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Sample records for exercise-induced fat loss

  1. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  2. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred; Yasunaga, Koichi; Matsuo, Noboru; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Komikado, Masanori; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Wilder, Donna; Jones, Franz; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Cartwright, Yolanda

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercise-induced weight loss. Participants (n = 132 with 107 completers) were randomly assigned to receive a beverage containing approximately 625 mg of catechins with 39 mg caffeine or a control beverage (39 mg caffeine, no catechins) for 12 wk. Participants were asked to maintain constant energy intake and engage in >or=180 min/wk moderate intensity exercise, including >or=3 supervised sessions per week. Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), abdominal fat areas (computed tomography), and clinical laboratory tests were measured at baseline and wk 12. There was a trend (P = 0.079) toward greater loss of body weight in the catechin group compared with the control group; least squares mean (95% CI) changes, adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex, were -2.2 (-3.1, -1.3) and -1.0 (-1.9, -0.1) kg, respectively. Percentage changes in fat mass did not differ between the catechin [5.2 (-7.0, -3.4)] and control groups [-3.5 (-5.4, 1.6)] (P = 0.208). However, percentage changes in total abdominal fat area [-7.7 (-11.7, -3.8) vs. -0.3 (-4.4, 3.9); P = 0.013], subcutaneous abdominal fat area [-6.2 (-10.2, -2.2) vs. 0.8 (-3.3, 4.9); P = 0.019], and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) [-11.2 (-18.8, -3.6) vs. 1.9 (-5.9, 9.7); P = 0.023] were greater in the catechin group. These findings suggest that green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced changes in abdominal fat and serum TG.

  3. Individual responsiveness to exercise-induced fat loss is associated with change in resting substrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Barwell, Nicholas D; Malkova, Dalia; Leggate, Melanie; Gill, Jason M R

    2009-09-01

    Fat loss in response to exercise training varies between individuals, even when differences in compliance to the exercise program are accounted for. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual variation in change in fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) after exercise training contributes to this interindividual variability. Fifty-five premenopausal women participated in a 7-week endurance-type exercise training program; and fitness, body composition, and resting substrate utilization and metabolic rate in the fasted state were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Total net energy expenditure of the exercise intervention (exEE) was determined from heart rate obtained in all exercise sessions and individualized calibration of the heart rate vs oxygen uptake relationship. Dietary intake and physical activity (by constant heart rate monitoring) were assessed at baseline and during the final week of the intervention. Mean change in fat mass for the group was -0.97 kg (range, +2.1 to -5.3 kg). The strongest correlate of change in fat mass was exEE (r = 0.60, P < .0005). Change in fasting RQ correlated significantly (r = -0.26, P = .05) with the residual for change in fat mass after adjusting for the effects of both exEE and change in energy intake, explaining 7% of the variance. In multiple regression analysis, exEE (P < .0005) and change in fasting RQ (P = .02) were the only statistically significant independent predictors of change in fat mass, together explaining 40.2% of the variance. Thus, fat loss in response to exercise training depends not only on exercise energy expenditure but also on exercise training-induced changes in RQ at rest. This suggests that development of strategies to maximize the change in resting fat oxidation in response to an exercise training program may help individuals to maximize exercise-induced fat loss.

  4. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss. PMID:20886014

  5. Low fat loss response after medium-term supervised exercise in obese is associated with exercise-induced increase in food reward.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  6. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p < 0.001) and ADP (66.6 ± 9.1 vs. 64.8 ± 9.0 kg; p = 0.001), reflecting the reduction in body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  7. Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Andrea R.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8–16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8–16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. PMID:21775530

  8. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-09-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.

  9. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  10. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  11. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  12. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dela, Flemming

    2011-06-01

    Twenty one healthy untrained male subjects were randomized to follow a high-fat diet (HFD; 55-60E% fat, 25-30E% carbohydrate, and 15E% protein) or a normal diet (ND; 25-35E% fat, 55-60E% carbohydrate, and 10-15E% protein) for 2(1/2) wk. Diets were isocaloric and tailored individually to match energy expenditure. At 2(1/2) wk of diet, one 60-min bout of bicycle exercise (70% of maximal oxygen uptake) was performed. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the diet, immediately after exercise, and after 3-h recovery. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P < 0.05) in state 3 (glycolytic substrates) and uncoupled respiration, respectively. However, in HFD this increase was abolished. At recovery, no change from resting respiration was seen in either group. With a lipid substrate (octanoyl-carnitine with or without ADP), similar exercise-induced increases (31-62%) were seen in HFD and ND, but only in HFD was an elevated (P < 0.05) respiratory rate seen at recovery. With HFD complex I and IV protein expression decreased (P < 0.05 and P = 0.06, respectively). A fat-rich diet induces marked changes in the mitochondrial electron transport system protein content and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance.

  13. Exercise-Induced Weight Loss is More Effective than Dieting for Improving Adipokine Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation in Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Joan; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Chen, Dan-Dan; Yap, Siew-Yoon; Chen, Richard Yuan-Tud; Tian, Roger Ho-Heng

    2015-12-01

    The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2), waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200-300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (-456 ± 338 vs. -455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (-3.6 ± 3.4 vs. -3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (-3.4 ± 4.4 vs. -3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.5 vs. -2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (-9.7 ± 11.1 vs. -4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.11 ± 3.13 vs. -1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (-2.45 ± 1.88 vs. -1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity.

  14. Loss of functional endothelial connexin40 results in exercise-induced hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan K; Chaston, Daniel J; Howitt, Lauren; Heisler, Jillian; Nicholson, Bruce J; Fairweather, Stephen; Bröer, Stefan; Ashton, Anthony W; Matthaei, Klaus I; Hill, Caryl E

    2015-03-01

    During activity, coordinated vasodilation of microcirculatory networks with upstream supply vessels increases blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscles and reduces peripheral resistance. Endothelial dysfunction in humans attenuates activity-dependent vasodilation, resulting in exercise-induced hypertension in otherwise normotensive individuals. Underpinning activity-dependent hyperemia is an ascending vasodilation in which the endothelial gap junction protein, connexin (Cx)40, plays an essential role. Because exercise-induced hypertension is proposed as a forerunner to clinical hypertension, we hypothesized that endothelial disruption of Cx40 function in mice may create an animal model of this condition. To this end, we created mice in which a mutant Cx40T152A was expressed alongside wildtype Cx40 selectively in the endothelium. Expression of the Cx40T152A transgene in Xenopus oocytes and mouse coronary endothelial cells in vitro impaired both electric and chemical conductance and acted as a dominant-negative against wildtype Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45, but not Cx37. Endothelial expression of Cx40T152A in Cx40T152ATg mice attenuated ascending vasodilation, without effect on radial coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. Using radiotelemetry, Cx40T152ATg mice showed an activity-dependent increase in blood pressure, which was significantly greater than in wildtype mice, but significantly less than in chronically hypertensive, Cx40knockout mice. The increase in heart rate with activity was also greater than in wildtype or Cx40knockout mice. We conclude that the endothelial Cx40T152A mutation attenuates activity-dependent vasodilation, producing a model of exercise-induced hypertension. These data highlight the importance of endothelial coupling through Cx40 in regulating blood pressure during activity. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Aya; Tsuchiya, Yoshihumi; Shimura, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects. Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (P<0.05). However, the exercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions. We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  17. Exercise intensity does not affect the composition of diet- and exercise-induced body mass loss.

    PubMed

    Ballor, D L; McCarthy, J P; Wilterdink, E J

    1990-02-01

    The effect of caloric restriction (1200 kcal/d intake) in combination with high (High) (80-90% of peak VO2) or low (Low) (40-50% of peak VO2) exercise work rates on the composition of lost body mass was determined in 27 obese women (percent fat, 36.7 +/- 4.2%; mean +/- SD). All subjects trained 3 d/wk for 8 wk, with the High (n = 14) and Low (n = 13) groups exercising for 25 and 50 min/d, respectively. After posttesting there were no differences between the groups with respect to pre- to posttest changes (mean of combined groups) in body mass (-7%), fat-free mass (-10%), fat mass (-16%), percent fat (-10%), and sum of five skinfold-thickness measurements (-16%). This study suggests that with regard to conservation of fat-free mass, the selection of an exercise intensity for a diet and exercise regimen may be left to the preference of the clinician and/or dieter.

  18. Refractory period after exercise-induced asthma unexplained by respiratory heat loss.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dov, I; Bar-Yishay, E; Godfrey, S

    1982-05-01

    Fifteen asthmatic children and young adults each exercised for 6 min by cycling on a cycle ergometer while breathing either cold (4.1 degrees C +/- 0.5 SEM) and dry (2.05 mg/L +/- 0.05) air or warm (37.2 degrees C +/- 0.3) fully saturated air. Each subject performed 4 tests arranged in pairs. Test pair A consisted of cold dry exercise followed by another cold dry exercise and test pair B consisted of a warm humid exercise followed by a cold dry exercise. Ventilation, heart rate, and gas exchange were closely matched in all 4 tests in each subject with a mean oxygen consumption of 34.8 +/- 0.8 ml/min/kg. In test pair A, all subjects were rendered refractory by the first cold dry exercise as manifested by a significant attenuation of their exercise-induced asthma (EIA) after the second cold dry test (per cent decrease in FEV1, delta FEV1 = 16 +/- 4 compared with 38 +/- 4). In 3 subjects, the warm humid exercise did not cause EIA and did not render them refractory to the second cold dry exercise. The 12 remaining subjects exhibited a refractory period similar to that shown in test pair A. They did not develop EIA after the warm humid test (delta FEV1 = 1 +/- 2), but after the subsequent cold dry exercise the per cent decrease in FEV1 was 19 +/- 3, similar to that in the second of the 2 cold dry exercise tests. These experiments suggest that in the majority of subjects exercise per se appears to be the cause for refractoriness and not airway cooling or bronchoconstriction.

  19. Lower extremity muscle size and strength and aerobic capacity decrease with caloric restriction but not with exercise-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Edward P.; Racette, Susan B.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Fontana, Luigi; Steger-May, Karen; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Klein, Samuel; Ehsani, Ali A.; Holloszy, John O.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) results in fat loss; however, it may also result in loss of muscle and thereby reduce strength and aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max). These effects may not occur with exercise-induced weight loss (EX) because of the anabolic effects of exercise on heart and skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CR reduces muscle size and strength and V̇O2 max, whereas EX preserves or improves these parameters. Healthy 50- to 60-yr-old men and women (body mass index of 23.5–29.9 kg/m2) were studied before and after 12 mo of weight loss by CR (n = 18) or EX (n = 16). Lean mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, thigh muscle volume by MRI, isometric and isokinetic knee flexor strength by dynamometry, and treadmill V̇O2 max by indirect calorimetry. Both interventions caused significant decreases in body weight (CR: −10.7 ± 1.4%, EX: −9.5 ± 1.5%) and lean mass (CR: −3.5 ± 0.7%, EX: −2.2 ± 0.8%), with no significant differences between groups. Significant decreases in thigh muscle volume (−6.9 ± 0.8%) and composite knee flexion strength (−7.2 ± 3%) occurred in the CR group only. Absolute V̇O2 max decreased significantly in the CR group (−6.8 ± 2.3%), whereas the EX group had significant increases in both absolute (+15.5 ± 2.4%) and relative (+28.3 ± 3.0%) V̇O2 max. These data provide evidence that muscle mass and absolute physical work capacity decrease in response to 12 mo of CR but not in response to a similar weight loss induced by exercise. These findings suggest that, during EX, the body adapts to maintain or even enhance physical performance capacity. PMID:17095635

  20. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  1. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  2. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  3. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  4. Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2013-12-01

    L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats.

  5. Effects of Circuit Resistance Training and Timely Protein Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Fat Oxidation in Tetraplegic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, K.; Burns, P.; Betancourt, L.; Nash, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substrate utilization during exercise in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) remains poorly defined. Purpose: To investigate effects of circuit resistance training (CRT) and timing of protein supplementation (PS) on fuel utilization in persons with tetraplegia. Methods: Eleven individuals with chronic tetraplegia underwent 6 months of CRT 3 times weekly. Five randomly assigned participants received immediate PS (iPS) administered in split doses prior to and following all exercise sessions. Other participants consumed a matched dose of PS that was delayed until 24 hours post-exercise (dPS). Participants underwent a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion at 4 conditioning time points: 3 months before (-3mo), at the beginning of (0mo), 3 months into (3mo), and 6 months following (6mo) the CRT conditioning program. Respiratory measures were continuously obtained throughout the GXT via open-circuit spirometry. Fuel utilization and energy expenditure were computed from the respiratory data. Results: The differences in changes in substrate utilization between the PS groups were not significant as determined by the interaction of PS group and conditioning time point, F (3, 27) = 2.32, P = .098, η2P = .205. Maximal absolute fat oxidation did not change significantly from 0 to 6mo (mean difference, 0.014 ± 0.031 g/min; P = .170), and fat oxidation remained low never exceeding an average of 0.10 ± 0.09 g/min for any given exercise intensity. Conclusion: Maximum fat utilization during exercise and fat utilization at matched exercise intensities were not increased in persons with tetraplegia, independent of PS, and levels of fat oxidation remained low after training. PMID:25477733

  6. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  7. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Feldweg, Anna M

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is an uncommon disorder in which anaphylaxis occurs in response to physical exertion. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a disorder with similar symptoms, although symptoms develop only if exercise takes place within a few hours of eating and, in most cases, only if a specific food is eaten. Management includes education about safe conditions for exercise, the importance of ceasing exercise immediately if symptoms develop, appropriate use of epinephrine, and, for patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, avoidance of the culprit food for at least 4 hours before exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  9. Successful physical exercise-induced weight loss is modulated by habitual sleep duration in the elderly: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Monique; Sobieray, Uwe; Becke, Andreas; Düzel, Emrah; Cohrs, Stefan; Müller, Notger G

    2017-02-01

    Although it is widely accepted that physical exercise promotes weight loss, physical exercise alone had been found to result in only marginal weight loss compared to no treatment. Interestingly, both subjective and objective sleep duration have been shown to be negatively correlated to the body mass index (BMI). Despite this growing evidence of a relation between sleep duration and body weight, the role of habitual sleep duration in physical exercise-induced weight loss has not been studied so far. Twenty-two healthy elderly good sleepers aged 61-76 years (mean 68.36 years, 55 % female, BMI mean 25.15 kg/m(2)) either took part in a 12-week aerobic endurance training (3 × 30 min/week) or in a relaxation control (2 × 45 min/week). The BMI was assessed prior to and after intervention. Subjects maintained sleep logs every morning/evening during the training period, allowing for calculation of habitual sleep duration. Besides a significant main effect of the type of training, a significant interaction of type of training and habitual sleep duration was observed: while after treadmill training subjects who slept less than 7.5 h/night during intervention reduced their BMI by nearly 4 %, a comparable decrease in the BMI was found neither in subjects who slept more than 7.5 h nor after relaxation training independent of sleep duration. Sleep duration itself did not change in any group. Although results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size, this is the first study to indicate that physical exercise might compensate for disturbed body weight regulation associated with short sleep duration.

  10. Catechins attenuate eccentric exercise-induced inflammation and loss of force production in muscle in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2011-12-01

    Catechins have a great variety of biological actions. We evaluated the potential benefits of catechin ingestion on muscle contractile properties, oxidative stress, and inflammation following downhill running, which is a typical eccentric exercise, in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP). Downhill running (13 m/min for 60 min; 16° decline) induced a greater decrease in the contractile force of soleus muscle and in Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in SAMP1 compared with the senescence-resistant mice (SAMR1). Moreover, compared with SAMR1, SAMP1 showed greater downhill running-induced increases in plasma CPK and LDH activity, malondialdehyde, and carbonylated protein as markers of oxidative stress; and in protein and mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in muscle. SAMP1 exhibited aging-associated vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation in muscle induced by downhill running. Long-term (8 wk) catechin ingestion significantly attenuated the downhill running-induced decrease in muscle force and the increased inflammatory mediators in both plasma and gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, catechins significantly inhibited the increase in oxidative stress markers immediately after downhill running, accompanied by an increase in glutathione reductase activity. These findings suggest that long-term catechin ingestion attenuates the aging-associated loss of force production, oxidative stress, and inflammation in muscle after exercise.

  11. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on health indices in females with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, JB; Dos Santos, DL; Bresciani, G; Bard, LF; de Mello, F; Stefanello, ST; Courtes, AA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of moderate aerobic training on functional, anthropometric, biochemical, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters on women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen untrained women with MS performed moderate aerobic training for 15 weeks, without modifications of dietary behaviours. Functional, anthropometric, biochemical, control diet record and HRQOL parameters were assessed before and after the training. Despite body weight maintenance, the patients presented decreases in waist circumference (P = 0.001), number of MS components (P = 0.014), total cholesterol (P = 0.049), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.004), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.027), myeloperoxidase activity (P = 0.002) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels (P = 0.006). There were no differences in total energy, carbohydrate, protein and lipid intake pre- and post-training. Furthermore, improvements in the HRQOL subscales of physical functioning (P = 0.03), role-physical (P = 0.039), bodily pain (P = 0.048), general health (P = 0.046) and social functioning scoring (P = 0.011) were reported. Despite the absence of weight loss, aerobic training induced beneficial effects on functional, anthropometric, biochemical and HRQOL parameters in women with MS. PMID:26028810

  12. Peripheral fat loss and decline in adipogenesis in older humans.

    PubMed

    Caso, Giuseppe; McNurlan, Margaret A; Mileva, Izolda; Zemlyak, Alla; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C

    2013-03-01

    Aging is associated with a redistribution of body fat including a relative loss of subcutaneous peripheral fat. These changes in body fat can have important clinical consequences since they are linked to increased risk of metabolic complications. The causes and mechanisms of loss of peripheral fat associated with aging are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess whether defects in adipogenesis contribute to fat loss in aging humans, as suggested from animal studies, and to evaluate the role of inflammation on pathogenesis of fat loss. Preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous peripheral fat of healthy young and elderly subjects were compared in their ability to replicate and differentiate. The results show that both the rate of replication and differentiation of preadipocytes are reduced in older subjects. The reduction in adipogenesis is accompanied by a higher plasma level of the inflammatory marker, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, and greater release of tumor necrosis factor α from fat tissue. Thus, the gradual relative loss of peripheral fat in aging humans may in part result from a defect in adipogenesis, which may be linked to inflammation and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from fat tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Storms, William W

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a relatively common condition that affects both recreational and elite athletes. The latest data suggest that it is an inflammatory process, especially in elite athletes. Proper diagnosis is important to differentiate EIB from other respiratory conditions. Effective treatment usually controls this condition.

  14. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed Oct. 1, 2014. Stickland MK, et al. Effect of warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma action plans: Help patients take control. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  15. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Merlotti, C; Ceriani, V; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2017-05-01

    Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analyzed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and expressed as thickness, weight, area and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals. Publication bias was formally assessed. The result was that subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; decrease of subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; percent decrease of visceral fat was always greater than percent decrease of subcutaneous fat, with no differences between different strategies. No intervention preferentially targets visceral fat. Basal visceral fat depots are smaller than basal subcutaneous fat depots. Visceral fat loss is linked to subcutaneous fat loss. With all strategies, percent decrease of visceral fat prevails on subcutaneous fat loss.

  16. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( < 0.001). The ATTD of CP was not affected by dietary fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally

  17. Lecithin decreases human milk fat loss during enteral pumping.

    PubMed

    Chan, Melissa M; Nohara, Masaru; Chan, Benjamin R; Curtis, Julie; Chan, Gary M

    2003-05-01

    The fat content of human milk provides the majority of calories for infants. However, large fat losses in human milk have been observed using enteral pump systems, causing poor growth in infants. The fat may adhere in the pump system. Lecithin, a phospholipid, has been used in the food industry as a lipophilic emulsifier of fats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lecithin on the delivery of human milk fat from an enteral pump. It is hypothesized that the addition of lecithin would decrease the fat loss during human milk delivery. Six mothers at a mature stage of lactation (>4 weeks of lactation) donated human milk. The human milk samples were stored separately at -20 degrees C before analysis and evaluated individually. The fat content of the milk samples was estimated by the creamatocrit method, in which the samples were centrifuged in a standard hematocrit tube and the fat layer read with vernier calipers and expressed as a percentage of the length of the milk column to the nearest 0.5%. The accuracy of this method is 92%. The Kangaroo 324 Feeding Pump (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO) was used as the continuous pump system. The human milk samples were divided into either control samples without lecithin or with lecithin (1 or 0.5 g soy lecithin dissolved in 50 mL milk). All samples were pumped at 10 to 50 mL/h for at least 4 hours. The pumped milk was collected in an iced container, and creamatocrits were determined in duplicate. There was significant fat loss in the control milk samples compared with the milk samples with added lecithin. The average fat loss was 58% +/- 13% for control samples and 55% +/- 26% for the milk with 0.5 g soy lecithin. Milk with 1 g soy lecithin averaged 2% +/- 2% fat loss. The pumping rate had no effect on fat loss. The greatest fat loss (70% +/- 6%)occurred during the first 4 hours of pumping. The addition of 1 g soy lecithin per 50 mL milk decreased the human milk fat loss during intermittent pumping and may

  18. Weight loss, body fat mass, and leptin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Toss, Göran; Granérus, Ann-Kathrine

    2009-04-30

    Weight loss is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the causative mechanisms behind this weight loss are unclear. We compared 26 PD patients with sex and age matched healthy controls. Examinations were repeated at baseline, after one and after two years. Body fat mass was measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy three per cent of the PD patients lost body weight. Loss of body fat mass constituted a considerable part of the loss of body weight. In the patients who lost weight, serum leptin levels were lower than in those who did not lose weight. The relationship between low body fat mass and low leptin levels seems to be relevant, at least for female PD patients. It is reasonable to believe that low leptin levels in these patients could be secondary to the decreased body fat mass. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Dissociation between exercise-induced reduction in liver fat and changes in hepatic and peripheral glucose homoeostasis in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Richardson, Paul; Kemp, Graham J; Barrett, Mark; Jackson, Nicola C; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Umpleby, A Margot

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multi-organ (hepatic, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue) insulin resistance (IR). Exercise is an effective treatment for lowering liver fat but its effect on IR in NAFLD is unknown. We aimed to determine whether supervised exercise in NAFLD would reduce liver fat and improve hepatic and peripheral (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) insulin sensitivity. Sixty nine NAFLD patients were randomized to 16 weeks exercise supervision (n=38) or counselling (n=31) without dietary modification. All participants underwent MRI/spectroscopy to assess changes in body fat and in liver and skeletal muscle triglyceride, before and following exercise/counselling. To quantify changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, a pre-determined subset (n=12 per group) underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp pre- and post-intervention. Results are shown as mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Fifty participants (30 exercise, 20 counselling), 51 years (IQR 40, 56), body mass index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2) (IQR 29, 35) with baseline liver fat/water % of 18.8% (IQR 10.7, 34.6) completed the study (12/12 exercise and 7/12 counselling completed the clamp studies). Supervised exercise mediated a greater reduction in liver fat/water percentage than counselling [Δ mean change 4.7% (0.01, 9.4); P<0.05], which correlated with the change in cardiorespiratory fitness (r=-0.34, P=0.0173). With exercise, peripheral insulin sensitivity significantly increased (following high-dose insulin) despite no significant change in hepatic glucose production (HGP; following low-dose insulin); no changes were observed in the control group. Although supervised exercise effectively reduced liver fat, improving peripheral IR in NAFLD, the reduction in liver fat was insufficient to improve hepatic IR.

  20. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  1. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. Results BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non‐dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. Conclusions When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non‐invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. PMID:26524104

  2. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, A L; Austen, K F

    1980-08-01

    Sixteen patients were seen because of possibly life-threatening exercise-associated symptoms similar to anaphylactic reactions. Asthma attacks, cholinergic urticaria and angioedema, and cardiac arrythmias are recognized as exertion-related phenomena in predisposed patients but are distinct from the syndrome described here. A syndrome characterized by the exertion-related onset of cutaneous pruritus and warmth, the development of generalized urticaria, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse in 12 patients, gastrointestinal tract symptoms in five patients, and upper respiratory distress in 10 patients has been designated exercise-induced anaphylaxis, because of the striking similarity of this symptom complex to the anaphylactic syndrome elicited by ingestion or injection of a foreign antigenic substance. There is a family history of atopic desease for 11 patients and cold urticaria for two others and a personal history of atopy in six. The size of the wheals, the failure to develop an attack with a warm bath or shower or a fever, and the prominence of syncope rule against the diagnosis of conventional cholinergic urticaria. There is no history or evidence of an encounter with an environmental source of antigen during the exercise period.

  3. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Gani, Federica; Selvaggi, Lucia; Roagna, Davide

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kind of exercise, although jogging is the most frequently reported. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema, gastrointestinal and laryngeal symptoms and signs of angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the finding of an elevated serum histamine level during experimentally-induced attacks and by cutaneous degranulation of mast cells with elevated serum tryptase after attacks. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even aspecific sensitivity to food has been reported and such cases are called "food-dependent EIA". Many foods are implicated but particularly wheat, vegetables, crustacean. Another precipitating factor includes drugs intake (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), climate variations and menstrual cycle factors. Treatment of an attack should include all the manoeuvres efficacious in the management of conventional anaphylactic syndrome, including the administration of epinephrine and antihistamines. Prevention of the attacks may be achieved with the interruption of the exercise at the appearance of the first premonitory symptoms. To prevent the onset of EIA it is also suitable to delay the exercise practice after at least 4-6 hours from the swallowing of food.

  4. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p < .01) and walking speed (p < .01). Models including change in both fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p < .01) and walking speed (β[fat] = -0.01; p < .01). Results from this study demonstrate that loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  5. Exercise-induced changes of MCT1 in cardiac and skeletal muscles of diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet and STZ.

    PubMed

    Nikooie, Rohollah; Rajabi, Hamid; Gharakhanlu, Reza; Atabi, Fereshteh; Omidfar, Kobra; Aveseh, Malihe; Larijani, Bagher

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that a part of therapeutic effects of endurance training on insulin resistance is mediated by increase in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial lactate transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Therefore, we examined the effect of 7 weeks endurance training on the mRNA and protein expression of MCT1 and MCT4 and their chaperon, CD147, on both sarcolemmal and mitochondrial membrane, separately, in healthy and type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by injection of low dose of streptozotocin and feeding with high-fat diet. Insulin resistance was confirmed by homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index and accuracy of two membranes separation was confirmed by negative control markers (glucose transporter 1 and cytochrome c oxidase. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used for mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Diabetes dramatically reduced MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA and their expression on sarcolemmal membrane whereas the reduction in MCT1 expression was less in mitochondrial membrane. Training increased the MCT1 mRNA and protein expression in both membranes and decreased insulin resistance as an adaptive consequence. In both tissues increase in CD147 mRNA was only parallel to MCT1 expression. The response of MCT1 on sarcolemmal and mitochondrial membranes was different between cardiac and skeletal muscles which indicate that intracellular lactate kinetic is tissue specific that allows a tissue to coordinate whole organism metabolism.

  6. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  8. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  9. Three-dimensional volumetric quantification of fat loss following cryolipolysis.

    PubMed

    Garibyan, Lilit; Sipprell, William H; Jalian, H Ray; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew; Anderson, R Rox

    2014-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive and well-tolerated treatment for reduction of localized subcutaneous fat. Although several studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this procedure, volumetric fat reduction from this treatment has not been quantified. This prospective study investigated the change in volume of fat after cryolipolysis treatment using three-dimensional (3D) photography. A prospective study of subjects treated with cryolipolysis on the flank (love handle) was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Volume measurements were performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra three-dimensional camera and software to evaluate the amount of post procedure volume change. Clinical outcomes were assessed with caliper measurements, subject surveys, and blinded physician assessment of photographs. Eleven subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to one flank. The untreated flank served as an internal control. The follow-up time after treatment was 2 months. The mean amount of calculated absolute fat volume loss using 3D photography from baseline to 2 months follow-up visit was 56.2 ± 25.6 from the treatment site and 16.6 ± 17.6 cc from the control (P < 0.0001). A mean absolute difference of 39.6 cc between the treated and untreated sides was calculated at 2 months post-treatment. Comparison of caliper measurements from baseline to 2 months post-treatment demonstrated significant reduction of the treated flank from 45.6 ± 5.8 mm at baseline to 38.6 ± 4.6 mm at 2 months post-treatment (P < 0.001). The untreated flank did not show significant reduction with caliper measurements demonstrating 45.3 ± 5.0 mm at baseline and 44.6 ± 5.1 mm at 2 months post-treatment (P = 0.360). No unexpected side effects or adverse events were reported. Post-treatment satisfaction surveys demonstrated 82% of subjects were satisfied with the results. Cryolipolysis is a safe, well

  10. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  11. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  12. Effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) and low-fat weight-loss diets on the serum lipid profile in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Pelkman, Christine L; Fishell, Valerie K; Maddox, Deborah H; Pearson, Thomas A; Mauger, David T; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2004-02-01

    Little evidence of the effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) weight-loss diets on risk factors for cardiovascular disease exists because low-fat diets are typically recommended. Previous studies in weight-stable persons showed that a moderate-fat diet results in a more favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile (ie, lower serum triacylglycerol and higher HDL cholesterol) than does a low-fat diet. We evaluated the effects of energy-controlled, low-fat and moderate-fat diets on changes in lipids and lipoproteins during weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance. We conducted a parallel-arm study design in overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29.8 +/- 2.4] healthy men and women (n = 53) assigned to consume a low-fat (18% of energy) or moderate-fat (33% of energy) diet for 6 wk to achieve weight loss, which was followed by 4 wk of weight maintenance. All foods were provided and body weight was monitored to ensure equal weight loss between groups. The moderate-fat diet elicited favorable changes in the lipoprotein profile. Compared with baseline, HDL cholesterol was unchanged, whereas triacylglycerol and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were lower at the end of the weight-maintenance period in the moderate-fat diet group. Despite similar weight loss, triacylglycerol rebounded, HDL cholesterol decreased, and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol did not change during the 10-wk interval in the low-fat diet group. A moderate-fat weight-loss and weight-maintenance diet improves the cardiovascular disease risk profile on the basis of favorable changes in lipids and lipoproteins. There is merit in recommending a moderate-fat weight-loss diet.

  13. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  15. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C

    2015-01-01

    Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may not relate to adipose atrophy. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a local catabolic mediator within adipose tissue rather than serving as a plasma biomarker of fat loss. Plasma glycerol and leptin associate with adipose tissue atrophy and mass, respectively; however, no study has evaluated their potential as a prognostic biomarker of cachexia-associated fat loss. This review confirms the need for further studies to identify valid prognostic biomarkers to identify loss of fat based on changes in plasma levels of biomarkers.

  16. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2015-01-01

    Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may not relate to adipose atrophy. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a local catabolic mediator within adipose tissue rather than serving as a plasma biomarker of fat loss. Plasma glycerol and leptin associate with adipose tissue atrophy and mass, respectively; however, no study has evaluated their potential as a prognostic biomarker of cachexia-associated fat loss. This review confirms the need for further studies to identify valid prognostic biomarkers to identify loss of fat based on changes in plasma levels of biomarkers. PMID:26508820

  17. Reduced hyperthermia-induced cutaneous vasodilation and enhanced exercise-induced plasma water loss at simulated high altitude (3,200 m) in humans.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Ken; Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Goto, Masaki; Nose, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether less convective heat loss during exercise at high altitude than at sea level was partially caused by reduced cutaneous vasodilation due to enhanced plasma water loss into contracting muscles and whether it was caused by hypoxia rather than by hypobaria. Seven young men performed cycling exercise for 40 min at 50% peak aerobic power in normoxia at (710 mmHg) 610 m, determined before the experiments, in three trials: 1) normobaric normoxia at 610 m (CNT), 2) hypobaric hypoxia [low pressure and low oxygen (LPLO)] at 3,200 m (510 mmHg), 3) normobaric hypoxia [normal pressure and low oxygen (NPLO)] at 610 m, in an artificial climate chamber where atmospheric temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 30°C and 50%, respectively. Subjects in CNT and LPLO breathed room air, whereas those in NPLO breathed a mixed gas of 14% O₂ balanced N₂, equivalent to the gas composition in LPLO. We measured change in PV (ΔPV), oxygen consumption rate (Vo₂), mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), esophageal temperature (T(es)), mean skin temperature (T(sk)), forearm skin blood flow (FBF), and sweat rate (SR) during exercise. Although Vo₂, MBP, T(sk), and SR responses during exercise were similar between trials (P > 0.05), the sensitivity of forearm vascular conductance (FBF/MBP) in response to increased T(es) was lower in LPLO and NPLO than in CNT (P < 0.05), whereas that of SR was not, resulting in a greater increase in T(es) from minute 5 to 40 of exercise in LPLO and NPLO than in CNT (P = 0.026 and P = 0.011, respectively). ΔPV during exercise was twofold greater in LPLO and NPLO than in CNT. These variables were not significantly different between LPLO and NPLO. Thus reduced convective heat loss during exercise at 3,200 m was partially caused by reduced cutaneous vasodilation due to enhanced PV loss. Moreover, this may be caused by hypoxia rather than by hypobaria.

