intermediate form of the long QT syndrome and catecholamine sensitive ventricular tachycardia because the abnormal TU complexes were associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that was not typical of torsades de pointes. Tachycardia was induced by exercise in all patients and by isoprenaline in the one patient who was tested. One patient also had sinus node dysfunction. One child had incessant salvos of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and intermittent abnormal TU complexes suggestive of repolarisation abnormalities. The other had typical congenital long QT syndrome. Treatment was effective in three patients; two patients took a beta blocker alone and one took a beta blocker and low doses of amiodarone. One patient died suddenly, death being associated with sinus node dysfunction. In one patient with incessant ventricular arrhythmias treatment with a beta blocker, amiodarone, or Ic drugs was ineffective and always associated with proarrhythmia or syncope. He was not given further treatment and was asymptomatic despite having mild cardiomegaly. CONCLUSIONS--Ventricular tachycardia associated with repolarisation abnormality was an important cause of exercise related syncope in apparently normal children. TU complex abnormalities can be identified by repeated electrocardiography. beta Blockers are effective in preventing recurrent episodes. The role of amiodarone in this type of ventricular tachycardia needs further evaluation. PMID:7626354

  8. The effect of exercise on motor performance tasks used in the neurological assessment of sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J; McCrory, P R; Gray, A; Maruthayanar, S; Singh, P; Ranhotigammage, P; Van der Salm, R

    2008-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is assessed using both cognitive and motor performance tasks. There is limited understanding of how exercise affects these measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on three selected measures of motor performance. A repeated measures design was used to compare baseline motor performance scores with post-exercise scores with an exercise intervention modelled on the physiological demands of a team sport. 30 physically active subjects performed timed motor performance tasks: Finger-to-Nose (FTN), Tandem Gait (TG) and Single Leg Stance (SLS). The tasks were administered twice pre-exercise and twice post-exercise. FTN, TG and SLS demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC values >0.8). 15 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise caused a significant improvement in FTN (T2 = 2.66 (SD 0.38), T3 = 2.49 (0.32); p<0.001) and TG (T2 = 13.08 (2.84), T3 = 12.23 (2.22); p = 0.001), but not in SLS (T2 = 5.94 (4.99), T3 = 5.91 (5.54); p = 0.507). Improvement in the performance of motor tasks after exercise has implications for the immediate assessment of sports-related concussion, given that measures of motor performance are utilised in concussion assessment instruments.

  9. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-04-11

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001-0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning.

  10. Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-E

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P < 0.001); they also preferred convenience foods less than the male subjects (P < 0.05). Obese individuals were more likely than overweight or normal weight individuals to misperceive their weight (P < 0.001). Those with a high BMI responded feeling more depressed (P < 0.01), lacking self-confidence (P < 0.01), and feeling isolated (P < 0.01), as well as having more difficulty doing outdoor activities (P < 0.01). After exercise, body fat (%) and WHR were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while body weight and BMI were also decreased without statistical significance. Total cholesterol and blood HDL were significantly improved (207.1 mg/dl vs. 182.6 mg/dl, HDL: 45.6 mg/dl vs. 50.6 mg/dl, P < 0.05). Other benefits obtained from exercise were improvements in self-confidence (26.4%), movement (22.6%), stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self

  11. Occurrence of acute lower limb injuries in artistic gymnasts in relation to event and exercise phase.

    PubMed

    Kirialanis, P; Malliou, P; Beneka, A; Giannakopoulos, K

    2003-04-01

    To record the incidence of lower limb injuries (acute and overuse syndromes) in Greek artistic gymnasts in relation to the event and exercise phase. A total of 162 gymnasts (83 male and 79 female athletes) participating in the Greek artistic gymnastic championships were observed weekly for the 1999-2000 season. Ninety three (61.6%) acute injuries and 58 (38.4%) overuse syndromes were recorded. The most common anatomical location was the ankle (69 cases, 45.7%), followed by the knee (40 cases, 26.5%). The rate of mild injuries was 26.6% (25 cases), that of moderate injuries was 44% (41 cases), and that of major injuries was 29% (27 cases). The incidence of injury to the ankle and knee was significantly higher in the floor exercise, especially during the landing phase, than in the other events. By its nature, gymnastics predisposes to acute injuries, but up to 75% are mild or moderate. Special attention should be paid to the floor exercise, especially the landing phase.

  12. Occurrence of acute lower limb injuries in artistic gymnasts in relation to event and exercise phase

    PubMed Central

    Kirialanis, P; Malliou, P; Beneka, A; Giannakopoulos, K

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To record the incidence of lower limb injuries (acute and overuse syndromes) in Greek artistic gymnasts in relation to the event and exercise phase. Methods: A total of 162 gymnasts (83 male and 79 female athletes) participating in the Greek artistic gymnastic championships were observed weekly for the 1999–2000 season. Results: Ninety three (61.6%) acute injuries and 58 (38.4%) overuse syndromes were recorded. The most common anatomical location was the ankle (69 cases, 45.7%), followed by the knee (40 cases, 26.5%). The rate of mild injuries was 26.6% (25 cases), that of moderate injuries was 44% (41 cases), and that of major injuries was 29% (27 cases). The incidence of injury to the ankle and knee was significantly higher in the floor exercise, especially during the landing phase, than in the other events. Conclusions: By its nature, gymnastics predisposes to acute injuries, but up to 75% are mild or moderate. Special attention should be paid to the floor exercise, especially the landing phase. PMID:12663355

  13. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  14. Transient Gamma-Ray Emissions Related to Thunderstorms: Coordinated RHESSI and CORONAS-F Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, K.; Bučík, R.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Lopez, L. I.; Smith, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Transient gamma-ray emissions from the Earth's atmosphere with duration of a few milliseconds and associated with lightning discharges were discovered by the BATSE/CGRO instrument in 1994, and new features have been recently reported from the RHESSI measurements. These so-called terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are thought to be bremsstrahlung photons from energetic electron beams above the thunderstorms. The SOlar Neutron and Gamma rays (SONG) experiment aboard low altitude (~ 500 km) polar orbiting (~ 83°) CORONAS-F satellite, designed to detection of neutral particles from the Sun, provides 1-s measurements of hard X-rays/gamma rays in range of 30 keV to 200 MeV. The SONG consists of large effective area (≤ 314 cm2) omnidirectional scintillator well suited for detection fluxes coming from the various directions from the Earth's atmosphere. We have identified cases when the RHESSI spacecraft, observing gamma-ray flashes at an altitude of about 600 km, and CORONAS-F passed through the same regions in period April 2002 - January 2005. The simultaneous gamma-ray measurements will be reviewed and discussed. Recent analysis of the SONG data have revealed observations of the enhanced hard X-ray emissions (above 50 times the background value) above geomagnetically conjugate regions to the lightning. The issue of freshly accelerated TGF electrons from the lightning itself, contributing to the precipitated radiation-belt electrons will be discussed too.

  15. Transient absorption phenomena and related structural transformations in femtosecond laser-excited Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.

    2004-09-01

    Analysis of processes affecting transient optical absorption and photogeneration of electron-hole plasma in silicon pumped by an intense NIR or visible femtosecond laser pulse has been performed taking into account the most important electron-photon, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions and, as a result, two main regimes of such laser-matter interaction have been revealed. The first regime is concerned with indirect interband optical absorption in Si, enhanced by a coherent shrinkage of its smallest indirect bandgap due to dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect (DFKE). The second regime takes place due to the critical renormalization of the Si direct bandgap along Λ-axis of its first Brillouin zone because of DFKE and the deformation potential electron-phonon interaction and occurs as intense direct single-photon excitation of electrons into one of the quadruplet of equivalent Λ-valleys in the lowest conduction band, which is split down due to the electron-phonon interaction.

  16. Spinal procaine with and without epinephrine and its relation to transient radicular irritation.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, L; Girard, M; Drolet, P; Grenier, Y; Le Truong, H H; Boucher, C

    1999-09-01

    To document the clinical characteristics of procaine with or without the addition of epinephrine. In this randomized, prospective, double blind study, 62 patients received spinal anesthesia with 100 mg procaine and either 0.3 mg epinephrine (EPI group) or 0.3 ml NaCl 0.9% (SALINE group). Sensory anesthesia to needle prick was evaluated q 1 min for 10 min, q 3 min for 33 min and q 5 min until regression to L4. Motor block was assessed with the Bromage scale. Patients were questioned, by telephone, for transient radicular irritation (TRI) 48 hr later. Time to reach highest sensory level and number of segments blocked showed no difference. Mean time for regression of the sensory level to T10 was longer in EPI (83 +/- 23 vs 66 +/- 20 min, P < 0.01). Time to recuperate to full flexion of knees and feet (Bromage 4) was longer in EPI (126 +/- 37 vs 100 +/- 30 min, P < 0.01). Patients in EPI received more ephedrine. Eighteen patients had nausea (15 EPI/3 SALINE, P < 0.0015). One patient had TRI, incidence: 1.67%, 95% CI (< 1%-9%). Spinal procaine is appropriate for surgery of short duration. Epinephrine prolongs sensory and motor blocks by 25%. However, it is associated with a high incidence of nausea.

  17. Thiacyclophane cages and related bi- and tripodal molecules via transient polysulfenic acids.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Maria Chiara; Barattucci, Anna; Bonaccorsi, Paola; Faggi, Cristina; Papalia, Teresa

    2007-06-08

    A series of bis- and tris-bridged thiacyclophane S-oxides, as racemates or meso products, have been synthesized with a new procedure. Starting from the corresponding thiols, in three steps, transient polyarene- and polyarylmethane-sulfenic acids were generated in the presence of di- and triethynylbenzenes. The thermal syn-addition of these sulfenic acids onto the triple bonds of the unsaturated acceptors was conducted in CH2Cl2 at 40 degrees C. The concentration of sulfoxide precursors of sulfenic acid and the sulfoxide/acceptor molar ratio addressed the syn-addition toward open-chain benzene sulfoxides or thiacyclophane S-oxides. Complete stereochemical control was observed in some reactions between polysulfenic acids and ethynylbenzenes, where the meso dithiacyclophane S,S'-dioxides were obtained exclusively, whereas 1:1 mixtures of meso/rac dithiacyclophanes S,S'-dioxides were isolated as products of other reactions. In almost all the cases, the obtained compounds were separated by column chromatography. The structure assignment of the new heterophanes was done on the basis of their diagnostic NMR spectra and X-ray crystallographic analysis of some of them. Open-chain polysulfinyl and polysulfinylmethyl benzenes, obtained as meso/rac mixtures, were separated and the products were fully characterized. Both synthesized cages, including trithia[3(3)](1,3,5)cyclophane S,S',S' '-trioxides, and bi- and tripodal benzene sulfoxides, appear promising in the field of coordination and material chemistry.

  18. Effects of moderate exercise over different phases on age-related physiological dysfunction in testes of SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiujun; Bian, Yanqing; Sun, Yichong; Li, Li; Wang, Lixuan; Zhao, Chunfang; Shen, Yongqing; Song, Qingliang; Qu, Yine; Niu, Siyun; Wu, Wenshuang; Gao, Fulu

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been implicated in the testicular aging process. Different types and moderate-intensity of regular exercise may reduce age-related physiological dysfunction associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, but such effects of moderate-intensity of exercise over different phases of life in testes have not been reported. In this study, male SAMP8 mice, a senescence-accelerated strain, were maintained as sedentary (sed) or subjected to daily 15-min periods of swimming exercise between ages of 2-7 months (lifelong), 2-4 months (earlier) or 5-7 months (late). Age-related changes, including serum testosterone levels and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All exercise groups showed significantly greater serum testosterone levels and decreased age-related inflammation and oxidative stress compared with the sedentary group. Exercise also increased expression and activity of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a transcriptional regulator of the cellular anti-oxidant system, and decreased expression and activity of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), a mediator of inflammatory molecules, in the nucleus of testicular cells. However, lifelong and earlier groups generally showed significantly better protective effects than the late group against age-related physiological dysfunction in testes. Thus, lifelong exercise and earlier phase exercise were most effective in counteracting oxidative stress and inflammation and in preserving testes function through regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB. These results advocate the benefits of lifelong exercise and emphasize a greater protection against male aging by instituting exercise earlier rather than late in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unsupervised exercise in survivors of human papillomavirus related head and neck cancer: how many can go it alone?

    PubMed

    Bauml, Joshua; Kim, Jiyoung; Zhang, Xiaochen; Aggarwal, Charu; Cohen, Roger B; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer (HNC) have a better prognosis relative to other types of HNC, making survivorship an emerging and critical issue. Exercise is a core component of survivorship care, but little is known about how many survivors of HPV-related HNC can safely be advised to start exercising on their own, as opposed to needing further evaluation or supervised exercise. We utilized guidelines to identify health issues that would indicate value of further evaluation prior to being safely prescribed unsupervised exercise. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with HPV-related HNC to assess health issues 6 months after completing definitive therapy. Patients with at least one health issue were deemed appropriate to receive further evaluation prior to prescription for unsupervised exercise. We utilized logistic regression to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the need for further evaluation, likely performed by outpatient rehabilitation clinicians. In this cohort of patients, 39.3% could safely be prescribed unsupervised exercise 6 months after completing definitive therapy. On multivariable regression, older age, BMI >30, and receipt of radiation were associated with an increased likelihood for requiring further evaluation or supervised exercise. Over half of patients with HPV-related HNC would benefit from referral to physical therapy or an exercise professional for further evaluation to determine the most appropriate level of exercise supervision, based upon current guidelines. Development of such referral systems will be essential to enhance survivorship outcomes for patients who have completed treatment.

  20. O2 uptake kinetics and the O2 deficit as related to exercise intensity and blood lactate.

    PubMed

    Barstow, T J; Casaburi, R; Wasserman, K

    1993-08-01

    The dynamic responses of O2 uptake (VO2) to a range of constant power output levels were related to exercise intensity [as percent maximal VO2 and as below vs. above lactic acid threshold (LAT)] and to the associated end-exercise lactate in three groups of subjects: group I, untrained subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise; group II, the same subjects performing arm cycle exercise; and group III, trained cyclists performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. Responses were described by a double-exponential equation, with each component having an independent time delay, which reduced to a monoexponential description for moderate (below-LAT) exercise. When a second exponential component to the VO2 response was present, it did not become evident until approximately 80-100 s into exercise. An overall time constant (tau T, determined as O2 deficit for the total response divided by net end-exercise VO2) and a primary time constant (tau P, determined from the O2 deficit and the amplitude for the early primary VO2 response) were compared. The tau T rose with power output and end-exercise lactate levels, but tau P was virtually invariant, even at high end-exercise lactate levels. Moreover the gain of the primary exponential component (as delta VO2/delta W) was constant across power outputs and blood lactate levels, suggesting that the primary VO2 response reflects a linear system, even at higher power outputs. These results suggest that elevated end-exercise lactate is not associated with any discernible slowing of the primary rise in VO2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Estrogen receptor-alpha genotype affects exercise-related reduction of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Maeda, Seiji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Otsuki, Takeshi; Sugawara, Jun; Tanabe, Takumi; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kuno, Shinya; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo

    2008-02-01

    Arterial stiffness, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, increases with advancing age. Arterial stiffness is improved by regular exercise, but individual responses to exercise training are variable. Given that estrogen and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) can induce vasodilation and can exert an antiatherosclerotic effect in vessels, we hypothesized that gene polymorphisms of ER-alpha might influence the ability of regular exercise to improve arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. One hundred ninety-five healthy postmenopausal women (62 +/- 6 yr, mean +/- SD) participated in our cross-sectional study. We determined the genotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at -401T/C of intron 1 of the ER-alpha gene. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and daily physical activity was estimated by a uniaxial accelerometer. Subjects were divided into active and inactive groups according to the median value (200 kcal.d(-1)) of energy expenditure. baPWV in individuals with the TT variant of -401T/C genotype were significantly higher than for individuals with the TC+CC genotype. No significant differences in mean baPWV values were found between the active group and the inactive group (P = 0.09). A significant reduction of baPWV secondary to increased daily physical activity was observed in individuals with the TC+CC genotype but not in individuals with the TT genotype (TT/active: 1470 +/- 36 cm.s(-1); TT/inactive: 1457 +/- 34 cm.s(-1); TC+CC/active: 1359 +/- 21 cm.s(-1); TC+CC/inactive: 1433 +/- 24 cm.s(-1)). These results suggest that ER-alpha polymorphism affects the regular exercise-related reduction in arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

  2. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Geigle, Paula M; Berlanstein, Debra R; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Gotay, Carolyn C; Snyder, Claire

    2012-08-15

    Cancer survivors experience numerous disease and treatment-related adverse outcomes and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Exercise interventions are hypothesized to alleviate these adverse outcomes. HRQoL and its domains are important measures for cancer survivorship. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise on overall HRQoL and HRQoL domains among adult post-treatment cancer survivors. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO, LILACS, SIGLE, SportDiscus, OTSeeker, and Sociological Abstracts from inception to October 2011 with no language or date restrictions. We also searched citations through Web of Science and Scopus, PubMed's related article feature, and several websites. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and other reviews in the field. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing exercise interventions with usual care or other nonexercise intervention to assess overall HRQoL or at least one HRQoL domain in adults. Included trials tested exercise interventions that were initiated after completion of active cancer treatment. We excluded trials including people who were terminally ill, or receiving hospice care, or both, and where the majority of trial participants were undergoing active treatment for either the primary or recurrent cancer. Five paired review authors independently extracted information on characteristics of included trials, data on effects of the intervention, and assessed risk of bias based on predefined criteria. Where possible, meta-analyses results were performed for HRQoL and HRQoL domains for the reported difference between baseline values and follow-up values using standardized mean differences (SMD) and a random-effects model by length of follow-up. We also reported the SMDs between mean follow-up values of exercise and control group. Because investigators used many different

  3. The moderating role of exercise on stress-related effects on the hippocampus and memory in later adulthood.

    PubMed

    Head, Denise; Singh, Tara; Bugg, Julie M

    2012-03-01

    Chronic stress has well-documented negative effects on hippocampal structure and function, and has been suggested to contribute to age-related declines. In contrast, there is evidence that exercise has beneficial effects in older adults. The current investigation examined effects of lifetime stress on hippocampal volume and memory, the moderating role of stress on age effects, and the moderating role of exercise on stress-related effects. Measures of lifetime stress, exercise engagement, magnetic-resonance-imaging-based volumes, and cognitive performance were obtained in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults. There was a significant negative influence of stress on hippocampal volume. In addition, exercise engagement moderated effects of lifetime stress on both hippocampal volume and memory. Specifically, lower exercise engagement individuals evidenced greater stress-related declines compared with high exercise engagement individuals. These novel findings suggest that benefits of exercise in later adulthood may extend to minimizing detrimental effects of stress on the hippocampus and memory.