  18. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  19. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise--a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Mads; Auerbach, Pernille; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Ploug, Thorkil; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Sjödin, Anders

    2012-09-15

    The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g., lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate-exercise (MOD; 300 kcal/day), and 22 to a high-exercise (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) group for 13 wk, corresponding to ∼30 and 60 min of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6 kg, P < 0.001; HIGH: -2.7 kg, P = 0.01) and fat mass (MOD: -4.0 kg, P < 0.001 and HIGH: -3.8 kg, P < 0.001) decreased similarly in both exercise groups. Although the exercise-induced energy expenditure in HIGH was twice that of MOD, the resulting accumulated energy balance, calculated from changes in body composition, was not different (MOD: -39.6 Mcal, HIGH: -34.3 Mcal, not significant). Energy balance was 83% more negative than expected in MOD, while it was 20% less negative than expected in HIGH. No statistically significant changes were found in energy intake or nonexercise physical activity that could explain the different compensatory responses associated with 30 vs. 60 min of daily aerobic exercise. In conclusion, a similar body fat loss was obtained regardless of exercise dose. A moderate dose of exercise induced a markedly greater than expected negative energy balance, while a higher dose induced a small but quantifiable degree of compensation.

  20. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Whigham, L D; Valentine, A R; Johnson, L K; Zhang, Z; Atkinson, R L; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individuals who focused on calorie counting lost more weight than those who focused on increasing vegetable and fruit (V&F) intake in a weight loss program. We now present serum carotenoid data (biomarkers of V&F intake) from both groups and test whether these biomarkers correlate with changes in weight and body fat. Design: Sixty obese volunteers were randomized to one of the following weight loss programs: 500 kcal per day reduction (Reduction) or a focus on consuming eight vegetables per day and 2–3 fruits per day (HiVeg). Volunteers in the Reduction group were 36.8±10.3 years with a body mass index of 33.5; 83% were white, 17% chose not to report race; 70% were not Hispanic or Latino, 13% were Hispanic or Latino and 17% chose not to report ethnicity. Volunteers in the HiVeg group were 30.4±6.6 years with a body mass index of 33.2: 74% white, 11% Asian, 5% black or African American, 5% multiracial and 5% chose not to report race; 89% were not Hispanic or Latino, 5% were Hispanic or Latino and 5% chose not to report ethnicity. Subjects were taught basic nutrition principles, received breakfast and lunch 5 days per week for 3 months, meals 2 days per week during month 4, then regular phone calls to month 12. Results: Total serum carotenoid concentrations increased from baseline to 3 months and remained elevated at 12 months, but there was no difference between groups. Changes in weight, fat and % fat correlated negatively with serum carotenoid concentrations. Conclusion: Increased serum carotenoids (a biomarker for V&F intake) correlated with improved weight and fat loss indicating that increased V&F consumption is an appropriate strategy for weight loss. However, in light of the fact that the Reduction group lost more weight, the consumption of increased V&F for the purpose of weight loss should happen within the context of reducing total caloric intake. PMID:23449500

  2. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis--a review].

    PubMed

    Plavec, Davor; Vuljanko, Ivana Maloca

    2010-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a syndrome in which patients experience the symptoms of anaphylaxis, which occur only after increased physical activity. It is characterised by a gradual development of symptoms: itching, erythema, urticaria, angioedema, anaphylactic shock (hypotension, syncope, loss of consciousness, shortness of breath, wheezing, nausea and vomiting), and at the end of the late phase prolonged urticaria and headache. The triggering factors for EIA are as follows: significant exposure to airborne allergens, insect sting, weather extremes, higher air humidity, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The most frequent causative nutritive allergens include wheat, crabs and shells. Prophylactic management for EIA comprises avoding the triggers. Exercise or other physical activity should be performed in proximity of medically trained companion.

  3. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m(2)) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend < 0.05 for all) after adjustment for body weight. Higher renal-sinus-fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p < 0.05 vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in

  4. Fat Christians and fit elites: negotiating class and status in Evangelical Christian weight-loss culture.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    As American culture has become increasingly concerned about fatness, the fat body and weight loss have become salient symbols for other social tensions. This article uses the case of evangelical Christian weight-loss culture to argue that class is one of those tensions. Drawing on ethnographic work in a Christian weight-loss program as well as on recent theories of class, I argue that certain recurring concerns in Christians’ weight-loss discourse, notably concerns about fat Christian leaders and appearing healthy, reflect tensions about class-based aspirations and class-based denigrations evangelicals face in negotiating their position in American society.

  5. Bone Marrow Fat Changes After Gastric Bypass Surgery Are Associated With Loss of Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tiffany Y; Schwartz, Ann V; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaipin; Black, Dennis M; Petrenko, Dimitry M; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Posselt, Andrew M; Carter, Jonathan T; Shoback, Dolores M; Schafer, Anne L

    2017-08-09

    Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p < 0.01), and femoral neck areal BMD decreased by 4.3% ± 4.1% (p < 0.01). Marrow fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p < 0.01) and femoral neck (r = -0.49, p = 0.01), independent of age and menopause. Our findings suggest that glucose metabolism and

  6. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  7. Effects of bariatric surgery on cardiac ectopic fat: lesser decrease in epicardial fat compared to visceral fat loss and no change in myocardial triglyceride content.

    PubMed

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Jacquier, Alexis; Kober, Frank; Abdesselam, Ines; Cuisset, Thomas; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Emungania, Olivier; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-10-09

    This study investigated the effect of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss on cardiac ectopic fat using 3T magnetic resonance imaging in morbid obesity. Heart disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in obese patients. Deposition of cardiac ectopic fat has been related to increased heart risk. Whether sustained weight loss can modulate epicardial fat or myocardial fat is unknown. Twenty-three morbidly obese patients underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC), magnetic resonance imaging to assess epicardial fat volume (EFV), cardiac function, and computed tomography visceral abdominal fat (VAF) measurements at baseline and 6 months after BS. The BS reduced body mass index significantly, from 43.1±4.5 kg/m2 to 32.3±4.0 kg/m2, subcutaneous fat from 649±162 cm2 to 442±127 cm2, VAF from 190±83 cm2 to 107±44 cm2, and EFV from 137±37 ml to 98±25 ml (all p<0.0001). There was no significant change in MTGC: 1.03±0.2% versus 1.1±0.2% (p=0.85). A significant reduction in left ventricular mass (118±24 g vs. 101±18 g) and cardiac output (7.1±1.6 l/min vs. 5.4±1.0 l/min) was observed and was statistically associated with weight loss (p<0.05). The loss in EFV was limited (-27±11%) compared to VAF diminution (-40±19%). The EFV variation was not correlated with percentage of body mass index or VAF loss (p=0.007). The ratio of %EFV to %VAF loss decreased with sleep apnea syndrome (1.34±0.3 vs. 0.52±0.08, p<0.05). Six-month BS modulates differently cardiac ectopic fat deposition, with a significant decrease in epicardial fat and no change in myocardial fat. Epicardial fat volume loss was limited in patients with sleep apnea. (Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Epicardial Adipose Tissue and on Myocardial Function; NCT01284816). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P < 0.0001). Whereas reduced subcutaneous fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Exercise induces autophagy in peripheral tissues and in the brain.

    PubMed

    He, Congcong; Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth

    2012-10-01

    We recently identified physical exercise as a newly defined inducer of autophagy in vivo. Exercise induced autophagy in multiple organs involved in metabolic regulation, such as muscle, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. To study the physiological role of exercise-induced autophagy, we generated mice with a knock-in nonphosphorylatable mutation in BCL2 (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) (BCL2 AAA) that are defective in exercise- and starvation-induced autophagy but not in basal autophagy. We found that BCL2 AAA mice could not run on a treadmill as long as wild-type mice, and did not undergo exercise-mediated increases in skeletal glucose muscle uptake. Unlike wild-type mice, the BCL2 AAA mice failed to reverse high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance after 8 weeks of exercise training, possibly due to defects in signaling pathways that regulate muscle glucose uptake and metabolism during exercise. Together, these findings suggested a hitherto unknown important role of autophagy in mediating exercise-induced metabolic benefits. In the present addendum, we show that treadmill exercise also induces autophagy in the cerebral cortex of adult mice. This observation raises the intriguing question of whether autophagy may in part mediate the beneficial effects of exercise in neurodegeneration, adult neurogenesis and improved cognitive function.

  10. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    PubMed

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (P<0.001, rimonabant vs placebo; NS, rimonabant vs hypocaloric diet). Liver fat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, P<0.05). The percentage change in body weight correlated closely with the percentage loss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  11. Markers of inflammation and fat distribution following weight loss in African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C; Hunter, Gary R; Oster, Robert A; Desmond, Renee A; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-04-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African-American (AA) and white (W) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and W women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27-30 kg/m(2). They were placed on a weight-loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI <25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptor-I (sTNFR-I), sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among W, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in W compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in W.

  12. Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution following Weight Loss in African American and Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and C women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27–30 kg/m2. They were placed on a weight loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI < 25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among C, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in C compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in C. PMID:21527894

  13. Impact of variation near MC4R on whole-body fat distribution, liver fat, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Axel; Thamer, Claus; Heni, Martin; Tschritter, Otto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    Polymorphisms near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene locus are associated with body weight. Recent studies have shown that they influence insulin sensitivity and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17782313 near MC4R additionally influences body fat distribution and its change during lifestyle intervention. To test this, 343 German subjects were genotyped for SNP rs17782313. Body composition was assessed using magnetic resonance technique. Subjects were characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A subgroup of 242 subjects participated in a 9-month lifestyle intervention. In the overall cohort, the C allele was associated with a higher BMI (P=0.0013), but had no impact on glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity (all P>or=0.10). There was an effect of the SNP on total body fat (P=0.022) and nonvisceral fat (P=0.017), but not on liver fat and visceral fat (all P>or=0.33). In the subgroup undergoing lifestyle intervention, SNP rs17782313 had no impact on changes in body weight or fat distribution. Despite an association with BMI and nonvisceral adipose tissue, the SNP rs17782313 did not influence visceral adipose tissue. Thus, this candidate SNP for human obesity may preferentially affect the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, the variation near MC4R has no effect on success of weight loss during lifestyle intervention.

  14. Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia

    2015-01-05

    Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms.

  15. Ultrasonic homogenization of expressed human milk to prevent fat loss during tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F E; Desai, I D; Davidson, A G; Nakai, S; Radcliffe, A

    1987-01-01

    Effective use of expressed human milk in infant feeding requires proper handling, processing, storage, and administration in order to maintain its unique nutritional properties. One of the problems with expressed human milk is the separation of fat during processing, storage, and administration to the infant. Administration by continuous nasogastric infusion, either by intermittent gravity flow or by continuous mechanical pump, resulted in significant loss of fat and variation in the constitution of the milk delivered. Homogenization by ultrasonic treatment prevented changes in fat concentration during infusion and essentially eliminated loss of this nutrient during administration. The conditions necessary to achieve fat dispersion and stabilization of fat particles in human milk by ultrasonic treatment are described.

  16. Weight loss and its relation to fat aspiration yields in liposuction: a survey in 48 patients.

    PubMed

    Boeni, R

    2012-01-01

    Liposuction surgeons often observe individually fluctuating amounts of aspirated fat. In patients with sagging skin due to previous weight loss there is a tendency of decreased fat aspiration volumes. To study the influence of weight loss on fat aspiration volumes in a series of 48 patients. We matched individuals of the same gender, but with a different weight history from a vast number of patients who had undergone liposuction surgery. The aspirated fat to wetting solution ratio (FWR) of the circumferential abdominal region was evaluated in three groups: A - patients with no weight loss (n = 16; 8 males/ 8 females), B - patients with a history of moderate weight loss (weight loss 5-10% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females), and C - patients who had a massive weight loss prior to surgery (weight loss exceeding 15% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females). The aspirated FWR was 3.4 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.2 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). There are significant differences in patients with moderate or massive weight loss in regard to fat aspiration volumes compared to patients without prior weight loss. These findings point to the importance of a weight loss history prior to surgery. Regardless of lower fat aspiration yields in patients with massive weight loss, good results are still achievable. This is not only due to volume reduction but to skin tightening. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Cholinergic urticaria and exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stefan L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will present the physical manifestations of two similar conditions. The first is cholinergic urticaria. This is chronic urticaria precipitated by an elevated body temperature. The second is exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be idiopathic, a result of a specific allergenic trigger (food, medication, or insect sting), or exercise induced. We will focus on the third subtype. We describe the causes, symptoms, pathophysiology, testing, treatment, and prognosis of these two conditions.

  18. Effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, J; Tholl, S; Schusdziarra, V

    2010-04-01

    Exercise is an important part of obesity treatment concepts to support fat mobilisation from adipose tissue and also fat oxidation nolich is impaired in obese subjects. In normal weight subjects it is well known that stimulation of plasma insulin levels by a carbohydrate meal can inhibit lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation. Since obese subjects frequently have elevated basal and postprandial insulin levels the effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich test meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis is of special interest. Twenty obese subjects performed bicycle exercise for 30 min in the fasted state, 30 min after a carbohydrate-or a protein-rich meal, and 120 min after the carbohydrate meal (n=12), respectively, at low intensity. Activation of lipolysis was assessed by plasma glycerol levels. In addition, plasma insulin, glucose, and lactate concentrations were determined. In comparison to the fasted state, the carbohydrate meal suppressed activation of lipolysis. Following the protein meal, exercise led to an attenuated but significant increase of glycerol levels. A similar rise was observed when the carbohydrate meal was ingested 2 h prior to the exercise bout. To improve exercise-induced lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise obese subjects should not ingest carbohydrates immediately before exercise. Hunger sensations should be satisfied with protein-rich food. When carbohydrates are consumed 2 h prior to exercise its lipolytic effect is comparable to the protein meal. These data are useful in every day dietary counselling and might help to improve weight loss during obesity treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  19. Examination of central body fat deposition as a risk factor for loss-of-control eating.

    PubMed

    Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was

  20. The effects of exercise training on fat-mass loss in obese patients during energy intake restriction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Berger, Jan; van Loon, Luc J C; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    Dietary restriction combined with endurance exercise training represents an effective strategy to promote weight loss and reduce fat mass in obese patients. Exercise programmes without dietary restriction are less efficient. However, addition of exercise to a dietary restriction programme does not induce a greater fat-mass loss than dietary restriction alone. The latter is likely attributed to a compensatory reduction in daily physical activity following the implementation of exercise training. Nonetheless, inclusion of an exercise training programme is important to prevent a decrease in fat-free mass, increase relative visceral fat-mass loss, improve dietary compliance and eventually maintain long-term weight control. Obese male patients with the highest fat mass are most likely to lose the largest amount of fat mass in such lifestyle intervention programmes. Influences of training modalities during energy intake restriction on fat-mass loss are reviewed. The relationship between total energy expenditure during exercise training and overall fat-mass loss has been firmly established. The amount of training forms a more important predictor of fat-mass loss than training intensity. The sort of exercise (e.g. walking, cycling, swimming) plays another important predictor of fat-mass loss in intervention programmes. The implementation of resistance training in such programmes does not augment fat-mass loss but improves body composition by increasing fat-free mass. Further studies are needed to define the optimal interventional programme for obese patients.

  1. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium and phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stefanie P; Hicks, Penni D; Hamzo, Maria; Veit, Lauren E; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM).

  2. Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stefanie P.; Hicks, Penni D.; Hamzo, Maria; Veit, Lauren E.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM). PMID:22254018

  3. Running sprint interval training induces fat loss in women.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Hamilton, Craig D; Olver, T Dylan; Lemon, Peter W R

    2014-08-01

    Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover, most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. Further, running is a more universal exercise type. This study assessed whether running SIT can alter body composition (air displacement plethysmography), waist circumference, maximal oxygen consumption, peak running speed, and (or) the blood lipid profile. Fifteen recreationally active women (age, 22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg) completed 6 weeks of running SIT (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min of rest performed 3 times per week). Training decreased body fat mass by 8.0% (15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ± 3.4 kg, P = 0.002) and waist circumference by 3.5% (80.1 ± 4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm, P = 0.048), whereas it increased fat-free mass by 1.3% (45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.05), maximal oxygen consumption by 8.7% (46 ± 5 to 50 ± 6 mL/(kg·min), P = 0.004), and peak running speed by 4.8% (16.6 ± 1.7 to 17.4 ± 1.4 km/h, P = 0.026). There were no differences in food intake assessed by 3-day food records (P > 0.329) or in blood lipids (P > 0.595), except for a slight decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ± 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.034). Running SIT is a time-efficient strategy for decreasing body fat while increasing aerobic capacity, peak running speed, and fat-free mass in healthy young women.

  4. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie N; Taylor, Moira A; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; MacDonald, Ian A; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

  5. Evaluation of muscle and fat loss as diagnostic criteria for malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marianne; JeVenn, Andrea; Hipskind, Peggy

    2015-04-01

    According to the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics criteria, the diagnosis of malnutrition includes an evaluation of muscle and fat. The role of inflammation not only enhances the catabolism of muscle and fat loss but also interferes with anabolism. Dietitians and other nutrition professionals need to understand techniques to appropriately identify losses of muscle and fat to incorporate them into a malnutrition diagnosis. Proper training is imperative to correctly identify muscle and fat wasting in a consistent and reliable manner. Nutrition clinicians should begin incorporating these practices into patient assessments and care plans. The application of these techniques and assessment tools is challenging and continues to be a work in progress. Various scenarios do not allow for clearly defined methods that would lead to a reliable conclusion for diagnosing malnutrition indicating the need for further research. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  7. Fat and whey supplementation influence milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sumransap, Peerapong; Jiebna, Nithitad

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of microencapsulated fat (FAT) and whey protein (WHEY) supplementation on the milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows. A total of 144 sows were divided according to their backfat thickness at farrowing into three groups, i.e., low (12.0-16.5 mm, n = 33), moderate (17.0-21.5 mm, n = 78), and high (22.0-24.5 mm, n = 33). The lactation diet was divided into three types, i.e., a control diet (CONTROL, n = 50), a diet supplemented with FAT (n = 48), and a diet supplemented with WHEY (n = 50). Pooled milk samples were collected at the second and third week of lactation. On average, the sows lost backfat 23.5 % during lactation. The backfat loss during lactation was 24.5, 22.7, and 22.8 % in sows fed with CONTROL, FAT, and WHEY diets, respectively (P > 0.05). Supplementation of FAT increased the percentage of fat in the sow's milk compared to the CONTROL (9.1 and 8.4 %, P = 0.022). For sows with low backfat, FAT and WHEY supplementation increased the average daily gain of piglets compared to the CONTROL (244, 236, and 205 g/days, respectively, P < 0.05). For sows with high backfat, the sows receiving the CONTROL diet had a higher total piglet mortality than those that received FAT or WHEY (28.1, 14.1, and 13.0 %, respectively, P < 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of FAT in the diet of sow during lactation significantly enhanced the fat content in the sow's milk, improved the piglet's daily weight gain, and reduced piglet mortality.

  8. Vastus medialis fat infiltration - a modifiable determinant of knee cartilage loss.

    PubMed

    Teichtahl, A J; Wluka, A E; Wang, Y; Wijethilake, P N; Strauss, B J; Proietto, J; Dixon, J B; Jones, G; Forbes, A; Cicuttini, F M

    2015-12-01

    There is growing interest in the role of intramuscular fat and how it may influence clinical outcomes. Vastus medialis (VM) is a functionally important quadriceps muscle that helps to stabilise the knee joint. This longitudinal study examined the determinants of VM fat infiltration and whether VM fat infiltration influenced knee cartilage volume. 250 participants without any diagnosed arthropathy were assessed at baseline between 2005 and 2008, and 197 participants at follow-up between 2008 and 2010. Ambulatory and sporting activity were assessed and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine knee cartilage volume and VM fat infiltration. Age, female gender, BMI and weight were positively associated with baseline VM fat infiltration (P ≤ 0.03), while ambulatory and sporting activity were negatively associated with VM fat infiltration (P ≤ 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, a reduction in VM fat infiltration was associated with a reduced annual loss of medial tibial (β = -10 mm(3); 95% CI -19 to 0 mm(3); P = 0.04) and patella (β = -18 mm(3); 95% CI -36 to 0 mm(3); P = 0.04) cartilage volume. This community-based study of healthy adults has shown that VM fat infiltration can be modified by lifestyle factors including weight loss and exercise, and reducing fat infiltration in VM has beneficial effect on knee cartilage preservation. The findings suggest that modifying VM fat infiltration via lifestyle interventions may have the potential to reduce the risk of knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Belly Fat in Men: Why Weight Loss Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're not physically active. Loss of muscle mass decreases the rate at which your body uses calories, which can make it more challenging to maintain a healthy weight. According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, men in their ...

  10. The fusion of lipid droplets is involved in fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras".

    PubMed

    Théron, L; Astruc, T; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Molette, C; Vénien, A; Peyrin, F; Vitezica, Z G; Fernandez, X

    2011-12-01

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main quality issue in processing plants. To better understand this phenomenon, a histological and ultrastructural study was conducted. The aim was to characterize changes in lipid droplets of duck "foie gras" related to fat loss during cooking. Ten fatty livers were sampled before and after cooking and prepared for optical and transmission electron microscopy. In raw livers, the lipid droplets were nearly spherical while after cooking, they were larger and lost their spherical shape. We also observed a decrease in the number of droplets after cooking, probably due to droplet fusion caused by the heat treatment. Before cooking, there were fewer lipid droplets and a higher osmium tetroxyde staining intensity in the fatty liver, which later gave a lower technological yield. Fat loss during cooking was higher when there was more fusion of lipid droplets before cooking.

  11. Type of homogenization and fat loss during continuous infusion of human milk.

    PubMed

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Alonso Díaz, Clara; Vázquez Román, Sara; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2014-11-01

    Substantial fat loss may occur during continuous feeding of human milk (HM). A decrease of fat loss has been described following homogenization. Well-established methods of homogenization of HM for routine use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would be desirable. We compared the loss of fat based on the use of 3 different methods for homogenizing thawed HM during continuous feeding. Sixteen frozen donor HM samples were thawed, homogenized with ultrasound and separated into 3 aliquots ("baseline agitation," "hourly agitation," and "ultrasound"), and then frozen for 48 hours. Aliquots were thawed again and a baseline agitation was applied. Subsequently, aliquots baseline agitation and hourly agitation were drawn into a syringe, while ultrasound was applied to aliquot ultrasound before it was drawn into a syringe. The syringes were loaded into a pump (2 mL/h; 4 hours). At hourly intervals the hourly agitation infusion was stopped, the syringe was disconnected and gently shaken. During infusion, samples from the 3 groups were collected hourly for analysis of fat and caloric content. The 3 groups of homogenization showed similar fat content at the beginning of the infusion. For fat, mean (SD) hourly changes of -0.03 (0.01), -0.09 (0.01), and -0.09 (0.01) g/dL were observed for the hourly agitation, baseline agitation, and ultrasound groups, respectively. The decrease was smaller for the hourly agitation group (P < .001). When thawed HM is continuously infused, a smaller fat loss is observed when syringes are agitated hourly versus when ultrasound or a baseline homogenization is used. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  13. Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Serra, Monica C; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Addison, Odessa R; Miller, Ann J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT). Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32). The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p < 0.05). Both NGT and IGT groups reduced visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p < 0.05). The decline in FCW was 2× greater in women with IGT following WL (p < 0.05). The ratios of abdominal-to-gluteal FCW did not change following either intervention. The mechanisms by which WL with and without exercise impact regional fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Reduction of weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model by a high fat diet.

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, M. J.; Brennan, R. A.; Fearon, K. C.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt has been made to reverse cachexia and to selectively deprive the tumour of metabolic substrates for energy production by feeding a ketogenic regime, since ketone bodies are considered important in maintaining homeostasis during starvation. As a model we have used a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 16) which produces extensive weight loss without a reduction in food intake. When mice bearing the MAC16 tumour were fed on diets in which up to 80% of the energy was supplied as medium chain triglycerides (MCT) with or without arginine 3-hydroxybutyrate host weight loss was reduced in proportion to the fat content of the diet, and there was also a reduction in the percentage contribution of the tumour to the final body weight. The increase in carcass weight in tumour-bearing mice fed high levels of MCT was attributable to an increase in both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. Blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were significantly reduced by MCT addition. The levels of both acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were elevated in mice fed the high fat diets, and tumour-bearing mice fed the normal diet did not show increased plasma levels of ketone bodies over the non-tumour-bearing group despite the loss of carcass lipids. Both blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were reduced in mice bearing the MAC16 tumour and this was not significantly altered by feeding the high fat diets. The elevation in ketone bodies may account for the retention of both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. This is the first example of an attempt to reverse cachexia by a diet based on metabolic differences between tumour and host tissues, which aims to selectively feed the host at the expense of the tumour. PMID:3620317

  15. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.

    PubMed

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-07-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m(2)] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P < 0.001). Overall differences between CWL, MWL, and WR were observed in MFO (mean [95% confidence interval], in g/min, respectively: 0.46 [0.41-0.52]; 0.32 [0.27-0.38]; 0.45 [0.38-0.51]; P = 0.002), maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max, in ml·min(-1)·FFM(-1), respectively; 49 [46-51]; 43 [40-47]; 41 [39-44]; P = 0.007), HAD-activity (in µmol·g(-1)·min(-1), respectively: 123 [113-133]; 104 [91-118]; 97 [88-105]; P < 0.001), muscle protein content of CD36 (in AU, respectively: 1.1 [1.0-1.2]; 0.9 [0.8-1.0]; 0.9 [0.8-0.9]; P = 0.008) and FABPpm (in AU, respectively, 1.0 [0.8-1.2]; 0.7 [0.5-0.8]; 0.7 [0.5-0.9]; P = 0.008), body fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P < 0.001), and plasma triglycerides (in mM, respectively: 0.8 [0.7-1.0]; 1.3 [0.9-1.7]; 1.6 [1.0-2.1]; P = 0.013). CWL and WR both had higher MFO compared with MWL, but based on different mechanisms. CWL displayed higher V̇o2max and intramuscular capacity for fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been

  16. Tissue Specific Expression Of Sprouty1 In Mice Protects Against High Fat Diet Induced Fat Accumulation, Bone Loss, And Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492

  17. Glycine supplementation during calorie restriction accelerates fat loss and protects against further muscle loss in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Caldow, Marissa K; Ham, Daniel J; Godeassi, Daniel P; Chee, Annabel; Lynch, Gordon S; Koopman, René

    2016-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces co-morbidities associated with obesity, but also reduces lean mass thereby predisposing people to weight regain. Since we demonstrated that glycine supplementation can reduce inflammation and muscle wasting, we hypothesized that glycine supplementation during CR would preserve muscle mass in mice. High-fat fed male C57BL/6 mice underwent 20 days CR (40% reduced calories) supplemented with glycine (1 g/kg/day; n = 15, GLY) or l-alanine (n = 15, ALA). Body composition and glucose tolerance were assessed and hindlimb skeletal muscles and epididymal fat were collected. Eight weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and glucose intolerance. CR caused rapid weight loss (ALA: 20%, GLY: 21%, P < 0.01), reduced whole-body fat mass (ALA: 41%, GLY: 49% P < 0.01), and restored glucose tolerance to control values in ALA and GLY groups. GLY treated mice lost more whole-body fat mass (14%, p < 0.05) and epididymal fat mass (26%, P < 0.05), less lean mass (27%, P < 0.05), and had better preserved quadriceps muscle mass (4%, P < 0.01) than ALA treated mice after 20 d CR. Compared to the HFD group, pro-inflammatory genes were lower (P < 0.05), metabolic genes higher (P < 0.05) and S6 protein phosphorylation lower after CR, but not different between ALA and GLY groups. There were significant correlations between %initial fat mass (pre CR) and the mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation (r = 0.51 to 0.68, P < 0.05), protein breakdown (r = -0.66 to -0.37, P < 0.05) and metabolism (r = -0.59 to -0.47, P < 0.05) after CR. Taken together, these findings suggest that glycine supplementation during CR may be beneficial for preserving muscle mass and stimulating loss of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelial Function and Weight Loss: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, Emile R.; Sibley, Alexandra A.; Stein, Richard; Davila-Roman, Victor; Wyatt, Holly; Badellino, Karen; Rader, Daniel J.; Klein, Samuel; Foster, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of weight loss on obesity-associated endothelial dysfunction is not clear because of conflicting data, demonstrating both improvement and no change in endothelial function after weight loss in obese subjects. A two-year prospective study (n=121) was conducted to examine: 1) the effect of obesity and weight loss (either a low-carbohydrate or and low-fat diet) on flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD), a measure of endothelial function. Participants reduced body weight by 7.1±4.4%, 8.7±6.8% 7.1±7.8% and 4.1±7.7% at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively with no significant differences between the low-fat and low-carbohydrate groups. Endothelial function was inversely correlated with waist circumference, triglyceride level, and directly correlated with leptin in obese persons prior to weight loss. These weight losses did not confer any improvements in FMD. There were no differences between the low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets in FMD at any time point. At 6 months (r = 0.26, p = 0.04) and one year (r = 0.28, p = 0.03), there were positive correlations between change in FMD and change in leptin but not at two years. There was no significant improvement in endothelial function after 7.1±7.8% weight loss at one year and 4.1±7.7% at two years, achieved by either a low carbohydrate or a low fat diet. PMID:23404949

  19. Metabolic Slowing with Massive Weight Loss despite Preservation of Fat-Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Huizenga, Robert; Rood, Jennifer C.; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Context: An important goal during weight loss is to maximize fat loss while preserving metabolically active fat-free mass (FFM). Massive weight loss typically results in substantial loss of FFM potentially slowing metabolic rate. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether a weight loss program consisting of diet restriction and vigorous exercise helped to preserve FFM and maintain resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants and Intervention: We measured body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water at baseline (n = 16), wk 6 (n = 11), and wk 30 (n = 16). Results: At baseline, participants were severely obese (×± sd; body mass index 49.4 ± 9.4 kg/m2) with 49 ± 5% body fat. At wk 30, more than one third of initial body weight was lost (−38 ± 9%) and consisted of 17 ± 8% from FFM and 83 ± 8% from fat. RMR declined out of proportion to the decrease in body mass, demonstrating a substantial metabolic adaptation (−244 ± 231 and −504 ± 171 kcal/d at wk 6 and 30, respectively, P < 0.01). Energy expenditure attributed to physical activity increased by 10.2 ± 5.1 kcal/kg·d at wk 6 and 6.0 ± 4.1 kcal/kg·d at wk 30 (P < 0.001 vs. zero). Conclusions: Despite relative preservation of FFM, exercise did not prevent dramatic slowing of resting metabolism out of proportion to weight loss. This metabolic adaptation may persist during weight maintenance and predispose to weight regain unless high levels of physical activity or caloric restriction are maintained. PMID:22535969

  20. Endothelial function and weight loss: comparison of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Emile R; Sibley, Alexandra A; Stein, Richard; Davila-Roman, Victor; Wyatt, Holly; Badellino, Karen; Rader, Daniel J; Klein, Samuel; Foster, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    The effect of weight loss on obesity-associated endothelial dysfunction is not clear because of conflicting data, demonstrating both improvement and no change in endothelial function after weight loss in obese subjects. A 2-year prospective study (n = 121) was conducted to examine: (1) the effect of obesity and weight loss (either a low-carbohydrate or and low-fat diet) on flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD), a measure of endothelial function. Participants reduced body weight by 7.1% ± 4.4%, 8.7% ± 6.8%, 7.1% ± 7.8%, and 4.1% ± 7.7% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively with no significant differences between the low-fat and low-carbohydrate groups. Endothelial function was inversely correlated with waist circumference, triglyceride level, and directly correlated with leptin in obese persons prior to weight loss. These weight losses did not confer any improvements in FMD. There were no differences between the low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets in FMD at any time point. At 6 months (r = 0.26, P = 0.04) and 1 year (r =0.28, P = 0.03), there were positive correlations between change in FMD and change in leptin but not at 2 years. There was no significant improvement in endothelial function after 7.1% ± 7.8% weight loss at 1 year and 4.1% ± 7.7% at 2 years, achieved by either a low carbohydrate or a low fat diet. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1-year following weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Brock, David W.; Byrne, Nuala M; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Coral, Pedro Del; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect aerobic and resistance exercise training has on gain of visceral fat during the year following weight loss. After being randomly assigned to aerobic training, resistance training, or no exercise training, 45 European-American and 52 African-American women lost 12.3±2.5 kg on a 800 kcal/day diet. Computed tomography was used to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue while total fat and regional fat (leg, arm, and trunk) were measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry after weight loss and one year following the weight loss. Since not all the subjects adhered to the 2 time/week 40 minutes/day exercise training during the one year follow-up, subjects were divided into five groups for analysis; aerobic adherers, aerobic non-adherers, resistance adherers, resistance non-adherers and no exercise. No significant differences were observed between the aerobic training and resistance training adherers for any variable. However, the aerobic (3.1 kg) and resistance (3.9 kg) exercise adherers gained less weight than any of the other 3 groups (all more than 6.2 kg). In addition, the two exercise adherence groups did not significantly increase visceral fat (< 0.8%) as compared with the 38% increase for the two non-adhering exercise groups and the 25% for the non-exercise group. In conclusion, as little as 80 minutes/week aerobic or resistance training had modest positive effects on preventing weight regain following a diet induced weight loss. More importantly, both aerobic and resistance training prevented regain of potentially harmful visceral fat. PMID:19816413

  2. Spillover of Fatty acids during dietary fat storage in type 2 diabetes: relationship to body fat depots and effects of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A; Nelson, Robert H; Miles, John M

    2013-06-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [(3)H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-(13)C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P < 0.0001) and an ∼23% decrease in oleate flux (P = 0.007). Fractional spillover did not change (P = NS). At baseline, there was a strong negative correlation between spillover and leg fat (r = -0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = -0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes.