  4. The moderating role of exercise on stress-related effects on the hippocampus and memory in later adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Head, Denise; Singh, Tara; Bugg, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Chronic stress has well-documented negative effects on hippocampal structure and function and has been suggested to contribute to age-related declines. In contrast, there is evidence that exercise has beneficial effects in older adults. The current investigation examined effects of lifetime stress on hippocampal volume and memory, the moderating role of stress on age effects and the moderating role of exercise on stress-related effects. Method Measures of lifetime stress, exercise engagement, MRI-based volumes and cognitive performance were obtained in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults. Results There was a significant negative influence of stress on hippocampal volume. In addition, exercise engagement moderated effects of lifetime stress on both hippocampal volume and memory. Specifically, lower exercise engagement individuals evidenced greater stress-related declines compared to high exercise individuals. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that benefits of exercise in later adulthood may extend to minimizing detrimental effects of stress on the hippocampus and memory. PMID:22288406

  5. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  6. Treadmill exercise induces age-related changes in aversive memory, neuroinflammatory and epigenetic processes in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Bertoldi, Karine; Vanzella, Cláudia; Moysés, Felipe Dos Santos; Vizuete, Adriana; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    It has been described that exercise can modulate both inflammatory response and epigenetic modifications, although the effect of exercise on these parameters during the normal brain aging process yet remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of aging and treadmill exercise on inflammatory and epigenetic parameters specifically pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels, activation of NF-kB and histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampus from Wistar rats. Additionally, we evaluated aversive memory through inhibitory avoidance task. Rats of 3 and 20 months of age were assigned to non-exercised (sedentary) and exercised (running daily for 20 min for 2 weeks) groups. The effect of daily forced exercise in the treadmill was assessed. The levels of inflammatory and epigenetic parameters were determined 1h, 18 h, 3 days or 7 days after the last training session of exercise. It was observed an age-related decline on aversive memory, as well as aged rats showed increased hippocampal levels of inflammatory markers, such as TNFα, IL1-β and NF-kB and decreased IL-4 levels, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, lower levels of global histone H4 acetylation were also observed in hippocampi from aged rats. Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between the biochemical markers and the inhibitory avoidance test performance. The forced exercise protocol ameliorated aging-related memory decline, decreased pro-inflammatory markers and increased histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampi 20-months-old rats, while increased acutely IL-4 levels in hippocampi from young adult rats. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance of inflammatory markers might be involved to the aging-related aversive memory impairment. Additionally, our exercise protocol may reverse aging-related memory decline through improving cytokine profile.

  7. Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema and Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L

    2016-09-01

    Nelson, NL. Breast cancer-related lymphedema and resistance exercise: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2656-2665, 2016-Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissues in the arm, shoulder, neck, or torso and attributed to the damage of lymph nodes during breast cancer treatments involving radiation and axillary node dissection. Resistance exercise training (RET) has recently shown promise in the management of BCRL. The aims of this review were twofold: (a) To summarize the results of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of resistance exercise in those with, or at risk for, BCRL. (b) To determine whether breast cancer survivors can perform RET at sufficient intensities to elicit gains in strength without causing BCRL flare-up or incidence. A search was performed on the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, and Science Direct, up to July 10, 2015, using the following keywords: breast cancer-related lymphedema, strength training, resistance training, systematic review, and breast cancer. Manual searches of references were also conducted for additional relevant studies. A total of 6 RCTs, involving 805 breast cancer survivors, met the inclusion criteria and corresponded to the aims of this review. The methodological quality of included RCTs was good, with a mean score 6.8 on the 10-point PEDro scale. The results of this review indicate that breast cancer survivors can perform RET at high-enough intensities to elicit strength gains without triggering changes to lymphedema status. There is strong evidence indicating that RET produces significant gains in muscular strength without provoking BCRL.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Ding, Dalian; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Zhang, Yanping; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Hyo-Jin; White, Karessa; Kim, Yong Hwan; Linser, Paul; Tanokura, Masaru; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V; Salvi, Richard J; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-11-02

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well established model of AHL (Zheng et al., 1999). WR activity peaked at 6 months of age (12,280 m/d) and gradually decreased over time. At 24 months of age, the average WR distance was 3987 m/d. Twenty-four-month-old runners had less cochlear hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss and better auditory brainstem response thresholds at the low and middle frequencies compared with age-matched, non-WR controls. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of inner ear tissues from 6-month-old controls and runners revealed that WR resulted in a marked enrichment for GO gene sets associated with immune response, inflammatory response, vascular function, and apoptosis. In agreement with these results, there was reduced stria vascularis (SV) atrophy and reduced loss of capillaries in the SV of old runners versus old controls. Given that SV holds numerous capillaries that are essential for transporting oxygen and nutrients into the cochlea, our findings suggest that long-term exercise delays the progression of AHL by reducing age-related loss of strial capillaries associated with inflammation. Nearly two-thirds of adults aged 70 years or older develop significant age-related hearing loss (AHL), a condition that can lead to social isolation and major communication difficulties. AHL is also associated with decreased physical function among older adults. In the current study, we show that regular exercise slowed AHL and cochlear degeneration significantly in a well established murine model. Our data

  9. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chul; Ding, Dalian; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Zhang, Yanping; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Hyo-Jin; White, Karessa; Kim, Yong Hwan; Linser, Paul; Tanokura, Masaru; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well established model of AHL (Zheng et al., 1999). WR activity peaked at 6 months of age (12,280 m/d) and gradually decreased over time. At 24 months of age, the average WR distance was 3987 m/d. Twenty-four-month-old runners had less cochlear hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss and better auditory brainstem response thresholds at the low and middle frequencies compared with age-matched, non-WR controls. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of inner ear tissues from 6-month-old controls and runners revealed that WR resulted in a marked enrichment for GO gene sets associated with immune response, inflammatory response, vascular function, and apoptosis. In agreement with these results, there was reduced stria vascularis (SV) atrophy and reduced loss of capillaries in the SV of old runners versus old controls. Given that SV holds numerous capillaries that are essential for transporting oxygen and nutrients into the cochlea, our findings suggest that long-term exercise delays the progression of AHL by reducing age-related loss of strial capillaries associated with inflammation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nearly two-thirds of adults aged 70 years or older develop significant age-related hearing loss (AHL), a condition that can lead to social isolation and major communication difficulties. AHL is also associated with decreased physical function among older adults. In the current study, we show that regular exercise slowed AHL and cochlear degeneration significantly in a well established

  10. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored.

  11. [Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takao

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of

  12. Exercise-related changes in between-network connectivity in overweight/obese adults.

    PubMed

    Legget, Kristina T; Wylie, Korey P; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Melanson, Edward L; Paschall, Courtnie J; Tregellas, Jason R

    2016-05-01

    ). Change in BNC was related to changes in aerobic fitness level (VO2 max; p=0.008) and perceived hunger (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire; p=0.040). Overall, the impact of exercise on communication between large-scale networks may contribute to individual responsivity to exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise-related changes in between-network connectivity in overweight/obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Legget, Kristina T.; Wylie, Korey P.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Melanson, Edward L.; Paschall, Courtnie J.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    ganglia network). Change in BNC was related to changes in aerobic fitness level (VO2 max; p = 0.008) and perceived hunger (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire; p = 0.040). Overall, the impact of exercise on communication between large-scale networks may contribute to individual responsivity to exercise. PMID:26921099

  14. Situational bandwidth and the criterion-related validity of assessment center ratings: is cross-exercise convergence always desirable?

    PubMed

    Speer, Andrew B; Christiansen, Neil D; Goffin, Richard D; Goff, Maynard

    2014-03-01

    This research examines the relationship between the construct and criterion-related validity of assessment centers (ACs) based on how convergence of dimension ratings across AC exercises affects their ability to predict managerial performance. According to traditional multitrait-multimethod perspective, a high degree of convergence represents more reliable measurement and has the potential for better validity. In contrast, the concept of situational bandwidth suggests that behavior assessed under a dissimilar set of circumstances should result in a more comprehensive assessment of a candidate's tendencies even though ratings are less likely to show high convergence. To test these opposing viewpoints, data from 3 operational ACs were obtained along with experts' evaluations of exercise characteristics and supervisors' ratings of candidates' managerial performance. Across the 3 samples, AC ratings taken from exercises with dissimilar demands had higher estimates of criterion-related validity than ratings taken from similar exercises, even though the same dimension-different exercise correlations were substantially higher between similar exercises. Composites of ratings high in convergence did not emerge as better predictors of managerial performance, and validity particularly suffered when derived from ratings that converged as a result of exercises with similar demands. Implications for AC design are discussed.

  15. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Marijn; Sheeran, Paschal; Kok, Gerjo; Hiemstra, Anneke; Prins, Jan M; Hospers, Harm J; van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior relation in relation to HIV medication adherence (Study 1) and intensive exercise behavior (Study 2). In Study 1, questionnaire and electronically monitored adherence data were collected at baseline and 3 months later from patients in the control arm of an HIV-adherence intervention study. In Study 2, questionnaire data was collected at 3 time points 6-weeks apart in a cohort study of physical activity. Complete data at all time points were obtained from 51 HIV-infected patients and 499 intensive exercise participants. Intentions were good predictors of behavior and explained 25 to 30% of the variance. Self-regulatory processes explained an additional 11% (Study 1) and 6% (Study 2) of variance in behavior on top of intentions. Regression and bootstrap analyses revealed at least partial, and possibly full, mediation of the intention-behavior relation by self-regulatory processes. The present studies indicate that self-regulatory processes may explain how intentions drive behavior. Future tests, using different health behaviors and experimental designs, could firmly establish whether self-regulatory processes complement current health behavior theories and should become routine targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Induction of Parkinson disease-related proteins in motor neurons after transient spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Kawamura, Takae; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tezuka, Fumiaki; Abe, Koji

    2009-04-01

    The mechanism of spinal cord injury has been thought to be related to the vulnerability of spinal motor neuron cells against ischemia. However, the mechanisms of such vulnerability are not fully understood. We investigated a possible mechanism of neuronal death by immunohistochemical analysis for DJ-1, PINK1, and alpha-Synuclein. We used a 15-min rabbit spinal cord ischemia model, with use of a balloon catheter. Western blot analysis for DJ-1, PINK1, and alpha-Synuclein; temporal profiles of DJ-1, PINK1, and alpha-Synuclein immunoreactivity; and double-label fluorescence immunocytochemical studies were performed. Western blot analysis revealed scarce immunoreactivity for DJ-1, PINK1, and alpha-Synuclein in the sham-operated spinal cords. However, they became apparent at 8 h after transient ischemia, which returned to the baseline level at 1 day. Double-label fluorescence immunocytochemical study revealed that both DJ-1 and PINK1, and DJ-1 and alpha-Synuclein were positive at 8 h of reperfusion in the same motor neurons, which eventually die. The induction of DJ-1 and PINK1 proteins in the motor neurons at the early stage of reperfusion may indicate oxidative stress, and the induction of alpha-Synuclein may be implicated in the programmed cell death change after transient spinal cord ischemia.

  17. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  18. Glycogen and triglyceride utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy-resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Essén-Gustavsson, B; Tesch, P A

    1990-01-01

    Nine bodybuilders performed heavy-resistance exercise activating the quadriceps femoris muscle. Intermittent 30-s exhaustive exercise bouts comprising 6-12 repetitions were interspersed with 60-s periods for 30 min. Venous blood samples were taken repeatedly during and after exercise for analyses of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol concentration. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise and assayed for glycogen, glycerol-3-phosphate, lactate and triglyceride (TG) content. The activities of citrate synthase (CS), lactate dehydrogenase, hexokinase (HK), myokinase, creatine kinase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), were analysed. Histochemical staining procedures were used to assess fibre type composition, fibre area and capillary density. TG content before and after exercise averaged (SD) 23.9 (13.3) and 16.7 (6.4) mmol kg-1 dry wt. The basal triglyceride content varied sixfold among individuals and the higher the levels the greater was the change during exercise. The glycogen content decreased (P less than 0.001) from 690 (82) to 495 (95) mmol kg-1 dry wt. and lactate and glycerol-3-phosphate increased (P less than 0.001) to 79.5 (5.5) and 14.5 (7.3) mmol kg-1 dry wt., respectively, after exercise. The HK and HAD/CS content respectively correlated with glycogen or TG content at rest and with changes in these metabolites during exercise. FFA and glycerol concentrations increased slightly (P less than 0.001) during exercise. Lipolysis may, therefore, provide energy during heavy-resistance exercise of relatively short duration. Also, storage and utilization of intramuscular substrates appear to be influenced by the metabolic profile of muscle.

  19. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Is autonomic support of arterial blood pressure related to habitual exercise status in healthy men?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Pamela Parker; Shapiro, Linda F; Keisling, Gretchen A; Quaife, Robert A; Seals, Douglas R

    2002-01-01

    We determined if the tonic autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribution to arterial blood pressure (BP) maintenance in humans is related to habitual endurance exercise status. Twenty-three healthy young (age 18–31 years) males, 11 endurance exercise-trained and 12 untrained, were studied. Maximal oxygen consumption was higher (P < 0.001) and resting heart rate and body fatness were lower (P < 0.05) in the exercise-trained men. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations and BP decreased from baseline levels in response to ganglionic blockade (intravenous trimethaphan) in both groups (all P < 0.001). The absolute (ΔmmHg: systolic = −35 ± 2 vs. − 32 ± 4; diastolic = −13 ± 2 vs. − 10 ± 2; mean = −21 ± 2 vs. − 17 ± 3) and relative (Δ%: systolic = −35 ± 2 vs. − 31 ± 3; diastolic = −26 ± 3 vs. − 20 ± 3; mean = − 31 ± 2 vs. − 26 ± 3) decreases in BP were not significantly different between the endurance-trained and untrained men. There were no significant group differences in the heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output or systemic vascular resistance (conductance) responses to trimethaphan. Systemic vascular α-adrenergic sensitivity (slope of the increase in mean BP with incremental phenylephrine infusion during ganglionic blockade) also did not differ in the two groups (endurance-trained: 3.2 ± 0.5; untrained: 3.2 ± 0.7 mmHg (ng phenylephrine)−1 (ml plasma)−1). In the pooled sample, the decrease in mean BP during trimethaphan was related to baseline and changes in plasma noradrenaline concentrations (r = 0.58–0.65, P < 0.001) and α-adrenergic sensitivity (r = 0.49, P < 0.02). Our results suggest that the endurance exercise-trained state is not obviously associated with altered ANS support of BP in healthy young men. Basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and α-adrenergic vascular sensitivity are significant physiological correlates of ANS support of BP in this population. PMID:11956356

  1. Love hurts: the influence of social relations on exercise self-efficacy for older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Kelly A; Sherman, Aurora M

    2008-10-01

    Exercise self-efficacy is a powerful predictor of physical activity behavior, which enhances health and well-being for older adults. Social relations have been proposed as influential precursors for exercise self-efficacy. In a longitudinal study of 160 older adults with osteoarthritis (76.9% women), the authors found that social support (but not social strain) significantly predicted exercise self-efficacy in a structural equation model examining cross-sectional data: chi(2) (178, N = 160) = 264.57, p < .01; RMSEA = .06; CFI = .92; TLI = .90. When data were examined longitudinally, however, social strain (but not social support) significantly predicted lower exercise self-efficacy 1 year later: Xi(2) (233, N = 160) = 288.64, p < .01; RMSEA = .04; CFI = .96; TLI = .95. Results support the negativity effect, suggesting that social strain might be the more potent aspect of social relations and should be the target of interventions.

  2. A highly efficient rice green tissue protoplast system for transient gene expression and studying light/chloroplast-related processes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant protoplasts, a proven physiological and versatile cell system, are widely used in high-throughput analysis and functional characterization of genes. Green protoplasts have been successfully used in investigations of plant signal transduction pathways related to hormones, metabolites and environmental challenges. In rice, protoplasts are commonly prepared from suspension cultured cells or etiolated seedlings, but only a few studies have explored the use of protoplasts from rice green tissue. Results Here, we report a simplified method for isolating protoplasts from normally cultivated young rice green tissue without the need for unnecessary chemicals and a vacuum device. Transfections of the generated protoplasts with plasmids of a wide range of sizes (4.5-13 kb) and co-transfections with multiple plasmids achieved impressively high efficiencies and allowed evaluations by 1) protein immunoblotting analysis, 2) subcellular localization assays, and 3) protein-protein interaction analysis by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and firefly luciferase complementation (FLC). Importantly, the rice green tissue protoplasts were photosynthetically active and sensitive to the retrograde plastid signaling inducer norflurazon (NF). Transient expression of the GFP-tagged light-related transcription factor OsGLK1 markedly upregulated transcript levels of the endogeneous photosynthetic genes OsLhcb1, OsLhcp, GADPH and RbcS, which were reduced to some extent by NF treatment in the rice green tissue protoplasts. Conclusions We show here a simplified and highly efficient transient gene expression system using photosynthetically active rice green tissue protoplasts and its broad applications in protein immunoblot, localization and protein-protein interaction assays. These rice green tissue protoplasts will be particularly useful in studies of light/chloroplast-related processes. PMID:21961694

  3. Perceptions of issues relating to exercise and joint health in rheumatoid arthritis: a UK-based questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Law, Rebecca-Jane; Markland, David A; Jones, Jeremy G; Maddison, Peter J; Thom, Jeanette M

    2013-09-01

    This questionnaire study investigated the perceptions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients across the UK in relation to exercise and joint health. The validity of the measure was also assessed. Members of the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) with self-reported RA completed the questionnaire online. Items related to five factors that emerged from previous qualitative research. Participants responded using a five-point Likert-style scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) assessed physical activity. The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.8); statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A total of 247 responses were collected over 47 days (88% females; age: 18-77 years; disease duration: <1-51 years). Acceptable factorial validity was revealed (Satorra-Bentler χ(2)  = 774.47, df = 454, p < 0.001, root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.05, 90% confidence interval RMSEA = 0.05-0.06, comparative fit index = 0.94, standardized root mean square residual = 0.09), with the following factor endorsements: 'Health professionals show exercise knowledge' (19%); 'Knowing what exercise should be done' (43%); 'Having to exercise because it is helpful' (72%); 'Worry about causing harm to joints' (44%); and 'Not wanting to exercise as joints hurt' (52%). Patient concerns about joint pain, joint harm and how to exercise were significantly associated with lower physical activity (p < 0.05). These results confirm that patients perceive exercise as beneficial. However, concerns about how to exercise, joint pain, causing harm to joints and a perceived lack of exercise knowledge among health professionals remain. Addressing these concerns may have implications for increasing physical activity within the RA population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Exercise related cardiac arrest in amateur athletes on the tennis court.

    PubMed

    Stratil, Peter; Sterz, Fritz; Haugk, Moritz; Wallmüller, Christian; Schober, Andreas; Hörburger, David; Weiser, Christoph; Stöckl, Matthias; Testori, Christoph; Krizanac, Danica; Havel, Christof

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study exercise-related cardiac arrests on the tennis court and investigate the impact of early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on survival rate and outcome. This study was based on the cardiac arrest registry of the Department of Emergency Medicine at the General Hospital Vienna in Austria. Between February 1993 and April 2010 non-professional athletes were identified, who experienced exercise-related cardiac arrest on the tennis court. The analysis was accomplished using descriptive statistics. Results are presented as mean±standard-deviation or median and interquartile range (IQR). The subjects (n=27) were predominantly male (96%) with a median age of 58 years; 52% of all patients had underlying cardiovascular risk factors. All cardiac arrests were witnessed. Bystander CPR was documented in 17 cases (63%). Median time from collapse to initiation of CPR was 1(IQR 0-2) minute. Ventricular fibrillation was the initial rhythm in 25 patients (93%) and in 3 an automated external defibrillator was used by bystanders. Twenty-four patients (89%) had return of spontaneous circulation before admission to the hospital and four (15%) followed verbal commands thereafter. The survival rate at 6 months was 82% with 20 patients (74%) having favourable neurologic outcome. Cardiac arrest on the tennis court is a predominantly witnessed event with a respectively high rate of bystander CPR, which reflects in a high successful survival rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiac output response to exercise in relation to metabolic demand in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Abudiab, Muaz M.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Olson, Thomas P.; Kass, David A.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Borlaug, Barry A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Exercise intolerance is a hallmark of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), yet its mechanisms remain unclear. The current study sought to determine whether increases in cardiac output (CO) during exercise are appropriately matched to metabolic demands in HFpEF. Methods and results Patients with HFpEF (n = 109) and controls (n = 73) exercised to volitional fatigue with simultaneous invasive (n = 96) or non-invasive (n = 86) haemodynamic assessment and expired gas analysis to determine oxygen consumption (VO2) during upright or supine exercise. At rest, HFpEF patients had higher LV filling pressures but similar heart rate, stroke volume, EF, and CO. During supine and upright exercise, HFpEF patients displayed lower peak VO2 coupled with blunted increases in heart rate, stroke volume, EF, and CO compared with controls. LV filling pressures increased dramatically in HFpEF patients, with secondary elevation in pulmonary artery pressures. Reduced peak VO2 in HFpEF patients was predominantly attributable to CO limitation, as the slope of the increase in CO relative to VO2 was 20% lower in HFpEF patients (5.9 ± 2.5 vs. 7.4 ± 2.6 L blood/L O2, P = 0.0005). While absolute increases in arterial–venous O2 difference with exercise were similar in HFpEF patients and controls, augmentation in arterial–venous O2 difference relative to VO2 was greater in HFpEF patients (8.9 ± 3.4 vs. 5.5 ± 2.0 min/dL, P < 0.0001). These differences were observed in the total cohort and when upright and supine exercise modalities were examined individually. Conclusion While diastolic dysfunction promotes congestion and pulmonary hypertension with stress in HFpEF, reduction in exercise capacity is predominantly related to inadequate CO relative to metabolic needs. PMID:23426022

  6. Global warming related transient albedo feedback in the Arctic and its relation to the seasonality of sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, Olivier; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is warming two to three times faster than the global average. Arctic sea ice cover is very sensitive to this warming and has reached historic minima in late summer in recent years (i.e. 2007, 2012). Considering that the Arctic Ocean is mainly ice-covered and that the albedo of sea ice is very high compared to that of open water, the change in sea ice cover is very likely to have a strong impact on the local surface albedo feedback. Here we quantify the temporal changes in surface albedo feedback in response to global warming. Usually feedbacks are evaluated as being representative and constant for long time periods, but we show here that the strength of climate feedbacks in fact varies strongly with time. For instance, time series of the amplitude of the surface albedo feedback, derived from future climate simulations (CIMP5, RCP8.5 up to year 2300) using a kernel method, peaks around the year 2100. This maximum is likely caused by an increased seasonality in sea-ice cover that is inherently associated with sea ice retreat. We demonstrate that the Arctic average surface albedo has a strong seasonal signature with a maximum in spring and a minimum in late summer/autumn. In winter when incoming solar radiation is minimal the surface albedo doesn't have an important effect on the energy balance of the climate system. The annual mean surface albedo is thus determined by the seasonality of both downwelling shortwave radiation and sea ice cover. As sea ice cover reduces the seasonal signature is modified, the transient part from maximum sea ice cover to its minimum is shortened and sharpened. The sea ice cover is reduced when downwelling shortwave radiation is maximum and thus the annual surface albedo is drastically smaller. Consequently the change in annual surface albedo with time will become larger and so will the surface albedo feedback. We conclude that a stronger seasonality in sea ice leads to a stronger surface albedo feedback, which accelerates

  7. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions.

  8. Relative efficiency of four parameter-estimation methods in steady-state and transient ground-water flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Parameters in numerical ground-water flow models have been successfully estimated using nonlinear-optimization methods such as the modified Gauss-Newton (GN) method and conjugate-direction methods. This paper investigates the relative efficiency of GN and three conjugate-direction parameter-estimation methods on two-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water flow test cases. The steady-state test cases are included to compare the performance of the algorithm with published examples. The three conjugate-direction methods are the Fletcher-Reeves (FR) and quasi-Newton (QN) regression methods, and combination Fletcher-Reeves quasi-Newton (FR-QN). All three are combined with Newton's method of calculating step size. The numerical ground-water flow model is described by McDonald and Harbaugh.

  9. Leukocyte Telomere Length is Preserved with Aging in Endurance Exercise-Trained Adults and Related to Maximal Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R.; Pierce, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Telomere length (TL), a measure of replicative senescence, decreases with aging, but the factors involved are incompletely understood. To determine if age-associated reductions in TL are related to habitual endurance exercise and maximal aerobic exercise capacity (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max), we studied groups of young (18 – 32 years; n = 15, 7m) and older (55 – 72 years; n = 15, 9m) sedentary and young (n = 10, 7m) and older endurance exercise-trained (n = 17, 11m) healthy adults. Leukocyte TL (LTL) was shorter in the older (7059 ± 141 bp) vs. young (8407 ± 218) sedentary adults (P < 0.01). LTL of the older endurance-trained adults (7992 ± 169 bp) was ~900 bp greater than their sedentary peers (P < 0.01) and was not significantly different (P=0.12) from young exercise-trained adults (8579 ± 413). LTL was positively related to VO2max due to a significant association in older adults (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that VO2max independently explained ~60% of the variance in LTL. Our results indicate that LTL is preserved in healthy older adults who perform vigorous aerobic exercise and is positively related to maximal aerobic exercise capacity. This may represent a novel molecular mechanism underlying the "anti-aging" effects of maintaining high aerobic fitness. PMID:20064545

  10. Extracellular Hsp72 concentration relates to a minimum endogenous criteria during acute exercise-heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Dennis, Alex; Parfitt, Tony; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) concentration increases during exercise-heat stress when conditions elicit physiological strain. Differences in severity of environmental and exercise stimuli have elicited varied response to stress. The present study aimed to quantify the extent of increased eHsp72 with increased exogenous heat stress, and determine related endogenous markers of strain in an exercise-heat model. Ten males cycled for 90 min at 50 % [Formula: see text] in three conditions (TEMP, 20 °C/63 % RH; HOT, 30.2 °C/51%RH; VHOT, 40.0 °C/37%RH). Plasma was analysed for eHsp72 pre, immediately post and 24-h post each trial utilising a commercially available ELISA. Increased eHsp72 concentration was observed post VHOT trial (+172.4 %) (p < 0.05), but not TEMP (-1.9 %) or HOT (+25.7 %) conditions. eHsp72 returned to baseline values within 24 h in all conditions. Changes were observed in rectal temperature (Trec), rate of Trec increase, area under the curve for Trec of 38.5 and 39.0 °C, duration Trec ≥38.5 and ≥39.0 °C, and change in muscle temperature, between VHOT, and TEMP and HOT, but not between TEMP and HOT. Each condition also elicited significantly increasing physiological strain, described by sweat rate, heart rate, physiological strain index, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation. Stepwise multiple regression reported rate of Trec increase and change in Trec to be predictors of increased eHsp72 concentration. Data suggests eHsp72 concentration increases once systemic temperature and sympathetic activity exceeds a minimum endogenous criteria elicited during VHOT conditions and is likely to be modulated by large, rapid changes in core temperature.

  11. The epidemiology of sports and exercise related injury in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, J P; Coleman, P; Williams, B T

    1995-01-01

    A national study of exercise related morbidity (ERM) in England and Wales was carried out using a postal questionnaire sent to 28,857 adults aged 16-45 years. The questionnaire asked about regular participation in sports or other recreational fitness activities involving physical exercise, and for details of any injuries occurring during a 28 d reference period. A return rate of 68% was achieved. Comparisons with other national data sources indicated that the information obtained was reliable. It is estimated that each year there are 29 million incidents resulting in new or recurrent injuries, however minor, of which 9.8 million (95% confidence interval 8.1 to 11.4 million) result in new 'substantive' injuries which are potentially serious, result in treatment, or in participants being unable to take part in their usual activities. Soccer accounted for more than 25% of all ERM, but the risk of a substantive injury in rugby was three times that in soccer. Over one third of ERM occurred in men aged 16-25 years. The most frequently reported injuries were sprains and strains of the lower limbs. Treatment was sought in approximately 25% of ERM incidents and 7% of all new ERM incidents involved attendance at a hospital accident and emergency department. The treatment provider most likely to be consulted was a general practitioner, but physiotherapists and complementary medicine practitioners were also consulted frequently. To maximize the health benefits of exercise, research strategies to reduce the volume and severity of ERM and to identify the most appropriate ways of managing ERM should be set. PMID:8808535

  12. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  13. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  14. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  15. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  16. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  17. Etiological Foundation for Practical Strategies to Prevent Exercise-Related Foot Blisters.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    This work outlines the etiological factors for exercise-related foot blisters and the pertinent prevention strategies related to these causes. Blisters result from shear forces within the epidermis causing cell necrosis. The extent of skin shear is influenced by friction at the skin and other interfaces, various skin characteristics, bony movement, and the shear modulus of the foot ware. The number of shear cycles is another factor in the development of blisters. Key preventative strategies include limiting the number of shear cycles, avoiding moisture and particulate accumulation next to the skin, frequent use of skin lubricants, elimination of pressure points through proper fitting and broken in shoes and callous removal, use of low shear modulus insoles, and induction of skin adaptations through proper training. Other methods requiring further research, but with theoretical support, include the use of taping and low friction patches over high-friction areas, and double-layered or toe socks.

  18. Evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease during exercise: the relation between extent of disease and perfusion deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and size of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion in 79 patients with angiographically documented CAD. None of the patients had Q-wave myocardial infarction. Fifty patients had one-vessel disease, ten had two-vessel disease, and 19 patients had three-vessel or left main disease. From a scintigraphic functional standpoint, patients were classified into two groups: 28 patients (35%) had large perfusion defects and 51 patients (65%) had small defects. The size of the thallium-201 perfusion defect during exercise was assessed as the perimeter of the defect in each projection expressed as a percentage abnormality of the total left ventricular perimeter in that projection. The average abnormality from the three projections was used in the final analysis. Eleven patients with large defects (39%) had one-vessel disease and 12 patients with small defects (24%) had multivessel disease. Stepwise multivariate discriminate analysis identified the number of diseased vessels (F . 13.9), the change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise (F . 10.8), the exercise heart rate (F . 9.1), and exercise electrocardiographic response (F . 7.8) as significant associates of the size of the perfusion defect (predictive accuracy . 70%). We conclude that the size of hypoperfused myocardium during exercise is variable in patients with CAD. Discriminate analysis identified the extent of CAD, exercise heart rate, change in systolic pressure from rest to exercise, and exercise electrocardiographic response as significant associates of the size of the defect.

  19. Evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease during exercise: the relation between extent of disease and perfusion deficit.

    PubMed

    Hakki, A H; DePace, N; Iskandrian, A S

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and size of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion in 79 patients with angiographically documented CAD. None of the patients had Q-wave myocardial infarction. Fifty patients had one-vessel disease, ten had two-vessel disease, and 19 patients had three-vessel or left main disease. From a scintigraphic functional standpoint, patients were classified into two groups: 28 patients (35%) had large perfusion defects and 51 patients (65%) had small defects. The size of the thallium-201 perfusion defect during exercise was assessed as the perimeter of the defect in each projection expressed as a percentage abnormality of the total left ventricular perimeter in that projection. The average abnormality from the three projections was used in the final analysis. Eleven patients with large defects (39%) had one-vessel disease and 12 patients with small defects (24%) had multivessel disease. Stepwise multivariate discriminate analysis identified the number of diseased vessels (F = 13.9), the change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise (F = 10.8), the exercise heart rate (F = 9.1), and exercise electrocardiographic response (F = 7.8) as significant associates of the size of the perfusion defect (predictive accuracy = 70%). We conclude that the size of hypoperfused myocardium during exercise is variable in patients with CAD. Discriminate analysis identified the extent of CAD, exercise heart rate, change in systolic pressure from rest to exercise, and exercise electrocardiographic response as significant associates of the size of the defect.

  20. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  1. Exercise-induced torsional dyssynchrony relates to impaired functional capacity in patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu Ting; Wenzelburger, Frauke Wg; Sanderson, John E; Leyva, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Left ventricular (LV) systole and diastole are intimately dependent on myocardial torsion, which involves coupling between myocardial rotation (twisting in systole and untwisting in diastole) and longitudinal motion. Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is known to involve exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities, but torsion on exercise has not been explored. We hypothesised that torsional dyssynchrony may also be involved and be exaggerated by exercise. 67 patients (age 73±7 years, 45 female) with HFNEF and 38 controls underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography at rest and on supine exercise. Analysis of three plane motions was performed using speckle tracking and tissue Doppler imaging. Torsional dyssynchrony was quantified as the SD of the time to peak systolic motion (SDSM) (basal and apical rotation, longitudinal and radial displacement); the time difference between peak twist and peak longitudinal displacement (twist-longitudinal motion delay, TLMD) and the ratio of untwist to longitudinal extension (UT:LE). At rest, HFNEF patients had similar SDSM, TLMD and UT:LE compared with controls. Exercise was associated with significantly more dyssynchrony in the HFNEF patients (SDSM 38.8±27.6 ms vs 25.9±15.5 ms, p=0.02; TLMD 28.4±46.2 ms vs 2.9±31.2 ms, p=0.005 and UT:LE 10.4±15.3 vs 3.3±3.8, p=0.022). The SDSM correlated positively with LV wall thickness (r=0.31, p=0.015) and negatively with peak oxygen consumption (r=-0.299, p=0.01) and changes in stroke volume on exercise (r=-0.371, p=0.001). HFNEF involves exercise-induced torsional dyssynchrony in systole and diastole, which relates to LV hypertrophy as well as exercise capacity.

  2. How and where clinicians exercise power: interprofessional relations in health care.

    PubMed

    Nugus, Peter; Greenfield, David; Travaglia, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to contribute to the limited set of interactional studies of health occupational relations. A "negotiated order" perspective was applied to a multi-site setting to articulate the ways in which clinicians' roles, accountabilities and contributions to patient care are shaped by the care setting and are influenced by the management of patient pathways. The study responds to the polarized debate between a critical perspective that calls for collaboration as the re-distribution of occupational power, and a functionalist view that argues for better coordination of health care teams. The study draws on data from 63 interviews, 68 focus groups and 209 h of observation across acute and non-acute health services within a state/territory in Australia. The paper reveals the exercise of both "competitive power" and "collaborative power" in the negotiated order of health services. Both forms of power are exercised in all settings. Relationships among clinicians in various occupations are mediated by the expectation that doctors assume responsibility for patient management and coordinating roles in health care teams, and the degree of acuity of particular health care settings. The combination of a negotiated order perspective and its unique application across a whole health system shows the continuation of a broad pattern of power by doctors over those in other roles. The paper also reveals novel criteria for evaluating the extent of power-sharing in interprofessional interaction in case conferences, and a unique quantification of such interaction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  4. Top 10 research questions related to exercise deficit disorder (EDD) in youth.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Best, Thomas M; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D; Stracciolini, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Exercise deficit disorder (EDD) is a pediatric medical condition characterized by reduced levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) that are below current recommendations and inconsistent with positive health outcomes. At present, a majority of children and adolescents meet the diagnostic criteria for EDD because they are not accumulating minimum thresholds of daily MVPA. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 important research questions related to EDD in youth. The critical research needs to better define the clinical spectrum of EDD to include an assessment of physical activity behaviors to determine the age or stage of maturation at which EDD first emerges; an examination of the kinesiogenesis of movement skills and physical abilities; and an evaluation of lifestyle factors that can influence the MVPA trajectory in youth. Research questions about interventions and policies to treat EDD include evaluating the education and training of health care providers on the importance of exercise medicine; determining the effectiveness of strategies to identify and treat youth with EDD in clinical practice; developing sensitive, specific, and cost-effective methods to diagnose youth with EDD; and assessing methods to promote health care reimbursement for the treatment of this condition. Without future research to optimize identification, treatment, and management strategies for youth with EDD, new health care concerns with significant biomedical, psychosocial, economic, and political ramifications will continue to emerge.

  5. Short-Term Exercise Training Does Not Stimulate Skeletal Muscle ATP Synthesis in Relatives of Humans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kacerovsky-Bielesz, Gertrud; Chmelik, Marek; Ling, Charlotte; Pokan, Rochus; Szendroedi, Julia; Farukuoye, Michaela; Kacerovsky, Michaela; Schmid, Albrecht I.; Gruber, Stephan; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Pacini, Giovanni; Smekal, Gerhard; Groop, Leif; Roden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise training improves hereditary insulin resistance by stimulating ATP synthesis and investigated associations with gene polymorphisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 24 nonobese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients and 12 control subjects at rest and 48 h after three bouts of exercise. In addition to measurements of oxygen uptake and insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test), ectopic lipids and mitochondrial ATP synthesis were assessed using1H and31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. They were genotyped for polymorphisms in genes regulating mitochondrial function, PPARGC1A (rs8192678) and NDUFB6 (rs540467). RESULTS Relatives had slightly lower (P = 0.012) insulin sensitivity than control subjects. In control subjects, ATP synthase flux rose by 18% (P = 0.0001), being 23% higher (P = 0.002) than that in relatives after exercise training. Relatives responding to exercise training with increased ATP synthesis (+19%, P = 0.009) showed improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.009) compared with those whose insulin sensitivity did not improve. A polymorphism in the NDUFB6 gene from respiratory chain complex I related to ATP synthesis (P = 0.02) and insulin sensitivity response to exercise training (P = 0.05). ATP synthase flux correlated with O2uptake and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS The ability of short-term exercise to stimulate ATP production distinguished individuals with improved insulin sensitivity from those whose insulin sensitivity did not improve. In addition, the NDUFB6 gene polymorphism appeared to modulate this adaptation. This finding suggests that genes involved in mitochondrial function contribute to the response of ATP synthesis to exercise training. PMID:19265027

  6. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  7. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  8. Sleep-related movement disorder symptoms in SHR are attenuated by physical exercise and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Frank, Miriam Kannebley; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Lee, Kil Sun; Daubian-Nosé, Paulo; Tufik, Sergio; Esteves, Andrea Maculano

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders has been hypothesized for humans, but the causes and mechanisms have not been elucidated. We investigated whether an alteration in blood pressure (BP) induced by physical exercise and/or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) could affect locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, with emphasis on the dopaminergic system. We used SHR and normotensive Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups for each strain: control, physical exercise, enalapril and physical exercise+enalapril. Physical exercise was performed on a treadmill, and enalapril was administered by gavage, both for 8weeks. During this period, locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field test, and BP was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase levels at the striatum were evaluated by Western blotting. The control group of spontaneously hypertensive rats showed higher BP, increased activity in the open field test and lower levels of D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase compared with all other groups throughout the experimental period. In general, physical exercise and enalapril attenuated these alterations. This study suggested the existence of comorbidity between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physical exercise and enalapril conferred protection for both hypertension and the observed behavioral changes. In addition, these treatments led to changes in dopaminergic signaling in the striatal region (i.e., D2 receptor, TH and DAT).