  3. The Fate of Fat: Pre-Exposure Fat Losses during Nasogastric Tube Feeding in Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rayyan, Maissa; Rommel, Nathalie; Allegaert, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Deficient nutritional support and subsequent postnatal growth failure are major covariates of short- and long-term outcome in preterm neonates. Despite its relevance, extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) is still prevalent, occurring in an important portion of extremely preterm infants. Lipids provide infants with most of their energy needs, but also cover specific supplies critical to growth, development and health. The use of human milk in preterm neonates results in practices, such as milk storage, pasteurization and administration by an infusion system. All of these pre-exposure manipulations significantly affect the final extent of lipid deposition in the intestinal track available for absorption, but the impact of tube feeding is the most significant. Strategies to shift earlier to oral feeding are available, while adaptations of the infusion systems (inversion, variable flow) have only more recently been shown to be effective in “in vitro”, but not yet in “in vivo” settings. Pre-exposure-related issues for drugs and nutritional compounds show similarities. Therefore, we suggest that the available practices for “in vitro” drug evaluations should also be considered in feeding strategies to further reduce pre-exposure losses as a strategy to improve the nutritional status and outcome of preterm neonates. PMID:26230707

  4. The Fate of Fat: Pre-Exposure Fat Losses during Nasogastric Tube Feeding in Preterm Newborns.

    PubMed

    Rayyan, Maissa; Rommel, Nathalie; Allegaert, Karel

    2015-07-29

    Deficient nutritional support and subsequent postnatal growth failure are major covariates of short- and long-term outcome in preterm neonates. Despite its relevance, extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) is still prevalent, occurring in an important portion of extremely preterm infants. Lipids provide infants with most of their energy needs, but also cover specific supplies critical to growth, development and health. The use of human milk in preterm neonates results in practices, such as milk storage, pasteurization and administration by an infusion system. All of these pre-exposure manipulations significantly affect the final extent of lipid deposition in the intestinal track available for absorption, but the impact of tube feeding is the most significant. Strategies to shift earlier to oral feeding are available, while adaptations of the infusion systems (inversion, variable flow) have only more recently been shown to be effective in "in vitro", but not yet in "in vivo" settings. Pre-exposure-related issues for drugs and nutritional compounds show similarities. Therefore, we suggest that the available practices for "in vitro" drug evaluations should also be considered in feeding strategies to further reduce pre-exposure losses as a strategy to improve the nutritional status and outcome of preterm neonates.

  5. [PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT LOSS AND FAT IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT: SEX, AGE, BMI AND CONSULTING ASSISTANCE].

    PubMed

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    WL%: percentage of weight loss; % FL: percentage fat loss; PNLWF: patients who lose weight or fat; PLWF: patients who lose weight and fat. assess whether the% WL and FL% in the dietary treatment was affected by gender, age, BMI and assistance to the query. 4,700 consultations, 670 patients (BMI ≥25), in the south-east of Spain (2006-12). Balanced and hypo-caloric diet was used. Two types of patients: PNLWF and PLWF (91.9%). in PLWF, men and those attending a greater number of occasions to the consultation have shown a greater loss against women (%FL: 23.0 vs 14.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.7 vs 6.6%, p = 0.020), and those who attend less frequently (%FL: 19.1 vs 7.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.8 vs 2.9%, p = 0.000). Multinomial regression analysis (PNLWF / PLWF) indicates that only attend more than one and a half to the consultation is a factor in the loss, OR 8.3 (IC 95% 4.5-15.1; p = 0.000). the body fat measurement provides additional information lost weight; Most patients attend more than six weeks, obtained a high %FL; attendance is a predictor of loss; the %FL indicates that the dietary management plays a major role in the resolution of this pathology; It is recommended to design practical schemes of action process nutritionists according to the IMCI and variable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in fat loss in response to physical activity among severely obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Aadland, Eivind; Jepsen, Randi; Andersen, John Roger; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred

    2014-04-01

    Direct measurement of physical activity may be critical to revealing its relationship with the change in fat mass over time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between accelerometer-determined change in physical activity and change in fat mass in severely obese men and women. A total of 49 severely obese men (n = 12) and women (n = 37) (mean age 42.8 years (standard deviation (SD) 9.6); mean body mass index 42.0 kg/m2 (SD 5.9) participated in a 1-year lifestyle intervention with 4 measurements of physical activity (Actigraph GT1M accelerometer), energy intake (180-item food frequency questionnaire), and body composition. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. In the total group change in both duration and intensity of physical activity were independently related to change in fat mass (partial r = -0.38 to -0.31, p = 0.001-0.007) after adjustment for baseline body weight, gender and change in energy intake. A gender-specific effect of change in physical activity duration was found for change in fat mass (p for change in physical activity duration*gender < 0.001), where the association was significant in men (partial r = -0.53, p < 0.001), but not in women (partial r = -0.17, p = 0.149). Increased intensity of physical activity was associated with loss of fat mass in severely obese men and women, whereas physical activity duration was associated with fat mass loss in men.

  7. Exercise-induced rhinitis in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana; Martins, Carla; Delgado, Luís; Fonseca, João; Moreira, André

    2010-01-01

    Elite swimmers are at increased risk of asthma, which has been related to chronic effects of pool chlorine environment. However acute effects of swimming on rhinitis remain unknown. We aimed to assess the nasal response to exercise in competitive swimmers compared with competitive runners. Measurements of nasal symptoms, peak nasal inspiratory flow, lung function, dyspnea, and of airway inflammation were obtained before and after a training session of 19 international-level swimmers and 13 professional runners. Exercise-induced rhinitis was defined as a fall in peak nasal inspiratory flow above 20% from baseline and atopy by positivity to skin-prick testing. Changes within groups were compared using paired t test and differences compared by analysis of covariance. Prevalence of exercise-induced rhinitis was similar between swimmers and runners, respectively 21% and 23%. Contrary to runners, swimmers experienced a decrease in nasal inspiratory flow levels and increase in sneezing, nasal congestion, itching, and postnasal drip after exercise. However, difference in changes was only significant for postnasal drip (p = 0.050). All subjects experiencing exercise-induced rhinitis were nonatopic. An overall improvement in nasal flows, sneezing, and itching after exercise was observed in atopic athletes, although no significant differences in changes compared with nonatopic athletes existed. Swimmers, contrary to runners, experience a worsening of nasal function after training. Although these differences were only significant for postnasal drip, our results provide support to the existence of a "swimming-induced rhinitis" independent of the atopic status of the athlete.

  8. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; Anton, Stephen D; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M; Bishop, Louise M; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S; Rood, Jennifer C; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L; Loria, Catherine M; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A

    2009-02-26

    The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize

  9. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S.; Rood, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. RESULTS At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of

  10. Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-02-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body composition compared with standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults were compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5-month study of 8-week controlled food intake followed by 12-weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat), mixed protein (40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate/15% mixed protein/15% whey protein/30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments; however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (P = .08) and total fat loss (P = .09) was observed in the WP group compared with the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (P < .05) in the WP group than the CD group. No renin-angiotensin aldosterone system-mediated response was observed, but a decrease in systolic blood pressure was significantly greater (P < .05) in the WP group compared with the CD group. In summary, increased whey protein intake did not result in statistically significant differences in weight loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P < 0.0001 compared with baseline values), with no differences between 25% and 15% protein (P ≥ 0.10), 40% and 20% fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P < 0.0001 compared with baseline values), with no differences between the diets (P ≥ 0.29). Women lost more visceral fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  12. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P < 0.0001 compared with baseline values), with no differences between 25% and 15% protein (P ≥ 0.10), 40% and 20% fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P < 0.0001 compared with baseline values), with no differences between the diets (P ≥ 0.29). Women lost more visceral fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  13. Circulating SIRT1 Increases After Intragastric Balloon Fat Loss in Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefania; Fiore, Daniela; Persichetti, Agnese; Basciani, Sabrina; Lubrano, Carla; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Genco, Alfredo; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Gnessi, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs), ubiquitous deacetylases, are main regulators of energy homeostasis and metabolism. SIRT1 has a positive impact on obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, and other metabolic disorders. Lean subjects have higher expression of SIRT1 in the adipose tissue compared to obese. However, it is not known whether weight loss associates with changes in blood SIRT1. We evaluated the effect of weight loss on circulating SIRT1, metabolic parameters, and body composition. Thirty-two obese subjects were studied before and 6 months after BioEnterics® Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) [22 patients, BMI 41.82 ± 6.28 kg/m(2)] or hypocaloric diet [10 patients, BMI 38.95 ± 6.90 kg/m(2)]. Plasma SIRT1, body composition, measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides), and inflammation markers (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen) were recorded. SIRT1 levels showed a significant increase, together with a significant reduction of BMI, excess body weight, and total fat mass either after BIB or diet intervention. The percent excess body weight loss was 33.73 ± 19.06 and 22.08 ± 11.62 % after BIB and diet, respectively, a trend toward a metabolic and inflammatory amelioration was observed with both treatments. Negative correlation between SIRT1 and % fat mass (BIB, ρ = -0.537, p = 0.017; diet, ρ = -0.638, p = 0.047) was also seen. The reduction of fat mass associates with increased plasma SIRT1 indicating that, besides tissue levels, circulating SIRT1 is stimulated by a negative caloric balance. The rise of plasma SIRT1 may represent a parameter associating with fat loss rather than weight lowering regardless of the weight reduction system method used.

  14. Exercise associated hormonal signals as powerful determinants of an effective fat mass loss.

    PubMed

    Bajer, B; Vlcek, M; Galusova, A; Imrich, R; Penesova, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age. The aim of this review is to summarize, evaluate, and clarify the literature data focusing on the endocrine responses to different types of exercise, including the frequency, intensity, and type of movement with regard to the fat loss strategies. Many studies have investigated anabolic [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone] and gluco- and appetite- regulatory (insulin, cortisol, ghrelin) hormone responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercise. Muscle tissue is a critical endocrine organ, playing important role in the regulation of several physiological and metabolic events. Moreover, we are also describing the response of some other substances to exercise, such as myokines [irisin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), myostatin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)]. It is proposed that reducing intra-abdominal fat mass and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness through improving nutritional quality, reducing sedentary behavior, and increase the participation in physical activity/exercise, might be associated with clinical benefits, sometimes even in the absence of weight loss.

  15. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Henkin, Yaakov; Shahar, Danit R; Witkow, Shula; Greenberg, Ilana; Golan, Rachel; Fraser, Drora; Bolotin, Arkady; Vardi, Hilel; Tangi-Rozental, Osnat; Zuk-Ramot, Rachel; Sarusi, Benjamin; Brickner, Dov; Schwartz, Ziva; Sheiner, Einat; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2008-07-17

    Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates. In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age, 52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non-restricted-calorie. The rate of adherence to a study diet was 95.4% at 1 year and 84.6% at 2 years. The Mediterranean-diet group consumed the largest amounts of dietary fiber and had the highest ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat (P<0.05 for all comparisons among treatment groups). The low-carbohydrate group consumed the smallest amount of carbohydrates and the largest amounts of fat, protein, and cholesterol and had the highest percentage of participants with detectable urinary ketones (P<0.05 for all comparisons among treatment groups). The mean weight loss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (P<0.001 for the interaction between diet group and time); among the 272 participants who completed the intervention, the mean weight losses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively. The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group (P=0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than among those assigned to the low-fat diet (P<0.001 for the interaction among diabetes and Mediterranean diet and time with respect to fasting glucose levels). Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on

  16. [Exercise-induced muscular weakness, myalgia and contractures. I. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Mattle, H; Jerusalem, F

    1977-04-02

    In the differential diagnosis of intermittent claudication some rare myopathies have to be considered. The most frequent is phosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease). Exercise-induced muscular pain, weakness, contractures and occasionally myoglobinuria are the most prominent clinical signs. Serum creatine phosphokinase, aldolase and lactic dehydrogenase may be elevated after exertion. In the ischemic forearm test there is no rise of serum lactic acid. The enzyme deficiency can be demonstrated by histochemical and biochemical examination of a muscle specimen. Further, but more infrequent, enzymatic disturbances of glycolysis are phosphofructokinase deficiency and phosphohexoisomerase inhibitor, which also yield an abnormal ischemic forearm test and must be demonstrated histochemically and biochemically. Apart from muscular signs, myopathy with lactic acidosis is associated with palpitation, dyspnea and exhaustion, and a disproportionate rise in serum lactic acid level after exertion. Histochemically and electronmicroscopically demonstrable fat accumulation in the muscle can be a sign of a disturbance in lipid metabolism. This type of exercise-induced myopathy has been reported only in a few cases with carnitine-pylmityltransferase deficiency, which has to be demonstrated biochemically. Muscular contractures also exercise-induced but painless and reversible within seconds may be due to deficient uptake of sarcoplasmic calcium in the tubular system. Dyskalemic paralysis causes painless paresis within minutes of hours after exertion, which disappears within hours to a few days. Myopathy with tubular aggregates can be differentiated from other exercise-induced myopathies by morphology. Myotonia combined with painful contractures characterizes myopathia myotonica.

  17. Relationships Among Factors Relevant to Abdominal Fat and Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young; Park, Mina

    2017-05-11

    Metabolic syndrome is related with abdominal fat and with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). In this study, we evaluated the association between a variety of factors relevant to abdominal fat (FRAs) and hearing thresholds. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 2,602 subjects aged over 40 years with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss who underwent abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) scans. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to demonstrate the association between each FRA and hearing thresholds at low and high frequencies. Four of 5 FRAs were associated with hearing thresholds at high frequencies in males. All FRAs examined showed a relationship with hearing thresholds at low frequencies in females. Diabetes mellitus (DM) among clinical factors and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among the 5 FRAs were the most reflective of hearing thresholds in both males and females. We found that FRAs were associated with hearing loss with frequency specific characteristics according to sex and reinforced that DM and VAT is particularly an important role for hearing.

  18. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  19. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  20. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Ploss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight.

  1. [Exercise-induced inspiratory stridor. An important differential diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Pernille; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Rasmussen, Niels; Backer, Vibeke

    2007-11-19

    Recent studies suggest that exercise-induced inspiratory stridor (EIIS) is an important and often overlooked differential diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma. EIIS is characterised by astma-like symptoms, but differs by inspiratory limitation, fast recovery, and a lack of effect of inhaled bronchodilators. The prevalence of EIIS is reported to be 5-27%, and affects both children and adults. The pathophysiology, the pathogenesis, and the treatment of the condition are not yet clarified. At present, a population-based study is being conducted in order to address these points.

  2. Association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone loss: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Center, J R; Eisman, J A; Nguyen, T V

    2015-04-01

    Lower body fat mass is a risk factor for bone loss at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, but not in men. Body lean mass and fat mass were not associated with femoral neck bone loss in either gender. Bone density and body mass are closely associated. Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) together account for approximately 95 % of body mass. Bone loss is associated with loss of body mass but which of the components of body mass (FM or LM) is related to bone loss is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to assess whether baseline FM or LM has predictive value for future relative rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes (%/year). The present population-based cohort study was part of the ongoing Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). BMD, FM, and LM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-LUNAR Corp, Madison, WI). BMD measurements were taken in approximately every 2 years between 2000 and 2010. We only included the participants with at least two BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In total, 717 individuals (204 men and 513 women) aged 50 years or older were studied. Rate of bone loss at femoral neck and lumbar spine was faster in women than in men (all P < 0.01). In bivariable regression analysis, each 5 kg greater FM in women was associated with 0.4 %/year (P = 0.003) lower bone loss at lumbar spine. This magnitude of association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for LM and/or other covariates (P = 0.03). After adjusting for covariates, variation of FM accounted for ∼1.5 % total variation in lumbar spine bone loss. However, there was no significant association between FM and change in femoral neck BMD in either men or women. Lower FM was an independent but modest risk factor for greater bone loss at the lumbar spine in women but not in men. If further studies confirm our findings, FM can help predict lumbar spine bone loss in women.

  3. ANP system activity predicts variability of fat mass reduction and insulin sensitivity during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Brachs, Maria; Wiegand, Susanna; Leupelt, Verena; Ernert, Andrea; Kintscher, Ulrich; Jumpertz von Schwarzenberg, Reiner; Decker, Anne-Marie; Bobbert, Thomas; Hübner, Norbert; Chen, Wei; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim; Mai, Knut

    2016-06-01

    In weight loss trials, a considerable inter-individual variability in reduction of fat mass and changes of insulin resistance is observed, even under standardized study conditions. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the metabolic properties of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system, we hypothesized that ANP signaling might be involved in this phenomenon by changes of ANP secretion or receptor balance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of systemic, adipose and myocellular ANP system on metabolic and anthropometric improvements during weight loss. We comprehensively investigated 143 subjects (31 male, 112 female) before and after a 3 month-standardized weight loss program. The time course of BMI, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, circulating mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) levels as well as adipose and myocellular natriuretic receptor A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) mRNA expression were investigated. BMI decreased by -12.6±3.7%. This was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of adipose NPR-C expression (1005.0±488.4 vs. 556.7±465.6; p<0.001) as well as a tendency towards increased adipose NPR-A expression (4644.7±946.8 vs. 4877.6±869.8; p=0.051). Weight loss induced changes in NPR-C (ΔNPR-C) was linked to relative reduction of total fat mass (ΔFM) (r=0.281; p<0.05), reduction of BMI (r=0.277; p<0.01), and increase of free fatty acids (ΔFFA) (r=-0.258; p<0.05). Basal NPR-C expression and weight loss induced ΔNPR-C independently explained 22.7% of ΔFM. In addition, ΔMR-proANP was independently associated with improvement of insulin sensitivity (standardized ß=0.246, p<0.01). ANP receptor expression predicted the degree of weight loss induced fat mass reduction. Our comprehensive human data support that peripheral ANP signalling is involved in control of adipose tissue plasticity and function during weight loss. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KFO281/2), the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and the German Centre for

  4. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2017-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated mRNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in the liver, caused liver steatosis, affected liver function markers, increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared to controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  5. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  6. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction update-2016.

    PubMed

    Weiler, John M; Brannan, John D; Randolph, Christopher C; Hallstrand, Teal S; Parsons, Jonathan; Silvers, William; Storms, William; Zeiger, Joanna; Bernstein, David I; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Greenhawt, Matthew; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard A; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay M; Schuller, Diane E; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana

    2016-11-01

    The first practice parameter on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) was published in 2010. This updated practice parameter was prepared 5 years later. In the ensuing years, there has been increased understanding of the pathogenesis of EIB and improved diagnosis of this disorder by using objective testing. At the time of this publication, observations included the following: dry powder mannitol for inhalation as a bronchial provocation test is FDA approved however not currently available in the United States; if baseline pulmonary function test results are normal to near normal (before and after bronchodilator) in a person with suspected EIB, then further testing should be performed by using standardized exercise challenge or eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH); and the efficacy of nonpharmaceutical interventions (omega-3 fatty acids) has been challenged. The workgroup preparing this practice parameter updated contemporary practice guidelines based on a current systematic literature review. The group obtained supplementary literature and consensus expert opinions when the published literature was insufficient. A search of the medical literature on PubMed was conducted, and search terms included pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and therapy (both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical) of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or exercise-induced asthma (which is no longer a preferred term); asthma; and exercise and asthma. References assessed as relevant to the topic were evaluated to search for additional relevant references. Published clinical studies were appraised by category of evidence and used to document the strength of the recommendation. The parameter was then evaluated by Joint Task Force reviewers and then by reviewers assigned by the parent organizations, as well as the general membership. Based on this process, the parameter can be characterized as an evidence- and consensus-based document.

  7. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients.

  8. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B.; Teegarden, Dorothy; Loan, Marta Van; Schoeller, Dale A.; Matkovic, Velimir; Lyle, Roseann M.; Craig, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day), high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day), or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day). Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH)2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025); assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk) fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05) and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025). Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction. PMID:22253969

  9. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    PubMed

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (p<0.0001). Lean mass was not associated with hip BMD loss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass p<0.01). Maintaining body weight is important for bone health in elderly men. Body fat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Polymorphism in the CLOCK gene may influence the effect of fat intake reduction on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Espinosa-Salinas, Isabel; Marcos-Pasero, Helena; Lourenço-Nogueira, Thais; Herranz, Jesús; Molina, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a weight loss treatment on obesity- associated variables with respect to the CLOCK and FTO genotypes. In all, 179 volunteers (78% female) participated in a 12-week calorie-restriction program; hypocaloric diets of between 5442 and 10048 kJ/d were individually prescribed to all participants. Dietetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. When treatment was over, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were sought in CLOCK and FTO in all participants who provided consent. Bonferroni-corrected linear regression models were used to examine the influence of interactions of the type genotype × dietetic change on obesity-associated variables. Variation in the CLOCK and FTO genotypes had no significant influence on the change in obesity-associated variables. The interaction genotype × percentage intake of dietary fat had a significant influence on body mass index (BMI; adjusted P = 0.03). Participants carrying CLOCK rs3749474 (TT + CT) showed a positive association between the change in percentage intake of dietary fat and change in BMI (β = 0.044; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0119-0.0769; P = 0.008), whereas participants homozygous for the wild-type allele (CC) showed a negative, although nonsignificant association (β = -0.032; 95% CI, -0.0694 to 0.036; P = 0.077). The possession of CLOCK rs3749474 may influence the effect of reducing the percentage intake of dietary fat on obesity-associated variables. Participants carrying this SNP might benefit more than others from weight loss treatment involving dietary fat restriction. The treatment of obesity might therefore be customized, depending on the alleles carried. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: A clinical view

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a distinct form of physical allergy. The development of anaphylaxis during exertion often requires the concomitant exposure to triggering factors such as intake of foods (food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis) or drugs prior to exercise, extreme environmental conditions. EIA is a rare, but serious disorder, which is often undetected or inadequately treated. This article summarizes current evidences on pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. We reviewed recent advances in factors triggering the release of mediators from mast cells which seems to play a pathogenetic role. A correct diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary restricted diet, to allow physical activity in subjects with EIA dependent from triggering factors such as food, and to manage attacks. An algorithm for diagnosing EIA based on medical history, IgE tests and exercise challenge test has been provided. In the long-term management of EIA, there is a need for educating patients and care-givers to avoid exposure to precipitating factors and to recognize and treat episodes. Future researches on existing questions are discussed. PMID:22980517

  12. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  13. Exercise-inducible factors to activate lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2013-07-15

    We examined the effects of exercise training on the levels of lipid droplet (LD)-associated and mitochondria-related proteins in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Furthermore, we assessed putative factors induced by exercise to activate lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DIO Wistar male rats (age 20 wk) were divided into sedentary control (SED, n = 7) and exercise training (EX, n = 7) groups. EX animals were subjected to treadmill running (25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 6 wk. Epididymal fat was dissected and used for protein analyses. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with media containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium-lactate, caffeine, AICAR, or SNAP (NO donor) for 6 h, or 1 mM H2O2 for 15 min, followed by incubation with normal media for up to 24 h total. Protein expression levels and lipolytic activities were biochemically assayed. Epididymal fat significantly decreased in EX animals compared with SED animals. Levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COx), perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) proteins in epididymal fat pads of EX animals were significantly increased compared with those in SED animals. In 3T3-L1 cells, glycerol or fatty acid release was significantly increased by all treatments. Lactate or SNAP significantly increased PGC-1α expression, and H2O2 significantly increased COx protein levels compared with controls. Expression of perilipin, HSL, ATGL, or comparative gene identification (CGI)-58 was significantly increased by all treatments. By increasing lipolytic activity in adipocytes, the exercise-inducible factors are attractive therapeutic effectors against LD-associated metabolic diseases.

  14. INDICATORS OF SUCCESS IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: WEIGHT, BODY FAT LOSS AND QUALITY.

    PubMed

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    %WL: Percentage of weight loss; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. evaluate which unit of measurement for weight loss could determine the success or failure of dietary treatment for overweight and obesity. 4,625 consultations carried out on 616 patients in the southeast of Spain from 2006 to 2012. All of the patients were over 25 years of age and suffered from overweight or obesity. The consultations were carried out every fortnight, using the Mediterranean or low-calorie diet. The patients were divided into four groups according to their %WL and %FL. most of the sample consisted of: women; participants between 25-45 years of age; attended consultations for over a month and a half; obese. 80% of the patients obtained a %FL ≥ 5% (15.5 } 12.8). The groups with a higher %FL obtained significant differences in weight loss (22.6 vs 11.2%, p = 0.000). The multinomial analysis shows significant differences between the groups with the highest %FL and the lowest %WL and %FL: sex (p = 0.006 vs p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.010 vs p = 0.003) and attendance (p = 0.000 vs p = 0.000). the patients who lost < 5% of fat had higher initial parameters (percentage of weight and fat); most of the sample lost ≥ 5% of fat. This means that the method of personalised dietary treatment results in a high fat loss; fat is an indicator of the quality loss obtained. use the measurement of fat as a complementary unit of measurement to weight loss; establish a limit of 5% to evaluate such loss; and increase this type of research in any method of weight loss. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link With Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss

    PubMed Central

    Divoux, Adeline; Tordjman, Joan; Lacasa, Danièle; Veyrie, Nicolas; Hugol, Danielle; Aissat, Abdelhalim; Basdevant, Arnaud; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Poitou, Christine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Bedossa, Pierre; Clément, Karine

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fibrosis is a newly appreciated hallmark of the pathological alteration of human white adipose tissue (WAT). We investigated the composition of subcutaneous (scWAT) and omental WAT (oWAT) fibrosis in obesity and its relationship with metabolic alterations and surgery-induced weight loss. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Surgical biopsies for scWAT and oWAT were obtained in 65 obese (BMI 48.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2) and 9 lean subjects (BMI 22.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2). Obese subjects who were candidates for bariatric surgery were clinically characterized before, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, including fat mass evaluation by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. WAT fibrosis was quantified and characterized using quantitative PCR, microscopic observation, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Fibrosis amount, distribution and collagen types (I, III, and VI) present distinct characteristics in lean and obese subjects and with WAT depots localization (subcutaneous or omental). Obese subjects had more total fibrosis in oWAT and had more pericellular fibrosis around adipocytes than lean subjects in both depots. Macrophages and mastocytes were highly represented in fibrotic bundles in oWAT, whereas scWAT was more frequently characterized by hypocellular fibrosis. The oWAT fibrosis negatively correlated with omental adipocyte diameters (R = −0.30, P = 0.02), and with triglyceride levels (R = −0.42, P < 0.01), and positively with apoA1 (R = 0.25, P = 0.05). Importantly, scWAT fibrosis correlated negatively with fat mass loss measured at the three time points after surgery. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest differential clinical consequences of fibrosis in human WAT. In oWAT, fibrosis could contribute to limit adipocyte hypertrophy and is associated with a better lipid profile, whereas scWAT fibrosis may hamper fat mass loss induced by surgery. PMID:20713683

  16. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  17. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  18. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  19. The inflammatory basis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Brannan, John D; Turton, James A

    2010-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is common in individuals with asthma, and may be observed even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be diagnosed via standardized exercise protocols, and anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is often warranted. Exercise-related symptoms are commonly reported in primary care; however, access to standardized exercise protocols to assess EIB are often restricted because of the need for specialized equipment, as well as time constraints. Symptoms and lung function remain the most accessible indicators of EIB, yet these are poor predictors of its presence and severity. Evidence suggests that exercise causes the airways to narrow as a result of the osmotic and thermal consequences of respiratory water loss. The increase in airway osmolarity leads to the release of bronchoconstricting mediators (eg, histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes) from inflammatory cells (eg, mast cells and eosinophils). The objective assessment of EIB suggests the presence of airway inflammation, which is sensitive to ICS in association with a responsive airway smooth muscle. Surrogate tests for EIB, such as eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea or the osmotic challenge tests, cause airway narrowing via a similar mechanism, and a response indicates likely benefit from ICS therapy. The complete inhibition of EIB with ICS therapy in individuals with asthma may be a useful marker of control of airway pathology. Furthermore, inhibition of EIB provides additional, useful information regarding the identification of clinical control based on symptoms and lung function. This article explores the inflammatory basis of EIB in asthma as well as the effect of ICS on the pathophysiology of EIB.

  20. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P < 0.0001), but FFM explained no more than 50% of RMR variance. Exercise capacity (treadmill walking, 53 m/min with increasing grade) improved with time. Mean nonexercise physical activity level was low (1.2, or 20% of RMR), with considerable variance among individuals. Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  1. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

    PubMed

    Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, -17.33±3.07%, -15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, -3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including cradle disturbance, animal positioning, and MR sequence on the fat

  2. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  3. Ghrelin Suppression and Fat Loss after Left Gastric Artery Embolization in Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bawudun, Dilmurat; Xing Yan; Liu Wenya Huang Yujie; Ren Weixin; Ma Mei; Xu Xiaodong; Teng Gaojun

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on plasma ghrelin levels, abdominal fat, and body weight in beagles. Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Fifteen healthy adult beagles (12 male and three female animals) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: LGAE was proceeded with mixed emulsion of bleomycin A{sub 5} hydrochloride and lipiodol (group A), and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group B). Transcatheter saline injections in the left gastric artery were performed as a control. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were obtained at baseline and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after the procedure in all animals. All animals were scanned and measured by multidetector computed tomography at baseline and at week 8 for evaluation of abdominal fat. Results: In LGAE-treated animals, plasma ghrelin and body weight significantly decreased compared to control animals (group A: P = 0.007 and P = 0.000; group B: P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively). Subcutaneous fat size was also significantly reduced (P = 0.011 and P = 0.027 for groups A and B, respectively). The decreasing percentage in ghrelin levels at week 6 (peak of recovery) of LGAE-treated animals were negatively correlated with the size of area supplied by left gastric artery (r = -0.693, P = 0.026). Conclusion: LGAE could suppress the plasma concentration of ghrelin, which results in subcutaneous fat size reduction and weight loss. Compensatory ghrelin production might occur in the remnant gastric fundus after LGAE.

  4. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction update: therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Spector, Sheldon; Tan, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) should include both prevention and treatment directed toward the underlying asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches should be followed. Preexercise warm-up, to take advantage of the refractory period that follows EIB, is an important preventive technique. Dietary interventions such as fish oil, vitamin D, and ascorbic acid have shown promising results. Beta 2-agonists are considered the most effective agents for EIB at this time but intermittent use is recommended to avoid tolerance or decreased effectiveness with daily regular use. Leukotriene inhibitors and mast cell stabilizing agents can be useful in EIB but are less effective than beta 2-agonists. Tolerance to beta 2-agonists is not prevented by concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroid but it is not known whether use of leukotriene inhibitors can affect tolerance. EIB in elite athletes with no underlying asthma may have a different pathogenesis.

  5. Konjac Glucomannan Dietary Supplementation Causes Significant Fat Loss in Compliant Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Harry G

    2015-10-22

    Changes in body composition and blood chemistries between overweight adult subjects receiving a supplement containing either 3 g of konjac glucomannan/300 mg calcium carbonate or a placebo containing only 300 mg of calcium carbonate were compared as the primary objective. A secondary objective was to compare outcome differences between compliant and partially compliant subjects. A total of 83 overweight adults (66 women and 17 men) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol in which they received either a glucomannan or placebo supplement for 60 days. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans and a 42-measurement blood test were completed at baseline and 60 days later. Compliance was assessed by rating self-reports of (1) how many tablets were taken, (2) adherence to taking the tablets 30 minutes before eating, and (3) a sum of the ratings for (1) and (2). An anonymous poststudy questionnaire and telephone calls were also completed by 80 (96%) of the participants who were used as the study cohort. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups on changes from baseline on the DEXA and blood tests. However, when subjects were classified as either compliant or partially compliant using the compliance measures, statistically significant reductions in scale weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were found in the glucomannan group compared to the placebo group. This study supports the efficacy glucomannan supplementation to reduce body weight, body fat, and circulating cholesterol levels without the concomitant loss of lean mass and bone density often associated with weight loss. However, these positive outcomes were not observable until corrections for compliance were applied.

  6. FGF21, energy expenditure and weight loss – How much brown fat do you need?

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Leon; Wolfrum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) belongs to the large family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Even though FGF signaling has been mainly implicated in developmental processes, recent studies have demonstrated that FGF21 is an important regulator of whole body energy expenditure and metabolism, in obesity. Scope of review Given the fact that obesity has developed epidemic proportions, not just in industrialized countries, FGF21 has emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue to treat obesity as well as associated metabolic disorders. While the metabolic effects of FGF21 are undisputed, the mechanisms by which FGF21 regulate weight loss have not yet been fully resolved. Until recently it was believed that FGF21 induces brown fat activity, thereby enhancing energy expenditure, which concomitantly leads to weight loss. Novel studies have challenged this concept as they could demonstrate that a part of the FGF21 mediated effects are retained in a mouse model of impaired brown adipose tissue function. Major conclusions The review illustrates the recent advances in FGF21 research and discusses the role of FGF21 in the regulation of energy expenditure linked to brown fat activity. PMID:26413466

  7. The impact of spin coupling signal loss on fat content characterization in multi-echo acquisitions with different echo spacing.

    PubMed

    Nikiforaki, K; Manikis, G C; Boursianis, T; Marias, K; Karantanas, A; Maris, T G

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of echo spacing in transverse magnetization (T2) signal decay of gel and fat (oil) samples. Additionally, we assess the feasibility of using spin coupling as a determinant of fat content. Phantoms of known T2 values, as well as vegetable oil phantoms, were scanned at 1.5T scanner with a multi echo FSE sequence of variable echo spacing above and below the empirical threshold of 20ms for echo train signal modulation (6.7, 13.6, 26.8, and 40ms). T2 values were calculated from monoexponential fitting of the data. Relative signal loss between the four acquisitions of different echo spacing was calculated. Agreement in the T2 values of water gel phantom was observed in all acquisitions as opposed to fat phantom (oil) samples. Relative differences in signal intensity between two successive sequences of different echo spacing on composite fat/water regions of interest was found to be linearly correlated to fat fraction of the ROI. The sample specific degree of signal loss that was observed between different fat samples (vegetable oils) can be attributed to the composition of each sample in J coupled fat components. Hence, spin coupling may be used as a determinant of fat content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day) and a low-fat diet (<30% fat, <7% saturated fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  9. Adherence to low‐carbohydrate and low‐fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Yao, L.; Reynolds, K.; Niu, T.; Li, S.; Whelton, P. K.; He, J.; Steffen, L. M.; Bazzano, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective A low‐carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease risk factors more than a low‐fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Methods Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12‐month clinical trial examining the effect of a low‐carbohydrate diet (<40 g d−1) and a low‐fat diet (<30% fat and <7% saturated fat) on weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We compared attendance at counselling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Results Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one‐interquartile‐range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low‐carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3% greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low‐fat diet were not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Conclusions Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low‐carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low‐fat diet was not associated with weight loss. PMID:27114827

  10. Decrease in visceral fat following diet-induced weight loss in upper body compared to lower body obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Langendonk, Janneke G; Kok, Petra; Frölich, Marijke; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo

    2006-11-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. An excess of fat within the abdomen, so-called visceral adiposity, confers a greater and independent health risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications than does adipose tissue accumulation elsewhere. The present study aimed to investigate a possible differential effect of diet-induced weight loss in visceral fat mass and metabolic parameters in obese individuals with the upper body (UBO) and lower body (LBO) obese phenotype. The obese subjects were prescribed a liquid, very-low calorie diet to reduce 50% of their overweight (15% body weight loss). Specific body fat measurements (MRI, BIA), anthropometrics, and fasting metabolic parameters were obtained in control subjects and two groups of obese subjects (UBO and LBO) before and after weight loss. Weight loss was accompanied by significant decreases in total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in both UBO and LBO women. The largest reduction in visceral fat mass was found in the UBO women (absolute decrease 223+/-32 cm(2) vs 122+/-91 cm(2) in LBO women; P=0.01), while the amount of visceral fat was reduced to normal levels in LBO women (155+/-25 cm(2) after weight loss vs 143+/-17 cm(2) in controls; P=NS). Furthermore, weight loss significantly lowered fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol concentrations in UBO women. The obese phenotype is preserved after body weight loss. UBO women have to lose a larger amount of overweight in order to bring the amount of fat in the visceral depot down to normal levels and to obtain normalization of their cardiovascular risk profile.

  11. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  12. The FAT Score, a Fibrosis Score of Adipose Tissue: Predicting Weight-Loss Outcome After Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Bel Lassen, Pierre; Charlotte, Frederic; Liu, Yuejun; Bedossa, Pierre; Le Naour, Gilles; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Genser, Laurent; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Clément, Karine

    2017-07-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) induces major and sustainable weight loss in many patients. Factors predicting poor weight-loss response (PR) need to be identified to improve patient care. Quantification of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) fibrosis is negatively associated with post-BS weight loss, but whether it could constitute a predictor applicable in clinical routine remains to be demonstrated. To create a semiquantitative score evaluating scAT fibrosis and test its predictive value on weight-loss response after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We created a fibrosis score of adipose tissue (FAT score) integrating perilobular and pericellular fibrosis. Using this score, we characterized 183 perioperative scAT biopsy specimens from severely obese patients who underwent RYGB (n = 85 from a training cohort; n = 98 from a confirmation cohort). PR to RYGB was defined as <28% of total weight loss at 1 year (lowest tertile). The link between FAT score and PR was tested in univariate and multivariate models. FAT score was directly associated with increasing scAT fibrosis measured by a standard quantification method (P for trend <0.001). FAT score interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.76). FAT score ≥2 was significantly associated with PR. The association remained significant after adjustment for age, diabetes status, hypertension, percent fat mass, and interleukin-6 level (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.2; P = 0.003). The FAT score is a new, simple, semiquantitative evaluation of human scAT fibrosis that may help identify patients with a potential limited weight-loss response to RYGB.

  13. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P < 0.0001). The HFS diet aggravated bone loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P < 0.05). Bone loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Carotid artery remodelling in relation to body fat distribution, inflammation and sustained weight loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardassis, D; Schönander, M; Sjöström, L; Karason, K

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with carotid artery remodelling, but less is known about how body fat distribution, inflammation and weight loss may affect this relation. Ultrasonography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography were performed to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), body composition and fat distribution, respectively. Participants were divided into three matched study groups (n = 44 per group): obese patients with sustained weight loss 10 years after bariatric surgery [surgery group, body mass index (BMI) 31.5 kg m(-2)]; obese patients who maintained stable weight during the same time period (obese group, BMI 42.5 kg m(-2)); and normal weight subjects (lean group, BMI 24.4 kg m(-2)). Patients in the surgery group, compared with those in the obese group, had slightly lower common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.75 ± 0.18 vs. 0.78 ± 0.17 mm) and common carotid bulb (CCB) IMT (0.92 ± 0.32 vs. 0.97 ± 0.32 mm); however, these differences were not statistically significant. Lean individuals, compared with those in the surgery group, had significantly lower CCA and CCB IMT values (P < 0.001). In forward stepwise multiple regression analyses including all subjects (n = 132), CCA IMT was predicted mainly by visceral adipose tissue, but was also related to blood pressure and levels of triglycerides and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Carotid lumen diameter was primarily influenced by lean body mass. Visceral adiposity was the main determinant of premature carotid artery atherosclerosis, possibly through elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and inflammation. Lean body mass predicted carotid artery lumen diameter. Obese patients with long-term sustained weight loss did not have thinner carotid artery walls compared with their weight-stable obese counterparts. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  16. The effect of leptin, caffeine/ephedrine, and their combination upon visceral fat mass and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Smith, Steven R; Fujioka, Ken; Greenway, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of combination caffeine/ephedrine and leptin A-200 on visceral fat mass and weight loss over 24 weeks. In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial, 90 obese subjects received one of the three treatments for 24 weeks: 200 mg caffeine/20 mg ephedrine t.i.d. (CE), leptin A-200 (recombinant methionyl human Fc-leptin, 20 mg q.d.) (L), or combination leptin A-200 and caffeine/ephedrine (LCE). Outcomes included change in weight, visceral fat mass by computed tomography, lean mass and fat mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Groups treated with CE and LCE lost significant amounts of weight (-5.9 ± 1.2% and -6.5 ± 1.1%, P < 0.05) and whole body fat mass (-9.6 ± 2.4% and -12.4 ± 2.3%, P < 0.05) compared to leptin only group. Only treatment with LCE significantly reduced visceral fat mass (-11.0 ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). There were no differences in lean mass between treatment groups. Our study provides evidence that CE is a modestly effective weight loss agent and produces significant reductions in fat mass. Leptin A-200 was not effective in producing weight loss and did not have any significant additive or synergistic actions when combined with CE. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. Promyelocytic leukemia inhibits adipogenesis, and loss of promyelocytic leukemia results in fat accumulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shutong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Um, Jee-Hyun; Liu, Mengyang; Kang, Hyeog; Park, Sung Jun; Chung, Jay H.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is disrupted in promyelocytic leukemia. PML has been reported to function as a negative regulator of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and nuclear Akt under some conditions. mTOR and Akt pathways regulate a diverse array of pathways, including those that control insulin signaling, energy metabolism, growth, cellular survival, and lifespan. Although the PML-mTOR/Akt link suggests that PML may have metabolic functions in the whole organism, very little is known about the metabolic functions of PML. Here we report that PML−/− mice did not show any significant metabolic defects. There was no impairment in the mTOR/Akt or AMPK signaling in white adipose tissue, liver, or muscle. However, despite having normal food intake and activity levels, PML−/− mice gained body weight faster and had more fat mass, particularly subcutaneous fat mass, in the diet-induced obesity model. Using in vitro adipogenesis models, we discovered that PML is a suppressor of adipogenesis. PML expression decreased during adipogenesis and was undetectable in fully differentiated adipocytes. Loss of PML increased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. We found that the Sirt1-NCor-SMRT corepressor complex, which represses pparg transcription, does not bind to the pparg promoter efficiently upon PML depletion. On the basis of these findings, we propose that PML is a negative regulator of the adipogenic transcription factors and that, in times of energy excess, PML may limit fat accumulation by suppressing the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. PMID:21846906

  18. Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Varady, Krista A

    2013-01-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a low-fat (LF) diet is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection. However, the applicability of these findings is questionable as the majority of Americans consume a high-fat (HF) diet. The goal of this study was to determine if these beneficial changes in body weight and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk can be reproduced if an HF background diet is used in place of an LF diet during ADF. Thirty-two obese subjects were randomized to an ADF-HF (45% fat) or ADF-LF diet (25% fat), which consisted of two phases: 1) a 2-week baseline weight maintenance period, and 2) an 8-week ADF weight loss period. All food was provided during the study. Body weight was reduced (P<0.0001) by ADF-HF (4.8%±1.1%) and by ADF-LF (4.2%±0.8%). Fat mass decreased (P<0.0001) by ADF-HF (5.4±1.5 kg) and ADF-LF (4.2±0.6 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (P<0.001) by ADF-HF (7.2±1.5 cm) and ADF-LF (7.3±0.9 cm). LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were reduced (P<0.001) by both interventions (ADF-HF: 18.3%±4.6%, 13.7%±4.8%; and ADF-LF: 24.8%±2.6%, 14.3%±4.4%). HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart rate remained unchanged. There were no between-group differences for any parameter. These findings suggest that an ADF-HF diet is equally as effective as an ADF-LF diet in helping obese subjects lose weight and improve CHD risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Leucine Deprivation Stimulates Fat Loss via Increasing CRH Expression in the Hypothalamus and Activating The Sympathetic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that leucine deprivation decreases abdominal fat mass largely by increasing energy expenditure, as demonstrated by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in this regulation and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, levels of genes and proteins related to lipolysis in WAT and UCP1 expression in BAT were analyzed in wild-type mice after intracerebroventricular administration of leucine or corticotrophin-releasing hormone antibodies, or in mice deleted for three β-adrenergic receptors, after being maintained on a leucine-deficient diet for 7 d. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leucine significantly attenuates abdominal fat loss and blocks activation of hormone sensitive lipase in WAT and induction of UCP1 in BAT in leucine-deprived mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss by increasing expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus via activation of stimulatory G protein/cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway. Finally, we show that the effect of leucine deprivation on fat loss is mediated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis. PMID:21719534

  20. Molecular Aspects of Exercise-induced Cardiac Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Bianca C; McMullen, Julie R

    2016-11-01

    Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is typically an adaptive response associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and renewal, increased cardiac myocyte contractility, sarcomeric remodeling, cell survival, metabolic and mitochondrial adaptations, electrical remodeling, and angiogenesis. Initiating stimuli/triggers of cardiac remodeling include increased hemodynamic load, increased sympathetic activity, and the release of hormones and growth factors. Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to maladaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling including cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia. In addition, this article describes novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure that target mechanisms responsible for adaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, which are being developed and tested in preclinical models.

  1. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pierson, W E

    1988-01-01

    The early recognition and appropriate management of EIB can allow children and adolescents to fully participate in physical activities and sports. The diagnosis by history of chest congestion, coughing, and decreasing performance with exercise is helpful but is aided by a more systematic questionnaire that can detect otherwise "normal" people with EIB. The diagnosis is documented by performance of an exercise challenge test such as a treadmill or cycloergometer to verify bronchospasm induced by exercise. The management can be accomplished by nonpharmacologic means such as an early vigorous warmup, the use of a mask for rebreathing warmed air, and participation in a physical training program to increase anaerobic fitness. Pharmacologic management includes the appropriate use of cromolyn sodium, beta adrenergic agonists, theophylline, ipratroprium bromide, and calcium channel blocking agents. In addition the antihistamine, terfenadine, can also be utilized to effectively block exercise-induced bronchospasm. These pharmacologic agents can be utilized in both national and international competition when approved by the appropriate national governing body and/or the US Olympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee.

  2. [Cereal-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Seoane-Rodríguez, Marta; Caralli, María Elisa; Morales-Cabeza, Cristina; Micozzi, Sarah; De Barrio-Fernández, Manuel; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is increasing. In vitro test such as omega-5-gliadin levels are useful in the diagnosis, while oral single blind challenge tests (OCT) with wheat plus exercise continuous being the gold standard diagnostic method. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old woman, with several episodes of anaphylaxis after eating different foods and doing exercise after ingestion. An allergy study was performed with positive skin prick tests for wheat, barley and rye. Total IgE 238.0KU/L, positive specific IgE (>100KU/L) to wheat, barley and rye, and negative to rTri-a-19 omega-5 gliadin. OCT with bread and exercise was positive. In this case of wheat-dependent exerciseinduced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with negative serum specific IgE to omega-5-gliadin, negative results with gamma, alpha, bheta y omega-gliadin doesn't exclude the diagnosis of WDEIA.

  3. Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Koltyn, Kelli F.; Brellenthin, Angelique G.; Cook, Dane B.; Sehgal, Nalini; Hillard, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine opioid and endocannabinoid mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Fifty-eight men and women (mean age = 21 yrs) completed three sessions. During the first session, participants were familiarized with the temporal summation of heat pain and pressure pain protocols. In the exercise sessions, following double-blind administration of either an opioid antagonist (50 mg naltrexone) or placebo, participants rated the intensity of heat pulses and indicated their pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and ratings (PPR) before and after 3 minutes of submaximal isometric exercise. Blood was drawn before and after exercise. Results indicated circulating concentrations of two endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as well as related lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), N-docsahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA), and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) increased significantly (p < 0.05) following exercise. PPT increased significantly (p < 0.05) while PPR decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following exercise. Also, temporal summation ratings were significantly lower (p < 0.05) following exercise. These changes in pain responses did not differ between placebo or naltrexone conditions (p > 0.05). A significant association was found between EIH and DHEA. These results suggest involvement of a non-opioid mechanism in EIH following isometric exercise. PMID:25261342

  4. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (<45 points per 1000 kcal; n = 40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P < 0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P < 0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  6. Wheezing or Breezing through Exercise-Induced Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Several physicians discuss the tests they use to diagnose exercise-induced asthma (EIA), the medications they typically prescribe and why, and the importance of properly educating athletes about EIA. (JD)

  7. Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms not due to asthma.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Chetan A; Batterby, Eugenie; Van Asperen, Peter; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript describes two interesting patients who had exercise-induced symptoms that unmasked an alternative underlying diagnosis. The first is an 8-year-old boy who was treated for asthma all his life but really had exercise-induced stridor (labelled as wheeze) causing significant exercise limitation, which was due to a double aortic arch with the right arch compressing the trachea. The second case describes the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction in a 13-year-old anxious high achiever. He also initially had exercise-induced symptoms treated as exercise-induced wheeze but again had a stridor due to vocal cord dysfunction. Both these cases demonstrate the importance of detailed history including during exercise, which can unmask alternative diagnosis. Another important message is that if there is no response to bronchodilator treatment with absence of typical signs and symptoms of asthma, alternative diagnosis should be considered.

  8. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weight, liver weight, liver morphology, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined. Signaling molecules, including diacylgycero1 acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), peroxisome proliferation receptor alpha-1 (PPARα1), PPARγ1, PPARγ2 mRNA levels and the protein expression of SGLT2 were evaluated. Canagliflozin reduced body weight, especially the high-dose canagliflozin, and resulted in increased body weight loss compared with orlistat. Moreover, canagliflozin reduced the liver weight and the ratio of liver weight to body weight, lowered the serum levels of TC and TG, and ameliorated liver steatosis. During the canagliflozin treatment, SGLT2, DGAT2, PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 were inhibited, and PPARα1 was elevated in the liver tissues. This finding may explain why body weight was reduced and secondary liver injury was ameliorated in response to canagliflozin. Together, the results suggest that canagliflozin may be a potential anti-obesity strategy.

  9. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-10-14

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had energy density equal to that of the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (w/w) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the seventh week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. (1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and (2) along with their inability to ferment RS, RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss.

  10. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had equal energy density as the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (wt/wt) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the 7th week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice, and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Results: Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice, but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. Conclusion: 1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and 2) along with their inability to ferment RS; RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss. PMID:19739641

  11. Effect of weight loss on magnetic resonance imaging estimation of liver fat and volume in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niraj S; Doycheva, Iliana; Peterson, Michael R; Hooker, Jonathan; Kisselva, Tatiana; Schnabl, Bernd; Seki, Ekihiro; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about how weight loss affects magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver fat and volume or liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We measured changes in liver fat and liver volume associated with weight loss by using an advanced MRI method. We analyzed data collected from a previous randomized controlled trial in which 43 adult patients with biopsy-proven NASH underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical tests, and MRI and liver biopsy analyses at the start of the study and after 24 weeks. We compared data between patients who did and did not have at least 5% decrease in body mass index (BMI) during the study period. Ten of 43 patients had at least a 5% decrease in BMI during the study period. These patients had a significant decrease in liver fat, which was based on MRI proton density fat fraction estimates (18.3% ± 7.6% to 13.6% ± 13.6%, P = .03), a relative 25.5% reduction. They also had a significant decrease in liver volume (5.3%). However, no significant changes in levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase were observed with weight loss. Thirty-three patients without at least 5% decrease in BMI had insignificant increases in estimated liver fat fraction and liver volume. A reduction in BMI of at least 5% is associated with significant decrease in liver fat and volume in patients with biopsy-proven NASH. These data should be considered in assessing effect size in studies of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or obesity that use MRI-estimated liver fat and volume as end points. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of fat loss on arterial elasticity in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance: RESIST study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mandy; Gow, Megan; Baur, Louise A; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z; Tam, Charmaine S; Donaghue, Kim C; Craig, Maria E; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2014-10-01

    Reduced arterial elasticity contributes to an obesity-related increase in cardiovascular risk in adults. To evaluate the effect of fat loss on arterial elasticity in obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes. A secondary data analysis of the RESIST study was performed in two hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The study included 56 subjects (ages, 10 to 17 y; 25 males) with prediabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. A 12-month lifestyle plus metformin intervention. Arterial elasticity and systemic vascular resistance were measured using radial tonometry pulse contour analysis, percentage body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity index was derived from an oral glucose tolerance test and lipids. Adolescents (n = 31) with decreased %BF (mean change [range], -4.4% [-18.3 to -0.01%]) after the intervention had significant increases in the mean large arterial elasticity index (mean change [95%CI], 5.1 [1.9 to 8.2] mL/mm Hg * 10; P = .003) and insulin sensitivity index (0.5 [0.1 to 0.9]; P = .010) and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (-82 [-129 to -35] dyne * s * cm(-5); P = .001). There were no significant changes in these parameters in adolescents who increased their %BF. Nor was there any significant change in the mean small arterial elasticity index in either group. Long-term follow-up of these adolescents is warranted to assess whether the observed changes in vascular elasticity will lead to a clinical benefit including reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  14. Reduced sCD36 following weight loss corresponds to improved insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and liver fat in obese children.

    PubMed

    Knøsgaard, L; Kazankov, K; Birkebæk, N H; Holland-Fischer, P; Lange, A; Solvig, J; Hørlyck, A; Kristensen, K; Rittig, S; Vilstrup, H; Grønbæk, H; Handberg, A

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major health problem with serious long-term metabolic consequences. CD36 is important for the development of obesity-related complications among adults. We aimed to investigate circulating sCD36 during weight loss in childhood obesity and its associations with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation and low-grade inflammation. The impact of a 10-week weight loss camp for obese children (N=113) on plasma sCD36 and further after a 12-month follow-up (N=68) was investigated. Clinical and biochemical data were collected, and sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay. Liver fat was estimated by ultrasonography and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Along with marked weight loss, sCD36 was reduced by 21% (P=0.0013) following lifestyle intervention, and individual sCD36 reductions were significantly associated with the corresponding decreases in HOMA-IR, triglycerides and total cholesterol. The largest sCD36 decrease occurred among children who reduced HOMA-IR and liver fat. After 12 months of follow-up, sCD36 was increased (P=0.014) and the metabolic improvements were largely lost. Weight-loss-induced sCD36 reduction, coincident with improved insulin resistance, circulating lipids and hepatic fat accumulation, proposes that sCD36 may be an early marker of long-term health risk associated with obesity-related complications.

  15. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  16. Fat-soluble vitamin status in response to non-surgical weight loss in overweight post-menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiencies. The effect of dietary weight loss on FSV status is uncertain. We measured plasma concentrations of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, phylloquinone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 112 overweight post-...

  17. Pivotal Role for the Visceral Fat Compartment in the Release of Persistent Organic Pollutants During Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Dirinck, E; Dirtu, A C; Jorens, P G; Malarvannan, G; Covaci, A; Van Gaal, L F

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are implicated as potential endocrine disruptors and obesogens. These lipophilic substances are preferentially stored in the fat compartment and released into the circulation during weight loss. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of abdominal adiposity, and visceral adiposity in particular, to the increase of serum PCB levels during weight loss. Fourty-five obese women were prospectively recruited. Twenty individuals received dietary counseling and 25 underwent bariatric surgery. Anthropometric data were collected and intra-abdominal adiposity was assessed by measurement computed tomography scanning of the abdominal fat compartment, delineating the visceral and subcutaneous compartment. Serum levels of 27 PCBs were determined and the sum of all PCBs (ΣPCBs) calculated. Follow-up measurements of anthropometric data, computed tomography scanning, and PCB levels were performed after 6 months in all patients. In patients who lost weight, serum ΣPCB levels displayed an increase after 6 months of approximately 50%. Both correlation and regression analysis, focusing on the relative contribution of the visceral vs the subcutaneous fat compartment, suggested that the increase in ΣPCB serum levels after 6 months of weight loss was more pronounced in patients losing relatively more visceral adipose tissue. This trend could be established in the diet-treated, but not the surgery-treated subgroup. Our study suggests that the contribution of PCBs released from the visceral fat compartment might be more pronounced compared with the subcutaneous fat compartment during weight loss. These findings are present in the entire study group whereas subanalysis of the diet vs surgery groups suggested the same effect in the diet group but failed to reach statistical significance in the surgery group. This suggests a possible weight-loss method-specific effect.

  18. Effects of weight loss using supplementation with Lactobacillus strains on body fat and medium-chain acylcarnitines in overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Kang, Miso; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-25

    Our previous study showed that supplementation with a combination of Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 reduced the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area in overweight subjects. We aimed to evaluate whether the changes in adiposity after supplementation with Lactobacillus strains were associated with metabolic intermediates. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 66 non-diabetic and overweight individuals. Over a 12-week period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g of probiotic powder, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without the probiotics. To investigate metabolic alterations, we performed plasma metabolomics using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS). Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the levels of octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10) and dodecenoylcarnitine (C12:1) compared with the levels from placebo supplementation. In the probiotic group, the changes in the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area were negatively associated with changes in the levels of C8:1, C14:1, C10 and C12:1 acylcarnitines. In overweight individuals, probiotic-induced weight loss and adiposity reduction from the probiotic supplementation were associated with an increase in medium-chain acylcarnitines.

  19. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  20. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  1. Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always normal weight individuals

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Suzanne; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary strategies and use of fat and sugar-modified foods and beverages in a weight loss maintainer group (WLM) and an always normal weight group (NW). Subjects WLM (N = 172) had maintained ≥ 10% weight loss for 11.5 yr, and had a BMI of 22.0 kg/m2. NW (N=131) had a BMI of 21.3 kg/m2 and no history of overweight. Three, 24-h recalls on random, non-consecutive days were used to assess dietary intake. Results WLM reported consuming a diet that was lower in fat (28.7% vs. 32.6%, p < .0001) and used more fat-modification strategies than NW. WLM also consumed a significantly greater percentage of modified dairy (60% vs. 49%; p = .002) and modified dressings and sauces (55% vs. 44%; p = .006) than NW. WLM reported consuming three times more daily servings of artificially sweetened soft drinks (0.91 vs. 0.37; p = .003), significantly fewer daily servings of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (0.07 vs. 0.16; p =.03), and more daily servings of water (4.72 vs 3.48; p=.002) than NW. Conclusions These findings suggests that WLM use more dietary strategies to accomplish their weight loss maintenance, including greater restriction of fat intake, use of fat- and sugar-modified foods, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Ways to promote the use of fat-modified foods and artificial sweeteners merits further research in both prevention and treatment controlled trials. PMID:19636318

  2. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Treatment Prevents Bone Loss and Reduces Body Fat in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J.; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an arylpropionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. Methods One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. Results We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. Conclusions The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature. PMID:17063395

  3. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction in energy expenditure during weight loss is higher than predicted based on fat free mass and fat mass in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ten Haaf, Twan; Verreijen, Amely M; Memelink, Robert G; Tieland, Michael; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this study was to describe a decrease in resting energy expenditure during weight loss that is larger than expected based on changes in body composition, called adaptive thermogenesis (AT), in overweight and obese older adults. Multiple studies were combined to assess AT in younger and older subjects. Body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured before and after weight loss. Baseline values were used to predict fat free mass and fat mass adjusted REE after weight loss. AT was defined as the difference between predicted and measured REE after weight loss. The median age of 55 y was used as a cutoff to compare older with younger subjects. The relation between AT and age was investigated using linear regression analysis. In this study 254 (M = 88, F = 166) overweight and obese subjects were included (BMI: 31.7 ± 4.4 kg/m(2), age: 51 ± 14 y). The AT was only significant for older subjects (64 ± 185 kcal/d, 95% CI [32, 96]), but not for younger subjects (19 ± 152 kcal/d, 95% CI [-9, 46]). The size of the AT was significantly higher for older compared to younger adults (β = 47, p = 0.048), independent of gender and type and duration of the weight loss program. We conclude that adaptive thermogenesis is present only in older subjects, which might have implications for weight management in older adults. A reduced energy intake is advised to counteract the adaptive thermogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Influence of previous body mass index and sex on regional fat changes in a weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-10-05

    Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p < 0.001), and between sex and anatomical region (F2,840 = 98.8; p < 0.001). Usually, the arms and legs are the regions that lose more weight in obese participants, but men lose the highest percentage of mass from the trunk. There were differences between men and women for the areas of left trunk mass (750g), right trunk mass (700g), total mass of the trunk (1400g), android mass (350g), and finally in the total mass in overweight participants (1300g), with higher values for men than for women. The region that loses more weight and fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.

  6. Effect of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and long-term weight loss on liver fat in overweight humans.

    PubMed

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Santos, Alexandre; Kotronen, Anna; Hakkarainen, Antti; Makkonen, Janne; Silander, Kaisa; Peltonen, Markku; Romeo, Stefano; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Fielding, Barbara A; Rissanen, Aila; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2012-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies have identified a high intake of simple sugars as an important dietary factor predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined whether overfeeding overweight subjects with simple sugars increases liver fat and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and whether this is reversible by weight loss. Sixteen subjects [BMI (kg/m²): 30.6 ± 1.2] were placed on a hypercaloric diet (>1000 kcal simple carbohydrates/d) for 3 wk and, thereafter, on a hypocaloric diet for 6 mo. The subjects were genotyped for rs739409 in the PNPLA3 gene. Before and after overfeeding and after hypocaloric diet, metabolic variables and liver fat (measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were measured. The ratio of palmitate (16:0) to linoleate (18:2n-6) in serum and VLDL triglycerides was used as an index of DNL. Carbohydrate overfeeding increased weight (±SEM) by 2% (1.8 ± 0.3 kg; P < 0.0001) and liver fat by 27% from 9.2 ± 1.9% to 11.7 ± 1.9% (P = 0.005). DNL increased in proportion to the increase in liver fat and serum triglycerides in subjects with PNPLA3-148IIbut not PNPLA3-148MM. During the hypocaloric diet, the subjects lost 4% of their weight (3.2 ± 0.6 kg; P < 0.0001) and 25% of their liver fat content (from 11.7 ± 1.9% to 8.8 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Carbohydrate overfeeding for 3 wk induced a >10-fold greater relative change in liver fat (27%) than in body weight (2%). The increase in liver fat was proportional to that in DNL. Weight loss restores liver fat to normal. These data indicate that the human fatty liver avidly accumulates fat during carbohydrate overfeeding and support a role for DNL in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This trial was registered at www.hus.fi as 235780.

  7. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G

    2016-04-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.

  8. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  9. High-fat Diet Enhances and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Attenuates Bone Loss in Mice with Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2015-07-01

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (Pai1(-/-)) on the bone structure in male C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Significant reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) in femurs and vertebrae were found in LLC-bearing mice compared to non-tumor-bearing mice. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G control diet significantly reduced BV/TV, Tb.N and BMD in femurs and BV/TV in vertebrae. The high-fat diet significantly reduced BMD in vertebrae in wild-type mice but not in Pai1(-/-) mice. Compared to wild-type mice, PAI1 deficiency significantly increased BV/TV and Tb.N in femurs. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin was significantly lower and that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) was significantly higher in LLC-bearing mice. The high-fat diet significantly reduced plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b. Deficiency in PAI1 prevented the high-fat diet-induced increases in plasma TRAP5b. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet enhances, whereas PAI1 deficiency, attenuates metastasis-associated bone loss, indicating that a high-fat diet and PAI1 contribute to metastasis-associated bone deterioration. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise induces BDNF and synapsin I to specific hippocampal subfields.