  9. No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: an exercise study.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, G; Paschalis, V; Nikolaidis, M G; Theodorou, A A; Deli, C K; Fotopoulou, N; Fatouros, I G; Koutedakis, Y; Sampanis, M; Jamurtas, A Z

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on health-related parameters and muscle performance on subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy. Twenty-eight elderly men participated in the investigation and were assigned either in a control (n = 14) or in a statin therapy group (n = 14). All participants performed two isokinetic eccentric exercise bouts separated by 3 weeks. Muscle damage indices, resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profile, as well as insulin sensitivity, were evaluated before and after eccentric. No differences in muscle function were observed between the two groups either at rest or after exercise. Eccentric exercise increased resting energy expenditure, increased fat oxidation, improved lipid profile, and increased insulin resistance 2 days after both eccentric exercise bouts. However, these changes appeared to lesser extent after the second bout. No differences were observed in the responses in the health-related parameters in the control and in the statin therapy group. Eccentric exercise affected similarly the control and the atorvastatin-treated individuals. The present results indicate that atorvastatin-treated elderly individuals may participate in various physical activities, even high-intensity muscle-damaging activities, without negative impact on muscle function and adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton J; Bolam, Kate A; Wright, Olivia R L; Skinner, Tina L

    2017-09-12

    Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review's Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO) criteria. A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies) were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity. Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. Targeted physiological pathways suggest

  11. Transient plume- to continuous plate-related extension in the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michon, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of plate tectonics, the East African Rift system (EARS) is the largest active tectonic structure illustrating the early stage of continental plate fragmentation. The occurrence of continental flood basalts and large topographic plateaux has long been interpreted as witnessing the key role of mantle plumes in the EARS development. Yet, the EARS is also composed of small, scattered volcanic provinces whose origin and genetic relationship with extension and mantle convection remain unclear. Compiling 870 isotopic ages of the volcanism spread over the western, eastern and southern branches of the EARS, I show that periodic mantle upwellings shoot off from two distinct mantle levels first controlled the EARS evolution (plume-related rifting stage), until a main regional extension due to Upper Miocene changes in plates circuit (plate-related rifting stage). Magmatic activity displays synchronous primary periodicities of 7 Ma in all provinces since Upper Oligocene, except in the Afar-Turkana area where flood basalts erupted every 15 Ma since Lower Oligocene. The remarkably similar periodicities of (1) Afar-Turkana, Walvis and Kerguelen primary hotspots, all situated at the margin of the African superswell, and of (2) the EARS' other volcanic provinces, atop the superswell, is a pivotal feature that will surely help decipher the processes controlling the initiation and dynamics of mantle anomalies.

  12. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Giulio; Oscari, Fabio; Spagnol, Simone; Avanzini, Federico; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-10-10

    This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller) with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel) yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video), to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation, whereas controller-task-related sound

  13. Transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) KO mice that exercise are protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) is a major class of calcium permeable channels found in key metabolic tissues, including the hypothalamus, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, making them likely candidates for the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. The exac...

  14. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    PubMed

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1 %) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points: 

  15. Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Kubesch, Sabine; Dieterle, Katrin; Ruchsow, Martin; Heim, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-05-07

    Physical activity and aerobic exercise in particular, promotes health and effective cognitive functioning. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness and acute exercise, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as a part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task subsequent to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and a period of rest, respectively. 35 higher- and lower-fit adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age participated in a controlled cross-over study design. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show significantly greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes. P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control neither showed influences of physical fitness nor the acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, acute aerobic exercise was not related to any of the dependent measures. The current findings suggest that physical fitness, but not an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation.

  16. A transient outward current related to calcium release and development of tension in elephant seal atrial fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Maylie, J; Morad, M

    1984-01-01

    Membrane currents and development of tension in atrial trabeculae from elephant seal hearts were studied using a single sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique. A transient outward current (Ito) was observed with kinetics, voltage and beat dependence, similar to those of tension. Ito had a bell-shaped voltage dependence similar to that of tension and the slow inward current (Isi). Ito, unlike Isi, showed beat dependence quite similar to developed tension. Increases in [Ca]o, frequency of stimulation, and addition of adrenaline enhanced Ito and developed tension. Ito was suppressed by addition of Mn2+, tetracaine, or by depolarizing pre-pulses (to -40 mV for 250 ms). Caffeine at low concentrations (1 mM) blocked beat dependence of Ito. At higher concentrations (greater than 5 mM) caffeine suppressed the activation of Ito, phasic tension, and the second component of the birefringence signal (related to Ca2+-releasing activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (s.r.]. Similar to Isi phasic tension and Ito, the voltage dependence of the second component of the birefringence signal was bell-shaped. Our studies suggest that activation of Ito is related to triggered release of Ca2+ from the s.r. which generates the phasic tension. An excitation-contraction coupling scheme is presented which incorporates these findings and suggests that Ito may be responsible for shorter action potentials found in atrial fibres. Images Plate 1 PMID:6512692

  17. Activation status coupled transient S-acylation determines membrane partitioning of a plant Rho-related GTPase.

    PubMed

    Sorek, Nadav; Poraty, Limor; Sternberg, Hasana; Buriakovsky, Ella; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2017-09-11

    ROPs or RACs are plant Rho-related GTPases implicated in regulation of multitude of signaling pathways that function at the plasma membrane via posttranslational lipid modifications. The relations between ROP activation status and their membrane localization has not been established. Here, we show that endogenous ROPs, as well as a transgenic His6:GFP:AtROP6 fusion protein, were partitioned between Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble membranes. In contrast, the His6:GFP:Atrop6(CA) activated mutant accumulated exclusively in detergent resistant membranes. GDP induced accumulation of ROPs in Triton-soluble membranes, whereas GTPγS induced accumulation of ROPs in detergent-resistant membranes. Recombinant wild type and constitutively active AtROP6 were purified from Arabidopsis plants and in turn their lipids were cleaved and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. In Triton-soluble membranes, the wild type AtROP6 was only prenylated, primarily by geranylgeranyl. The activated AtROP6 that accumulated in detergent resistant membranes was modified by prenyl and acyl lipids, identified to be palmitic and stearic acids. Consistently, activated His6:GFP:Atrop6(CA)mS(156), in which C156 was mutated into serine, accumulated in Triton-soluble membranes. These findings show that upon GTP binding and activation, AtROP6 and possibly other ROPs are transiently S-acylated inducing their partitioning into detergent resistant membranes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Putting the benefits and risks of aerobic exercise in perspective.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Billecke, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although considerable epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that structured exercise, increased lifestyle activity, or both are cardioprotective, the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal complications appear to increase transiently during vigorous physical activity. The estimated relative risk of exercise-related cardiac events ranges from 2.1 to 56 and is highest among habitually sedentary individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease who were performing unaccustomed vigorous physical exertion. Moreover, an estimated 7 million Americans receive medical attention for sports and recreation-related injuries each year. These risks, and their modulators, should be considered when endorsing strenuous leisure time or exercise interventions. If the current mantra "exercise is medicine" is embraced, underdosing and overdosing are possible. Thus, exercise may have a typical dose-response curve with a plateau in benefit or even adverse effects, in some individuals, at more extreme levels.

  19. Relation between depressive symptoms and treadmill exercise capacity in the Heart and Soul Study.

    PubMed

    Ruo, Bernice; Rumsfeld, John S; Pipkin, Sharon; Whooley, Mary A

    2004-07-01

    To examine the association between depressive symptoms and exercise capacity, we performed a cross-sectional study of 944 outpatients with stable coronary artery disease and found that the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with poor exercise capacity (<5 MET tasks achieved; adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.7, p = 0.01). Depressive symptoms should be considered in the differential diagnosis of poor exercise capacity.

  20. Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bahr, Roald

    2003-01-01

    In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the 'excess post-exercise oxygen consumption' (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component. While some studies have shown that EPOC may last for several hours after exercise, others have concluded that EPOC is transient and minimal. The conflicting results may be resolved if differences in exercise intensity and duration are considered, since this may affect the metabolic processes underlying EPOC. Accordingly, the absence of a sustained EPOC after exercise seems to be a consistent finding in studies with low exercise intensity and/or duration. The magnitude of EPOC after aerobic exercise clearly depends on both the duration and intensity of exercise. A curvilinear relationship between the magnitude of EPOC and the intensity of the exercise bout has been found, whereas the relationship between exercise duration and EPOC magnitude appears to be more linear, especially at higher intensities. Differences in exercise mode may potentially contribute to the discrepant findings of EPOC magnitude and duration. Studies with sufficient exercise challenges are needed to determine whether various aerobic exercise modes affect EPOC differently. The relationships between the intensity and duration of resistance exercise and the magnitude and duration of EPOC have not been determined, but a more prolonged and substantial EPOC has been found after hard- versus moderate-resistance exercise. Thus, the intensity of resistance exercise seems to be of importance for EPOC. Lastly, training status and sex may also potentially influence EPOC magnitude, but this may be problematic to determine. Still, it appears that trained individuals have a more rapid return of post-exercise metabolism to resting levels after exercising at either the same relative or absolute work rate; however, studies after more strenuous exercise bouts are needed. It is not determined if there is a sex effect on EPOC

  1. Exercise training modifies ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations and is related to inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Markofski, Melissa M; Carrillo, Andres E; Timmerman, Kyle L; Jennings, Kristofer; Coen, Paul M; Pence, Brandt D; Flynn, Michael G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe exercise training-induced effects on adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin. Twenty-nine older, healthy participants were classified as physically active (comparison group: N = 15, 70.9 ± 1.2 years) or physically inactive (exercise group: N = 14, 70.5 ± 1.4 years). Exercise group participants completed 12 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, whereas comparison group participants maintained their current level of exercise and served as a physically active comparison group. Monocyte phenotype, as well as serum ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II were analyzed prior to and following the 12-week period. Ghrelin and adiponectin increased 47% and 55%, respectively, in exercise group participants following exercise training. Percent change in ghrelin (post and pre) was negatively correlated with the percent change in CD14+CD16+ monocytes (post and pre) in exercise group participants. Despite no changes in body mass, these data contribute to evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Exercise Training Modifies Ghrelin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Is Related to Inflammation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Andres E.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Jennings, Kristofer; Coen, Paul M.; Pence, Brandt D.; Flynn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe exercise training–induced effects on adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin. Twenty-nine older, healthy participants were classified as physically active (comparison group: N = 15, 70.9±1.2 years) or physically inactive (exercise group: N = 14, 70.5±1.4 years). Exercise group participants completed 12 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, whereas comparison group participants maintained their current level of exercise and served as a physically active comparison group. Monocyte phenotype, as well as serum ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II were analyzed prior to and following the 12-week period. Ghrelin and adiponectin increased 47% and 55%, respectively, in exercise group participants following exercise training. Percent change in ghrelin (post and pre) was negatively correlated with the percent change in CD14+CD16+ monocytes (post and pre) in exercise group participants. Despite no changes in body mass, these data contribute to evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. PMID:24013674

  3. Making preventive medicine more personalized: implications for exercise-related research.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Pahor, Marco

    2012-07-01

    This commentary offers a discussion of the need to consider behavioral interventions such as physical exercise as integral components of personalized medicine. We discuss the concept of personalized medicine and review existing evidence of variability in response to exercise training. We argue that increased understanding is needed regarding sources of variability in exercise responsiveness, and that such understanding should lead to more tailored, often multimodal interventions. Studies of personalized medicine to date have primarily investigated heterogeneity in drug responsiveness; we believe it is time to begin considering preventive strategies such as exercise within a broader scope of personalized care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  5. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  7. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Melissa A.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Meers, Grace M.; Ortinau, Laura C.; Morris, E. Matthew; Booth, Frank W.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Vieira‐Potter, Victoria J.; Sowers, James R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiologically relevant rodent models of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited.Exercise training and energy restriction are first‐line recommendations for the treatment of NASH.Hyperphagic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype.Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling.The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. Abstract The incidence of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH‐related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight‐week‐old Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD‐fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O‐SED), food restriction (O‐FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O‐SED) or exercise training (O‐EX; treadmill running 20 m min–1 with a 15% incline, 60 min day–1, 5 days week–1) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α‐smooth muscle actin) compared to Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly

  8. Exercise-Related Changes of Networks in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment Brain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pei; Fang, Rong; Li, Bin-Yin; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    Aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. MCI is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5–15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of MCI to AD might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat AD, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and MCI populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and MCI population, and physical exercise (PE) could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective PE programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and MCI to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions. PMID:27014055

  9. Heart Rate Variability Before and After Cycle Exercise in Relation to Different Body Positions

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Otto F.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.; Popadic Gacesa, Jelena Z.; Ovcin, Zoran B.; Brodie, David A.; Grujic, Nikola G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different body positions on HRV measures following short-term submaximal exercise. Thirty young healthy males performed submaximal cycling for five minutes on three different occasions. Measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min R to R wave intervals before the exercise (baseline) and during the last five minutes of a 15 min recovery (post-exercise) in three different body positions (seated, supine, supine with elevated legs). Measures of the mean RR normal-to-normal intervals (RRNN), the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and the low-frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) spectral power were analyzed. Post-exercise RRNN, RMSSD were significantly higher in the two supine positions (p < 0. 01) compared with seated body position. Post-exercise ln LF was significantly lower in the supine position with elevated legs than in the seated body position (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among the three different body positions for post-exercise ln HF (p > 0.05). Post-exercise time domain measures of HRV (RRNN, SDNN, RMSSD) were significantly lower compared with baseline values (p < 0.01) regardless body position. Post-exercise ln LF and ln HF in all three positions remained significantly reduced during recovery compared to baseline values (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that 15 minutes following short-term submaximal exercise most of the time and frequency domain HRV measures have not returned to pre-exercise values. Modifications in autonomic cardiac regulation induced by body posture present at rest remained after exercise, but the post-exercise differences among the three positions did not resemble the ones established at rest. Key points Whether different body positions may enhance post-exercise recovery of autonomic regulation remains unclear. The absence of restoration of HRV measures after 15 minutes of

  10. Insulin sensitivity is related to physical fitness and exercise blood pressure to structural vascular properties in young men.

    PubMed

    Fossum, E; Høieggen, A; Moan, A; Rostrup, M; Kjeldsen, S E

    1999-03-01

    Insulin resistance is related to physical inactivity, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. Moreover, blood pressure responses during the first 6 minutes of an exercise test (600 kilo/pound/meter [kpm] per min) are more predictive for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than blood pressure at rest, which could reflect that exercise blood pressure correlates more closely to peripheral structural vascular changes than casual blood pressure. We have recently shown a correlation between insulin resistance and minimal forearm vascular resistance (MFVR) in young men recruited from the highest blood pressure percentiles during a military draft session. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that insulin sensitivity relates to physical fitness and that blood pressure responses during an exercise test relate to peripheral structural vascular changes in these men; we also tested whether these findings were interrelated. We assessed insulin sensitivity and physical fitness in 27 young men randomly selected from the cohort having a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher during the compulsory military draft session in Oslo. Insulin sensitivity correlated with physical fitness (r=0.58, P=0.002). Systolic blood pressure after 6 minutes of exercise (600 kpm/min) correlated with MFVR (r=0.46, P=0.015). MFVR and physical fitness independently explained 60% of the variation in insulin sensitivity, and MFVR independently explained 19% of the variation of systolic blood pressure after 6 minutes of exercise. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity is related to physical fitness and exercise blood pressure to structural vascular properties in these young men.

  11. The influence of exercise duration at VO2 max on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase during high intensity running activity.

    PubMed

    Billat, V L; Hamard, L; Koralsztein, J P

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of time run at maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase after supra-lactate threshold runs. We hypothesised: 1) that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max there is a velocity threshold from which there is a slow component in the VO2-off transient, and 2) that at this velocity the longer the duration of this time at VO2 max (associated with an accumulated oxygen kinetics since VO2 can not overlap VO2 max), the longer is the off-transient phase of oxygen uptake kinetics. Nine long-distance runners performed five maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) while breathing through the COSMED K4b2 portable, telemetric metabolic analyser: i) an incremental test which determined VO2 max, the minimal velocity associated with VO2 max (vVO2 max) and the velocity at the lactate threshold (vLT), ii) and in a random order, four supra-lactate threshold runs performed until exhaustion at vLT + 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the difference between vLT and vVO2 max (vdelta25, vdelta50, vdelta75, vdelta100). At vdelta25, vdelta50 (= 91.0 +/- 0.9% vVO2 max) and vdelta75, an asymmetry was found between the VO2 on (double exponential) and off-transient (mono exponential) phases. Only at vdelta75 there was at positive relationship between the time run at VO2 max (%tlimtot) and the VO2 recovery time constant (Z = 1.8, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max, vdelta75 is the velocity at which the longer the duration of the time at VO2 max, the longer is the off-transient phase of oxygen uptake kinetics. It may be possible that at vdelta50 there is not an accumulated oxygen deficit during the plateau of VO2 at VO2 max and that the duration of the time at VO2 max during the exhaustive runs at vdelta100, could be too short to induce an accumulating oxygen deficit affecting the oxygen recovery.

  12. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion alters inducible NOS expression within the ventrolateral medulla and modulates cardiovascular function during static exercise.

    PubMed

    Ally, Ahmmed; Maher, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    A major cause of stroke is cerebral ischemia in regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery (MCA). In this study, we hypothesized that compromised cardiovascular function during static exercise may involve altered expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) protein within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). We compared cardiovascular responses and iNOS protein expression within the left and right sides of both RVLM and CVLM in sham-operated rats and in rats with a 90 min left-sided MCA occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Increases in blood pressure during a static muscle contraction were attenuated in MCAO rats compared with sham-operated rats. Also, iNOS expression within the left RVLM was augmented compared with the right RVLM in MCAO rats and compared with both RVLM quadrants in sham-operated rats. In contrast, compared with sham-operated rats and the right CVLM of MCAO rats, iNOS expression was attenuated in the left CVLM in left-sided MCAO rats. These data suggest that the attenuation of pressor responses during static exercise in MCAO rats involves overexpression of iNOS within the ipsilateral RVLM and attenuation in iNOS within the ipsilateral CVLM. Differential expression of iNOS within the medulla plays a role in mediating cardiovascular responses during static exercise following stroke.

  13. Is frequent attendance of longer duration related to less transient episodes of care? A retrospective analysis of transient and chronic episodes of care

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Frans T; Brouwer, Henk J; Schene, Aart H; van Weert, Henk C P M; ter Riet, Gerben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Frequent attenders (FAs) suffer more and consult general practitioners (GPs) more often for chronic physical and psychiatric illnesses, social difficulties and distress than non-FAs. However, it is unclear to what extent FAs present transient episodes of care (TECs) compared with non-FAs. Design Retrospective analysis of all episodes of care (ECs) in 15 116 consultations in 1 year. Reasons for encounter (RFEs) linked to patients’ problem lists were defined as chronic ECs (CECs), other episodes as TECs. Setting 1 Dutch urban primary healthcare centre served by 5 GPs. Participants All 5712 adult patients were enlisted between 2007 and 2009. FAs were patients whose attendance rate ranked within the top decile of their sex and age group in at least one of the years between 2007 and 2009. Outcome measures Number of RFEs linked to TECs/CECs for non-FAs and 1-year (1yFAs), 2-year (2yFAs) and 3-year FAs (3yFAs), and the adjusted effect of frequent attendance of different duration on the number of TECs. Results The average number of RFEs linked to TECs (non-FAs 1.4; 3yFAs 7.3) and to CECs (non-FAs 0.9; 3yFAs 6.2) increased substantially with the duration of frequent attendance. The ratio of TECs to all ECs differed little for FAs (52–54%) and non-FAs (64%). Compared with non-FAs, the adjusted additional number of TECs was 3.4 (95% CI 3.2 to 3.7, 1yFAs), 6.6 (95% CI 6.1 to 7.0, 2yFAs) and 9.4 (95% CI 8.8 to 10.1, 3yFAs). Conclusions FAs present more TECs and CECs with longer duration of frequent attendance. The constant ratio of TECs might be a sign of a low threshold for FAs to consult their GP. The large numbers of TECs in FAs might be associated with their high level of anxiety and low mastery. The consultation pattern of FAs may best be characterised by describing both TECs and CECs. PMID:27965250

  14. Role of corner interfacial area in uniqueness of capillary pressure-saturation- interfacial area relation under transient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Brizuela, Omar E.; Karadimitriou, Nikolaos K.; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Shore, Craig A.; Oostrom, Mart

    2017-09-01

    Capillary pressure (Pc) and phase saturation (Sw) in two-phase flow are well known to be hysteretically related. Thermodynamically-derived multiphase flow theories conjecture that this hysteresis will be lifted if specific interfacial area (anw) is included as a new state variable to create a unique Pc-S-anw surface. Specific interfacial area is defined as the total interfacial area per volume of a porous medium. Several studies have confirmed the existence of a unique Pc-Sw-anw surface under equilibrium conditions for a given porous medium. However, there is only one experimental work in the literature, where the uniqueness of this surface under transient conditions was questioned. However, in the data analysis only the terminal menisci were considered to calculate the specific interfacial area. In this paper, we investigate the uniqueness of Pc-S-anw surfaces with and without the inclusion of corner fluid-fluid interfacial area, under different dynamic conditions, in two different micro-models bearing two different (granular vs. triangulated) pore morphologies. We establish a systematic metric to analyze hysteresis under different hydrodynamic conditions.

  15. Relation of Tricuspid Regurgitation to Liver Stiffness Measured by Transient Elastography in Patients With Left-Sided Cardiac Valve Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Seto, Wai-Kay; Ho, Lai-Ming; Fung, James; Jim, Man-Hong; Yip, Gabriel; Fan, Katherine; Zhen, Zhe; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yuen, Man-Fung; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yiu, Kai-Hang

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity and liver stiffness (LS) in patients with TR. A total of 131 patients with various degrees of TR secondary to left-sided heart valve disease were enrolled. Severity of TR was quantitatively assessed by proximal isovelocity surface area-derived effective regurgitant orifice (ERO). Patients were divided into 2 groups: 48 with mild-moderate TR (ERO <0.4 cm(2)) and 83 with severe TR (ERO ≥0.4 cm(2)). Transient elastography was used to measure the level of LS, an established marker of liver fibrosis, with the threshold of significant LS set at ≥12.5 kPa. Patients with severe TR had a higher LS and prevalence of significant LS than those with mild-moderate TR. Furthermore, LS and significant LS independently correlated with TR-ERO, right atrial pressure and inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter. The presence of a large TR-ERO (≥0.4 cm(2)) and IVC diameter (>2.15 cm(2)) provided a high specificity of 78% for significant LS. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that TR-ERO, right atrial pressure, and IVC diameter are important parameters associated with LS in patients with TR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution profiles of transient receptor potential melastatin- and vanilloid-related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, Shilin; Wang, Xinghuan; Ye, Haixia; Gao, Weicheng; Pu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Zhonghua

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)- and vanilloid (TRPV)- related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of all TRPM and TRPV channel members with specific primers. Western blot analysis was applied for detecting the expression of TRPM and TRPV channel proteins. Immunohistochemistry staining for TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 was also performed in rat testis. The mRNAs of TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 were detected in the spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa in rat. Western blot analysis verified the expression of TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 in the rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Immunocytochemistry staining for TRPM and TRPV channel families indicated that TRPM4 and TRPM7 proteins were highly expressed in different stages of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa, while TRPV5 protein was lowly expressed in these cells. Our results demonstrate that mRNAs or proteins for TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 exist in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. These data presented here may assist in elucidating the possible physiological function of TRPM and TRPV channels in spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa.

  17. Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents.

    PubMed

    Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    ,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), acetochlor, aminotriazole, amitrole, bromoxynil, pendamethalin, mancozeb, and thioureas. Other antithyroid agents include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perchlorates, mercury, and coal derivatives such as resorcinol, phthalates, and anthracenes. A leading ecological study in Texas has correlated higher rates of autism in school districts affected by large environmental releases of mercury from industrial sources. Mercury is a well known antithyroid substance causing inhibition of deiodinases and thyroid peroxidase. The current surge of autism could be related to transient maternal hypothyroxinemia resulting from dietary and/or environmental exposure to antithyroid agents. Additional multidisciplinary epidemiological studies will be required to confirm this environmental hypothesis of autism.

  18. The arrhythmogenic transient inward current iTI and related contraction in isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fedida, D; Noble, D; Rankin, A C; Spindler, A J

    1987-01-01

    1. The arrhythmogenic transient inward current, iTI, and contractions were recorded in isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes, after exposure to strophanthidin or low external K+ (0.5 mM), using a single-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique and an optical measure of contraction. 2. The inward current, iTI, and after-contraction occurred on repolarization after a depolarizing pre-pulse. Longer pre-pulses to more positive potentials increased the size and reduced the latency of iTI. Oscillatory currents and contractions also occurred during pulses to positive potentials. 3. The voltage dependence of iTI was studied by repolarizing to different potentials after a constant depolarizing pulse. Inward currents preceded after-contractions at all potentials. The iTI was maximal at about -50 mV, diminishing in magnitude at more negative and positive potentials. It remained inward at potentials up to +47 mV. The contraction exhibited a similar voltage dependence. The current-voltage relation varied in the same cell with longer exposure to glycosides. Thus, the voltage dependence of iTI reflected not only that of an underlying ionic mechanism but also the effects of potential on intracellular Ca2+ oscillations which trigger iTI. 4. Uniformity of internal Ca2+ transients was achieved by clamping to different potentials at the peak of an inward current. The iTI remained inward at positive potentials. An inward tail current, seen on repolarizing during iTI at the end of a depolarizing pre-pulse, progressively increased at negative potentials. This voltage dependence may be close to that of the Ca2+-activated inward current responsible for iTI. 5. Replacement of Na+ by Li+ initially increased the magnitude of iTI, but further exposure abolished the inward current, while the after-contractions continued to increase. The potential dependence of iTI was not affected by exposure to zero Na+. Replacement of Ca2+ by Sr2+ also abolished iTI and the after-contraction, but the main

  19. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  20. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  1. Exercise proteinuria and hematuria: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2016-09-01

    Transient proteinuria and hematuria are apparently benign sequelae of intensive physical activity. However, there is a need to establish underlying causes and reasons for progression to chronic renal damage, as well as effects of training in healthy individuals and in those with microalbuminuria. The Ovid/Health Star database was searched from 1994 to November 2014. Terms for the kidneys (adverse effects, blood supply, epidemiology, injuries, pathology, physiology and secretion) and proteinuria (classification, complications, epidemiology, etiology, mortality, physiopathology, prevention and control) with terms related to physical activity (physical activity/motor activity, exercise/exercise therapy, fitness/physical fitness, physical education/physical education and training, and rehabilitation). Review of 519 abstracts yielded 194 relevant hits, supplemented by 70 items from other sources. This material related to both healthy adults (125 items) and renal disease (139 items). The prevalence (18-100%) and duration (1-6 days) of exercise proteinuria varied widely, with risks affected by exercise intensity, posture, age, heat load, altitude and disease. Moderate training reduced exercise proteinuria in healthy individuals and in chronic renal disease. Factors contributing to exercise proteinuria may include vascular changes, hypoxia, lactate accumulation, oxidant stress, hormonal changes and sepsis. Exercise hematuria is frequent; some potential causes are similar to those for proteinuria, but foot-strike and bladder trauma are probably more important. Progression to permanent renal damage is rare. Exercise proteinuria and hematuria are generally transient. However, there remains a need to clarify causation and factors leading to permanent renal damage.

  2. Exercise-triggered transient R-wave enhancement and ST-segment elevation in II, III, and aVF ECG leads: a testament to the "plasticity" of the QRS complex during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Madias, John E; Attari, Mehran

    2004-04-01

    We describe a patient with coronary artery disease who showed transiently augmented R-waves in his electrocardiogram (ECG) during the course of an exercise treadmill test (ETT), an ECG pattern occasionally associated with the hyperacute phase of myocardial infarction and variant angina. This change in the R-waves was noted in II, III, and aVF ECG leads and was associated with ST-segment elevation; both changed gradually and were normalized during the recovery period. Cardiac enzymes after ETT were negative, and arteriography revealed 3-vessel coronary artery disease, with a completely occluded right coronary artery. The ventriculogram showed very mild hypokinesis of the inferior left ventricular wall, while the global ejection fraction was 75%. These ECG changes, noted previously during ETT in precordial ECG leads, are herein reported to occur also in II, III, and aVF ECG leads. The generation of these ECG changes, which hinges upon a late unopposed depolarization occurring in the course and at the site of severe ischemic injury, constitutes a transient focal ventricular conduction abnormality.

  3. The Relation of Exercise Habits to Health Beliefs and Knowledge about Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Helen M.; Connor, Sara E.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys of the relationship between female college students' exercise habits and their knowledge about osteoporosis and health beliefs indicated that age positively correlated with knowledge level, awareness of personal susceptibility, and motivation for general health behaviors. Older subjects believed the barriers to exercise were greater than…

  4. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  5. The Relation of Exercise Habits to Health Beliefs and Knowledge about Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Helen M.; Connor, Sara E.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys of the relationship between female college students' exercise habits and their knowledge about osteoporosis and health beliefs indicated that age positively correlated with knowledge level, awareness of personal susceptibility, and motivation for general health behaviors. Older subjects believed the barriers to exercise were greater than…

  6. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Erik B.; Frankemolle, Anneke M.M.; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D.; Lowe, Mark J.; Alberts, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity. PMID:26414696

  7. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chintan; Beall, Erik B; Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D; Lowe, Mark J; Alberts, Jay L

    2016-02-01

    Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity.

  8. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being.

  9. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.

  10. Comparison of forearm blood flow responses to incremental handgrip and cycle ergometer exercise: relative contribution of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Green, Daniel J; Bilsborough, William; Naylor, Louise H; Reed, Chris; Wright, Jeremy; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Walsh, Jennifer H

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) to exercise hyperaemia remains controversial. Disparate findings may, in part, be explained by different shear stress stimuli as a result of different types of exercise. We have directly compared forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to incremental handgrip and cycle ergometer exercise in 14 subjects (age ± s.e.m.) using a novel software system which calculates conduit artery blood flow continuously across the cardiac cycle by synchronising automated edge-detection and wall tracking of high resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images and Doppler waveform envelope analysis. Monomethyl arginine (l-NMMA) was infused during repeat bouts of each incremental exercise test to assess the contribution of NO to hyperaemic responses. During handgrip, mean FBF increased with workload (P < 0.01) whereas FBF decreased at lower cycle workloads (P < 0.05), before increasing at 120 W (P < 0.001). Differences in these patterns of mean FBF response to different exercise modalities were due to the influence of retrograde diastolic flow during cycling, which had a relatively larger impact on mean flows at lower workloads. Retrograde diastolic flow was negligible during handgrip. Although mean FBF was lower in response to cycling than handgrip exercise, the impact of l–NMMA was significant during the cycle modality only (P < 0.05), possibly reflecting the importance of an oscillatory antegrade/retrograde flow pattern on shear stress-mediated release of NO from the endothelium. In conclusion, different types of exercise present different haemodynamic stimuli to the endothelium, which may result in differential effects of shear stress on the vasculature. PMID:15513940

  11. Sleep-disordered breathing with nighttime hypocapnia relates to daytime enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Nagaharu; Hayashi, Hiroko; Sugaya, Juri; Aida, Tomohiro; Kato, Masatoshi; Kato, Kazuyo; Kato, Yuko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) induces nighttime disturbance of arterial gases, such as carbon dioxide. However, it is still unclear whether nighttime SDB-related gas abnormality is related to respiratory dysregulation in daytime. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) at nighttime and the respiratory response to exercise in daytime. Eighteen men (age, mean ± SD; 55 ± 11 years) with heart disease underwent multichannel respiratory monitoring through the night with transdermal measurement of PaCO(2) (PtcCO(2)) reflecting PaCO(2) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test in daytime. The ventilatory equivalent (VE)/carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) slope as an index of ventilatory response to exercise and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were obtained with a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Of the 18 patients, 10 patients had obstructive SDB, 5 had central SDB, and 3 patients did not have SDB. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 21 ± 17. Minimum nighttime saturation of O(2) was positively correlated with peak VO(2), but not with VE/VCO(2). Nighttime PtcCO(2) was not correlated with peak VO(2) but was negatively correlated with the VE/VCO(2) slope of the daytime cardiopulmonary exercise test (r=-0.53). Nighttime lowering of PaCO(2) in SDB is related to an abnormal ventilatory response to exercise testing in the daytime. This finding suggests that nighttime hyperventilation in SDB alters both nighttime and daytime pathophysiological conditions in patients with heart disease.

  12. Current in vivo wear of metal-on-metal bearings assessed by exercise-related rise in plasma cobalt level.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munir; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kuiper, Jan H; Sieniawska, Christine E; Takagi, Katsumasa; Richardson, James B

    2006-11-01

    Baseline metal ion levels are elevated in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty. Interpretation of baseline levels is difficult as measurements are influenced by wear, corrosion, and metal ion release from stored metal in the body. Schmalzried et al. demonstrated that "wear is the function of use, not time." The specific research question we asked was: Does physiological exercise increase the wear of metal-on-metal articulation which can be measured from the plasma metal ion levels? Patients with three different well functioning MOM bearings [two types of resurfacing (BHR 46.8 mm and Cormet 48 mm) and Metasul 28 mm] were included. Blood samples were taken immediately before, immediately after, and 1 h after exercise to determine cobalt and chromium levels. A significant increase (p<0.005) in serum cobalt and chromium of 13% and 11%, respectively, was noticed after the exercise. Rise of cobalt levels in patients with a resurfacing MOM was 8.5 times (BHR group) or 6.5 times (Cormet group) larger than in those with a Metasul MOM (p=0.021 and p=0.047). Neither rise of metal levels nor baseline levels correlated with any other factor (p>0.27). Exercise-related elevations of plasma cobalt level provides information on current in vivo wear production that cannot be inferred from a baseline measurement of cobalt levels. Chromium levels cannot provide reliable information on the in vivo wear of the devices. Diameter was the important feature of the implant in determining exercise-related elevations of plasma cobalt level. Exercise-related elevations of plasma cobalt level is a potential in vivo tool to understand and improve the tribology of metal-metal bearings. Copyright (c) 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  13. Relating phosphorus uptake to changes in transient storage and streambed sediment characteristics in headwater tributaries of Valley Creek, an urbanizing watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert J.; Packman, Aaron I.; Kilham, Susan S.

    2007-04-01

    SummaryPhosphorus uptake dynamics were examined in two small streams in the Valley Creek watershed, located in an urbanizing area approximately 30 km west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The goal of this research was to examine how phosphorus uptake is influenced by temporal changes in bed sediment characteristics and transient storage in streams within an urbanizing watershed. We conducted tracer studies with a conservative solute, observed phosphorus uptake in situ and in laboratory experiments, and measured fine bed sediment grain size distributions and chemical compositions at both sites. At the Morehall Rd. site, the total laboratory and in situ uptake rates were related to the silt-clay ( d < 50 μm) content of the fine ( d < 2 mm) bed sediment and the sediment phosphorus concentration. The in situ uptake rate was also related to the sediment magnesium content and the transient storage exchange rate and area. At the Sheldrake Rd. site, the phosphorus uptake rates observed in situ and in the laboratory were not significantly related to any of the measured stream or sediment characteristics. However, the areal average uptake (uptake flux), was related to the transient storage exchange rate. In addition, the abiotic contribution to in situ uptake was evaluated by comparing the in situ and laboratory measured uptake rates. The total abiotic in situ uptake rate was found to be related to the bed sediment silt-clay content and the transient storage residence time, while the abiotic uptake flux was related to the transient storage residence time. Overall, these urbanizing streams were less efficient at removing phosphorus from the water column than forested streams in non-urban settings.

  14. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women.

  15. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Andrew T.; Ludlow, Lindsay W.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training) is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress. PMID:24455708

  16. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  17. The efficacy of stretching for prevention of exercise-related injury: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weldon, S M; Hill, R H

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic analysis of the literature to assess the efficacy of stretching for prevention of exercise-related injury. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) investigating stretching as an injury prevention measure were selected. A computer-aided search of the literature was conducted for relevant articles, followed by assessment of the methods of the studies. The main outcome measures were scores for methodological quality based on four main categories (study population, interventions, measurement of effect, and data presentation and analysis) and main conclusions of authors with regard to stretching. One RCT (25%) and three CCTs (100%) concluded that stretching reduced the incidence of exercise-related injury. Three RCTs (75%) concluded that stretching did not reduce the incidence of exercise-related injury. Only two studies scored more than 50 points (maximum score=100 points) indicating that most of the studies selected were of poor quality. Neither of the two highest scoring RCTs showed positive effects for stretching. Due to the paucity, heterogeneity and poor quality of the available studies no definitive conclusions can be drawn as to the value of stretching for reducing the risk of exercise-related injury.

  18. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  19. Do telomeres adapt to physiological stress? Exploring the effect of exercise on telomere length and telomere-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Andrew T; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Roth, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training) is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  20. Usefulness of predischarge exercise electrocardiographic testing in detecting the late patency status of the infarct-related artery.

    PubMed

    Kountouris, Evaggelos; Pappa, Eugenia; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Pappas, Kostas; Karanikis, Paulos; Dimitroula, Vasiliki; Ntatsis, Anastasios; Siogas, Kostas

    2004-05-01

    Predischarge exercise electrocardiographic testing (PEET) represents a widely accepted clinical tool for prognostic and functional assessment of patients who experience an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, there are no data suggesting any relation between PEET results and patency status of the infarct-related artery (IRA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ST and/or QT-dispersion (QTD) changes induced by a low-level PEET, after uncomplicated ST-elevation AMI, are related to the late patency status of the IRA. We prospectively evaluated 61 consecutive patients who had suffered a first uncomplicated ST-elevation AMI. All of them successfully carried out four stages of the modified Bruce protocol exercise testing before discharge, and thereafter were subjected to coronary angiography. Exercise-induced ST elevation and QTD shortening were found significantly more frequently in patients with persistently occluded IRA, as compared to patients with patent IRA (ST elevation 65% vs 27%, P = 0.006; QTD shortening 80% vs 29%, P < 0.0001). The coexistence of the two variables predicted the presence of occluded IRA with a positive predictive value of 75%, whereas the absence of both predicted the patency of IRA with a negative predictive value of 100%. These results indicate that ST-elevation and QT-dispersion changes induced by a predischarge exercise testing after a first ST-elevation AMI may effectively predict the late patency status of the infarct-related artery.

  1. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related.