    PubMed

    Vaynman, Shoshanna; Ying, Zhe; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    To assess the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin I in the hippocampus during exercise, we employed a novel microsphere injection method to block the action of BDNF through its tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptor and subsequently measure the mRNA levels of synapsin I, using real-time TaqMan RT-PCR for RNA quantification. After establishing a causal link between BDNF and exercise-induced synapsin I mRNA levels, we studied the exercise-induced distribution of BDNF and synapsin I in the rodent hippocampus. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis revealed increases of BDNF and synapsin I in CA3 stratum lucidum and dentate gyrus, and synapsin I alone in CA1 stratum radiatum and stratum laconosum moleculare. These results indicate that exercise induces plasticity of select hippocampal transsynaptic circuitry, possibly comprising a spatial restriction on synapsin I regulation by BDNF.

  11. Nox4 Is Dispensable for Exercise Induced Muscle Fibre Switch

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Juri; Figueiredo de Rezende, Flávia; Rohrbach, Susanne; Zhang, Min; Schröder, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction By producing H2O2, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is involved in differentiation of mesenchymal cells. Exercise alters the composition of slow and fast twitch fibres in skeletal. Here we hypothesized that Nox4 contributes to exercise-induced adaptation such as changes in muscle metabolism or muscle fibre specification and studied this in wildtype and Nox4-/- mice. Results Exercise, as induced by voluntary running in a running wheel or forced running on a treadmill induced a switch from fast twitch to intermediate fibres. However the induced muscle fibre switch was similar between Nox4-/- and wildtype mice. The same held true for exercise-induced expression of PGC1α or AMPK activation. Both are increased in response to exercise, but with no difference was observed between wildtype and Nox4-/- mice. Conclusion Thus, exercise-induced muscle fibre switch is Nox4-independent. PMID:26083642

  12. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  13. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  14. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  15. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Frestedt, Joy L; Zenk, John L; Kuskowski, Michael A; Ward, Loren S; Bastian, Eric D

    2008-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium) for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis) and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis). Within group significance was determined at P < 0.05 using a two-tailed paired t-test and between group significance was determined using one way analysis of covariance with baseline data as a covariate. Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03) and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01) groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02). The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost) was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05) and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88) groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control

  16. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study.

    PubMed

    Frestedt, Joy L; Zenk, John L; Kuskowski, Michael A; Ward, Loren S; Bastian, Eric D

    2008-03-27

    This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibratrade mark, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium) for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis) and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis). Within group significance was determined at P < 0.05 using a two-tailed paired t-test and between group significance was determined using one way analysis of covariance with baseline data as a covariate. Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03) and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01) groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02). The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost) was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05) and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88) groups. Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects

  17. High fat diet attenuates hyperglycemia, body composition changes, and bone loss in male streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Adriana Lelis; DeMambro, Victoria E; Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Motyl, Katherine J

    2017-06-20

    There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk, and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin-deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures, and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin-deficient mice. We evaluated the impact of a 6-week high-fat (HFD) rich in medium chain fatty acids or low-fat diet (LFD) on bone mass and MAT in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model using male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age. Dietary intervention was initiated after diabetes confirmation. At the endpoint, lower non-fasting glucose levels were observed in diabetic mice fed with high fat diet compared to diabetic mice fed the low fat diet (STZ-LFD). Compared to euglycemic controls, the STZ-LFD had marked polydipsia and polyphagia, as well as reduced lean mass, fat mass, and bone parameters. Interestingly, STZ-HFD mice had higher bone mass, namely less cortical bone loss and more trabecular bone than STZ-LFD. Thus, we found that a HFD, rich in medium chain fatty acids, protects against bone loss in a T1DM mouse model. Whether this may also translate to T1DM patients who are overweight or obese in respect to maintenance of bone mass remains to be determined through longitudinal studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Thorkild I. A; Boutin, Philippe; Taylor, Moira A; Larsen, Lesli H; Verdich, Camilla; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus; Echwald, Søren M; Dina, Christian; Toubro, Søren; Petersen, Martin; Polak, Jan; Clément, Karine; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Langin, Dominique; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Stich, Vladimir; Macdonald, Ian; Arner, Peter; Saris, Wim H. M; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Froguel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study if genes with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity-related phenotypes influence weight loss (WL) in obese individuals treated by a hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. Design: Randomised, parallel, two-arm, open-label multi-centre trial. Setting: Eight clinical centres in seven European countries. Participants: 771 obese adult individuals. Interventions: 10-wk dietary intervention to hypo-energetic (−600 kcal/d) diets with a targeted fat energy of 20%–25% or 40%–45%, completed in 648 participants. Outcome Measures: WL during the 10 wk in relation to genotypes of 42 SNPs in 26 candidate genes, probably associated with hypothalamic regulation of appetite, efficiency of energy expenditure, regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function, lipid and glucose metabolism, or production of adipocytokines, determined in 642 participants. Results: Compared with the noncarriers of each of the SNPs, and after adjusting for gender, age, baseline weight and centre, heterozygotes showed WL differences that ranged from −0.6 to 0.8 kg, and homozygotes, from −0.7 to 3.1 kg. Genotype-dependent additional WL on low-fat diet ranged from 1.9 to −1.6 kg in heterozygotes, and from 3.8 kg to −2.1 kg in homozygotes relative to the noncarriers. Considering the multiple testing conducted, none of the associations was statistically significant. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in a panel of obesity-related candidate genes play a minor role, if any, in modulating weight changes induced by a moderate hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. PMID:16871334

  19. Effect of weight loss on inflammatory and endothelial markers and FMD using two low-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Clifton, P M; Keogh, J B; Foster, P R; Noakes, M

    2005-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is strongly associated with obesity and there is evidence that weight loss has positive effects on cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to compare meal replacements (MR) with a conventional low-fat diet as weight loss strategies and to examine the effect of weight loss on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and other markers of endothelial function in overweight Australians with raised triglycerides (TG) (> 2 mmol/l). Subjects matched for age, gender, fasting plasma TG and body mass index were randomized to two low- fat high- carbohydrate weight loss strategies (both < 6000 kJ), one using MR and the other a structured eating plan, control (C). Subjects followed both diets for 3 months. In total, 55 subjects completed the study. FMD, pulse wave velocity and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline and at 3 months, as were fasting blood samples for lipids, glucose, insulin, C reactive protein (CRP) and endothelium-derived factors. Mean weight loss was 6.3 +/- 3.7 kg (6.0 +/- 4.2 vs 6.63 +/- 3.35 kg, MR vs C) with no difference between diet groups. TG, insulin, CRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1) fell after weight loss, but FMD did not change. Systolic BP fell by 8 mmHg and pulse wave velocity improved. In subjects with elevated TG, weight loss resulted in significant improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, particularly endothelium-derived factors (PAI-1 and sICAM1). However, FMD did not improve with weight loss.

  20. A randomized trial of estrogen or raloxifene during postmenopausal weight loss: Adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Pelt, R.E.; Gozansky, W.S.; Wolfe, P.; Kittelson, J.M.; Jankowski, C.M.; Schwartz, R.S.; Kohrt, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) attenuates abdominal fat gain after menopause, but whether HT improves abdominal fat loss during weight loss is unknown. We hypothesized that HT or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene) would augment reductions in abdominal visceral fat during weight loss when compared to placebo, potentially increasing improvements in glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Design and Methods Healthy postmenopausal women (n=119; age 50–70y) underwent a 6-month weight loss (primarily exercise) intervention with randomization to raloxifene (60mg/d), HT (conjugated estrogens, 0.625mg/d), or placebo. We measured changes in total and abdominal (visceral and subcutaneous) fat mass, lipid profile, and fasting and post-challenge glucose and insulin. Results Neither HT nor raloxifene augmented loss of total or abdominal fat mass during exercise-induced weight loss when compared with placebo. Weight loss-induced improvements in risk factors were similar among the three groups, except for a greater reduction in fasted glucose in the HT group (difference in change [95%CI] from placebo; −0.40 [−0.76, −0.05]) and greater reductions in LDL (−0.36 [−0.63, −0.09]) and increases in HDL (0.15 [0.07, 0.24]) in both treatment groups. Conclusions Postmenopausal HT and raloxifene did not increase abdominal fat loss during weight loss, but did improve some cardiometabolic outcomes. PMID:24311443

  1. Identification and functional analysis of a potential key lncRNA involved in fat loss of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiquan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Bangyan; Li, Lu; Ye, Dawei; Yu, Shiying

    2017-08-07

    Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial, and irreversible syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle reduction with or without fat loss. Although much attention has been focused on muscle wasting, fat loss may occur earlier and accelerate muscle wasting in cachexia. The cause of 20% of cancer related death makes it urgent to discover molecular mechanisms behind cancer cachexia. Here we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify cachexia related gene modules using differentially expressed 3289 genes and 59 long non-coding RNAs based on microarray data of cachectic and non-cachectic subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subsequently, 16 independent modules were acquired and GSAASeqSP Toolset confirmed that black module was significantly associated with fat loss in cancer cachexia. Top 50 hub-genes in black module contained only one lncRNA, VLDLR antisense RNA 1 (VLDLR-AS1). We then explored the function of black module from the view of VLDLR-AS1-connected genes in the network. GO enrichment and KEGG pathways analysis revealed LDLR-AS1-connected genes were involved in Wnt signaling pathway, small GTPase mediated signal transduction, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and so on. Through construction of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulation network, we showed that VLDLR-AS1 may function with hsa-miR-600 to regulate gene GOLGA3, DUSP14, and UCHL1, or interact with hsa-miR-1224-3p to modulate the expression of gene GOLGA3, ZNF219, RNF141, and CALU. After literature validation, we predicted that VLDLR-AS1 most likely interacted with miR-600 to regulate UCH-L1 through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, further experiments are still required to validate mechanisms of VLDLR-AS1 in fat reduction of cancer cachexia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  3. Coping with Exercise-Induced Asthma in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Roger M.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the history of research on exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and the pathophysiology of the condition, including its development and influencing factors. Four groups of drugs that are effective against EIA--theopyhlline, beta-adrenergic agents, cromolyn sodium, and anticholinergics--are discussed. (Author/CB)

  4. Exercise-induced asthma. What family physicians should do.

    PubMed Central

    D'Urzo, A.

    1995-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is described as a transitory increase in airway resistance during or after vigorous exercise. Nearly 90% of patients with chronic asthma and 40% of allergic nonasthmatic patients have the condition. Family physicians should try to educate patients about their asthma and, barring contraindications, encourage them to participate in regular physical activity. PMID:8563507

  5. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  6. Neurohumoral mediation of exercise-induced growth.

    PubMed

    Borer, K T

    1994-06-01

    To assess exercise effects on growth, other variables modulating growth need to be taken into account. Endogenous control of growth proceeds from local actions of growth factors and dependence on nutrition abundance through guidance by growth hormone (GH) and other anabolic hormones to neuroendocrine suppression of growth. Nutrient abundance controls the reparative growth of lean body mass in adulthood by coupling it to anabolic endocrine reflexes. Growth is blocked when catabolic endocrine reflexes govern energy expenditure. The relationship between exercise intensity and growth is nonlinear. Growth is an intermittent process. Its expression and stimulation are dependent on ultradian and circadian rhythms of energy metabolism and neurohumoral release. High-resistance exercise selectively stimulates growth of the musculoskeletal system through expression of growth factor genes in the challenged tissues and without the GH guidance or abundant nutritional support. Habitual endurance exercise stimulates reparative growth of lean body mass through the neuroendocrine adaptations including increased pulsatile GH secretion. These also facilitate oxidative utilization of storage lipids thereby contributing to the regulation of body composition in adulthood. In the absence of sufficient high-resistance and endurance exercise regulation of adult body mass is impaired: excess LBM is lost during energy deficit, and excess fat accumulates during energy surplus.

  7. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  8. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-01-01

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn −/− ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn −/− pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn −/− pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn −/− pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn −/− skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:28432282

  9. Effect of uncertainty in composition and weight measures in control of cheese yield and fat loss in large cheese factories.

    PubMed

    Margolies, Brenda; Adams, Michael C; Pranata, Joice; Gondoutomo, Kathleen; Barbano, David M

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to develop a computer-based cheese yield, fat recovery, and composition control performance measurement system to provide quantitative performance records for a Cheddar and mozzarella cheese factory. The system can be used to track trends in performance of starter cultures and vats, as well as systematically calculate theoretical yield. Yield equations were built into the spreadsheet to evaluate cheese yield performance and fat losses in a cheese factory. Based on observations in commercial cheese factories, sensitivity analysis was done to demonstrate the sensitivity of cheese factory performance to analytical uncertainty of data used in the evaluation. Analytical uncertainty in the accuracy of milk weight and milk and cheese composition were identified as important factors that influence the ability to manage consistency of cheese quality and profitability. It was demonstrated that an uncertainty of ±0.1% milk fat or milk protein in the vat causes a range of theoretical Cheddar cheese yield from 10.05 to 10.37% and an uncertainty of yield efficiency of ±1.5%. This equates to ±1,451 kg (3,199 lb) of cheese per day in a factory processing 907,185 kg (2 million pounds) of milk per day. The same is true for uncertainty in cheese composition, where the effect of being 0.5% low on moisture or fat is about 484 kg (1,067 lb) of missed revenue opportunity from cheese for the day. Missing the moisture target causes other targets such as fat on a dry basis and salt in moisture to be missed. Similar impacts were demonstrated for mozzarella cheese. In analytical performance evaluations of commercial cheese quality assurance laboratories, we found that analytical uncertainty was typically a bias that was as large as 0.5% on fat and moisture. The effect of having a high bias of 0.5% moisture or fat will produce a missed opportunity of 484 kg of cheese per day for each component. More accurate rapid methods for determination of moisture, fat, and salt

  10. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary

  11. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  12. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series.

    PubMed

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.

  13. Proteomic analysis of duck fatty liver during post-mortem storage related to the variability of fat loss during cooking of "foie gras".

    PubMed

    Theron, Laetitia; Fernandez, Xavier; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Chambon, Christophe; Viala, Didier; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Astruc, Thierry; Molette, Caroline

    2013-01-30

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main problem for both manufacturers and consumers. Despite the efforts of the processing industry to control fat loss, the variability of fatty liver cooking yields remains high and uncontrolled. To understand the biochemical effects of postslaughter processing on fat loss during cooking, this study characterizes for the first time the protein expression of fatty liver during chilling using a proteomic approach. For this purpose the proteins were separated according to their solubility: the protein fraction soluble in a buffer of low ionic strength (S) and the protein fraction insoluble in the same buffer (IS). Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the S fraction and mass spectrometry for the identification of spots of interest. This analysis revealed 36 (21 identified proteins) and 34 (26 identified proteins) spots of interests in the low-fat-loss and high-fat-loss groups, respectively. The expression of proteins was lower after chilling, which revealed a suppressive effect of chilling on biological processes. The shot-gun strategy was used to analyze the IS fraction, with the identification of all the proteins by mass spectrometry. This allowed identification of 554 and 562 proteins in the low-fat-loss and high-fat-loss groups, respectively. Among these proteins, only the proteins that were up-regulated in the high-fat-loss group were significant (p value = 3.17 × 10(-3)) and corresponded to protein from the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that the variability of technological yield observed in processing plants could be explained by different aging states of fatty livers during chilling, most likely associated with different proteolytic patterns.

  14. Changes in mechanisms proposed to mediate fat loss following an acute bout of high-intensity interval and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cameron B; Zelt, Jason G E; Castellani, Laura N; Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, David C; Tschakovsky, Michael E; Gurd, Brendon J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of endurance exercise (END; 65% V̇O2peak for 60 min) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIE; four 30 s Wingates separated by 4.5 min of active rest) on cardiorespiratory, hormonal, and subjective appetite measures that may account for the previously reported superior fat loss with low volume HIE compared with END. Recreationally active males (n = 18) completed END, HIE, and control (CON) protocols. On each test day, cardiorespiratory measures including oxygen uptake (V̇O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were recorded and blood samples were obtained at baseline (BSL), 60 min after exercise, and 180 min after exercise (equivalent times for CON). Subjective measures of appetite (hunger, fullness, nausea, and prospective consumption) were assessed using visual analogue scales, administered at BSL, 0, 60, 120, and 180 min after exercise. No significant differences in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were observed between conditions. RER was significantly (P < 0.05) depressed in HIE compared with CON at 60 min after exercise, yet estimates of total fat oxidation over CON were not different between HIE and END. No differences in plasma adiponectin concentrations between protocols or time points were present. Epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated immediately after exercise in HIE compared with CON. Several subjective measures of appetite were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed immediately following HIE. Our data indicate that increases in EPOC or fat oxidation following HIE appear unlikely to contribute to the reported superior fat loss compared with END.

  15. Influence of menstrual status on fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration in healthy young women.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J; McArthur, M; Shirreffs, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration varies over the normal menstrual cycle. METHODS--Five subjects, with a regular menstrual cycle lasting 28 (SEM 2) d, were dehydrated by 1.8(0.1)% of their pre-exercise mass by cycle exercise in the heat. Trials were undertaken 2 d before (trial -2) and 5 and 19 d after the onset of menses (trials 6 and 20 respectively). After exercise, subjects ingested a fixed volume, equivalent to 150% of mass loss, of a commercially available sports drink over a 60 min period. RESULTS--Cumulative urine output [median (range)] over the 6 h following ingestion was the same on all trials: 714(469-750) ml on trial -2; 476(433-639) ml on trial 6; 534(195-852) ml on trial 20. There was no menstrual cycle effect on urinary electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) excretion or serum electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) concentrations. Plasma volume increased by 8-12% of the postexercise value following rehydration. The percentage of ingested fluid retained did not differ between trials at any time. Six hours after drink ingestion, net fluid balance was not different from the initial value on any of the trials. CONCLUSIONS--Acute replacement of exercise induced fluid losses is not affected by the normal menstrual cycle. PMID:8665117

  16. Attenuated improvements in adiponectin and fat loss characterize type 2 diabetes non-remission status following bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Bena, James; Abood, Beth; Pothier, Claire E.; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nissen, Steven; Brethauer, Stacy A.; Schauer, Philip R.; Kirwan, John P.; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Bariatric surgery improves glycemic control, but not all patients achieve type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission. Thus, we aimed to identify metabolic determinants of T2D non-remission status following bariatric surgery at 12 and 24 months (m). Methods Forty adults (BMI: 36±3kg/m2, Age: 48±9y, HbA1c: 9.7±2%) undergoing bariatric surgery (i.e. RYGB or SG) were enrolled in STAMPEDE. T2D remission was defined as HbA1c <6.5% and fasting glucose <126 mg/dl without anti-diabetic medication. Indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity were calculated from plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide during a 120 min MMTT. Body fat (DXA), incretins (GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin), and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, hs-CRP) were also assessed. Results At 24m, 37 subjects had follow-up data (n = 18 RYGB and n = 19 SG). Bariatric surgery-induced 40% and 27% T2D remission rates at 12 and 24m, respectively. Total fat/abdominal fat loss, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function (C-peptide0–120/Glucose0–120 × Matsuda index) improved more in remitters at 12 and 24m than non-remitters. Incretin levels were unrelated to T2D remission, but, compared to non-remitters, hs-CRP decreased and adiponectin increased more in remitters. Only baseline adiponectin predicted lower HbA1c at 12 and 24m, and elevated adiponectin correlated with enhanced β-cell function, lower triglycerides and fat loss. Conclusions Smaller rises in adiponectin, a mediator of insulin action and adipose mass, depict T2D non-remission up to 2 years after bariatric surgery. Adjunctive strategies promoting greater fat loss and/or raising adiponectin may be key for higher T2D remission rates after bariatric surgery. PMID:25132119

  17. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Jenkinson, David M

    2002-01-01

    The term exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) describes the acute transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in 10 to 50% of elite athletes, depending upon the sport examined. Although multiple factors are unquestionably involved in the EIB response, airway drying caused by a high exercise-ventilation rate is primary in most cases. The severity of this reaction reflects the allergic predisposition of the athlete, the water content of the inspired air, the type and concentration of air pollutants inspired, and the intensity (or ventilation rate) of the exercise. The highest prevalence of EIB is seen in winter-sport populations, where athletes are chronically exposed to cold dry air and/or environmental pollutants found in indoor ice arenas. When airway surface liquid lost during the natural warming and humidification process of respiration is not replenished at a rate equal to the loss, the ensuing osmolarity change stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators and results in bronchospasm; this cascade of events is exacerbated by airway inflammation and airway remodelling. The acute EIB response is characterised by airway smooth muscle contraction, membrane swelling, and/or mucus plug formation. Evidence suggests that histamine, leukotrienes and prostanoids are likely mediators for this response. Although the presence of symptoms and a basic physical examination are marginally effective, objective measures of lung function should be used for accurate and reliable diagnosis of EIB. Diagnosis should include baseline spirometry, followed by an appropriate bronchial provocation test. To date, the best test to confirm EIB may simply be standard pulmonary function testing before and after high-intensity dry air exercise. A 10% post-challenge fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second is used as diagnostic criteria. The goal of medical intervention is to limit EIB exacerbation and allow the athlete to train and compete symptom free

  18. Free fatty acid kinetics in the late phase of postexercise recovery: importance of resting fatty acid metabolism and exercise-induced energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Mohammed, B Selma; Patterson, Bruce W; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2009-09-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA) availability increases several-fold during exercise and remains significantly elevated for at least 3 to 6 hours after exercise cessation. Little, however, is known regarding the duration of the postexercise rise in FFA flux. In the present study, we used stable isotope-labeled palmitate infusion to examine fatty acid metabolism in 27 healthy untrained men and women (age, 29 +/- 7 years; body mass index, 25 +/- 4 kg/m2) between 13 to 16 hours and 21 to 24 hours after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (1-2 hours at 60% of peak oxygen consumption), performed in the evening, and after a time-matched resting trial. Postabsorptive FFA rate of appearance (Ra) and FFA concentration in plasma were significantly greater after exercise than rest throughout the recovery period (P < .015), but the exercise-induced increases declined from approximately 40% at 13 to 16 hours to approximately 10% at 21 to 24 hours postexercise (P = .001). The magnitude of the exercise-induced increase in plasma FFA concentration was proportional to the increase in FFA Ra. Correlation analysis demonstrated that exercise-induced changes in plasma FFA Ra at 13 to 16 hours are (1) negatively associated with resting plasma FFA Ra and (2) positively associated with the net energy expenditure of exercise and the exercise-induced changes in whole-body fat oxidation rate (all P values < .05). In multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis, baseline plasma FFA Ra (P < or = .008) and net energy expenditure of exercise (P < or = .005) independently predicted the exercise-induced change in plasma FFA Ra at 13 to 16 hours. We conclude that the exercise-induced increase in FFA mobilization is (1) long-lived, persisting for 12 to 24 hours after exercise, with a progressive decline with time; (2) greater in subjects with low than high resting plasma FFA availability; and (3) greater after exercise with high than low energy demand.

  19. Kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth) strips.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, S S; Ravi, N; Negi, P S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Investigation was carried out to study kinetics of moisture loss, oil uptake and tristimulus colour during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis kunth) strips. Deep fat frying of Gethi strips of size 6 × 6 × 40 mm was carried out in a laboratory scale fryer at different temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 °C. The investigation showed that the moisture loss and oil uptake followed the first order kinetics equation (r > 0.95, p < 0.05). The kinetic coefficients for moisture loss and oil uptake increased significantly (p < 0.05) with temperature from 0.166 to 0.889 min(-1) and 0.139 to 0.430 min(-1) respectively. The temperature dependency of rate constants for moisture loss and oil uptake values was described using Arrhenius equation (r > 0.99, p < 0.01). The activation energies for moisture loss and oil uptake were found to be 41.53 KJ/mol and 27.12 KJ/mol respectively. The hunter colour parameters were significantly affected by frying temperature and frying time. The hunter lightness (L) value increased with respect to frying time initially, followed by decline and same trend was observed at higher temperatures of frying with elevated rate, whereas hunter redness (a) value increased significantly (p < 0.01) with time as well as temperature of frying and obeyed zero order rate equation. The temperature dependency kinetic coefficients of Hunter (a) value were described by Arrhenius equation and the energy of activation for change in hunter redness was found to be 42.41 KJ/mol (r > 0.99, p < 0.01). The other hunter colour parameters such as chroma, hue angle and total colour difference were markedly affected by frying temperature as well as frying time.

  20. Challenges in the management of exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Storms, William

    2009-05-01

    Exercise and physical activity are common triggers of symptoms in patients with asthma, although some individuals - especially athletes - may have symptoms with exercise alone. Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) describes airway hyper-reactivity that is observed following exercise in a patient who is not otherwise diagnosed with asthma; exercise-induced asthma (EIA) describes airway hyper-reactivity associated with exercise in a patient who has persistent asthma. Specific challenges affecting both the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are discussed in this review. The past decade has seen substantial advances in our understanding of EIA and EIB, including new guidelines on their management. With appropriate therapy, all patients with exercise-related symptoms should be able to reach their desired level of performance.

  1. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis from stationary biking: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inklebarger, J; Galanis, N; Kirkos, J; Kapetanos, G

    2010-10-01

    There are several reports concerning exercise and rabdomyolysis. There has been no report in the English literature of exercise induced rabdomyolisis from a stationary bike.A 63-year-old female recreational athlete presented to our hospital seeking treatment for lower back, leg pain and stiffness after exercising on a stationary bicycle one day prior. Blood work showed a raised CK of 38,120 U/L, a myoglobin of 5330 and an AST 495 U/L with normal urea and electrolytes. Urinalysis remained negative. She was admitted for oral and intravenous hydration and fluid balance monitoringThis is a very rare case of rhabdomyolysis due to exercise. This study highlights the difficulties faced by accident and emergency teams in distinguishing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) from exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and reinforces the concept that rhabdomyolysis can occur at any level of exercise intensity.

  2. The "love hormone" oxytocin regulates the loss and gain of the fat-bone relationship.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, Graziana; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of oxytocin (OT) in bone metabolism is an interesting area of research that recently achieved remarkable results. Moreover, several lines of evidence have largely demonstrated that OT also participates in the regulation of energy metabolism. Hence, it has recently been determined that the posterior pituitary hormone OT directly regulates bone mass: mice lacking OT or OT receptor display severe osteopenia, caused by impaired bone formation. OT administration normalizes ovariectomy-induced osteopenia, bone marrow adiposity, body weight, and intra-abdominal fat depots in mice. This effect is mediated through inhibition of adipocyte precursor differentiation and reduction of adipocyte size. The exquisite role of OT in regulating the bone-fat connection adds another milestone to the biological evidence supporting the existence of a tight relationship between the adipose tissue and the skeleton.

  3. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  4. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  5. [Measurement of cytokines in patients with exercise-induced asthma treated with anti-leukotrienes].

    PubMed

    Flores Sandoval, Graciela; Orea Solano, Modesto; Cortés Padilla, V; Santos Argumedo, L

    2002-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is defined as the transient broncho-spasm, that occurs after 3 to 8 minutes of continuous exercise; one of two mechanisms are implicated: the first is given by a hyper-osmolar environment interchange with the warm respiratory air and the water loss, the second due to reactive hyperemia or bronchial blood vessels edema. To determine the effectiveness and safety of Zafirlukast treatment in exercise induce asthma, and in mild and moderated persistent bronchial asthma. Evaluate the security with laboratory test IL-2, IL-4, INFg, and CD69, to determinate TH1 and Th2 cells, laboratory and thorax x-ray determinations before and after zafirlukast treatment in exercise induce asthma, plus the functional respiratory test, and assert the clinical and adverse reaction with Zafirlukast. A open, prospective, longitudinal study. Challenge test on a treadmill for 8 minutes. Twenty patients from the Allergy Service at Lic. Adolfo López Mateos Hospital, ISSSTE, in México City, fifteen female and five males. Aged 15 to 35 years. There was a control group of ten healthy subjects with similar age and sex. The drug Zafirlukast was administered 20 mg twice a day for eight weeks, with patient's informed and signed consent. Laboratory test: Blood Cell count, transaminases, bilirubins A, G, M and E immunoglobulins thorax X-ray, electrocardiogram, functional respiratory test before and after treatment. Zafirlukast blocked exercise induced asthma in the early and late phases. There was a statistically significant improvement of a VEF-1 after exercise with a p > 0.001; furthermore, there was significant improvement in the mid-spiratory speed before the exercise with a p > 0.05. The mid-spiratory speed after the exercise, improved (p > 0.01). There were no collateral reactions, such as Churg-Strauss, only transitory headache in six and nauseas in two. There were no statistically significant changes in the cytokines assessment. There were no statistically significant

  6. Airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm: some speculations.

    PubMed

    Middleton, E

    1975-11-01

    Some possible neurophysiological, biochemical, and pharmacological pathways affecting the state of contractility if airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) are described. No unifying hypothesis can be set forth at this time. Indeed, it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of EIB is a reflection of the numerous biochemical loci in smooth muscle cells that could be affected by the various metabolic changes accompanying heavy exertion.

  7. Extreme sports: extreme physiology. Exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Ma, Joyce Lok Gee; Dutch, Martin John

    2013-08-01

    We report five patients who presented to an on-site medical team with concurrent haemoptysis and shortness of breath at a recent triathlon event. After initial management in the field, three of the five patients were transported to hospital via ambulance for further management, resulting in patients with haemoptysis and dyspnoea being 17 times more likely to require hospital transport. It is important to consider the differential diagnoses for this presentation, particularly exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

  8. Eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea and exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, Julie; Gagnon, Simon; Bernier, Mélanie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common condition in endurance athletes. Exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (EIVCD) is a frequent confounder of EIB. The diagnosis of EIVCD may be challenging and can be missed as the problem is often intermittent and may only occur during intense exercise. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) is the best test to detect EIB. This pilot study aimed to assess if EVH could be helpful in the diagnosis of EIVCD associated or not to EIB in athletes. Methods A nasolaryngoscopy was performed during a 6 min EVH test, in 13 female athletes suspected to have VCD, aged 21±7 years. Image analysis was conducted by two Ear Nose and Throat surgeons in random order. Results During the EVH, three athletes showed incomplete paradoxical vocal cords movement, without inspiratory stridor. However, 12 athletes showed marked supraglottic movement without inspiratory stridor. In two athletes, this supraglottic movement was severe, one showing a marked collapse of the epiglottis with an almost complete obstruction of the larynx by the arytenoid cartilage mucosa. In 3 of the 12 athletes with supraglottic movement, severe vibration of the mucosa covering the arytenoid cartilages was also observed. Conclusions EVH challenge in athletes can provide information on various types of glottic and supraglottic obstruction in reproducing laryngeal movements during hyperventilation. Our findings make us suggest that exercise induced upper airway obstructions should be named: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Then, EILO should be divided in three categories: supraglottic, glottic (EIVCD) and mixed (glottic and supraglottic) obstruction. PMID:27900141

  9. Overloaded training increases exercise-induced oxidative stress and damage.

    PubMed

    Palazzetti, Stephane; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Favier, Alain; Margaritis, Irene

    2003-08-01

    We hypothesized that overloaded training (OT) in triathlon would induce oxidative stress and damage on muscle and DNA. Nine male triathletes and 6 male sedentary subjects participated in this study. Before and after a 4-week OT, triathletes exercised for a duathlon. Blood ratio of reduced vs. oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), leukocyte DNA damage, creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB mass in plasma, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured before and after OT in pre- and postexercise situations. Triathletes were overloaded in response to OT. In rest conditions, OT induced plasma GSH-Px activity increase and plasma TAS decrease (both p < 0.05). In exercise conditions, OT resulted in higher exercise-induced variations of blood GSH/GSSG ratio, TBARS level (both p < 0.05), and CK-MB mass (p < 0.01) in plasma; and decreased TAS response (p < 0.05). OT could compromise the antioxidant defense mechanism with respect to exercise-induced response. The resulting increased exercise-induced oxidative stress and further cellular susceptibility to damage needs more study.