    PubMed

    Cernych, Margarita; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Eimantas, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated gender-specific effects of two types of undergarments on exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress and subsequent recovery in cold conditions for male and female participants. Ten healthy men and eleven healthy women (25.0 ± 1.5 versus 23.4 ± 1.2 years old, respectively) completed the experimental session twice with two different types of undergarments: polyester or merino wool leggings and long-sleeve tops; specifically, merino fabric had greater thermal resistance and water absorbency, and less water vapor as well as air permeability than polyester. Experimental sessions involved performing 1 h of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 8°C ambient temperature and 55% relative humidity, holding at 70-80 revolutions per minute and 60% of each participant's predetermined maximal power output (assessed by maximal oxygen uptake test), followed by 1 h recovery in the same environment. Every 5 min during exercise and every 10 min during recovery, rectal temperature, heart rate, subjective ratings for thermal, shivering/sweating and clothing wetness sensations, and clothing next-to-skin and outer side surface temperature and humidity on the chest, back and thigh were recorded. All participants experienced high physiological stress (assessed by physiological strain index) during exercise. No significant gender differences were found in core temperature or heart rate changes during exercise, but women cooled down faster during recovery. Next-to-skin humidity was similar between genders and different garment sets during exercise and recovery, but such temperatures at the chest during exercise and at the thigh during exercise and recovery were lower in women with both sets of garments. Subjective thermal sensations were similar in all cases. In the last 20 min of cycling, women started to feel wetter than men (P < 0.05) for both garment sets. Shivering was reported as stronger in women in the last 10 min of recovery. Most of the changes in the garment

  2. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related

    PubMed Central

    Cernych, Margarita; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Eimantas, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated gender-specific effects of two types of undergarments on exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress and subsequent recovery in cold conditions for male and female participants. Ten healthy men and eleven healthy women (25.0 ± 1.5 versus 23.4 ± 1.2 years old, respectively) completed the experimental session twice with two different types of undergarments: polyester or merino wool leggings and long-sleeve tops; specifically, merino fabric had greater thermal resistance and water absorbency, and less water vapor as well as air permeability than polyester. Experimental sessions involved performing 1 h of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 8°C ambient temperature and 55% relative humidity, holding at 70–80 revolutions per minute and 60% of each participant’s predetermined maximal power output (assessed by maximal oxygen uptake test), followed by 1 h recovery in the same environment. Every 5 min during exercise and every 10 min during recovery, rectal temperature, heart rate, subjective ratings for thermal, shivering/sweating and clothing wetness sensations, and clothing next-to-skin and outer side surface temperature and humidity on the chest, back and thigh were recorded. All participants experienced high physiological stress (assessed by physiological strain index) during exercise. No significant gender differences were found in core temperature or heart rate changes during exercise, but women cooled down faster during recovery. Next-to-skin humidity was similar between genders and different garment sets during exercise and recovery, but such temperatures at the chest during exercise and at the thigh during exercise and recovery were lower in women with both sets of garments. Subjective thermal sensations were similar in all cases. In the last 20 min of cycling, women started to feel wetter than men (P < 0.05) for both garment sets. Shivering was reported as stronger in women in the last 10 min of recovery. Most of the changes in the

  3. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  4. Effects of supervised exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-02-21

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and distressing symptom in breast cancer survivors. Approximately 40% to 80% of cancer patients undergoing active treatment suffer from CRF. Exercise improves overall quality of life and CRF; however, the specific effects of the training modalities are not well understood. This study aimed to determine the pooled effects of supervised exercise interventions on CRF in breast cancer survivors. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CENTRAL and CINAHL databases between December 2013 and January 2014 without language restrictions. Risk of bias and methodological quality were evaluated using the PEDro score. Pooled effects were calculated with a random-effects model according to the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I (2) test. Nine high-quality studies (n = 1156) were finally included. Supervised aerobic exercise was statistically more effective than conventional care in improving CRF among breast cancer survivors (SMD = -0.51, 95%CI -0.81 to -0.21), with high statistical heterogeneity (P = 0.001; I (2)  = 75%). Similar effects were found for resistance training on CRF (SMD = -0.41, 95%CI -0.76 to -0.05; P = 0.02; I(2) = 64%). Meta-regression analysis revealed that exercise volume parameters are closely related with the effect estimates on CRF. Egger's test suggested moderate evidence of publication bias (P = 0.04). Supervised exercise reduces CRF and must be implemented in breast cancer rehabilitation settings. High-volume exercises are safe and effective in improving CRF and overall quality of life in women with breast cancer. Further research is encouraged. CRD42014007223.

  5. Effect of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Etemadifar, Masoud; Baker, Peter; Mehrabi, Maryam; Hayatbakhsh, Reza

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled trial, 4-week and 8-week follow-up. Referral center of a multiple sclerosis society. Women (N=32) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (mean age ± SD, 32.6±8.0y) were recruited into this study. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (aquatic exercise) or a control group. The intervention consisted of 8 weeks supervised aquatic exercise in a swimming pool (3 times a week, each session lasting 60min). At baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, fatigue and HRQOL were assessed by a blind assessor using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire, respectively. A mixed-model approach to repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect within- and between-subject effects. Findings are based on 21 patients (10 from the exercise group and 11 from the control group) who had data available on outcomes. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at the baseline. Patients in the aquatic exercise group showed significant improvements in fatigue and subscores of HRQOL after 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control group. Results obtained from the intention-to-treat analysis were consistent with those of per-protocol analysis. The findings suggest that aquatic exercise training can effectively improve fatigue and HRQOL of patients with MS and should be considered in the management of this relatively common public health problem. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related upper limits of normal for maximum upright exercise pulmonary haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Agarwal, Manyoo; Tracy, Julie A; Karin, Abbey L; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Systrom, David M

    2016-04-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension was eliminated from the pulmonary hypertension guidelines in part due to uncertainty of the upper limits of normal (ULNs) for exercise haemodynamics in subjects >50 years old.The present study, therefore, evaluated the pulmonary haemodynamic responses to maximum upright incremental cycling exercise in consecutive subjects who underwent an invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing for unexplained exertional intolerance, deemed normal based on preserved exercise capacity and normal resting supine haemodynamics. Subjects aged >50 years old (n=41) were compared with subjects ≤50 years old (n=25). ULNs were calculated as mean + 2 sdPeak exercise mean pulmonary arterial pressure was not different for subjects >50 and ≤50 years old (23 ± 5 versus 22 ± 4 mmHg, p=0.22), with ULN of 33 and 30 mmHg, respectively. Peak cardiac output was lower in older subjects (median (interquartile range): 12.1 (9.4-14.2)versus16.2 (13.8-19.2) L·min(-1), p<0.001). Peak pulmonary vascular resistance was higher in older subjects compared with younger subjects (mean ± sd: 1.20 ± 0.45 versus 0.82 ± 0.26 Wood units, p<0.001), with ULN of 2.10 and 1.34 Wood units, respectively.We observed that subjects >50 and ≤ 50 years old have different pulmonary vascular responses to exercise. Older subjects have higher pulmonary vascular resistance at peak exercise, resulting in different exercise haemodynamics ULNs compared with the younger population.

  7. Investigation of De Novo Unique Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Evolution in Exercise Response during Domestication in Thoroughbred Race Horses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woncheoul; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Choi, JaeYoung; Park, Jeong-Woong; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Byeong-Woo; Park, Myung Hum; Shin, Teak-Soon; Cho, Seong-Keun; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Seoae; Cho, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of horse RNA-seq were performed by mapping sequence reads to the reference genome during transcriptome analysis. However in this study, we focused on two main ideas. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by de novo–based analysis (DBA) in RNA-seq data from six Thoroughbreds before and after exercise, here-after referred to as “de novo unique differentially expressed genes” (DUDEG). Second, by integrating both conventional DEGs and genes identified as being selected for during domestication of Thoroughbred and Jeju pony from whole genome re-sequencing (WGS) data, we give a new concept to the definition of DEG. We identified 1,034 and 567 DUDEGs in skeletal muscle and blood, respectively. DUDEGs in skeletal muscle were significantly related to exercise-induced stress biological process gene ontology (BP-GO) terms: ‘immune system process’; ‘response to stimulus’; and, ‘death’ and a KEGG pathways: ‘JAK-STAT signaling pathway’; ‘MAPK signaling pathway’; ‘regulation of actin cytoskeleton’; and, ‘p53 signaling pathway’. In addition, we found TIMELESS, EIF4A3 and ZNF592 in blood and CHMP4C and FOXO3 in skeletal muscle, to be in common between DUDEGs and selected genes identified by evolutionary statistics such as FST and Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Moreover, in Thoroughbreds, three out of five genes (CHMP4C, EIF4A3 and FOXO3) related to exercise response showed relatively low nucleotide diversity compared to the Jeju pony. DUDEGs are not only conceptually new DEGs that cannot be attained from reference-based analysis (RBA) but also supports previous RBA results related to exercise in Thoroughbred. In summary, three exercise related genes which were selected for during domestication in the evolutionary history of Thoroughbred were identified as conceptually new DEGs in this study. PMID:24658125

  8. DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol responses to acute exercise in older adults in relation to exercise training status and sex.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate resting measures of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol, and the response and recovery of these hormones to acute exercise, in male and female older adults of different exercise training status. Participants were 49 community-dwelling older adults (23 females) aged between 60 and 77 years who were either sedentary (n=14), moderately active (n=14) or endurance trained (n=21). Participants undertook an acute bout of exercise in the form of an incremental submaximal treadmill test. The exercise lasted on average 23 min 49 s (SD=2 min 8 s) and participants reached 76.5% (SD=5.44) of the predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, immediately, and 1 h post-exercise. DHEA levels significantly increased immediately post-exercise; however, DHEA-S levels only significantly increased in females. Cortisol significantly decreased immediately post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. There were no significant differences in resting hormone levels or hormonal responses to exercise between training status groups. The findings suggest that exercise can stimulate DHEA production in older adults and that hormonal responses to exercise differ between male and female older adults.

  9. Change in heart rate variability following orthostasis relates to volume of exercise in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Gilder, Michael; Ramsbottom, Roger

    2008-12-05

    Physically active individuals demonstrate increased heart rate variability (HRV) during rest compared to sedentary individuals, but the impact of different volumes of regular exercise on the HRV response to postural change is not well understood. This study investigates change in HRV following orthostasis in seventy-two young women who exercise at low (LV) or high (HV) volumes of physical activity. Supine and standing R-R intervals were analysed by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot methods. All methods revealed greater change in the vagal response in the HV group, indicating that HRV following postural change is modulated by volume of exercise.

  10. The Effects of a 12-Week Faculty and Staff Exercise Program on Health-Related Variables in a University Setting

    PubMed Central

    REBOLD, MICHAEL J.; KOBAK, MALLORY S.; PEROUTKY, KYLENE; GLICKMAN, ELLEN L.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has grown in the past decade due to physical inactivity (i.e., having a sedentary job) and an increase in caloric intake. This problem combined with the reluctance of many faculty and staff members exercising in the same environment as student’s presents a unique challenge in an academic setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12-week exercise program focused toward the faculty and staff in improving several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. Fifty-seven faculty and staff participated in the current study. Participants engaged in a variety of exercise classes taught by certified instructors three days a week for 12-weeks. Paired samples t-tests illustrated a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in body mass and significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvements in curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. This data demonstrates that a 12-week faculty and staff exercise program has the potential to improve performance in several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. The ability of this program to improve health-related variables and possibly delay or prevent the development of overweight and/or obesity, sarcopenia, and other chronic diseases is encouraging. PMID:27182412

  11. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P; Kjaer, M

    2013-06-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In tendon, gene expression was unchanged except for a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-IEa (IGF-IEa; P < 0.05). In muscle, collagen expression was not significantly altered, while levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), IGF-IEa, transforming growth factor-β1, -2 (TGF-β), and the TGF-β receptor II mRNA were increased (P < 0.05). Matrix components tenascin-C, fibronectin, and decorin were also induced in loaded muscle (P < 0.05), while fibromodulin was unaffected. In conclusion, the relatively robust changes in matrix components and related growth factors in muscle indicate a stimulation of extracellular matrix even with moderate exercise. However, in tendon tissue, this exercise model does not appear to induce any anabolic response on the transcriptional level.

  12. The Effects of a 12-Week Faculty and Staff Exercise Program on Health-Related Variables in a University Setting.

    PubMed

    Rebold, Michael J; Kobak, Mallory S; Peroutky, Kylene; Glickman, Ellen L

    The obesity epidemic has grown in the past decade due to physical inactivity (i.e., having a sedentary job) and an increase in caloric intake. This problem combined with the reluctance of many faculty and staff members exercising in the same environment as student's presents a unique challenge in an academic setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12-week exercise program focused toward the faculty and staff in improving several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. Fifty-seven faculty and staff participated in the current study. Participants engaged in a variety of exercise classes taught by certified instructors three days a week for 12-weeks. Paired samples t-tests illustrated a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in body mass and significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvements in curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. This data demonstrates that a 12-week faculty and staff exercise program has the potential to improve performance in several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. The ability of this program to improve health-related variables and possibly delay or prevent the development of overweight and/or obesity, sarcopenia, and other chronic diseases is encouraging.

  13. If Exercise is Medicine, Where is Exercise in Medicine? Review of U.S. Medical Education Curricula for Physical Activity-Related Content.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Bradley J; Park, Eugene A; Kim, MooSong; Cardinal, Marita K

    2015-09-01

    This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002. Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions' websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%). The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education-related courses. When offered, they were rarely required. Courses addressing sports medicine and exercise physiology were offered more than courses in other content domains. Most courses were taught using a clinical approach. No differences were observed between MD and DO institutions, or between private and public institutions. More than one-half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received no formal education in physical activity and may, therefore, be ill-prepared to assist their patients in a manner consistent with Healthy People 2020, the National Physical Activity Plan, or the Exercise is Medicine initiative. The Bipartisan Policy Center, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation called for a reversal of this situation on June 23, 2014.

  14. Monitoring training activity during gait-related balance exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a proof-of-concept-study.

    PubMed

    Conradsson, David; Nero, Håkan; Löfgren, Niklas; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-31

    Despite the benefits of balance exercise in clinical populations, balance training programs tend to be poorly described, which in turn makes it difficult to evaluate important training components and compare between programs. However, the use of wearable sensors may have the potential to monitor certain elements of balance training. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using wearable sensors to provide objective indicators of the levels and progression of training activity during gait-related balance exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Ten individuals with Parkinson's disease participated in 10 weeks of group training (three sessions/week) addressing highly-challenging balance exercises. The training program was designed to be progressive by gradually increasing the amount of gait-related balance exercise exercises (e.g. walking) and time spent dual-tasking throughout the intervention period. Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) were used to measure volume (number of steps/session) and intensity (time spent walking >1.0 m/s) of dynamic training activity. Training activity was also expressed in relation to the participants' total daily volume of physical activity prior to the training period (i.e. number of steps during training/the number of steps per day). Feasibility encompassed the adequacy of data sampling, the output of accelerometer data and the participants' perception of the level of difficulty of training. Training activity data were successfully obtained in 98% of the training sessions (n = 256) and data sampling did not interfere with training. Reflecting the progressive features of this intervention, training activity increased throughout the program, and corresponded to a high level of the participants' daily activity (28-43%). In line with the accelerometer data, a majority of the participants (n = 8) perceived the training as challenging. The findings of this proof-of-concept study support the feasibility

  15. Activation Status-Coupled Transient S Acylation Determines Membrane Partitioning of a Plant Rho-Related GTPase▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sorek, Nadav; Poraty, Limor; Sternberg, Hasana; Bar, Enat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2007-01-01

    ROPs or RACs are plant Rho-related GTPases implicated in the regulation of a multitude of signaling pathways that function at the plasma membrane by virtue of posttranslational lipid modifications. The relationship between ROP activation status and membrane localization has not been established. Here we demonstrate that endogenous ROPs, as well as a transgenic His6-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AtROP6 fusion protein, were partitioned between Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble membranes. In contrast, an activated His6-GFP-Atrop6CA mutant protein accumulated exclusively in detergent-resistant membranes. GDP induced accumulation of ROPs in Triton-soluble membranes, whereas GTPγS induced accumulation of ROPs in detergent-resistant membranes. Recombinant wild-type and constitutively active AtROP6 isoforms were purified from Arabidopsis plants, and their lipids were cleaved and analyzed by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. In Triton-soluble membranes, wild-type AtROP6 was only prenylated, primarily by geranylgeranyl. The activated AtROP6 that accumulated in detergent-resistant membranes was modified by prenyl and acyl lipids. The acyl lipids were identified as palmitic and stearic acids. In agreement, activated His6-GFP-Atrop6CAmS156 in which cysteine156 was mutated into serine accumulated in Triton-soluble membranes. These findings show that upon GTP binding and activation, AtROP6 and possibly other ROPs are transiently S acylated, which induces their partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes. PMID:17242203

  16. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-Related Differences in Non-Persistence with Statin Treatment in Patients after a Transient Ischaemic Attack.

    PubMed

    Wawruch, Martin; Zatko, Dusan; Wimmer, Gejza; Luha, Jan; Wimmerova, Sona; Matalova, Petra; Kukumberg, Peter; Murin, Jan; Tesar, Tomas; Havelkova, Beata; Shah, Rashmi

    2017-08-08

    Non-persistence with secondary preventive measures, including medications such as statins, adversely affects the prospects of successful outcomes. This study was aimed at evaluating non-persistence with statin therapy in cohorts of young and elderly patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and identifying patient-associated characteristics that influence the risk for non-persistence. The study cohorts included 797 adult patients who were initiated on statin therapy following a TIA diagnosis between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Patients were followed up for 3 years and those with a treatment gap of at least a 6-month period were considered 'non-persistent'. In order to identify any age-related differences, all analyses were conducted in the entire study cohort (n = 797) as well as separately in the 'younger' (aged <65 years, n = 267) and the 'older' (aged ≥65 years, n = 530) patients. Non-persistence was significantly more common in younger patients compared to older patients (67.8% vs. 49.1%; p < 0.001). Factors that decreased the probability of non-persistence in younger and older patients included diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72 and HR = 0.64, respectively) and hypercholesterolaemia (HR = 0.43 and HR = 0.62, respectively). Female gender (HR = 1.42) was associated with a higher and increasing number of medications taken (HR = 0.93), with lower probability for non-persistence in younger patients but not in the older patients. Our results indicate that certain patients with TIA require special counselling to improve persistence with statin therapy. These include younger patients, especially females and those not on polypharmacy, and both younger and older patients without diabetes mellitus or hypercholesterolaemia.

  18. Health-related quality of life and alternative forms of exercise in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Earhart, Gammon M

    2009-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) reduces health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but exercise may improve HRQoL. This pilot study compared the effects of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi and No Intervention on HRQoL in individuals with PD. Seventy-five persons with PD (Hoehn and Yahr I-III) were assigned to 20 lessons of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi, or an untreated No Intervention group. Participants completed the PDQ-39 before and after participation in 20 classes or within 13 weeks in the case of the No Intervention group. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between interventions. Tango significantly improved on mobility (p=0.03), social support (p=0.05) and the PDQ-39 SI (p<0.01) at post-testing. No significant changes in HRQoL were noted in the Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi or No Intervention. Tango may be helpful for improving HRQoL in PD because it addresses balance and gait deficits in the context of a social interaction that requires working closely with a partner.

  19. Twenty-four Weeks of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Content, Related Genes, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Bryan; DE Salles Painelli, Vitor; DE Oliveira, Luana Farias; DA Eira Silva, Vinicius; DA Silva, Rafael Pires; Riani, Luiz; Franchi, Mariana; Gonçalves, Lívia DE Souza; Harris, Roger Charles; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-05-01

    Skeletal muscle carnosine content can be increased through β-alanine (BA) supplementation, but the maximum increase achievable with supplementation is unknown. No study has investigated the effects of prolonged supplementation on carnosine-related genes or exercise capacity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 24 wk of BA supplementation on muscle carnosine content, gene expression, and high-intensity cycling capacity (CCT110%). Twenty-five active males were supplemented with 6.4 g·d of sustained release BA or placebo for a 24 wk period. Every 4 wk participants provided a muscle biopsy and performed the CCT110%. Biopsies were analyzed for muscle carnosine content and gene expression (CARNS, TauT, ABAT, CNDP2, PHT1, PEPT2, and PAT1). Carnosine content was increased from baseline at every time point in BA (all P < 0.0001; week 4 = +11.37 ± 7.03 mmol·kg dm, week 8 = +13.88 ± 7.84 mmol·kg dm, week 12 = +16.95 ± 8.54 mmol·kg dm, week 16 = +17.63 ± 8.42 mmol·kg dm, week 20 = +21.20 ± 7.86 mmol·kg dm, and week 24 = +20.15 ± 7.63 mmol·kg dm) but not placebo (all P > 0.05). Maximal increases were +25.66 ± 7.63 mmol·kg dm (range = +17.13 to +41.32 mmol·kg dm), and absolute maximal content was 48.03 ± 8.97 mmol·kg dm (range = 31.79 to 63.92 mmol·kg dm). There was an effect of supplement (P = 0.002) on TauT; no further differences in gene expression were shown. Exercise capacity was improved in BA (P = 0.05) with possible to almost certain improvements across all weeks. Twenty-four weeks of BA supplementation increased muscle carnosine content and improved high-intensity cycling capacity. The downregulation of TauT suggests it plays an important role in muscle carnosine accumulation with BA supplementation, whereas the variability in changes in muscle carnosine content between individuals suggests that other determinants other than the availability of BA may also bear a major influence on muscle carnosine content.

  20. 'Diving reflex' in man - Its relation to isometric and dynamic exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. K.; Wildenthal, K.

    1972-01-01

    To test the influence of physical activity on the diving reflex, 10 normal men held their breath with their faces immersed in 15 C water during rest, bicycle exercise, and sustained isometric handgrip contraction. At all conditions, a slight but statistically significant elevation of blood pressure and a marked decrease in heart rate occurred during each dive. During moderate bicycle exercise heart rate fell more rapidly than at rest and the final level of bradycardia approached that achieved at rest, despite the fact that predive heart rates were much higher during exercise. When diving occurred in combination with isometric exercise, bradycardia was less severe than during resting dives and final heart rates could be represented as the sum of the expected responses to each intervention alone. In all conditions apnea without face immersion caused bradycardia that was less severe than during wet dives.

  1. 'Diving reflex' in man - Its relation to isometric and dynamic exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. K.; Wildenthal, K.

    1972-01-01

    To test the influence of physical activity on the diving reflex, 10 normal men held their breath with their faces immersed in 15 C water during rest, bicycle exercise, and sustained isometric handgrip contraction. At all conditions, a slight but statistically significant elevation of blood pressure and a marked decrease in heart rate occurred during each dive. During moderate bicycle exercise heart rate fell more rapidly than at rest and the final level of bradycardia approached that achieved at rest, despite the fact that predive heart rates were much higher during exercise. When diving occurred in combination with isometric exercise, bradycardia was less severe than during resting dives and final heart rates could be represented as the sum of the expected responses to each intervention alone. In all conditions apnea without face immersion caused bradycardia that was less severe than during wet dives.

  2. Are Your Cells Pregnant? Relating Biology Laboratory Exercises to Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Simon J.; Banner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that allows students to investigate the principles of hormone release from endocrine cells, which is highly relevant to students' everyday lives. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

  3. Age-related differences in the bone mineralization pattern of rats following exercise

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of 12 weeks of treadmill exercise on the mineralization of trabecular and cortical bone was studied in rats 7, 14, and 19 months of age. Bone mineralization was evaluated by measuring concentrations of Ca, Mg, and hydroxyproline as well as uptake of 45Ca concentration in the femur, humerus, rib and calvaria. The 7- and 14-month-old rats increased mineralization in those cortical bones directly involved in exercise. The 19-month animal responded to exercise by increasing mineralization in all bones examined, including the nonweight bearing trabecular calvaria and cortical rib. From these data, it is apparent that the older animals undergo a total skeletal mineralization in response to exercise compared with local adaptation in the younger animal. Further, we provide evidence to support the use of the rat as a model in which to study mammalian bone physiology during the aging process.

  4. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Methods: Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12–14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Results: Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R2 = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R2 = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Conclusions: Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration Citation: Tellez HF, Morrison SA, Neyt X, Mairesse O, Piacentini MF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Pangerc A, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Pattyn N, Mekjavic IB, Meeusen R. Exercise during short-term and long

  5. Intrinsic Risk Factors for Exercise-Related Injuries among Male and Female Army Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    risk factors associated with exercise and questionnaires on past activities and sports participa- physical activity are also meager. The scientifically...al: Effects of frequency and of exercise and physical activity , the intensity of training, duration of training on attrition and incidence of injury...army trainees. For 8 weeks of basic training, 124 men and past physical activity .’ and 186 women (79.3%) were studied. They answered Civilian data on

  6. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the body temperature rise during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of heat-dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence from variations in plasma volume.-

  7. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the body temperature rise during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of heat-dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence from variations in plasma volume.-

  8. Exercise in an electrotactic flow chamber ameliorates age-related degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Kuo, Wan-Jung; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chu, I-Hua; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2016-06-16

    Degeneration is a senescence process that occurs in all living organisms. Although tremendous efforts have been exerted to alleviate this degenerative tendency, minimal progress has been achieved to date. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares over 60% genetic similarities with humans, is a model animal that is commonly used in studies on genetics, neuroscience, and molecular gerontology. However, studying the effect of exercise on C. elegans is difficult because of its small size unlike larger animals. To this end, we fabricated a flow chamber, called "worm treadmill," to drive worms to exercise through swimming. In the device, the worms were oriented by electrotaxis on demand. After the exercise treatment, the lifespan, lipofuscin, reproductive capacity, and locomotive power of the worms were analyzed. The wild-type and the Alzheimer's disease model strains were utilized in the assessment. Although degeneration remained irreversible, both exercise-treated strains indicated an improved tendency compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, low oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation were also observed among the exercise-treated worms. We conjecture that escalated antioxidant enzymes imparted the worms with an extra capacity to scavenge excessive oxidative stress from their bodies, which alleviated the adverse effects of degeneration. Our study highlights the significance of exercise in degeneration from the perspective of the simple life form, C. elegans.

  9. Impaired exercise capacity after lung transplantation is related to delayed recovery of muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James R; Chambers, Daniel C; Davis, Rebecca J; Morris, Norman R; Seale, Helen E; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Hopkins, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplant recipients report reduced exercise capacity despite satisfactory graft function. We analysed changes in lung function, six-min walk distance (6MWD), and quadriceps strength in the first 26-wk post-transplant and examined what factors predict 6MWD recovery. All lung transplant recipients at a single institution between June 2007 and January 2011 were considered for inclusion. Lung function, 6MWD, and quadriceps strength corrected for body weight (QS%) were recorded pre- and two-, six-, 13-, and 26-wk post-transplant. Fifty recipients, of mean (± SD) age 42 (± 13) yr, were studied. Mean FEV1 % and 6MWD improved from 26.4% to 88.9% and from 397 to 549 m at 26 wk, respectively (both p < 0.001). QS% declined in the first two wk but had improved to above pre-transplant levels by 26 wk (p = 0.027). On multivariate analysis (n = 35), lower pre-transplant exercise capacity and greater recovery in muscle strength explained most of the improvement in exercise capacity. Delayed recovery of exercise capacity after lung transplantation is unrelated to delay in improvement in graft function, but occurs secondary to the slow recovery of muscle strength. Our findings show that additional controlled trials are needed to better understand the influence of exercise rehabilitation on improvement in exercise capacity post-transplantation.

  10. Exercise in an electrotactic flow chamber ameliorates age-related degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Kuo, Wan-Jung; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chu, I-Hua; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration is a senescence process that occurs in all living organisms. Although tremendous efforts have been exerted to alleviate this degenerative tendency, minimal progress has been achieved to date. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares over 60% genetic similarities with humans, is a model animal that is commonly used in studies on genetics, neuroscience, and molecular gerontology. However, studying the effect of exercise on C. elegans is difficult because of its small size unlike larger animals. To this end, we fabricated a flow chamber, called “worm treadmill,” to drive worms to exercise through swimming. In the device, the worms were oriented by electrotaxis on demand. After the exercise treatment, the lifespan, lipofuscin, reproductive capacity, and locomotive power of the worms were analyzed. The wild-type and the Alzheimer’s disease model strains were utilized in the assessment. Although degeneration remained irreversible, both exercise-treated strains indicated an improved tendency compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, low oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation were also observed among the exercise-treated worms. We conjecture that escalated antioxidant enzymes imparted the worms with an extra capacity to scavenge excessive oxidative stress from their bodies, which alleviated the adverse effects of degeneration. Our study highlights the significance of exercise in degeneration from the perspective of the simple life form, C. elegans. PMID:27305857

  11. Relations of body esteem factors with exercise session attendance in women initiating a physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2005-06-01

    Based on tenets of cognitive behavioral and social cognitive theory, the association of change in body-esteem factors and attendance in a newly initiated, 12-wk. cardiovascular exercise program was estimated in women (age range=21 to 60 years, M=41.4, SD= 12.2). For the group given the exercise program (n=48), there were significant positive changes on the Weight Control and Physical Condition scores of the Body Esteem Scale at 12 weeks, but not on Sexual Attractiveness scores. For the no-exercise control group (n=30), no significant changes were found on any of the Body Esteem Scale subscales. For the exercise group, regression analyses indicated between 8% and 9% of the variance in exercise session attendance was accounted for by the changes in scores on each of the three subscales. Entering age into multiple regression equations did not increase the explained variances in attendance. The fit of the findings within behavioral theory, implications for change in exercise behavior, and the need for replication and extension were discussed.

  12. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Raiser, Sara N; Vincent, Kevin R

    2012-07-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3-18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2-3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Raiser, Sara N.; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3–18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2–3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. PMID:22440321

  14. Adiponectin oligomers in human serum during acute and chronic exercise: relation to lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, T; Wegewitz, U; Brechtel, L; Freudenberg, M; Mai, K; Möhlig, M; Diederich, S; Ristow, M; Rochlitz, H; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J

    2007-01-01

    Beneficial effects of physical exercise include improved insulin sensitivity, which may be affected by a modulated release of adiponectin, which is exclusively synthesized in white adipose tissue and mediates insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers, which also have a distinct biological function. We therefore aimed to investigate the distribution of adiponectin oligomers in human serum in relation to physical activity. Thirty-eight lean and healthy individuals were investigated. Seven healthy women and 8 healthy men volunteered to investigate the effect of chronic exercise, at 3 different time points with different training intensities. These individuals were all highly trained and were compared to a control group with low physical activity (n = 15). For studying acute exercise effects, 8 healthy men participated in a bicycle test. Adiponectin was determined by ELISA, oligomers were detected by non-denaturating western blot. Total adiponectin and oligomers were unchanged by acute exercise. LDL cholesterol was significantly lower in the chronic exercise group (p = 0.03). Total adiponectin levels and oligomers were not different between these two groups and were unaltered by different training intensities. However, total adiponectin and specifically HMW oligomers correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.459; p = 0.009). We conclude that acute and chronic exercise does not directly affect circulating adiponectin or oligomer distribution in lean and healthy individuals. Whether such regulation is relevant in individuals with a metabolic disorder remains to be determined. However, our data suggest that adiponectin oligomers have distinct physiological functions IN VIVO, and specifically HMW adiponectin is closely correlated with HDL cholesterol.

  15. Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

    2013-12-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; Blair, Steven N.

    1981-01-01

    Practical guidelines for physical education teachers concerning the right amount of exercise to develop and maintain health-related fitness among students are outlined, along with some techniques for developing student motivation. (JMF)

  17. Home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Coquart, Jérémy B; Grosbois, Jean-Marie; Olivier, Cecile; Bart, Frederic; Castres, Ingrid; Wallaert, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective, observational study of a routine clinical practice reports the feasibility and efficiency of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), including transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or usual endurance physical exercise (UEPE), on exercise tolerance, anxiety/depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with COPD. Methods Seventy-one patients with COPD participated in home-based PR with NMES (Group NMES [GNMES]), while 117 patients participated in home-based PR with the UEPEs (Group UEPE [GUEPE]). NMES was applied for 30 minutes twice a day, every day. The endurance exercises in GUEPE began with a minimum 10-minute session at least 5 days a week, with the goal being 30–45 minutes per session. Three upper and lower limb muscle strengthening exercises lasting 10–15 minutes were also proposed to both the groups for daily practice. Moreover, PR in both the groups included a weekly 90-minute session based on an educational needs assessment. The sessions comprised endurance physical exercise for GUEPE, NMES for GNMES, resumption of physical daily living activities, therapeutic patient education, and psychosocial support to facilitate health behavior changes. Before and after PR, functional mobility and physical exercise capacity, anxiety, depression, and HRQoL were evaluated at home. Results The study revealed that NMES significantly improved functional mobility (−18.8% in GNMES and −20.6% in GUEPE), exercise capacity (+20.8% in GNMES and +21.8% in GUEPE), depression (−15.8% in GNMES and −30.1% in GUEPE), and overall HRQoL (−7.0% in GNMES and −18.5% in GUEPE) in the patients with COPD, regardless of the group (GNMES or GUEPE) or severity of airflow obstruction. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to these data (P>0.05). Conclusion Home-based PR including self-monitored NMES seems feasible and effective for severely disabled COPD patients

  18. The effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN-related brain regions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-Yi; Huang, Mao-Mao; Li, Shu-Zhen; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Chen, Li-Dian

    2016-08-05

    Physical activity may play a role in both the prevention and slowing of brain volume loss and may be beneficial in terms of improving the functional connectivity of brain regions. But much less is known about the potential benefit of aerobic exercise for the structure and function of the default mode network (DMN) brain regions. This systematic review examines the effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN brain regions in human adulthood. Seven electronic databases were searched for prospective controlled studies published up to April 2015. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analysis. Finally, 14 studies with 631 participants were identified. Meta-analysis revealed that aerobic exercise could significantly increase right hippocampal volume (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.01-0.51, p = 0.04, I(2) = 7%, 4 studies), and trends of similar effects were observed in the total (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.41, p = 0.43, I(2) = 0%, 5 studies), left (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.37, p = 0.33, I(2) = 14%, 4 studies), left anterior (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.40, p = 0.41, I(2) = 74%, 2 studies) and right anterior (SMD = 0.10, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.38, p = 0.46, I(2) = 76%, 4 studies) hippocampal volumes compared to the no-exercise interventions. A few studies reported that relative to no-exercise interventions, aerobic exercise could significantly decrease the atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, slow the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume loss, increase functional connectivity within the hippocampus and improve signal activation in the cingulate gyrus and ACC. The current review suggests that aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the right hippocampus and potentially beneficial effects on the overall and other parts of the hippocampus, the cingulate cortex and the medial temporal areas of the DMN. Moreover, aerobic exercise

  19. Potassium kinetics in human muscle interstitium during repeated intense exercise in relation to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Pedersen, Lasse Danneman; Fischer, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2004-07-01

    Accumulation of K+ in skeletal muscle interstitium during intense exercise has been suggested to cause fatigue in humans. The present study examined interstitial K+ kinetics and fatigue during repeated, intense, exhaustive exercise in human skeletal muscle. Ten subjects performed three repeated, intense (61.6+/-4.1 W; mean+/-SEM), one-legged knee extension exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) to exhaustion separated by 10-min recovery periods. Interstitial [K+] ([K+]interst) in the vastus lateralis muscle were determined using microdialysis. Time-to-fatigue decreased progressively (P<0.05) during the protocol (5.1+/-0.4, 4.2+/-0.3 and 3.2+/-0.2 min for EX1, EX2 and EX3 respectively). Prior to these bouts, [K+]interst was 4.1+/-0.2, 4.8+/-0.2 and 5.2+/-0.2 mM, respectively. During the initial 1.5 min of exercise the accumulation rate of interstitial K+ was 85% greater (P<0.05) in EX1 than in EX3. At exhaustion [K+]interst was 11.4+/-0.8 mM in EX1, which was not different from that in EX2 (10.4+/-0.8 mM), but higher (P<0.05) than in EX3 (9.1+/-0.3 mM). The study demonstrated that the rate of accumulation of K+ in the muscle interstitium declines during intense repetitive exercise. Furthermore, whilst [K+]interst at exhaustion reached levels high enough to impair performance, the concentration decreased with repeated exercise, suggesting that accumulation of interstitial K+ per se does not cause fatigue when intense exercise is repeated.

  20. Age-related changes in mastication are not improved by tongue exercise in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, Brittany N; Connor, Nadine P

    2017-01-01

    Aging results in progressive changes in deglutitive functions, which may be due in part to alterations in muscle morphology and physiology. Mastication is a critical component of bolus formation and swallowing, but aging effects on masticatory function have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify the effects of aging on mastication, and 2) determine the effects of tongue exercise on mastication in young adult and old rats. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mastication characteristics (number of bites, interval between bites, time to eat) as a function of age, and that tongue exercise would resolve preexercise differences between age groups. We expanded the established model of progressive, 8-week tongue exercise to include a mastication measurement: acoustic recordings of vermicelli pasta biting from 17 old and 17 young adult rats, randomized into exercise and control groups. We found the following: 1) Mastication characteristics were impacted by age. Specifically in older rats, there was an increase in time to eat and number of bites and intervals between bites decreased, suggesting increased oral motor-processing requirements for bolus formation. 2) tongue exercise did not impact mastication behaviors in young adult or old rats. Tongue exercise may not have been specific enough to result in behavioral changes in mastication or exercise dose may not have been sufficient. Nevertheless, results were noteworthy in expanding the established rat model of aging and have relevant clinical implications for future translation to human populations. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E29-E34, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zanghi, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland–Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p < 0.0001), BTear (p < 0.0001), and BTeye (p = 0.06) with Labs having on average 0.3–0.8°C higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p < 0.0001) and BTear (p < 0.0001), but not for BTrec (p = 0.63) for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min) activity counts did not differ (p = 0.53) between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p = 0.035 and p = 0.005, respectively), with a marginal interaction (p = 0.09) for BTeye. All the three methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p < 0.0001) related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r = 0.674) versus measures at rest (r = 0.381), whereas BTear was significantly

  2. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise.

    PubMed

    Zanghi, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p < 0.0001), BTear (p < 0.0001), and BTeye (p = 0.06) with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8°C higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p < 0.0001) and BTear (p < 0.0001), but not for BTrec (p = 0.63) for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min) activity counts did not differ (p = 0.53) between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p = 0.035 and p = 0.005, respectively), with a marginal interaction (p = 0.09) for BTeye. All the three methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p < 0.0001) related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r = 0.674) versus measures at rest (r = 0.381), whereas BTear was significantly

  3. [Transient epileptic amnesia].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshizaki, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    Transient amnesia is one of common clinical phenomenon of epilepsy that are encountered by physicians. The amnestic attacks are often associated with persistent memory disturbances. Epilepsy is common among the elderly, with amnesia as a common symptom and convulsions relatively uncommon. Therefore, amnesia due to epilepsy can easily be misdiagnosed as dementia. The term 'transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)' was introduced in the early 1990s by Kapur, who highlighted that amnestic attacks caused by epilepsy can be similar to those occurring in 'transient global amnesia', but are distinguished by features brevity and recurrence. In 1998, Zeman et al. proposed diagnostic criteria for TEA.