  10. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Portillo, María Puy

    2008-12-01

    Very little evidence exists concerning the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Moreover, although an effect of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on lipolysis has been suggested, it has not been consistently shown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether trans-10, cis-12-CLA increases the reduction of body fat induced by energy restriction, and to analyse its effect on lipolysis and adipose tissue lipase expression (hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose tissue TAG lipase (ATGL)). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet during 7 weeks in order to make them fatter. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25 %) without or with supplementation of 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 3 weeks. Basal glycerol release and lipolysis stimulated by several drugs acting at different levels of the lipolytic cascade were measured in epididymal adipose tissue. The expression of HSL and ATGL was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. No differences were found in adipose tissues size between the experimental groups. Medium adipocyte size and total number of adipocytes were similar in both experimental groups. Animals fed the CLA-enriched diet showed similar lipolytic rates as well as HSL and ATGL expressions to the controls. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12-CLA does not promote adipose tissue lipid mobilisation nor does it heighten body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment.

  11. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exercise is considered as one of the most effective means of countering symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MS) such as obesity and hyperglycemia. Rodent models of forced or voluntary exercise are often used to study the mechanisms of MS and type 2 diabetes. However, there is little known on the impact of genetic strain on the metabolic response to exercise. We studied the effects of housing rats with running wheels (RW) for 65 days compared to sedentary (SED) housing in five female rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE), Wistar (WIS), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). Key parameters measured were total distance run, body composition, food consumption, motor activity, ventilatory responses by plethysmography, and resting metabolic rate (MR). WKY and SHR ran significantly more than the WIS, LE, and SD strains. Running-induced reduction in body fat was affected by strain but not by distance run. LE's lost 6% fat after 21 d of running whereas WKY's lost 2% fat but ran 40% more than LE's. LE and WIS lost body weight while the SHR and WKY strains gained weight during running. Food intake with RW was markedly increased in SHR, WIS, and WKY while LE and SD showed modest increases. Exploratory motor activity was reduced sharply by RW in all but the SD strain. Ventilatory parameters were primarily altered by RW in the SHR, WKY, and WIS strains. MR was unaffected by RW. In an overall ranking of physiological and behavioral responses to RW, the SD strain was considered the least responsive whereas the WIS was scored as most responsive. In terms of RW-induced fat loss, the LE strain appears to be the most ideal. These results should be useful in the future selection of rat models to study benefits of volitional exercise.

  12. Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.

    PubMed

    Tsaban, Gal; Wolak, Arik; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Yaskolka-Meir, Anat; Komy, Oded; Bilitzky, Avital; Chassidim, Yoash; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Dicker, Dror; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity. We performed whole-body MRI and volumetrically quantified IPF and EPF among 80 participants to follow the 18-mo changes.Results: The participants [mean age: 48.6 y; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)); 31.7; 90% men] had baseline IPF and EPF (mean ± SD) volumes of 172.4 ± 53.3 mL and 194.9 ± 71.5 mL, respectively. The 18-mo moderate weight loss of 3.7 kg was similar in both groups, but the reduction in waist circumference was higher in the MED/LC group (-6.9 ± 6.6 cm) than in the LF diet group (-2.3 ± 6.5 cm; P = 0.01). After 18 mo, the IPF volume had reduced twice as much in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group [-37 ± 26.2 mL (-22% ± 15%) compared with -15.5 ± 26.2 mL (-8% ± 15%), respectively; P < 0.05, after adjustment for changes in weight or visceral adipose tissue]. The EPF volume had reduced similarly in both groups [-41.6 ± 30.2 mL (-23% ± 16%) in the MED/LC group compared with -37.9 ± 28.3 mL (-19% ± 14%) in the LF group; P > 0.1]. After controlling for weight loss, IPF and EPF volume reduction paralleled changes in lipid profile but not with improved glycemic profile variables: the IPF relative reduction was associated with a decrease in triglycerides (TGs) (β = 0.090; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.154; P = 0.007) and the ratio of TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL

  13. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  14. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Yancy, William S; Westman, Eric C; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Grambow, Steven C; Jeffreys, Amy S; Bolton, Jamiyla; Chalecki, Allison; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2010-01-25

    Two potent weight loss therapies, a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) and orlistat therapy combined with a low-fat diet (O + LFD), are available to the public but, to our knowledge, have never been compared. Overweight or obese outpatients (n = 146) from the Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics in Durham, North Carolina, were randomized to either LCKD instruction (initially, <20 g of carbohydrate daily) or orlistat therapy, 120 mg orally 3 times daily, plus low-fat diet instruction (<30% energy from fat, 500-1000 kcal/d deficit) delivered at group meetings over 48 weeks. Main outcome measures were body weight, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid, and glycemic parameters. The mean age was 52 years and mean body mass index was 39.3 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); 72% were men, 55% were black, and 32% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of the study participants, 57 of the LCKD group (79%) and 65 of the O + LFD group (88%) completed measurements at 48 weeks. Weight loss was similar for the LCKD (expected mean change, -9.5%) and the O + LFD (-8.5%) (P = .60 for comparison) groups. The LCKD had a more beneficial impact than O + LFD on systolic (-5.9 vs 1.5 mm Hg) and diastolic (-4.5 vs 0.4 mm Hg) blood pressures (P < .001 for both comparisons). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels improved similarly within both groups. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved within the O + LFD group only, whereas glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A(1c) levels improved within the LCKD group only; comparisons between groups, however, were not statistically significant. In a sample of medical outpatients, an LCKD led to similar improvements as O + LFD for weight, serum lipid, and glycemic parameters and was more effective for lowering blood pressure. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00108524.

  15. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  16. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  17. [Impact of visceral fat measurements and a weight loss support web system on visceral fat loss in a workplace setting: insights from a JVALUE2 (Japanese study of visceral adiposity and lifestyle information; utilization and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hiroko; Dohi, Seitaro; Ide, Hiroshi; Murata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Ginjiro; Ito, Daisuke; Sakane, Naoki; Morimoto, Toshihisa; Uchida, Takanobu; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Yanagisawa, Yoshiko; Yasumasu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Providing different programs of occupational health services in the same company is difficult. We report the results of a parallel randomized trial for the employees of our company for visceral fat measurements and the effect of a weight loss support web system. 181 healthy employees with BMI over 23 who volunteered to participate in this study. In a parallel randomized study, we divided them into 3 groups (A, health guidance by occupational health staff with visceral fat measurements and a weight loss support web system; B, health guidance by occupational health staff with a weight loss support web system; C, without health guidance (control)) by date of birth. To assess the effects of guidance and support, we compared each group's waist circumference (WC), weight, and BMI, before and after the guidance. We also conducted questionnaire surveys of eating behavior and life activities before and after the guidance to estimate the relationship between the intervention method used for each group and their behavioral modification. 150 employees (83%) finished this program. Within 3 months, reduction in the outcome measures was largest in group A, and showed significant differences from the other two groups. For many employees in group A, eating behavior factors improved markedly; however, in the control group, there were no changes in eating behavior or daily living activities. A parallel randomized trial involving the employees of our company was performed and we scientifically verified the effects of an occupational health programs. Objective study of occupational health activities and measures were enabled by devising methods and procedures, e.g., applying the waiting-list method for the control group. This approach will lead to appropriate selection and precise implementation of evidence-based measures in occupational health in the future.

  18. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  19. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

    PubMed

    Volek, Js; Sharman, Mj; Gómez, Al; Judelson, DA; Rubin, Mr; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, Dn; Kraemer, Wj

    2004-11-08

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). SUBJECTS: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean +/- s.e.m.: age 33.2 +/- 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 +/- 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 +/- 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 +/- 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. RESULTS: Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the

  20. Influence of sex on total and regional fat loss in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kuk, J L; Ross, R

    2009-06-01

    To determine the influence of sex on the association between reductions in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) with reductions in total (TAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in response to lifestyle-based interventions. Changes in TAT, SAT and VAT were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 81 men and 72 women who had participated in various diet and/or exercise interventions at Queen's University, Ontario, Canada. Reductions in BW and WC were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with TAT, SAT and VAT loss in men and women. For a given weight loss, men had a significantly greater decrease in WC than women, and the sex difference in WC reduction increased with increasing weight loss (P<0.05). Similarly, for a given reduction in BW or WC, men have significantly greater reductions in VAT, but smaller reductions in total and lower body SAT than women, differences that progressively increased in magnitude with the increasing BW or WC loss (P<0.05). Accordingly, there were no sex differences in the TAT reduction for a given BW or WC reduction (P>0.05). Reductions in BW and WC were both independent predictors of VAT loss. These observations suggest that for a given reduction in BW or WC, men lose more VAT and less SAT than women; however, the TAT loss observed for a given reduction in BW or WC in men and women is not different.

  1. Brazilian Green Propolis Promotes Weight Loss and Reduces Fat Accumulation in C57BL/6 Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tohru; Ohhata, Miyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Oda, Sayaka; Kusaka, Yasuna; Matsumoto, Miki; Nakamoto, Akiko; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product with various biological properties. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with propolis for 14 weeks. Body weight in mice treated with 2% propolis was less than that in control mice from 3 weeks after the start of treatment until 14 weeks except for the 7th week. Mice treated with propolis showed significantly lower epididymal fat weight and subcutaneous fat weight. Infiltration of epididymal fat by macrophages and T cells was reduced in the propolis group. Supplementation of propolis increased feces weight and fat content in feces, suggesting that mechanisms of weight reduction by propolis partly include a laxative effect and inhibition of fat absorption.

  2. The dynamics of physical exercise-induced increases in thalamic and abdominal temperatures are modified by central cholinergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, William Coutinho; Pires, Washington; Lima, Milene Rodrigues Malheiros; Lima, Nilo Resende Viana; Wanner, Samuel Penna

    2015-03-17

    Evidence has shown that brain and abdominal (T abd) temperatures are regulated by distinct physiological mechanisms. Thus, the present study examined whether central cholinergic stimulation would change the dynamics of exercise-induced increases in T abd and thalamic temperature (T thal), an index of brain temperature. Adult male Wistar rats were used in all of the experiments. Two guide cannulae were implanted in the rats, one in the thalamus and the other in the right lateral cerebral ventricle, to measure T thal and to centrally inject a cholinergic agonist, respectively. Then, a temperature sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity. On the day of the experiments, the rats received an intracerebroventricular injection of 2 μL of 10(-2)M physostigmine (Phy) or a vehicle solution (Veh) and were subjected to treadmill running until volitional fatigue occurred. T thal was measured using a thermistor connected to a multimeter, and T abd was recorded by telemetry. Phy injection delayed the exercise-induced increases in T thal (37.6 ± 0.2°C Phy vs 38.7 ± 0.1°C Veh at the 10th min of exercise) and in T abd. Despite the delayed hyperthermia, Phy did not change the rats' physical performance. In addition, the more rapid exercise-induced increase in T thal relative to Tabd in the rats treated with Veh was abolished by Phy. Collectively, our data indicate that central cholinergic stimulation affects the dynamics of exercise-induced increases in T thal and T abd. These results also provide evidence of the involvement of cholinoceptors in the modulation of brain heat loss during physical exercise.

  3. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2017-01-01

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. PMID:28106721

  4. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2017-01-17

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  5. Cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine protects against exercise induced myocardial ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Castro, R R T; Porphirio, G; Serra, S M; Nóbrega, A C L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the acute effects of pyridostigmine bromide, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Design: Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study. Setting: Outpatients evaluated in an exercise test laboratory. Patients: 15 patients with exercise induced myocardial ischaemia. Interventions: Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill according to an individualised ramp protocol on three days. The first day was used for adaptation to the equipment and to determine exercise tolerance and the presence of exercise induced ischaemia. On the other two days, the cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed two hours after oral administration of pyridostigmine (45 mg) or placebo. All patients were taking their usual medication during the experiments. Main outcome measures: Rate–pressure product and oxygen uptake during exercise. Results: Pyridostigmine inhibited the submaximum chronotropic response (p  =  0.001), delaying the onset of myocardial ischaemia, which occurred at a similar rate–pressure product (mean (SE) placebo 20.55 (1.08) mm Hg × beats/min 103; pyridostigmine 19.75 (1.28) mm Hg × beats/min 103; p  =  0.27) but at a higher exercise intensity (oxygen consumption: placebo 18.6 (1.7) ml/kg/min; pyridostigmine 19.6 (1.8) ml/kg/min; p  =  0.03). Also, pyridostigmine increased peak oxygen consumption (placebo 23.6 (2) ml/kg/min; pyridostigmine 24.8 (2) ml/kg/min; p  =  0.01) and peak oxygen pulse (placebo 12.9 (1) ml/beat; pyridostigmine 13.6 (1) ml/beat; p  =  0.02). Conclusions: Pyridostigmine improved peak exercise tolerance and inhibited the chronotropic response to submaximum exercise, increasing the intensity at which myocardial ischaemia occurred. These results suggest that pyridostigmine can protect against exercise induced myocardial ischaemia. PMID:15367503

  6. Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction: a review of diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Liyanagedara, Savinda; McLeod, Robert; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-04-01

    Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a condition where inappropriate vocal cord or glottic closure occurs during exercise. This review of the literature provides an overview of the current understanding of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of EILO. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines the Cochrane, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched. Four search domains "exercise", "induced", "laryngeal" and "obstruction" were used. Primary searching found 469 records, 308 were excluded following screening of titles and citation. 100 were duplicates, a further 47 studies were excluded after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two studies were identified following cross-referencing. A total of 15 studies were included. The last search date was 6/06/15. Average prevalence in the general adolescent population and athletes was 7.1 and 35.2 %, respectively. Dyspnoea was reported in 96.5, 99 and 100 % of three EILO patient cohorts. Two studies (n = 107) reported continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE) testing could differentiate between patients and controls. In two studies (n = 33) the visual analogue scale (VAS) showed a beneficial effect of endoscopic supraglottoplasty (ES). Thirty-eight out of 43 patients who received two or more laryngeal control therapy sessions (LCT) had improvement or resolution of EILO symptoms. Exercise induced dyspnoea is the most common EILO symptom. EILO has a high occurrence in adolescents and athletes. The CLE test is the current gold standard for EILO diagnostics. Management of EILO includes both surgical and non-surgical interventions.

  7. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R

    2007-09-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a low-fat, vegan diet compared with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) diet on weight loss maintenance at 1 and 2 years. Sixty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a vegan or NCEP diet for 14 weeks, and 62 women began the study. The study was done in two replications. Participants in the first replication (N = 28) received no follow-up support after the 14 weeks, and those in the second replication (N = 34) were offered group support meetings for 1 year. Weight and diet adherence were measured at 1 and 2 years for all participants. Weight loss is reported as median (interquartile range) and is the difference from baseline weight at years 1 and 2. Individuals in the vegan group lost more weight than those in the NCEP group at 1 year [-4.9 (-0.5, -8.0) kg vs. -1.8 (0.8, -4.3); p < 0.05] and at 2 years [-3.1 (0.0, -6.0) kg vs. -0.8 (3.1, -4.2) kg; p < 0.05]. Those participants offered group support lost more weight at 1 year (p < 0.01) and 2 years (p < 0.05) than those without support. Attendance at meetings was associated with improved weight loss at 1 year (p < 0.001) and 2 years (p < 0.01). A vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

  8. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L.; Chung, Jay H.; Grøntved, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome. PMID:28071704

  9. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss.

    PubMed

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L; Chung, Jay H; Grøntved, Lars

    2017-01-10

    Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome.

  10. Strenuous Exercise Induced Syncope Due to Coronary Artery Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Veysel; Cetin, Nurulah; Tuncer, Esref; Dalgic, Onur; Taskin, Ugur; Bilge, Ali Riza; Tikiz, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are among the neglected topics in cardiology. Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of valsalva is a rare coronary anomaly observed in 0.15% of patients. During exercise, the distended aorta and pulmonary artery with increased blood flow may squeeze the Left Main Coronary Artery (LMCA) between them. Even though arrhythmias are common causes of syncope, one should also think about aberrant coronary artery in the patients with syncope of unexplained origin. Patients experiencing exercise induced syncope accompanied by symptoms of coronary ischemia (typically: chest pain, ischemic findings on ECG, and raised cardiac markers) should be referred to diagnostic coronary angiography. PMID:25177677

  11. Exercise-Induced growth hormone during acute sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ritsche, Kevin; Nindl, Bradly C; Wideman, Laurie

    2014-10-01

    The effect of acute (24-h) sleep deprivation on exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was examined. Ten men (20.6 ± 1.4 years) completed two randomized 24-h sessions including a brief, high-intensity exercise bout following either a night of sleep (SLEEP) or (24-h) sleep deprivation (SLD). Anaerobic performance (mean power [MP], peak power [PP], minimum power [MinP], time to peak power [TTPP], fatigue index, [FI]) and total work per sprint [TWPS]) was determined from four maximal 30-sec Wingate sprints on a cycle ergometer. Self-reported sleep 7 days prior to each session was similar between SLEEP and SLD sessions (7.92 ± 0.33 vs. 7.98 ± 0.39 h, P = 0.656, respectively) and during the actual SLEEP session in the lab, the total amount of sleep was similar to the 7 days leading up to the lab session (7.72 ± 0.14 h vs. 7.92 ± 0.33 h, respectively) (P = 0.166). No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise-induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF-1 between sessions. GH area under the curve (AUC) (825.0 ± 199.8 vs. 2212.9 ± 441.9 μg/L*min, P < 0.01), exercise-induced peak GH concentration (17.8 ± 3.7 vs. 39.6 ± 7.1 μg/L, P < 0.01) and ΔGH (peak GH - resting GH) (17.2 ± 3.7 vs. 38.2 ± 7.3 μg/L, P < 0.01) were significantly lower during the SLEEP versus SLD session. Our results indicate that the exercise-induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep-deprived individuals.

  12. Sinusitis and chronic progressive exercise-induced cough and dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Williams, Adam N; Simon, Ronald A; Woessner, Katharine M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man with exercise-induced dyspnea, cough, chest tightness, and recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis. Evaluation revealed IgE sensitization to grass, tree, and weed pollen, no evidence of obstruction on spirometry, and a negative methacholine challenge. Diagnostic considerations included allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, asthma, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, vocal cord dysfunction, extra-esophageal manifestations of acid reflux, and vasculitits. Further evaluation with sinus imaging, laryngoscopy, ambulatory pharyngeal pH testing, upper endoscopy, and bronchoscopy led to a diagnosis. Key issues surrounding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this patient's condition are reviewed.

  13. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Cristina Gonzalez, M. C.; Shen, Wei; Redman, Leanne; Thomas, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e., ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ~0.25) with the remaining three-fourths fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relations between FFM, fat mass, and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the “Quarter FFM Rule” used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight, and what is often cited as “Forbes’ Rule”. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as aging, inactivity, and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power, and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. PMID:24447775

  14. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle) mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy) in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP) and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1. PMID:22974011

  15. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  16. Efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion program following diet modification for fat loss in Japanese obese men.

    PubMed

    Eto, Miki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkubo, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion (PAP) program following a diet modification program for fat loss. Fifty obese men, aged 51.4±7.0 y, received a 6-mo regimen consisting of 2 phases. Weekly 90-min free-living PAP sessions were provided for 3 mo immediately after a 3-mo diet modification phase. Fat mass (FM) was measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6 using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was monitored by a validated single-axis accelerometer. The total energy intake of all participants was assessed at baseline and during weeks 9 and 10 of both the diet modification and PAP programs. The change (Δ) in FM was -1.4±1.9 kg (p<0.05) during the PAP program after the diet modification program (-4.3±2.9 kg, p<0.01). Although there was no significant relationship between ΔFM and ΔMVPA during the PAP phase (p=0.11), MVPA was significantly increased during the PAP phase (+76.0±146.5 min/wk, p<0.01). However, a significant correlation was observed between energy intake/weight and MVPA during the PAP program (r=0.39). Our results suggest that the magnitude of expected FM loss induced by an increase in PA may be suppressed as a result of increased energy intake, even during a PAP program after a diet modification program.

  17. Association between skeletal muscle fat content and very-low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein B-100 transport in obesity: effect of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chan, D C; Gan, S K; Wong, A T Y; Barrett, P H R; Watts, G F

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic deposition of fat in skeletal muscle is a feature of metabolic syndrome, but its specific association with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 metabolism remains unclear. We examined the association between skeletal muscle fat content and VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics in 25 obese subjects, and the responses of these variables to weight loss. The fat contents of liver, abdomen and skeletal muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics were assessed using stable isotope tracers. In obese subjects who were insulin sensitive (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA, score ≤ 2.6, n = 12), skeletal muscle fat content was significantly associated with hepatic fat content (r = 0.636), energy intake (r = 0.694), plasma triglyceride (r = 0.644), apoB-100 (r = 0.529), glucose (r = 0.622), VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations (r = 0.860), VLDL-apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate (FCR; r = -0.581) and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate (r = 0.607). These associations were not found in obese subjects who were insulin resistant (HOMA score >2.6, n = 13). Of these 25 subjects, 10 obese subjects underwent a 16-week weight loss program. The low-fat diet achieved significant reduction (p < 0.05) in body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, liver and skeletal muscle fat, energy intake, triglyceride, insulin, HOMA score, VLDL-apoB100 concentrations and VLDL-apoB100 secretion rate. The percentage reduction of skeletal muscle fat with weight loss was significantly associated with the corresponding changes in VLDL-apoB100 concentration (r = 0.770, p = 0.009) and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion (r = 0.682, p = 0.030). Skeletal muscle fat content is associated with VLDL-apoB-100 transport. Weight loss lowers skeletal muscle fat and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Left ventricular remodelling changes without concomitant loss of myocardial fat after long-term dietary intervention.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jonas; Mellberg, Caroline; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats; Rinnström, Daniel; Larsson, Christel; Lindahl, Bernt; Hauksson, Jon; Johansson, Bengt; Olsson, Tommy

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of myocardial triglycerides (MTG) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) remodelling and function in obese and diabetic subjects. The role of MTG accumulation in development of heart failure in this group of patients is unknown. Short-term studies suggest that diets that lead to weight loss could mobilize MTG, with a favourable effect on cardiac remodelling. In a 24-month, randomized, investigator-blinded study, we assessed the effect of two different diets and subsequent weight loss on cardiac function and MTG in postmenopausal women. Sixty-eight healthy postmenopausal women with body mass index [BMI] ≥27kg/m(2) were randomized to an ad libitum Palaeolithic diet (PD) or a Nordic Nutrition Recommendation (NNR) diet for 24months. Morphology, cardiac function, and MTG levels were measured using magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, including proton spectroscopy at baseline and 6 and 24months. Despite mean weight losses of 4.9 (1.0) kg (NNR) and 7.8 (1.1) kg (PD), the MTG content did not change over time (p=0.98 in the NNR and p=0.11 in the PD group at 24months). Reduced left ventricular mass was observed in both diet groups over 24months. Blood pressure was reduced at 6months, but returned to baseline levels at 24months. End diastolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output decreased over time. No differences between diet groups were observed. Diet intervention and moderate weight loss over 24months improved LV remodelling but did not alter MTG levels in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Weight Loss Programs May Have Beneficial or Adverse Effects on Fat Mass and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Black Women.

    PubMed

    Leon, Benjamin; Miller, Bernard V; Zalos, Gloria; Courville, Amber B; Sumner, Anne E; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Walter, Mary F; Waclawiw, Myron A; Cannon, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss interventions have produced little change in insulin sensitivity in black women, but mean data may obscure metabolic benefit to some and adverse effects for others. Accordingly, we analyzed insulin sensitivity relative to fat mass change following a weight loss program. Fifty-four black women (BMI range 25.9 to 54.7 kg/m(2)) completed the 6-month program that included nutrition information and worksite exercise facilities. Fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from an insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test using the minimal model. Baseline SI (range 0.74 to 7.58 l/mU(-1)•min(-1)) was inversely associated with fat mass (r = -0.516, p < 0.001), independent of age. On average, subjects lost fat mass (baseline 40.8 ± 12.4 to 39.4 ± 12.6 kg [mean ± SD], P < 0.01), but 17 women (32 %) actually gained fat mass. SI for the group was unchanged (baseline 3.3 ± 1.7 to 3.2 ± 1.6, P = 0.67). However, the tertile with greatest fat mass loss (-3.6 kg, range -10.7 to -1.7 kg) improved insulin sensitivity (SI +0.3 ± 1.2), whereas the tertile with net fat mass gain (+0.9 kg, range -0.1 to +3.8 kg) had reduced insulin sensitivity (SI -0.7 ± 1.3) from baseline values (P < 0.05 by ANOVA). Black women in a weight loss program who lose fat mass may have improved insulin sensitivity, but fat mass gain with diminished sensitivity is common. Additional support for participants who fail to achieve fat mass loss early in an intervention may be required for success.

  20. Alcohol pharmacokinetics and risk-taking behaviour following exercise-induced dehydration.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Christopher; Goodwin, Alison; Leveritt, Michael; Davey, Andrew K; Desbrow, Ben

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of exercise-induced dehydration on alcohol pharmacokinetics, subjective ratings of impairment, and risk-taking behaviours. Twelve male volunteers participated in 3 experimental trials completed in a randomised cross over design separated by at least 7 days. In one trial, participants exercised to cause dehydration of ~2.5% body weight loss. For the other trials, participants were required to be in a rested and euhydrated state. A set volume of alcohol was then consumed in each trial and participants were monitored over a 4h period. Blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol samples were collected throughout and analysed to calculate pharmacokinetic variables associated with the blood alcohol curve. Total urine production, estimates of BrAC, and subjective ratings of intoxication and impairment were also recorded throughout each trial. No difference was found in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol between any of the trial conditions. BrACs were higher than BACs for 2h following alcohol consumption, but lower at measures taken 3 and 4 h post ingestion. Participants' ratings of confusion and intoxication were significantly lower, and they were more willing to drive in the dehydration trial compared with one of the euhydration trials. These findings suggest that dehydration or other physiological changes associated with exercise may have an ability to influence the subjective effects of alcohol and increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviours such as drink-driving. However, further research is required to examine the effects of alcohol under conditions of exercise-induced fluid loss in order to clarify these findings.

  1. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and atopy in Tunisian athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sallaoui, Ridha; Chamari, Karim; Mossa, Abbas; Tabka, Zouhair; Chtara, Moktar; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Background This study is a cross sectional analysis, aiming to evaluate if atopy is as a risk factor for exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) among Tunisian athletes. Methods Atopy was defined by a skin prick test result and EIB was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 8-min running at 80–85% HRmaxTheo. The study population was composed of 326 athletes (age: 20.8 ± 2.7 yrs – mean ± SD; 138 women and 188 men) of whom 107 were elite athletes. Results Atopy was found in 26.9% (88/326) of the athletes. Post exercise spirometry revealed the presence of EIB in 9.8% of the athletes including 13% of the elite athletes. Frequency of atopy in athletes with EIB was significantly higher than in athletes without EIB [62.5% vs 23.1%, respectively]. Conclusion This study showed that atopic Tunisian athletes presented a higher risk of developing exercise induced bronchoconstriction than non-atopic athletes. PMID:19196480

  2. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  3. Carbuterol, salbutamol and DSCG in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Tabas, A; Rodríguez, A; Lobera, T; Diéguez, I; Oehling, A

    1985-01-01

    We decided in this work to evaluate the prophylactic value of carbuterol in exercise-induced asthma (EIA), comparing this drug to salbutamol and DSCG in order to describe its usefulness in exercise-induced asthma, while employing the closing-pressure method for the early detection of airway constriction. The study involved 44 bronchial asthmatics with prior histories of EIA. Only 10 patients had noticeable symptoms after exercise. All patients were asymptomatic and without any medication for at least one week prior to the commencement of the study. A continuous running treadmill was chosen for the exercise test, and a 10 minute time-period with a maximum heart rate of 180 beats/min. was the limit. Measurements of the FEV1, PEF and Raw were also done. Drug therapy was carried out by administering 10.5 mg of carbuterol, or 4 mg of salbutamol orally, 1.5 hours, before the exercise, or a 20 mg DSCG capsule, 30 minutes also prior to exercise. We concluded that: DSCG is the drug of choice in the control of EIA, while salbutamol results were somewhat less effective. Orally administered carbuterol did not provide any protection effect as expected. Raw measurements enter as a new parameter for consideration in this type of disease, being entirely compatible with FEV1 and PEF values during assessment.

  4. Exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by intensity.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Foster, Adam D; Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea; Gerdeman, Gregory L

    2013-04-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCB) are endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors that are densely expressed in brain networks responsible for reward. Recent work shows that exercise activates the eCB system in humans and other mammals, suggesting eCBs are partly responsible for the reported improvements in mood and affect following aerobic exercise in humans. However, exercise-induced psychological changes reported by runners are known to be dependent on exercise intensity, suggesting that any underlying molecular mechanism should also change with varying levels of exercise intensity. Here, we examine circulating levels of eCBs following aerobic exercise (treadmill running) in recreationally fit human runners at four different intensities. We show that eCB signaling is indeed intensity dependent, with significant changes in circulating eCBs observed following moderate intensities only (very high and very low intensity exercises do not significantly alter circulating eCB levels). Our results are consistent with intensity-dependent psychological state changes with exercise and therefore support the hypothesis that eCB activity is related to neurobiological effects of exercise. Thus, future studies examining the role of exercise-induced eCB signaling on neurobiology or physiology must take exercise intensity into account.

  5. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and atopy in Tunisian athletes.

    PubMed

    Sallaoui, Ridha; Chamari, Karim; Mossa, Abbas; Tabka, Zouhair; Chtara, Moktar; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-02-05

    This study is a cross sectional analysis, aiming to evaluate if atopy is as a risk factor for exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) among Tunisian athletes. Atopy was defined by a skin prick test result and EIB was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 8-min running at 80-85% HRmaxTheo. The study population was composed of 326 athletes (age: 20.8 +/- 2.7 yrs - mean +/- SD; 138 women and 188 men) of whom 107 were elite athletes. Atopy was found in 26.9% (88/326) of the athletes. Post exercise spirometry revealed the presence of EIB in 9.8% of the athletes including 13% of the elite athletes. Frequency of atopy in athletes with EIB was significantly higher than in athletes without EIB [62.5% vs 23.1%, respectively]. This study showed that atopic Tunisian athletes presented a higher risk of developing exercise induced bronchoconstriction than non-atopic athletes.

  6. Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barg, Wojciech; Medrala, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) are rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndromes in which association with exercise is crucial. The range of triggering physical activities is broad, including as mild an effort as a stroll. EIA is not fully repeatable (ie, the same exercise may not always result in anaphylaxis in a given patient). In FDEIA, the combined ingestion of sensitizing food and exercise is necessary to precipitate symptoms. Clinical features and management do not differ significantly from other types of anaphylaxis. The pathophysiology of EIA and FDEIA is not fully understood. Different hypotheses concerning the possible influence of exercise on the development of anaphylactic symptoms are taken into consideration. These include increased gastrointestinal permeability, blood flow redistribution, and most likely increased osmolality. This article also describes current diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, including changes in lifestyle and preventive properties of antiallergic drugs as well as acute treatment of these dangerous syndromes. PMID:20922508

  7. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Robson-Ansley, Paula; Toit, George Du

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this review is to challenge the current opinions of the pathophysiological mechanisms that give rise to food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) and to consider these mechanisms within the wider context of exercise physiology to further inform our understanding and treatment of this condition. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (food dependent and nonfood dependent) is a clinical syndrome in which anaphylaxis occurs in conjunction with exercise. Given the rarity of the condition, our current understanding relies on the many case studies and reviews of the topic. The pathophysiology of FDEIA remains to be fully elucidated with well constructed trials but current working hypotheses to date involve alterations in plasma osmolaltiy and pH, tissue enzyme activity, blood flow redistribution, altered gastrointestinal permeability and facilitated epitope recognition/allergen binding. Implications for future research are the physiological changes that occur during exercise need deeper consideration to ensure that proposed mechanisms are realistic and actually occur within the time frame and exercise-intensity domain during which the reported FDEIA occurred. These theories must be tested rigorously with sufficiently powered studies if progress is to be made in determining the perplexing pathophysiology of FDEIA.

  8. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Abbas; Javadi, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades. In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these. It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals. Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.

  9. Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

  10. A bovine stress syndrome associated with exercise-induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hill, B D; McManus, A C; Brown, N N; Playford, C L; Noble, J W

    2000-01-01

    To investigate an exercise-induced bovine stress syndrome under field and controlled experimental conditions. In the field study, cattle affected with the stress syndrome were observed while they were grazing and during normal mustering using horses. This study served to define the clinical nature of the syndrome. The experimental study utilised three affected and five normal unaffected cattle. These animals were compared on the basis of their response to a defined exercise program, which consisted of walking 3.6 km in 2 h. Blood samples and measurements of respiratory rate, ambient temperature and rectal temperature were taken immediately before exercise, and at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h during the exercise and 24 h later. Clinical and blood constituent data were subjected to standard analysis of variance and repeated measures analysis. In the field study, affected cattle were observed to show abnormally anxious and hyperactive behaviour. This behaviour was exhibited by affected cattle during the experimental exercise program where it was shown to be accompanied by hyperthermia and hyperventilation. The experimental study showed that affected cattle developed metabolic acidosis and became hyperglycaemic. Their plasma creatine kinase activity remained markedly increased at 24 h after exercise but other clinical and blood constituent variables had returned to normal values. The clinical and biochemical changes detected in affected cattle were consistent with exercise-induced malignant hyperthermia.

  11. The influence of exercise-induced fatigue on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert D; Romine, Mathew W; O'connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2012-05-01

    Although anecdotal reports suggest that information processing and decision making is impaired immediately following prolonged periods of physical activity, results obtained from laboratory studies of exercise-induced fatigue have been inconsistent. Fatigue effects may be task specific and related to the time of post-exercise testing. The present study examined the effects on adults' performance of two cognitive tasks that differed in processing demands over an 80-min period of fatigue. Thirty young adult men and women were randomly assigned to either an exercise group and completed a 60-min bout of cycle ergometry at 90% ventilatory threshold or a control group and rested for 60 min. Following interventions, each participant completed a simple and complex version of a visual perceptual discrimination test, a 40-min memory-based vigilance test and a repetition of the visual perceptual discrimination tests. Those who exercised evidenced significant decrements in performance on complex perceptual-discrimination tasks compared to participants who rested. The response time of exercisers during a memory-demanding vigilance test were significantly slower than those of participants who rested; however, detection performance did not differ between groups neither was there a decrease in target detection across the vigil. The effects of exercise-induced fatigue may be task specific, with greater effects on perceptual tasks, which involve relatively automatic processing, compared to effortful memory-based tasks.

  12. Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40 kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

  13. High-fat diet induces cardiac remodelling and dysfunction: assessment of the role played by SIRT3 loss.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Heng; Vaka, Venkata Ramana; He, Xiaochen; Booz, George W; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in obesity-induced cardiac impairment. SIRT3 is a mitochondrial protein associated with increased human life span and metabolism. This study investigated the functional role of SIRT3 in obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction. Wild-type (WT) and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Body weight, fasting glucose levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, myocardial capillary density, cardiac function and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α/-2α were assessed. HFD resulted in a significant reduction in SIRT3 expression in the heart. Both HFD and SIRT3 KO mice showed increased ROS formation, impaired HIF signalling and reduced capillary density in the heart. HFD induced cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function. SIRT3 KO mice fed HFD showed greater ROS production and a further reduction in cardiac function compared to SIRT3 KO mice on ND. Thus, the adverse effects of HFD on cardiac function were not attributable to SIRT3 loss alone. However, HFD did not further reduce capillary density in SIRT3 KO hearts, implicating SIRT3 loss in HFD-induced capillary rarefaction. Our study demonstrates the importance of SIRT3 in preserving heart function and capillary density in the setting of obesity. Thus, SIRT3 may be a potential therapeutic target for obesity-induced heart failure.

  14. High-fat diet induces cardiac remodelling and dysfunction: assessment of the role played by SIRT3 loss

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Heng; Vaka, Venkata Ramana; He, Xiaochen; Booz, George W; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in obesity-induced cardiac impairment. SIRT3 is a mitochondrial protein associated with increased human life span and metabolism. This study investigated the functional role of SIRT3 in obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction. Wild-type (WT) and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Body weight, fasting glucose levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, myocardial capillary density, cardiac function and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α/-2α were assessed. HFD resulted in a significant reduction in SIRT3 expression in the heart. Both HFD and SIRT3 KO mice showed increased ROS formation, impaired HIF signalling and reduced capillary density in the heart. HFD induced cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function. SIRT3 KO mice fed HFD showed greater ROS production and a further reduction in cardiac function compared to SIRT3 KO mice on ND. Thus, the adverse effects of HFD on cardiac function were not attributable to SIRT3 loss alone. However, HFD did not further reduce capillary density in SIRT3 KO hearts, implicating SIRT3 loss in HFD-induced capillary rarefaction. Our study demonstrates the importance of SIRT3 in preserving heart function and capillary density in the setting of obesity. Thus, SIRT3 may be a potential therapeutic target for obesity-induced heart failure. PMID:25782072

  15. Weight loss and metabolic benefits with diets of varying fat and carbohydrate content: separating the wheat from the chaff.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Bonnie J; D'Alessio, David A

    2008-03-01

    With the rising prevalence of both obesity and diabetes, the contributing role of diet to the prevention and treatment of these conditions has become a major focus of research, clinical practice, and public policy. There has been intense debate over which dietary regimens might be most effective for weight loss, with interest centered on the potential for specific dietary macronutrients to affect body composition, metabolism, and overall health. This Review addresses two regimens with distinct macronutrient prescriptions that have been widely touted as being beneficial for weight loss and/or metabolic profile: diets low in carbohydrate and diets high in monounsaturated fat. Although data from recent randomized, controlled trials suggest these popular diets may be useful for weight control, cardiovascular health, and glycemic control, longer studies of the efficacy and safety of varying macronutrient content are needed to strengthen the evidence base for nutritional recommendations. Until more support for specific macronutrient combinations is available, practitioners can recommend an array of diets with moderate amounts of macronutrients, tailored to individual needs and preferences.

  16. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    PubMed

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p < 0.05). More fat mass was lost in the trunk region with lorcaserin compared with placebo (without diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gut microbiota composition correlates with changes in body fat content due to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Remely, M; Tesar, I; Hippe, B; Gnauer, S; Rust, P; Haslberger, A G

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, lifestyle, and dietary habits contribute to metabolic syndrome, but also an altered gut microbiota has been identified. Based on this knowledge it is suggested that host bacterial composition tends to change in response to dietary factors and weight loss. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria affecting host metabolism in obesity during weight loss and to correlate them with changes of the body composition obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited obese individuals receiving a dietary intervention according DACH (German, Austrian, and Swiss Society of Nutrition) reference values and guidelines for 'prevention and therapy of obesity' of DAG e.V., DDG, DGE e.V., and DGEM e.V. over three months. Faecal microbiota and BIA measurements were conducted at three time points, before, during, and after the intervention. Gut microbiota was analysed on the basis of 16S rDNA with quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions to nutritional behaviour, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before intervention. After weight reduction, obese individuals showed a significant increase of total bacterial abundance. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes significantly decreased during intervention. Lactobacilli significantly increased between the first and the second time point. These differences also correlated with differences in weight percentage. During the intervention period Clostridium cluster IV increased significantly between the second and the third time point. In contrast Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreased abundance. The dominant butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, significantly increased as did the abundance of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene. Archaea and Akkermansia were significantly more prevalent after weight reduction. Our results show a clear difference in the gut bacterial composition before and after dietary intervention with a rapid

  18. ROLE OF RS9939609 FTO GENE VARIANT IN WEIGHT LOSS, INSULIN RESISTANCE AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS AFTER A HIGH MONOUNSATURATED VS A HIGH POLYUNSATURATED FAT HYPOCALORIC DIETS.

    PubMed

    De Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    common polymorphisms (rs9939609) of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) have been linked to obesity. our aim was to investigate the role of this polymorphism on insulin resistance, metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. a sample of 233 obese subjects was enrolled in a prospective way. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to; Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) or Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). after treatment with two diets and in both genotypes, weight, fat mass and waist circumference decreased. Lower levels of body mass index (BMI), weight and fat mass were detected after Diet P in A allele carriers than TT genotype subjects. With the diet type P and in both genotypes (TT and AT + AA), total cholesterol levels (-15.3 + 35.1 mg/dl vs -11.6 + 32.1 mg/dl: p > 0.05) and LDL cholesterol levels (-11.5 + 34.1 mg/dl vs -8.5 + 30.1 mg/dl: p > 0.05) decreased. In A allele carriers a significant decreased was detected in insulin levels (-2.8 + 2.1 UI/L vs -1.3 + 8.0 UI/L: p < 0.05) and HOMA index (-1.0 + 1.3 vs -0.2 + 2.1: p > 0.05), too. With the diet M and in both genotype groups, leptin levels (-8.0 + 17.1 ng/ ml vs -4.9 + 18.7 ng/ml: p > 0.05) decreased. Conclusiones: metabolic improvement secondary to weight loss was better in A carriers with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial investigation of a novel noninvasive weight loss therapy using MRI-Guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Winter, Patrick M; Lanier, Matthew; Partanen, Ari; Dumoulin, Charles

    2016-07-01

    MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) allows noninvasive heating of deep tissues. Specifically targeting visceral fat deposits with MR-HIFU could offer an effective therapy for reversing the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Overweight rats received either MR-HIFU of visceral fat, sham treatment, no treatment, or ex vivo temperature calibration. Conventional MR thermometry methods are not effective in fat tissue. Therefore, the T2 of fat was used to estimate heating in adipose tissue. HIFU treated rats lost 7.5% of their body weight 10 days after HIFU, compared with 1.9% weight loss in sham animals (P = 0.008) and 1.3% weight increase in untreated animals (P = 0.004). Additionally, the abdominal fat volume in treated animals decreased by 8.2 mL 7 days after treatment (P = 0.002). The T2 of fat at 1.5 Tesla increased by 3.3 ms per °C. The fat T2 was 103.3 ms before HIFU, but increased to 128.7 ms (P = 0.0005) after HIFU at 70 watts for 16 s and to 131.9 ms (P = 0.0005) after HIFU at 100 watts for 16 s. These experiments demonstrate that MR-HIFU of visceral fat could provide a safe, effective, and noninvasive weight loss therapy for combating obesity and the subsequent medical complications. Magn Reson Med 76:282-289, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Body fat is associated with increased and lean mass with decreased knee cartilage loss in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ding, C; Stannus, O; Cicuttini, F; Antony, B; Jones, G

    2013-06-01

    To determine the associations between body composition at baseline and knee cartilage loss over 2.9 years in older adults. A total of 395 randomly selected subjects (mean 62 years, range 51-81, 50% female) were studied at baseline and 2.9 years later. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and tibial bone area at baseline and follow-up. Height, weight and radiographic osteoarthritis were measured by standard protocols at baseline. Fat mass and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Tibial cartilage volume decreased by 2.0-2.7% per annum. In multivariable analysis, annual change in medial cartilage volume was negatively and significantly associated with body mass index (β: -0.14% per kg m(-2), 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25%, -0.02%), percentage total body fat (β: -0.19% per %, 95% CI: -0.30%, -0.07%) and percentage trunk fat (β: -0.10% per %, 95% CI: -0.19%, -0.02%), and positively associated with percentage lean mass (β: 0.20% per %, 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.32%). Change in lateral tibial cartilage volume was also significantly associated with percentage total body fat (β: -0.11% per %, 95% CI: -0.21%, -0.001%) and total lean mass (β: 0.13% per kg, 95% CI: 0.04%, 0.22%). These were independent of sex and age even though both were also significant predictors. Body fat adversely affects tibial cartilage loss over time, whereas lean mass is protective. Strategies aimed at reducing body fat but increasing lean mass may reduce knee cartilage loss in older people.

  1. Correlation between reduction of superior interventricular groove epicardial fat thickness and improvement of insulin resistance after weight loss in obese men.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kae-Woei; Tsai, I-Chen; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Lee, I-Te; Fu, Chia-Po; Wang, Jun-Sing; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We prospectively enrolled 32 non-diabetic men with MetS for a 3-month weight reduction program mainly by diet control and exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were used to measure EAT, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal visceral fat. Anthropometric parameters, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and serum adipokines were assessed before and after the weight loss program. After a 3-month weight loss program, 27 obese MetS men had significant weight loss >5% (97 ± 14 to 87 ± 14 kg, with a 10.7 % decrease, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the decrement ratio of superior interventricular groove (SIVG) EAT thickness (r = 0.322, p = 0.044) and serum leptin (r = 0.626, p < 0.001) significantly correlated with the percentage improvements of fasting HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, the decrement ratio of SIVG EAT thickness (r = -0.370, p = 0.017) and decrement ratio of subcutaneous fat area (r = -0.673, p = 0.006) were significantly correlated with improvement of OGTT-derived Matsuda insulin-sensitivity index. The decrement ratio of SIVG EAT correlated with improvement of both HOMA-IR and OGTT-derived Matsuda insulin-sensitivity indexes after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with MetS. (Multi-faceted Evaluations Following Weight Reduction in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome NCT 01065753 on Feb 8, 2010).

  2. Endurance Exercise Reduces Hepatic Fat Content and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Sun, Xiaomin; Kubo, Takafumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hepatic fat accumulation increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21-resistant state caused by fatty liver underlies the pathogenesis of these diseases. Previous studies suggested that a higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with both lower hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels; however, the effect of endurance exercise on hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 concentration has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate whether endurance exercise reduced hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels. This is a randomized crossover trial. The study setting was an institutional practice. Thirty-three elderly Japanese men participated in the study. The intervention was a 5-week endurance exercise program comprising three cycle ergometer sessions per week. Hepatic fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum FGF21 level was determined by ELISA. A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased the hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss, and the changes were higher in the exercise period than in the control period (P = .021 and P = .026, respectively). Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the change in hepatic fat content was significantly and positively correlated with change in serum FGF21 levels (r = 0.366, P = .006). A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss in elderly men, and exercise-induced hepatic fat reduction mediated the reduction in serum FGF21 levels. These findings suggest that endurance exercise modulates hepatic fat content and FGF21 resistance, regardless of obesity status.

  3. The use of LeptiCore® in reducing fat gain and managing weight loss in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background LeptiCore® is a proprietary combination of various ingredients which have been shown to have properties which could be beneficial to weight loss in obese and overweight human subjects. This study evaluates the effect of Lepticore® on bodyweight as well as parameters associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 92 obese (mean BMI > 30 kg/m2) participants (37 males; 55 females; ages 19-52; mean age = 30.7). The participants were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 30), LeptiCore® formula A (low dose) (n = 31) and LeptiCore® formula B (high dose) (n = 31). Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals with 300 ml of water. None of the participants followed any specific diet nor took any weight-reducing medications for the duration of the study. A total of 12 anthropomorphic and serological measurements were taken at the beginning of the study and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed statistically significant differences on all 12 variables by week 8. These included four anthropomorphic variables (body weight, body fat, waist and hip size) and eight measures of serological levels (plasma total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, serotonin, leptin, C-reactive protein). The two active groups also showed significant intra-group differences on all 12 variables between study onset and week 8. Conclusion The LeptiCore® formulation at both the low and high dosages appears to be helpful in the management of fat gain and its related complications. The higher dosage resulted in significantly greater reductions in body weight and triglyceride, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein levels, as well as increased serotonin levels. PMID:20170522

  4. Loss of a neural AMP-activated kinase mimics the effects of elevated serotonin on fat, movement, and hormonal secretions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Katherine A; Bouagnon, Aude D; Barros, Alexandre G; Lin, Lin; Malard, Leandro; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Ashrafi, Kaveh

    2014-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of metabolism and a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. As an energy sensor, AMPK activity is responsive to both metabolic inputs, for instance the ratio of AMP to ATP, and numerous hormonal cues. As in mammals, each of two genes, aak-1 and aak-2, encode for the catalytic subunit of AMPK in C. elegans. Here we show that in C. elegans loss of aak-2 mimics the effects of elevated serotonin signaling on fat reduction, slowed movement, and promoting exit from dauer arrest. Reconstitution of aak-2 in only the nervous system restored wild type fat levels and movement rate to aak-2 mutants and reconstitution in only the ASI neurons was sufficient to significantly restore dauer maintenance to the mutant animals. As in elevated serotonin signaling, inactivation of AAK-2 in the ASI neurons caused enhanced secretion of dense core vesicles from these neurons. The ASI neurons are the site of production of the DAF-7 TGF-β ligand and the DAF-28 insulin, both of which are secreted by dense core vesicles and play critical roles in whether animals stay in dauer or undergo reproductive development. These findings show that elevated levels of serotonin promote enhanced secretions of systemic regulators of pro-growth and differentiation pathways through inactivation of AAK-2. As such, AMPK is not only a recipient of hormonal signals but can also be an upstream regulator. Our data suggest that some of the physiological phenotypes previously attributed to peripheral AAK-2 activity on metabolic targets may instead be due to the role of this kinase in neural serotonin signaling.

  5. Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Fattakhova, Gulnar; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2011-09-01

    Lifestyle interventions focusing on weight loss remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management. Despite this, the weight losses achieved in research trials are not easily replicated in the clinic and there is an urgent need for therapies independent of weight loss. Aerobic exercise is not well sustained and the effectiveness of the better tolerated resistance exercise upon liver lipid and mediators of liver lipid has not been assessed. Sedentary adults with clinically defined NAFLD were assigned to 8 weeks of resistance exercise (n=11) or continued normal treatment (n=8). 8 weeks of resistance exercise elicited a 13% relative reduction in liver lipid (14.0 ± 9.1 vs. 12.2 ± 9.0; p<0.05). Lipid oxidation (submaximal RQ -0.020 ± 0.010 vs. -0.004 ± 0.003; p<0.05), glucose control (-12% vs. +12% change AUC; p<0.01) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (5.9 ± 5.9 to 4.6 ± 4.6 vs. 4.7 ± 2.1 to 5.1 ± 2.5; p<0.05) were all improved. Resistance exercise had no effect on body weight, visceral adipose tissue volume, or whole body fat mass (p>0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that resistance exercise specifically improves NAFLD independent of any change in body weight. These data demonstrate that resistance exercise may provide benefit for the management for non-alcoholic fatty liver, and the long-term impact of this now requires evaluation.

  6. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Sabine; Zittermann, Armin; Berthold, Heiner K; Götting, Christian; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Stehle, Peter; Körtke, Heinrich

    2009-07-18

    We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and <40% energy, respectively). Both groups attended a weekly nutrition education program and dietary counselling by telephone, and had to transfer actual body weight data to our clinic weekly with added Bluetooth technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg) in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg) in the low-fat group (p = 0.065). In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005-0.037). Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387.

  7. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat fed obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew C.; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R. Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M.; Holmes, Gregory M.; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery to produce weight loss has been well documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding, and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Results Despite recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from pre-surgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. Conclusions In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption. PMID:23269513

  8. Identification by proteomic analysis of early post-mortem markers involved in the variability in fat loss during cooking of mule duck "foie gras".

    PubMed

    Theron, Laetitia; Fernandez, Xavier; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Chambon, Christophe; Viala, Didier; Astruc, Thierry; Molette, Caroline

    2011-12-14

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main quality issue for both processors and consumers. Despite the efforts of the processing industry to control fat loss, the variability of fatty liver cooking yield remains high and uncontrolled. To better understand the biological basis of this phenomenon, a proteomic study was conducted. To analyze the protein fraction soluble at low ionic strength (LIS), we used bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for the identification of spots of interest. To analyze the protein fraction not soluble at low ionic strength (NS), we used the shotgun strategy. The analysis of data acquired from both protein fractions suggested that at the time of slaughter, livers with low fat loss during cooking were still in anabolic processes with regard to energy metabolism and protein synthesis, whereas livers with high fat loss during cooking developed cell protection mechanisms. The variability in the technological yield observed in processing plants could be explained by a different physiological stage of liver steatosis.

  9. Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few studies have examined the effects of diet on the dynamics of injury progression or on alcohol-induced bone loss. In the current study, 300 g male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 10/group) were treated with alcohol containing liquid diets via a stomach tube. Dietary fat content was either 5% (high carbo...

  10. Allelic Variants of Melanocortin 3 Receptor Gene (MC3R) and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, José L.; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine; Naranjo, Carolina; Maiz, Alberto; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H. M.; MacDonald, Ian; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. Subjects and Methods This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat) diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Results No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04) and dominant models (p = 0.03). These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103–rs1543873 (p = 0.06), rs6014646–rs6024730 (p = 0.05) and rs3746619–rs3827103 (p = 0.10) displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Conclusion The study provided

  11. Effects of total and regional fat loss on plasma CRP and IL-6 in overweight and obese, older adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Beavers, K M; Beavers, D P; Newman, J J; Anderson, A M; Loeser, R F; Nicklas, B J; Lyles, M F; Miller, G D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2015-02-01

    To describe associations between total and regional body fat mass loss and reduction of systemic levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) in obese, older adults with osteoarthritis (OA), undergoing intentional weight loss. Data come from a single-blind, 18-month, randomized controlled trial in adults (age: 65.6 ± 6.2; Body mass index (BMI): 33.6 ± 3.7) with knee OA. Participants were randomized to diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D + E; n = 150), diet-induced weight loss-only (D; n = 149), or exercise-only (E; n = 151). Total body and region-specific (abdomen and thigh) fat mass were measured at baseline and 18 months. High-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 were measured at baseline, six and 18 months. Intervention effects were assessed using mixed models and associations between inflammation and adiposity were compared using logistic and mixed linear regression models. Intentional total body fat mass reduction was associated with significant reductions in log-adjusted CRP (β = 0.06 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.08) mg/L) and IL-6 (β = 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01, 0.04) pg/mL). Loss of abdominal fat volume was also associated with reduced inflammation, independent of total body fat mass; although models containing measures of total adiposity yielded the best fit. The odds of achieving clinically desirable levels of CRP (<3.0 mg/L) and IL-6 (<2.5 pg/mL) were 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 8.9) and 2.2 (95% CI = 1.1, 4.6), respectively, with 5% total weight and fat mass loss. Achievement of clinically desirable levels of CRP and IL-6 more than double with intentional 5% loss of total body weight and fat mass. Global, rather than regional, measures of adiposity are better predictors of change in inflammatory burden. NCT00381290. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral biomarkers in exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, J-Lc; Hirsch, M A; Stevens, C B; Mougeot, Fkb

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we review candidate biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) in oral cavity, potential of oral biomarkers as markers of neuroplasticity, and literature on the effects of exercise on oral cavity biomarkers in PD. We first describe how pathophysiological pathways of PD may be transduced from brain stem and ganglia to oral cavity through the autonomic nervous system or transduced by a reverse path. Next we describe the effects of exercise in PD and potential impact on oral cavity. We propose that biomarkers in oral cavity may be useful targets for describing exercise-induced brain neuroplasticity in PD. Nevertheless, much research remains to be carried out before applying these biomarkers for the determination of disease state and therapeutic response to develop strategies to mitigate motor or non-motor symptoms in PD.

  13. Dietary strategies to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Teixeira, Vítor H; Soares, José

    2014-03-01

    Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how nutrition may be positively used to recover from EIMD. The combined intake of carbohydrates and proteins and the use of antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients within physiological ranges are interventions that may assist the recovery process. Although the works studying food instead of nutritional supplements are very scarce, their results seem to indicate that food might be a favourable option as a recovery strategy. To date, the only tested foods were milk, cherries, blueberries and pomegranate with promising results. Other potential solutions are foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients.

  14. Suspected exercise-induced seizures in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Motta, L; Dutton, E

    2013-04-01

    A 12-month-old female neutered crossbreed was referred for investigation of seizure-like episodes occurring only at intense exercise. Thorough medical, neurological and cardiac investigations were performed and excluded the most commonly known causes of seizure-like activity. The dog was fitted with an ambulatory electrocardiography device and underwent another exercise-induced seizure. The electrocardiogram during the episode revealed a sinus tachycardia at approximately 300 beats/minute. A video recording of the episode revealed generalised tonic clonic limb activity with jaw chomping and frothing at the mouth typical of seizure activity. Antiepileptic medications were not prescribed and the owner was advised not to exercise the dog intensely. The dog responded well and did not seizure after 12 months of mild-moderate off-lead exercise. As all the seizures in this case were triggered by intense physical activity, it is suggested that this may be a new form of reflex seizure activity.

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  16. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  17. Effects of nedocromil sodium, cromolyn sodium, and a placebo in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Morton, A R; Ogle, S L; Fitch, K D

    1992-02-01

    The incidence and severity of exercise-induced asthma were determined in nineteen asthmatic patients who performed eight minutes of exercise following four treatments administered in a random order. The treatments were nedocromil sodium, cromolyn sodium, placebo, and no treatment. It was concluded that nedocromil sodium (8 mg) and cromolyn sodium (4 mg) provide equal protection against exercise-induced asthma.

  18. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  20. The role of muscle mass in exercise-induced hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Garten, Ryan S; Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-induced hyperemia is often normalized for muscle mass, and this value is sometimes evaluated at relative exercise intensities to take muscle recruitment into account. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the impact of muscle mass on leg blood flow (LBF) during exercise. LBF was assessed by Doppler ultrasound in 27 young healthy male subjects performing knee-extensor (KE) exercise at three absolute (5, 15, and 25 W) and three relative [20, 40, and 60% of maximum KE (KEmax)] workloads. Thigh muscle mass (5.2-8.1 kg) and LBF were significantly correlated at rest (r = 0.54; P = 0.004). Exercise-induced hyperemia was linearly related to absolute workload, but revealed substantial between-subject variability, documented by the coefficient of variation (5 W: 17%; 15 W: 16%; 25 W: 16%). Quadriceps muscle mass (1.5-2.7 kg) and LBF were not correlated at 5, 15, or 25 W (r = 0.09-0.01; P = 0.7-0.9). Normalizing blood flow for quadriceps muscle mass did not improve the coefficient of variation at each absolute workload (5 W: 21%; 15 W: 21%; 25 W: 22%), while the additional evaluation at relative exercise intensities resulted in even greater variance (20% KEmax: 29%; 40% KEmax: 29%; 60% KEmax: 27%). Similar findings were documented when subjects were parsed into high and low aerobic capacity. Thus, in contrast to rest, blood flow during exercise is unrelated to muscle mass, and simply normalizing for muscle mass or comparing normalized blood flow at a given relative exercise intensity has no effect on the inherent blood flow variability. Therefore, during exercise, muscle mass does not appear to be a determinant of the hyperemic response.

  1. Exercise-induced muscle cramp. Proposed mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Bentley, S

    1996-06-01

    Muscle cramp is a common, painful, physiological disturbance of skeletal muscle. Many athletes are regularly frustrated by exercise-induced muscle cramp yet the pathogenesis remains speculative with little scientific research on the subject. This has resulted in a perpetuation of myths as to the cause and treatment of it. There is a need for scientifically based protocols for the management of athletes who suffer exercise-related muscle cramp. This article reviews the literature and neurophysiology of muscle cramp occurring during exercise. Disturbances at various levels of the central and peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cramp and may explain the diverse range of conditions in which cramp occurs. The activity of the motor neuron is subject to a multitude of influences including peripheral receptor sensory input, spinal reflexes, inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord, synaptic and neurotransmitter modulation and descending CNS input. The muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ proprioceptors are fundamental to the control of muscle length and tone and the maintenance of posture. Disturbance in the activity of these receptors may occur through faulty posture, shortened muscle length, intense exercise and exercise to fatigue, resulting in increased motor neuron activity and motor unit recruitment. The relaxation phase of muscle contraction is prolonged in a fatigued muscle, raising the likelihood of fused summation of action potentials if motor neuron activity delivers a sustained high firing frequency. Treatment of cramp is directed at reducing muscle spindle and motor neuron activity by reflex inhibition and afferent stimulation. There are no proven strategies for the prevention of exercise-induced muscle cramp but regular muscle stretching using post-isometric relaxation techniques, correction of muscle balance and posture, adequate conditioning for the activity, mental preparation for competition and

  2. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-09-27

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P < 0.0001) and, specifically, dietary fiber (-1.26 ± 0.28 kg/5 g fiber, P < 0.0001). Baseline weight was positively associated with total fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P < 0.0001), saturated fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P < 0.0001), and protein (0.21 ± 0.05 kg/100 kcal, P < 0.0001). For all groups, weight loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in

  3. A Novel Role for Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Exercise-Induced Improvements in Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Lee, Min-Young; Takahashi, Hirokazu; So, Kawai; Hitchcox, Kristen M.; Markan, Kathleen R.; Hellbach, Katharina; Hirshman, Michael F.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training improves whole-body glucose homeostasis through effects largely attributed to adaptations in skeletal muscle; however, training also affects other tissues, including adipose tissue. To determine whether exercise-induced adaptations to adipose tissue contribute to training-induced improvements in glucose homeostasis, subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) from exercise-trained or sedentary donor mice was transplanted into the visceral cavity of sedentary recipients. Remarkably, 9 days post-transplantation, mice receiving scWAT from exercise-trained mice had improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity compared with mice transplanted with scWAT from sedentary or sham-treated mice. Mice transplanted with scWAT from exercise-trained mice had increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and brown adipose tissue, suggesting that the transplanted scWAT exerted endocrine effects. Furthermore, the deleterious effects of high-fat feeding on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were completely reversed if high-fat–fed recipient mice were transplanted with scWAT from exercise-trained mice. In additional experiments, voluntary exercise training by wheel running for only 11 days resulted in profound changes in scWAT, including the increased expression of ∼1,550 genes involved in numerous cellular functions including metabolism. Exercise training causes adaptations to scWAT that elicit metabolic improvements in other tissues, demonstrating a previously unrecognized role for adipose tissue in the beneficial effects of exercise on systemic glucose homeostasis. PMID:25605808

  4. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  5. A critical assessment of the mechanism by which hyperoxia attenuates exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, A D; Deal, E C; Ingram, R H; McFadden, E R

    1979-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the magnitude of the heat loss that occurs from the respiratory tract during exercise correlates with the degree of post-exertional obstruction that develops in asthmatics. Respiratory heat loss relates directly to the minute ventilation and heat capacity of the inspired gas and inversely to its water content and temperature. Because it has been shown that inhaling 100% oxygen during exercise blunts the obstructive response, we wondered if this effect could be accounted for by differing values of heat exchange with air and oxygen breathing. To examine this question, we studied 10 asthmatics by measuring multiple aspects of pulmonary mechanics before and after four bouts of exhausting leg work during which the subjects inhaled either air or oxygen conditioned to provide widely differing thermal burdens on their airways. Under all inspired gas conditions, oxygen breathing produced significantly less obstruction than air. Minute ventilation was also significantly less with oxygen as was the total heat lost. As the latter fell, so did the magnitude of the postexercise obstruction. When the differences in ventilation and respiratory heat loss between air and oxygen were eliminated by eucapnic hyperventilation, the differences in the obstructive responses also disappeared. Thus, the effects of hyperoxia on exercise-induced asthma can be accounteed for solely by alterations in heat exchange. PMID:457867

  6. High-fat diet causes bone loss in young mice by promoting osteoclastogenesis through alteration of the bone marrow environment.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lei; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong; Zhang, Hengwei; Zuscik, Michael J; Puzas, Edward J; Boyce, Brendan F; Mooney, Robert A; Xing, Lianping

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.