  4. Exercise in fibromyalgia and related inflammatory disorders: known effects and unknown chances.

    PubMed

    Ortega, E; García, J J; Bote, M E; Martín-Cordero, L; Escalante, Y; Saavedra, J M; Northoff, H; Giraldo, E

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by chronic widespread pain and allodynia (pain from stimuli which are not normally painful with pain that may occur other than in the area stimulated) of more than 3 months duration. The current hypothesis of the aetiology of FM includes inflammatory and neuroendocrine disorders. The biophysiology of this syndrome, however; remains still widely elusive, and there are no formally approved therapies. Non-pharmacological interventions in FM patients include habitual exercise programs which improve physical function and quality of life of patients and may even reduce pain. However the mechanisms through which exercise benefits FM symptoms needs to be elucidated. In this article we firstly review the main topics and characteristics of the FM syndrome, while focusing our attention on the inflammatory hypothesis of FM, as well as on the beneficial effects of habitual exercise as a co-therapy for FM patients. In this context, the latest developments in research on anti-inflammatory effects of exercise are also reviewed and discussed. To find out what is known about the connection between benefits of exercise for FM and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise, we carried out a PubMed search using the term "fibromyalgia" and "exercise" together with "inflammation", and no more than ten published articles were found (six of them reviews), which are also discussed. In the second part of the article we present a pilot investigation on a group of 14 female FM patients with a diagnosis of FM by a rheumatologist. They took part in a pool-aquatic program in warm water over a period of fourth months (three weekly 60-min sessions). Circulating inflammatory (IL-1beta, IL-2, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-8, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and CRP) and neuroendocrine (NA and cortisol) markers were determined. FM patients showed higher circulating levels of IL-8, IFNgamma and CRP as well as cortisol and NA than age-matched healthy control women. After the exercise program, a

  5. The effect of ladder-climbing exercise on atrophy/hypertrophy-related myokine expression in middle-aged male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suryun; Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Sanghyun; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik; Kim, Sungwook; Jung, Yeunho; Park, Solee; Hwang, Ilseon; Kim, Kijin

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the change in myokine expression related to hypertrophy (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) and atrophy (TNF-α, NFκB, IL-1β) in middle-aged rats after resistance exercise with ladder climbing. 50- and 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: the sedentary and exercise groups. The exercise groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for 8 weeks. While the tibialis anterior muscle mass in the young group significantly increased after the ladder-climbing exercise, the middle-aged group did not show any changes after undergoing the same exercise. To understand the molecular mechanism causing this difference, we analyzed the change in hypertrophy- and atrophy-related myokine levels from the tibialis anterior muscle. After 8 weeks of ladder-climbing exercise, the IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels did not change. However, the IL-6 level significantly increased after exercise training, but the amount of increase in the young training group was higher than in the middle-aged training group. IL-1β and TNF-α as well as NFκB protein levels were significantly higher in the middle-aged group than in the young group. Except for TNF-α, exercise training did not affect IL-1β and NFκB protein levels. The TNF-α level significantly decreased in the middle-aged exercise training group. AMPK and PGC-1α levels also significantly increased after exercise training, but there was no difference between age-related groups. Therefore, 8-week high-intensity exercise training using ladder climbing downregulates the skeletal muscle production of myokine involved in atrophy and upregulates hypertrophic myokine. However, the extent of these responses was lower in the middle-aged than young group.

  6. Smoking Status and Exercise in relation to PTSD Symptoms: A Test among Trauma-Exposed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Farris, Samantha G.; Harte, Christopher B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effect of cigarette smoking status (i.e., regular smoking versus non-smoking) and weekly exercise (i.e., weekly metabolic equivalent) in terms of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) symptom severity among a community sample of trauma-exposed adults. Participants included 86 trauma-exposed adults (58.1% female; Mage = 24.3). Approximately 59.7% of participants reported regular (≥ 10 cigarettes per day) daily smoking over the past year. The interactive effect of smoking status by weekly exercise was significantly associated with hyperarousal and avoidance symptom cluster severity (p ≤ .05). These effects were evident above and beyond number of trauma types and gender, as well as the respective main effects of smoking status and weekly exercise. Follow-up tests indicated support for the moderating role of exercise on the association between smoking and PTSD symptoms, such that the highest levels of PTSD symptoms were observed among regular smokers reporting low weekly exercise levels. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24273598

  7. Midlife exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and fitness relate to brain volume 2 decades later.

    PubMed

    Spartano, Nicole L; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Lewis, Gregory D; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-04-05

    To determine whether poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness and exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were associated with worse brain morphology in later life. Framingham Offspring participants (n = 1,094, 53.9% female) free from dementia and CV disease (CVD) underwent an exercise treadmill test at a mean age of 40 ± 9 years. A second treadmill test and MRI scans of the brain were administered 2 decades later at mean age of 58 ± 8 years. Poor CV fitness and greater diastolic BP and HR response to exercise at baseline were associated with a smaller total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) almost 2 decades later (all p < 0.05) in multivariable adjusted models; the effect of 1 SD lower fitness was equivalent to approximately 1 additional year of brain aging in individuals free of CVD. In participants with prehypertension or hypertension at baseline, exercise systolic BP was also associated with smaller TCBV (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that lower CV fitness and exaggerated exercise BP and HR responses in middle-aged adults are associated with smaller brain volume nearly 2 decades later. Promotion of midlife CV fitness may be an important step towards ensuring healthy brain aging. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Midlife exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and fitness relate to brain volume 2 decades later

    PubMed Central

    Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Lewis, Gregory D.; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness and exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were associated with worse brain morphology in later life. Methods: Framingham Offspring participants (n = 1,094, 53.9% female) free from dementia and CV disease (CVD) underwent an exercise treadmill test at a mean age of 40 ± 9 years. A second treadmill test and MRI scans of the brain were administered 2 decades later at mean age of 58 ± 8 years. Results: Poor CV fitness and greater diastolic BP and HR response to exercise at baseline were associated with a smaller total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) almost 2 decades later (all p < 0.05) in multivariable adjusted models; the effect of 1 SD lower fitness was equivalent to approximately 1 additional year of brain aging in individuals free of CVD. In participants with prehypertension or hypertension at baseline, exercise systolic BP was also associated with smaller TCBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that lower CV fitness and exaggerated exercise BP and HR responses in middle-aged adults are associated with smaller brain volume nearly 2 decades later. Promotion of midlife CV fitness may be an important step towards ensuring healthy brain aging. PMID:26865519

  9. Reduced physical exercise and health-related quality of life after Fontan palliation.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Villard, Li; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    A growing number of patients with Fontan circulation are reaching adulthood, and there is increasing concern about their physical performance and quality of life. This study compared self-reported exercise and measured activity with quality of life in patients after Fontan palliation and healthy controls. Physical exercise during an average school week was reported by 30 Fontan circulation patients aged eight to 20 years, and 25 healthy controls, followed by accelerometer recordings over seven days. All subjects and their parents answered a questionnaire on quality of life. Patients reported spending less time exercising each week than the controls (114 ± 66 minutes vs. 228 ± 147 minutes, p < 0.001). However, the overall measured activity and moderate-to-vigorous activity was similar for patients and controls. Patients reported a lower quality of life score than the controls (70.9 ± 9.9 vs. 85.7 ± 8.0, p < 0.001). In spite of similar measured total activity, Fontan patients reported less time engaged in regular physical exercise than healthy controls and their quality of life was lower than the controls. We speculate that promoting structured regular physical exercise could improve the quality of life of Fontan patients. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Impaired exercise-related myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in relation to coronary narrowing and diabetic state: assessment with quantitative single photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sasao, H; Nakata, T; Tsuchihashi, K; Wakabayashi, T; Nakaihara, N; Doi, A; Hashimoto, A; Kobayashi, H; Shimamoto, K

    2001-01-01

    Despite the diagnostic efficacy of stress myocardial perfusion imaging, the correlation between the actual perfusion tracer activity and diseased state of a coronary artery has not been studied in detail. We estimated exercise-related perfusion augmentation in relation to disease states of a coronary artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients by a newly developed quantitative technetium (Tc)-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial imaging technique. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin tomographic imaging with an exercise-rest protocol was performed in 26 stable coronary patients and in 8 age-matched controls. Percent increase (%IR) in myocardial count during symptom-limited submaximal exercise-stress was calculated in 16 non-infarcted polar map segments and in each coronary territory by a subtraction technique with corrections for physical decay and injected tracer doses, and the results were compared with those of angiographically quantified coronary diameter stenosis (%DS). Percent IR and peak heart rate during exercise showed a positive linear correlation both in coronary territories with significant stenosis (%DS > or = 75%) and in control or nonstenotic (%DS < 75%) territories. The regression line in stenotic regions was, however. significantly (p < 0.01) shifted downward compared to that in non-stenotic regions. Percent IR in stenotic regions showed a significant inverse correlation with %DS. Coronary stenosis of 75% or more was identified by a %IR cutoff value of 40% with 77% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and an accuracy of 72%. In coronary territories with a %DS of less than 75%, %IR in diabetic patients was significantly lower (46+/-15%) than that in nondiabetic patients (61+/-25%). Thus, blunted exercise-related augmentation of myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin correlates with the severity of coronary narrowing and diabetic state.

  11. [The relation between the frequency of exercise oxygen desaturation following major lung resection and the predictions of postoperative pulmonary function].

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Haruka; Urabe, N; Asai, K

    2008-04-01

    The predictors of oxygen desaturation during exercise in patients submitted to major pulmonary resection for lung cancer are to be determined. We analyzed retrospectively the relation between the oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry (Spo2) during exercise and the predictions of postoperative pulmonary function. A hundred twenty-two patients with lung cancer who underwent lung resection from January 1999 to May 2004 were included (79 men, 43 women, average age 66.9 +/- 9.2). A fall over 5% in Spo2 during exercise was termed 'desaturation'. Twenty-eight patients developed desaturation [group D(+)] and 94 patients did not [group D(-)]. We compared the predictions of postoperative pulmonary function (%ppoVC, %ppoFEV1.0, %ppoDLco) between these 2 groups. As a result, only %ppoDLco was significantly different between 2 groups [D(+) 68.7 +/- 19.1%, D(-) 83.8 +/- 24.9%]. Patients with poor %ppoDLco are at increased risk to develop a postoperative exercise oxygen desaturation.

  12. Relative contribution of resting haemodynamic profile and lung function to exercise tolerance in male patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Faggiano, P; D'Aloia, A; Gualeni, A; Giordano, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To clarify the relative contribution of resting haemodynamic profile and pulmonary function to exercise capacity in patients with heart failure.
SETTING—Cardiology department and cardiac rehabilitation unit in a tertiary centre.
DESIGN—161 male patients (mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with heart failure (New York Heart Association class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction 23 (7)%) underwent spirometry, alveolar capillary diffusing capacity (DLCO), and mouth inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP, MEP, respectively, in 100 patients). Right heart catheterisation and a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed in 137 patients within 3-4 days.
RESULTS—Mean peak exercise oxygen consumption (V̇O2) was 13 (3.9) ml/kg/min. Among resting haemodynamic variables only cardiac index showed a significant correlation with peak V̇O2. There were no differences in haemodynamic variables between patients with peak V̇O2 ⩽ or > 14 ml/kg/min. There was a moderate correlation (p < 0.05) between several pulmonary function variables and peak V̇O2. Forced vital capacity (3.5 (0.9) v 3.2 (0.8) l, p < 0.05) and DLCO (21.6 (6.9) v 17.7 (5.5) ml/mm Hg/min, p < 0.05) were higher in patients with peak V̇O2 > 14 ml/kg/min than in those with peak V̇O2 ⩽ 14 ml/kg/min. Using a stepwise regression analysis, the respiratory and haemodynamic variables which correlated significantly with peak V̇O2 were DLCO, MEP, and cardiac index, with an overall R value of 0.63.
CONCLUSIONS—The data confirm previous studies showing a poor correlation between resting indices of cardiac function and exercise capacity in heart failure. However, several pulmonary function variables were related to peak exercise V̇O2. In particular, lung diffusing capacity and respiratory muscle function seem to affect exercise tolerance during heart failure.


Keywords: heart failure; exercise; pulmonary function; alveolar-capillary diffusing

  13. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schwarzbach, Hans; Pardun, Anita; Hannemann, Lena; Bogs, Björn; König, Alexander M.; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Koehler, Ulrich; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Background Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans. Methods Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV), flow velocity (MFV) and blood flow (MBF) calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat) and intermedius (VInt) muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years) and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years) healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT). In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness. Results During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u.) and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.). In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia) post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG. Conclusions In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed. PMID:28273102

  14. The need for emergency surgical treatment in carotid-related stroke in evolution and crescendo transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Capoccia, Laura; Sbarigia, Enrico; Speziale, Francesco; Toni, Danilo; Biello, Antonella; Montelione, Nunzio; Fiorani, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of emergency carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with carotid stenosis and unstable neurological symptoms. This prospective, single-center study involved patients with stroke in evolution (SIE) or fluctuating stroke or crescendo transient ischemic attack (cTIA) related to a carotid stenosis ≥ 50% who underwent emergency surgery. Preoperative workup included National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) neurological assessment on admission, immediately before surgery and at discharge, carotid duplex scan, brain contrast-enhanced head computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). End points were perioperative (30-day) neurological mortality, NIHSS score variation, and hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke recurrence. Patients were evaluated according to clinical presentation (SIE or cTIA), timing of surgery, and presence of brain infarction on neuroimaging. Between January 2005 and December 2009, 48 patients were submitted to emergency surgery. CEAs were performed from 1 to 24 hours from onset of symptoms (mean, 10.16 ± 7.75). Twenty-six patients presented an SIE with a worsening NIHSS score between admission and surgery, and 22 presented ≥ 3 cTIAs with a normal NIHSS score (= 0) immediately before surgery. An ischemic brain lesion was detected in four patients with SIE and eight patients with cTIA. All patients with cTIA presented a persistent NIHSS normal score before and after surgery. Twenty-five patients with SIE presented an NIHSS score improvement after surgery. Mean NIHSS score was 5.30 ± 2.81 before surgery and 0.54 ± 0.77 at discharge in the SIE group (P < .0001). One patient with SIE had a hemorrhagic transformation of an undetected brain ischemic lesion after surgery, with progressive neurological deterioration and death (2%). Due to the absence of randomized controlled trials of CEA for neurologically unstable patients, data currently available do not support a policy of

  15. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  16. Chronotropic Incompetence and its Relation to Exercise Intolerance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Jian; Guo, Jian; Zhao, Qin-Hua; Wang, Lan; Yang, Wen-Lan; He, Jing; Gong, Su-Gang; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2017-03-01

    To study the relationship between chronotropic incompetence (CI) and disease severity and to assess the effect of CI on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Arterial blood gas analysis, pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were conducted in 60 patients with stable COPD and 45 healthy volunteers. CI was defined using the chronotropic response index (CRI = (peak heart rate-resting heart rate) / (220-age-resting heart rate). Based on CRI, patients with COPD were divided into the normal chronotropic group (n = 23) and CI group (n = 37). CI was present in 61.7% of the patients with COPD. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake as percentage of predicted value, peak VO2%pred), peak heart rate and CRI were significantly lower in patients with COPD than in controls. However, resting heart rate was significantly higher than in controls. FEV1%pred and exercise capacity were significantly decreased in the CI group when compared with those in the normotropic group. There was significant association between CRI with FEV1%pred and peak VO2%pred. Multivariate regression analysis showed that CRI and FEV1%pred were independent predictors of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. A cutoff of 0.74 for the CRI showed a specificity of 94.1% in predicting patients with a peak VO2%pred < 60%. CRI was associated with disease severity in patients with COPD. CI may be an important parameter to reflect exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Force-generating capacities and fatigability of the quadriceps femoris in relation to different exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we examined whether different exercise modes provoke functional differences in maximal and explosive force-generating capacities and fatigability of the quadriceps femoris (QF). Additionally, the interaction of different functional capacities was studied in competitive athletes. Ten competitive tennis players and 10 endurance athletes participated in the study. Pre-exercise force-generating capacities were determined during maximal voluntary isometric knee extensions (MVC). Fatigability of the QF was studied using sustained isometric contractions with target loads of 20% and 40% of pre-exercise MVC. Postexercise MVCs were conducted 20 seconds, 1 minute, and 3 minutes post task failure. Muscle activation of the QF during the fatiguing exercises and postexercise MVCs was estimated using surface electromyography. Higher explosive force-generating capacities, but no differences in absolute moments, were detected in tennis players compared with endurance athletes. Fatigability of the QF during both fatiguing tasks was approximately the same in both athletic populations. This was indicated by minor group differences in endurance time, postexercise MVC production, and electromyography (EMG)-estimated muscle activation during fatigue. Variability in endurance time was not significantly associated with pre-exercise force-generating capacities in these competitive athletes. In both athletic populations, recovery of MVC was significantly slower after the fatiguing contraction with 20% of MVC compared with that with 40% of MVC. These results may enhance understanding of plasticity of the neuromuscular system and yield interesting information for the optimization of athletic training programs. Explosive strength training might enhance endurance athletes' explosiveness without decreasing muscle fatigue resistance. The exercise profile of competitive tennis is suggested to act as a sufficient trigger to reach high neuromuscular fatigue resistance but may be

  18. Metabolomic Profiling of Submaximal Exercise at a Standardised Relative Intensity in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Muhsen Ali, Ali; Burleigh, Mia; Daskalaki, Evangelia; Zhang, Tong; Easton, Chris; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Ten physically active subjects underwent two cycling exercise trials. In the first, aerobic capacity (VO2max) was determined and the second was a 45 min submaximal exercise test. Urine samples were collected separately the day before (day 1) , the day of (day 2), and the day after (day 3) the submaximal exercise test (12 samples per subject). Metabolomic profiling of the samples was carried out using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Data were extracted, database searched and then subjected to principle components (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLSDA) modelling. The best results were obtained from pre-treating the data by normalising the metabolites to their mean output on days 1 and 2 of the trial. This allowed PCA to separate the day 2 first void samples (D2S1) from the day 2 post-exercise samples (D2S3) PCA also separated the equivalent samples obtained on day 1 (D1S1 and D1S3). OPLSDA modelling separated both the D2S1 and D2S3 samples and D1S1 and D1S3 samples. The metabolites affected by the exercise samples included a range of purine metabolites and several acyl carnitines. Some metabolites were subject to diurnal variation these included bile acids and several amino acids, the variation of these metabolites was similar on day 1 and day 2 despite the exercise intervention on day 2. Using OPLS modelling it proved possible to identify a single abundant urinary metabolite provisionally identified as oxo-aminohexanoic acid (OHA) as being strongly correlated with VO2max when the levels in the D2S3 samples were considered. PMID:26927198

  19. Metabolomic Profiling of Submaximal Exercise at a Standardised Relative Intensity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Muhsen Ali, Ali; Burleigh, Mia; Daskalaki, Evangelia; Zhang, Tong; Easton, Chris; Watson, David G

    2016-02-26

    Ten physically active subjects underwent two cycling exercise trials. In the first, aerobic capacity (VO2max) was determined and the second was a 45 min submaximal exercise test. Urine samples were collected separately the day before (day 1) , the day of (day 2), and the day after (day 3) the submaximal exercise test (12 samples per subject). Metabolomic profiling of the samples was carried out using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Data were extracted, database searched and then subjected to principle components (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLSDA) modelling. The best results were obtained from pre-treating the data by normalising the metabolites to their mean output on days 1 and 2 of the trial. This allowed PCA to separate the day 2 first void samples (D2S1) from the day 2 post-exercise samples (D2S3) PCA also separated the equivalent samples obtained on day 1 (D1S1 and D1S3). OPLSDA modelling separated both the D2S1 and D2S3 samples and D1S1 and D1S3 samples. The metabolites affected by the exercise samples included a range of purine metabolites and several acyl carnitines. Some metabolites were subject to diurnal variation these included bile acids and several amino acids, the variation of these metabolites was similar on day 1 and day 2 despite the exercise intervention on day 2. Using OPLS modelling it proved possible to identify a single abundant urinary metabolite provisionally identified as oxo-aminohexanoic acid (OHA) as being strongly correlated with VO2max when the levels in the D2S3 samples were considered.

  20. Aerobic exercise-related attenuation of arterial pulmonary hypertension: A right arrow targets the disease?

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian

    2016-12-01

    Characterized by progressive elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an important health problem that contributes to right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial remodeling and constriction are two prominent features of PAH. It is a traditional view that increasing pulmonary blood flow and pressure, aerobic exercise does more harm than good to the pulmonary vasculature in PAH. However, recent studies have documented a potential benefit of low-intensity aerobic exercise for PAH patients. Here the current mini-review outlines the evidence and challenges for this additional tool in our armamentarium to combat this ominous disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.