  7. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; P<0.03 for each). The relations with FM, FM%, TF%, VAT and DSAT were significantly modified by sex (P for interaction=0.02, 0.005 and <0.001, 0.002, 0.03, respectively) with greater reductions associated with increase of adiponectin in men than in women. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  8. PPARγ Pro12Ala interacts with fat intake for obesity and weight loss in a behavioural treatment based on the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Hernández-González, Teresa; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, Jose M

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and weight loss and to analyze potential interactions between fat intake and PPARγ polymorphism in a Spanish overweight/obese population. We recruited 1465 subjects enrolled in a behavioural treatment program for obesity based on a Mediterranean diet, which included the following: dietary treatment, physical activity, nutritional education and behavioral techniques. A significant association was found between PPARγ2 Pro12Ala genotype and plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. Subjects with the Ala12 genotype had lower insulin levels than those with the Pro12Pro genotype. We detected a gene-diet interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and MUFA for BMI and body fat. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and fat intake for total weight loss (p<0.001). When total fat intake was high, Ala12-carriers exhibited a significantly lower percentage of total weight loss than major-allele-carriers (p=0.037). Data are consistent with previous results showing a protective role for the Ala12 allele against insulin resistance, and replicate an earlier study that detected an interaction between dietary MUFA and PPARγ2 for BMI. Our detection of a gene-diet interaction between PPARγ Pro12Ala and fat intake for weight loss may explain previous discrepancies among different studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. PPARγ Pro12Ala interacts with fat intake for obesity and weight loss in a behavioural treatment based on the Mediterranean diet

    PubMed Central

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Hernández-González, Teresa; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Scope The goal of this study was to examine whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and weight loss and to analyze potential interactions between fat intake and PPARγ polymorphism in a Spanish overweight/obese population. Materials and methods We recruited 1465 subjects enrolled in a behavioural treatment program for obesity based on a Mediterranean diet, which included the following: dietary treatment, physical activity, nutritional education and behavioral techniques. A significant association was found between PPARγ2 Pro12Ala genotype and plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. Subjects with the Ala12 genotype had lower insulin levels than those with the Pro12Pro genotype. We detected a gene–diet interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and MUFA for BMI and body fat. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and fat intake for total weight loss (p<0.001). When total fat intake was high, Ala12-carriers exhibited a significantly lower percentage of total weight loss than major-allele-carriers (p=0.037). Conclusion Data are consistent with previous results showing a protective role for the Ala12 allele against insulin resistance, and replicate an earlier study that detected an interaction between dietary MUFA and PPARγ2 for BMI. Our detection of a gene–diet interaction between PPARγ Pro12Ala and fat intake for weight loss may explain previous discrepancies among different studies. PMID:22102511

  10. Effects of high-calcium diets with different whey proteins on weight loss and weight regain in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Pilvi, Taru K; Harala, Saara; Korpela, Riitta; Mervaala, Eero M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different whey protein-containing high-Ca diets on weight loss and weight regain in a model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat (60 % of energy) diet. Weight loss by energy restriction was performed on four different high-Ca diets (1.8 % CaCO3) containing different whey proteins (18 % of energy): alpha-lactalbumin (ALA), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), lactoferrin (LF) and whey protein isolate (WPI). After 7 weeks of energy restriction some of the mice were killed and the rest were fed with the same diets ad libitum for 7 weeks. The mice on the LF diet lost significantly more weight than mice on the WPI diet. The body fat content in the ALA and LF groups was significantly lower than in the WPI group (P < 0.05) and the LF group differed significantly even from the BLG group (P < 0.05). Ad libitum feeding after weight loss resulted in weight regain in all groups and only the ALA diet significantly reduced fat accumulation during weight regain. The weight regain was most pronounced in the LF group, but the adipocyte size was still significantly smaller than in the other groups. There were no differences in food intake or apparent fat digestibility between the groups. It can be concluded that a high-Ca diet with ALA significantly improves the outcome of weight loss and subsequent weight regain during the feeding of a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, in comparison with WPI.

  11. Endogenous α-calcitonin-gene-related peptide promotes exercise-induced, physiological heart hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Schuler, B; Rieger, G; Gubser, M; Arras, M; Gianella, M; Vogel, O; Jirkof, P; Cesarovic, N; Klohs, J; Jakob, P; Brock, M; Gorr, T A; Baum, O; Hoppeler, H; Samillan-Soto, V; Gassmann, M; Fischer, J A; Born, W; Vogel, J

    2014-05-01

    It is unknown how the heart distinguishes various overloads, such as exercise or hypertension, causing either physiological or pathological hypertrophy. We hypothesize that alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide (αCGRP), known to be released from contracting skeletal muscles, is key at this remodelling. The hypertrophic effect of αCGRP was measured in vitro (cultured cardiac myocytes) and in vivo (magnetic resonance imaging) in mice. Exercise performance was assessed by determination of maximum oxygen consumption and time to exhaustion. Cardiac phenotype was defined by transcriptional analysis, cardiac histology and morphometry. Finally, we measured spontaneous activity, body fat content, blood volume, haemoglobin mass and skeletal muscle capillarization and fibre composition. While αCGRP exposure yielded larger cultured cardiac myocytes, exercise-induced heart hypertrophy was completely abrogated by treatment with the peptide antagonist CGRP(8-37). Exercise performance was attenuated in αCGRP(-/-) mice or CGRP(8-37) treated wild-type mice but improved in animals with higher density of cardiac CGRP receptors (CLR-tg). Spontaneous activity, body fat content, blood volume, haemoglobin mass, muscle capillarization and fibre composition were unaffected, whereas heart index and ventricular myocyte volume were reduced in αCGRP(-/-) mice and elevated in CLR-tg. Transcriptional changes seen in αCGRP(-/-) (but not CLR-tg) hearts resembled maladaptive cardiac phenotype. Alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide released by skeletal muscles during exercise is a hitherto unrecognized effector directing the strained heart into physiological instead of pathological adaptation. Thus, αCGRP agonists might be beneficial in heart failure patients. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  13. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P < 0.05). LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P < 0.05). Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  15. The effect of high-, moderate-, and low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Richard M

    2002-01-01

    Over 60% of Americans are overweight and a number of popular diets have been advocated, often without evidence, to alleviate this public health hazard. This study was designed to investigate the effects of several diets on weight loss, serum lipids, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. One hundred men and women followed one of four dietary programs for 1 year: a moderate-fat (MF) program without calorie restriction (28 patients); a low-fat (LF) diet (phase I) (16) ; a MF, calorie-controlled (phase II) diet (38 patients); and a high-fat (HF) diet (18 subjects) [corrected]. Weight, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), homocysteine (Ho), and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], were measured every 4th month. The TC/HDL-C ratio was calculated and fibrinogen levels were measured at baseline and after one year. The MF diet resulted in a 2.6% (NS) decrease in weight compared with 18.4% (p=0.045) decrease in patients on phase I, 12.6% (p=0.0085) decrease in patients on phase II, and 13.7% (p=0.025) decrease in those on the HF diet. TC was reduced by 5% (NS) in the MF group, 39.1% (p=0.0005) in the phase I group, and 30.4% (p=0.0001) in the phase II group. HF group had a 4.3% (NS) increase in TC. LDL-C was reduced by 6.1% (NS) on MF, 52.0% (p=0.0001) on phase I, and 38.8% (p=0.0001) on phase II. Patients on HF had a 6.0% (NS) increase in LDL-C. There were nonsignificant reductions in HDL-C in those on MF (-1.5%) and HF (-5.8%). Patients on phase I showed an increase in HDL-C of 9.0% (NS), while those on phase II diet had a 3.6% increase (NS) in HDL-C. TC/HDL-C increased (9.8%) only in patients following the high-fat diets (NS). Patients on MF had a 5.3% (NS) reduction in TC/HDL-C, while those on LF had significant reductions on the phase I ( -45.8%; p=0.0001) diet and phase II diet (-34.7%; p=0.0001). TG levels increased on both the MF (1.0%) and HF (5.5%) diets, although neither

  16. The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines on exercise-induced bronchospasm in obese adolescents undergoing treatment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patrícia Leão; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Sanches, Priscila Lima; Piano, Aline; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Carnier, June; Inoue, Daniela; do Nascimento, Claudia Mo; Oyama, Lila M; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a greater prevalence in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in obese adolescents. However, the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines and the repercussions of obesity treatment on EIB need to be explored further. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines on EIB in obese adolescents evaluated after long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-five post-pubertal obese adolescents, including 20 non-EIB (body mass index [BMI] 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)) and 15 EIB (BMI 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study. Body composition was measured by plethysmography, using the BOD POD body composition system, and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed. EIB and lung function were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were recruited to a 1-year interdisciplinary intervention of weight loss, consisting of medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological components. Anthropometrics and lung function variables improved significantly after the therapy in both groups. Furthermore we observed a reduction in EIB occurrence in obese adolescents after treatment. There was an increase in adiponectin levels and a reduction in leptin levels after the therapy. In addition, a low FEV(1) value was a risk factor associated with EIB occurrence at baseline, and was correlated after treatment with changes in anthropometric and maximal O(2) consumption values as well as the adipokines profile. In the present study it was demonstrated that 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy decreased EIB frequency in obese adolescents, paralleled by an increase in lung function and improvement in pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines.

  17. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Belza, A; Frandsen, E; Kondrup, J

    2007-01-01

    A combination of tyrosine, capsaicin, catechines and caffeine may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and promote satiety, lipolysis and thermogenesis. In addition, dietary calcium may increase fecal fat excretion. To investigate the acute and subchronic effect of a supplement containing the above mentioned agents or placebo taken t.i.d on thermogenesis, body fat loss and fecal fat excretion. In total, 80 overweight-obese subjects ((body mass index) 31.2+/-2.5 kg/m(2), mean+/-s.d.) underwent an initial 4-week hypocaloric diet (3.4 MJ/day). Those who lost>4% body weight were instructed to consume a hypocaloric diet (-1.3 MJ/day) and were randomized to receive either placebo (n=23) or bioactive supplement (n=57) in a double-blind, 8-week intervention. The thermogenic effect of the compound was tested at the first and last day of intervention, and blood pressure, heart rate, body weight and composition were assessed. Weight loss during the induction phase was 6.8+/-1.9 kg. At the first exposure the thermogenic effect of the bioactive supplement exceeded that of placebo by 87.3 kJ/4 h (95%CI: 50.9;123.7, P=0.005) and after 8 weeks this effect was sustained (85.5 kJ/4 h (47.6;123.4), P=0.03). Body fat mass decreased more in the supplement group by 0.9 kg (0.5; 1.3) compared with placebo (P<0.05). The bioactive supplement had no effect on fecal fat excretion, blood pressure or heart rate. The bioactive supplement increased 4-h thermogenesis by 90 kJ more than placebo, and the effect was maintained after 8 weeks and accompanied by a slight reduction in fat mass. These bioactive components may support weight maintenance after a hypocaloric diet.

  18. Dietary consequences of recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context: a secondary analysis with practical implications for registered dietitians.

    PubMed

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah; Mathers, Elizabeth; Probst, Yasmine; Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Tapsell, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Replacing full-fat dairy products with reduced-fat varieties is a dietetic strategy for reducing energy intake while maintaining nutritional adequacy. This study aimed to explore the dietary outcomes of this recommendation in the context of weight loss. This study involved a secondary analysis of diet-history data for 86 adults (23 males and 63 females; body mass index=31.1±3.4) who had completed 3 months of a weight-loss trial in 2009, including advice to consume reduced-fat dairy products. Dairy food intake was categorized using the Australian 1995 National Nutrition Survey food hierarchy. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests determined dairy product consumption change after dietetic intervention. Total fat and energy per day from dairy products decreased significantly, from 14.1±1.2 g to 5.8±0.6 g and 283±20 kcal to 223±14 kcal, respectively, and total carbohydrate from dairy products increased significantly (P=0.04). Only 19.7% of participants met their dietary target of two to three servings of dairy foods per day at 3 months. When analyzed by sex, males decreased their intake of dairy products significantly, from 377.63±62.3 g/day to 357.3±46.7 g/day. Despite consuming less fat from dairy products, females did not significantly reduce energy intake from these foods (P=0.05). This study indicated that men and women responded differently to advice to change from regular to reduced-fat dairy products. Of more concern, however, is that in a weight-loss context, both men and women might choose to consume fewer servings of this food category with significant nutritional implications. Overall, this research highlights the need to consider the impact of sex and the background diet when recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subcutaneous and segmental fat loss with and without supportive supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie high protein diet in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; Vogel, Roxanne M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Griffin, J Daniel; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss benefits of multi-ingredient supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie, high-protein diet in young women are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-week low-calorie diet with and without supplementation on body composition. Thirty-seven recreationally-trained women (n = 37; age = 27.1 ± 4.2; height = 165.1 ± 6.4; weight = 68.5 ± 10.1; BMI = 25.1 ± 3.4) completed one of the following three-week interventions: no change in diet (CON); a high-protein, low-calorie diet supplemented with a thermogenic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a protein gel, and a multi-vitamin (SUP); or the high-protein diet with isocaloric placebo supplements (PLA). Before and after the three-week intervention, body weight, %Fat via dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), segmental fat mass via DXA, %Fat via skinfolds, and skinfold thicknesses at seven sites were measured. SUP and PLA significantly decreased body weight (SUP: PRE, 70.47 ± 8.01 kg to POST, 67.51 ± 8.10 kg; PLA: PRE, 67.88 ± 12.28 kg vs. POST, 66.38 ± 11.94 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with a greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in SUP than PLA or CON. SUP and PLA significantly decreased %Fat according to DXA (SUP: PRE, 34.98 ± 7.05% to POST, 32.99 ± 6.89%; PLA: PRE, 34.22 ± 6.36% vs. POST, 32.69 ± 5.84%; p ≤ 0.05), whereas only SUP significantly decreased %Fat according to skinfolds (SUP: PRE, 27.40 ± 4.09% to POST, 24.08 ± 4.31%; p ≤ 0.05). SUP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased thicknesses at five skinfolds (chest, waist, hip, subscapular, and tricep) compared to PLA, but not at two skinfolds (axilla and thigh). The addition of a thermogenic, CLA, protein, and a multi-vitamin to a three-week low-calorie diet improved weight loss, total fat loss and subcutaneous fat loss, compared to diet alone.

  20. Subcutaneous and Segmental Fat Loss with and without Supportive Supplements in Conjunction with a Low-Calorie High Protein Diet in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Paul H.; Tai, Chih Yin; Carson, Laura R.; Joy, Jordan M.; Mosman, Matt M.; Vogel, Roxanne M.; McCann, Tyler R.; Crona, Kevin P.; Griffin, J. Daniel; Kim, Michael P.; Moon, Jordan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss benefits of multi-ingredient supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie, high-protein diet in young women are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-week low-calorie diet with and without supplementation on body composition. Methods Thirty-seven recreationally-trained women (n = 37; age = 27.1 ± 4.2; height = 165.1 ± 6.4; weight = 68.5 ± 10.1; BMI = 25.1 ± 3.4) completed one of the following three-week interventions: no change in diet (CON); a high-protein, low-calorie diet supplemented with a thermogenic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a protein gel, and a multi-vitamin (SUP); or the high-protein diet with isocaloric placebo supplements (PLA). Before and after the three-week intervention, body weight, %Fat via dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), segmental fat mass via DXA, %Fat via skinfolds, and skinfold thicknesses at seven sites were measured. Results SUP and PLA significantly decreased body weight (SUP: PRE, 70.47 ± 8.01 kg to POST, 67.51 ± 8.10 kg; PLA: PRE, 67.88 ± 12.28 kg vs. POST, 66.38 ± 11.94 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with a greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in SUP than PLA or CON. SUP and PLA significantly decreased %Fat according to DXA (SUP: PRE, 34.98 ± 7.05% to POST, 32.99 ± 6.89%; PLA: PRE, 34.22 ± 6.36% vs. POST, 32.69 ± 5.84%; p ≤ 0.05), whereas only SUP significantly decreased %Fat according to skinfolds (SUP: PRE, 27.40 ± 4.09% to POST, 24.08 ± 4.31%; p ≤ 0.05). SUP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased thicknesses at five skinfolds (chest, waist, hip, subscapular, and tricep) compared to PLA, but not at two skinfolds (axilla and thigh). Conclusions The addition of a thermogenic, CLA, protein, and a multi-vitamin to a three-week low-calorie diet improved weight loss, total fat loss and subcutaneous fat loss, compared to diet alone. PMID:25875200

  1. Metabolic response to light exercise after exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Stephen P; Clarkson, Priscilla; Patel, Jehangir J

    2002-01-01

    Inherent compromises in substrate metabolism, or impaired perfusion of muscle may contribute to the occurrence of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. In this study, the lactate response of the elbow flexor muscles to light exercise was examined in eight subjects (five males, three females) who previously demonstrated rhabdomyolysis with extreme swelling (ES; n = 4) or no swelling (NS; n = 4) of the upper arm after eccentric exercise. Subjects performed identical light exercise bouts (45 s of rapid isotonic biceps curls consisting of both concentric and eccentric actions at 25% of maximum voluntary contraction force) using their previously eccentrically exercised arm (E-ARM) and control arm, which was not used previously to perform eccentric exercise (C-ARM). Blood lactate concentration ([La]b) was assessed 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 9 min post-exercise. Peak [La]b and the area under the curve (AUC) were compared between the E-ARM of the ES and NS groups and between the C-ARM and E-ARM of the ES group. The AUC did not differ between the E-ARM of the ES and NS groups (P > 0.05) or between the C-ARM and E-ARM of the ES group (P > 0.05). In the ES group, the increase in [La]b after light exercise with the C-ARM [mean (SD) change, delta: 1.98 (0.7) mmol/l] was not different from the increase after exercising the E-ARM [delta: 2.10 (0.7) mmol/l; P>0.05]. Comparing the response of the E-ARM between groups, the increase in [La]b of the NS group [delta: 1.40 (0.4) mmol/l] was not different than that observed in the ES group [delta: 2.10 (0.7) mmol/l; P>0.05). Thus, subjects who had previously exhibited signs of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis did not show an abnormal response to low-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  2. Evaluation of Various Cooling Systems After Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearl M S; Teo, Eunice Y N; Ali, Noreffendy B; Ang, Bryan C H; Iskandar, Iswady; Law, Lydia Y L; Lee, Jason K W

    2017-02-01

    Rapid diagnosis and expeditious cooling of individuals with exertional heat stroke is paramount for survival. To evaluate the efficacy of various cooling systems after exercise-induced hyperthermia. Crossover study. Laboratory. Twenty-two men (age = 24 ± 2 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m, mass = 70.7 ± 9.5 kg) participated. Each participant completed a treadmill walk until body core temperature reached 39.50°C. The treadmill walk was performed at 5.3 km/h on an 8.5% incline for 50 minutes and then at 5.0 km/h until the end of exercise. Each participant experienced 4 cooling phases in a randomized, repeated-crossover design: (1) no cooling (CON), (2) body-cooling unit (BCU), (3) EMCOOLS Flex.Pad (EC), and (4) ThermoSuit (TS). Cooling continued for 30 minutes or until body core temperature reached 38.00°C, whichever occurred earlier. Body core temperature (obtained via an ingestible telemetric temperature sensor) and heart rate were measured continuously during the exercise and cooling phases. Rating of perceived exertion was monitored every 5 minutes during the exercise phase and thermal sensation every minute during the cooling phase. The absolute cooling rate was greatest with TS (0.16°C/min ± 0.06°C/min) followed by EC (0.12°C/min ± 0.04°C/min), BCU (0.09°C/min ± 0.06°C/min), and CON (0.06°C/min ± 0.02°C/min; P < .001). The TS offered a greater cooling rate than all other cooling modalities in this study, whereas EC offered a greater cooling rate than both CON and BCU (P < .0083 for all). Effect-size calculations, however, showed that EC and BCU were not clinically different. These findings provide objective evidence for selecting the most effective cooling system of those we evaluated for cooling individuals with exercise-induced hyperthermia. Nevertheless, factors other than cooling efficacy need to be considered when selecting an appropriate cooling system.

  3. The contribution of fat-free mass to resting energy expenditure: implications for weight loss strategies in the treatment of adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Evans, Ronald K

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the strong relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE), the preservation of FFM is often emphasized in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Typical treatment regimens including an increased dietary consumption of protein and participation in resistance training are common components of adolescent weight management programs, despite limited evidence of a positive influence of FFM on weight loss outcomes in adolescents. Given the larger volume of FFM in obese relative to normal weight adolescents and the common treatment goals of both maximizing weight loss and attenuating the loss of FFM, a better understanding of the influence of FFM on energy balance is needed to determine whether strategies to preserve lean tissue or maximize absolute weight loss should be most emphasized. We review the associations among FFM, REE, and weight loss outcomes, focusing on how these relationships might influence energy balance in obese adolescents.

  4. Effect of Ezetimibe on Hepatic Fat, Inflammatory Markers, and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics in Insulin-Resistant Obese Subjects on a Weight Loss Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dick C.; Watts, Gerald F.; Gan, Seng Khee; Ooi, Esther M.M.; Barrett, P. Hugh R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is highly prevalent in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals and is strongly associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation. Weight loss and/or pharmacotherapy are commonly used to correct these abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a 16-week intervention trial of a hypocaloric, low-fat diet plus 10 mg/day ezetimibe (n = 15) versus a hypocaloric, low-fat diet alone (n = 10) on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content, plasma high sensitivity–C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adipocytokines, and fetuin-A concentrations and apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 kinetics in obese subjects. ApoB-100 metabolism was assessed using stable isotope tracer kinetics and compartmental modeling; liver and abdominal fat contents were determined by magnetic resonance techniques. RESULTS Both weight loss and ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P < 0.05) reduced body weight, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, insulin resistance and plasma triglycerides, VLDL–apoB-100, apoC-III, fetuin-A, and retinol-binding protein-4 and increased plasma adiponectin concentrations. Compared with weight loss alone, ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P < 0.05) decreased IHTG content (−18%), plasma hs-CRP (−53%), interleukin-6 (−24%), LDL cholesterol (−18%), campesterol (−59%), and apoB-100 (−14%) levels, with a significant increase in plasma lathosterol concentrations (+43%). The LDL–apoB-100 concentration also significantly fell with ezetimibe plus weight loss (−12%), chiefly owing to an increase in the corresponding fractional catabolic rate (+29%). The VLDL–apoB-100 secretion rate fell with both interventions, with no significant independent effect of ezetimibe. CONCLUSIONS Addition of ezetimibe to a moderate weight loss diet in obese subjects can significantly improve hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and LDL–apoB-100 metabolism. PMID:20185740

  5. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  6. The Effect of Passive Heat Stress and Exercise-Induced Dehydration on the Compensatory Reserve During Simulated Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Schlader, Zachary J; Adams, Amy; Rivas, Eric; Mulligan, Jane; Grudic, Gregory Z; Convertino, Victor A; Howard, Jeffrey T; Crandall, Craig G

    2016-09-01

    Compensatory reserve represents the proportion of physiological responses engaged to compensate for reductions in central blood volume before the onset of decompensation. We hypothesized that compensatory reserve would be reduced by hyperthermia and exercise-induced dehydration, conditions often encountered on the battlefield. Twenty healthy males volunteered for two separate protocols during which they underwent lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to hemodynamic decompensation (systolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg). During protocol #1, LBNP was performed following a passive increase in core temperature of ∼1.2°C (HT) or a normothermic time-control period (NT). During protocol #2, LBNP was performed following exercise during which: fluid losses were replaced (hydrated), fluid intake was restricted and exercise ended at the same increase in core temperature as hydrated (isothermic dehydrated), or fluid intake was restricted and exercise duration was the same as hydrated (time-match dehydrated). Compensatory reserve was estimated with the compensatory reserve index (CRI), a machine-learning algorithm that extracts features from continuous photoplethysmograph signals. Prior to LBNP, CRI was reduced by passive heating [NT: 0.87 (SD 0.09) vs. HT: 0.42 (SD 0.19) units, P <0.01] and exercise-induced dehydration [hydrated: 0.67 (SD 0.19) vs. isothermic dehydrated: 0.52 (SD 0.21) vs. time-match dehydrated: 0.47 (SD 0.25) units; P <0.01 vs. hydrated]. During subsequent LBNP, CRI decreased further and its rate of change was similar between conditions. CRI values at decompensation did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that passive heating and exercise-induced dehydration limit the body's physiological reserve to compensate for further reductions in central blood volume.

  7. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Keijer, Jaap; Herreman, Laure; Palm, Inge; Hegeman, Maria A; Swarts, Hans J M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-05-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.

  8. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  9. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gotthardt, Juliet D.; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Yeomans, Bryn L.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Bello, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%–52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%–13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%–42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%–60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%–32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%–75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  10. The role of the fatosphere in fat adults' responses to obesity stigma: a model of empowerment without a focus on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Marissa; Thomas, Samantha L; King, Bri; Lewis, Sophie; Holland, Kate

    2011-12-01

    Obese adults face pervasive and repeated weight-based stigma. Few researchers have explored how obese individuals proactively respond to stigma outside of a dominant weight-loss framework. Using a grounded theory approach, we explored the experiences of 44 bloggers within the Fatosphere--an online fat-acceptance community. We investigated participants' pathways into the Fatosphere, how they responded to and interacted with stigma, and how they described the impact of fat acceptance on their health and well-being. The concepts and support associated with the fat-acceptance movement helped participants shift from reactive strategies in responding to stigma (conforming to dominant discourses through weight loss) to proactive responses to resist stigma (reframing "fat" and self-acceptance). Participants perceived that blogging within the Fatosphere led them to feel more empowered. Participants also described the benefits of belonging to a supportive community, and improvements in their health and well-being. The Fatosphere provides an alternative pathway for obese individuals to counter and cope with weight-based stigma.

  11. [Exercise-induced oedema due to hormone-containing intrauterine device].

    PubMed

    Franssen, Laurens E; Bos, Willem-Jan W

    2012-01-01

    Oedema is a known adverse effect of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine device (Mirena IUD). However, exercise-induced oedema has not been described before. A 38-year-old woman presented with symptoms of diffuse, exercise-induced oedema and dyspnoea. Tests for heart failure and other causes of oedema showed no abnormalities. All symptoms resolved spontaneously after the patient initiated removal of the IUD. The pathophysiology of exercise-induced oedema is still poorly understood. When confronted with a patient with oedema (induced by exercise or other cause), the most common causes must first be excluded. If no explanation can be found, then the effects of medication must not be overlooked.

  12. A High-Fat Diet Delays Age-Related Hearing Loss Progression in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Uehara, Natsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Hasegawa, Shingo; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age-related hearing loss (AHL), or presbycusis, is the most common sensory disorder among the elderly. We used C57BL/6J mice as an AHL model to determine a possible association between AHL and a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a control or HFD group. Each group was divided into the following subgroups: 1-, 3-, 5- and 12-month groups (HFD, n = 5/subgroup; control, n = 5/subgroup). Nine CBA/N-slc mice were also used as a 12-month control (n = 5) or 12-month HFD (n = 4) group. The mice were fed a HFD or normal (control) diet throughout this study. Hearing function was evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months using auditory evoked brainstem responses (ABRs). Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) were also counted. Results The elevation of ABR thresholds (at 4 and 32 kHz) at 3 and 5 months was significantly suppressed in the HFD group compared with the control groups for C57BL/6J mice. After 12 months, the elevation of ABR thresholds was significantly suppressed in the HFD group at all frequencies for C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CBA/N-slc mice displayed opposite outcomes, as ABR thresholds at all frequencies at 12 months were significantly elevated in the HFD group compared with the control group. For the C57BL/6J mice at 12 months, SGC numbers significantly decreased in all parts of the cochleae in the control group compared with the HFD groups. In contrast, for the CBA/N-slc mice, SGC numbers significantly decreased, particularly in the upper parts of the cochleae in the HFD group compared with the control groups. Conclusions The elevation in ABR thresholds and SGC loss associated with aging in the HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were significantly suppressed compared with those in the normal diet-fed mice. These results suggest that HFD delays AHL progression in the C57B/6J mice. PMID:25625852

  13. Sleeve gastrectomy induces weight loss in diet-induced obese rats even if high-fat feeding is continued.

    PubMed

    Valentí, Víctor; Martín, Marina; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Lancha, Andoni; Fernández, Secundino; Cienfuegos, Javier A; Burrell, María A; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-09-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been used for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity as a first or definitive procedure with satisfactory results. The objective of this study in rats was to establish the effects of SG on weight loss depending on the post-surgical type of diet followed. Thirty male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum during 3 months on a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. After this first phase, rats were subdivided in three groups of ten rats each and underwent a sham intervention, an SG, or no surgery but were pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by the animals of the SG group. At this time point, half of the animals in each group continued to be fed on the HFD, while the other half was switched to a normal chow diet (ND). Thus, the following subgroups were established: sham-ND, sleeve-ND, pair-fed-ND as well as sham-HFD, sleeve-HFD, and pair-fed-HFD. Body weight and food intake were recorded daily for 4 weeks. The feed efficiency rate (FER) was determined from weekly weight gains and caloric consumption during this period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in body weight were observed between the six experimental groups after 4 weeks of the interventions with rats in the sleeve-ND group experimenting the highest weight loss (-78.2 ± 10.3 g) and animals in the pair-fed-HFD group exhibiting the lowest weight reduction (-4.0 ± 0.1 g). Interestingly, the FER value of rats that underwent the SG and continued to be fed on a HFD was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of sham operated and pair-fed animals on the same diet. The positive effects of SG on weight reduction are observed in obese rats submitted to the intervention and subsequently following an ND or even an HFD.

  14. Knee proprioception after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Vasques, J; Duarte, J A; Cabri, J M H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exercise-induced quadriceps muscle damage affects knee proprioception such as joint position sense (JPS), force sense and the threshold to detect passive movement (TTDPM). Fourteen young men performed sets of eccentric quadriceps contractions at a target of 60% of the maximal concentric peak torque until exhaustion; the exercise was interrupted whenever the subject could not complete two sets. Muscle soreness, JPS, the TTDPM and force sense were examined before the exercise as well as one, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exercise. The results were compared using one-way repeated-measure ANOVA. Plasma CK activity, collected at the same times, was analyzed by the Friedman's test to discriminate differences between baseline values and each of the other assessment moments (p<0.05). Relative to the proprioception assessment, JPS at 30 and 70 degrees of knee flexion and force sense were significantly decreased up to 48 h, whereas TTDPM decreased significantly at only one hour and 24 h after exercise, at 30 and 70 degrees of the knee flexion, respectively. The results allow the conclusion that eccentric exercise leading to muscle damage alters joint proprioception, suggesting that there might be impairment in the intrafusal fibres of spindle muscles and in the tendon organs.

  15. Provocation by eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea to identify exercise induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S; Argyros, G; Magnussen, H; Holzer, K

    2001-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOC-MC) requires notification for use of a ß2 agonist at the Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City. This notification will be required seven days before the event and must be accompanied by objective evidence that justifies the need to use one. The IOC-MC has expressed the viewpoint that, at present, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) is the optimal laboratory challenge to confirm that an athlete has exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The EVH test recommended was specifically designed to identify EIB. EVH has been performed in thousands of subjects in both the laboratory and the field. The test requires the subject to hyperventilate dry air containing 5% carbon dioxide at room temperature for six minutes at a target ventilation of 30 times the subject's forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The test conditions can be modified to simulate the conditions that give the athlete their symptoms with exercise. A reduction in FEV1 of 10% or more of the value before the test is considered positive. Key Words: hyperpnoea; bronchial provocation; exercise PMID:11579071

  16. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  17. Exercise-induced effects on a gym atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, M; Bučar, K; Hiti, B; Barba, Ž; Rupnik, Z; Založnik, A; Žitnik, E; Rodrìguez, L; Mihevc, I; Žibert, J

    2016-06-01

    We report results of analysis of a month-long measurement of indoor air and environment quality parameters in one gym during sporting activities such as football, basketball, volleyball, badminton, boxing, and fitness. We have determined an average single person's contribution to the increase of temperature, humidity, and dust concentration in the gym air volume of 12500 m(3) : during 90-min exercise performed at an average heart rate of 143 ± 10 bpm, a single person evaporated 0.94 kg of water into the air by sweating, contributed 0.03 K to the air temperature rise and added 1.5 μg/m(3) and 5 ng/m(3) to the indoor concentration of inhalable particles (PM10 ) and Ca concentration, respectively. As the breathing at the observed exercise intensity was about three times faster with respect to the resting condition and as the exercise-induced PM10 concentration was about two times larger than outdoors, a sportsman in the gym would receive about a sixfold higher dose of PM10 inside than he/she would have received at rest outside. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis as a cause of syncope.

    PubMed

    Goldflam, Katja; Silvers, Christine Tsien

    2012-10-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is an under-recognized condition that is a distinct physical allergy. Triggers include varying amounts of exercise, alone or in combination with certain foods or medications (food-dependent EIA, or FDEIA). Therapy is identical to that of any immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reaction. This case is reported to increase awareness among emergency physicians of EIA and FDEIA. A 57-year-old man was found with a diffuse erythematous rash after eating a wheat bagel and walking up five flights of stairs. Emergency medical services found him hypotensive and combative. In the Emergency Department, the patient's blood pressure was 72/27 mm Hg, with an oxygen saturation of 97% on non-rebreather mask. The physical examination was notable for bilateral inspiratory crackles in the lower one-third of the lungs. He received intravenous (i.v.) diphenhydramine 25 mg, i.v. methylprednisolone 125 mg, and 1 L of normal saline, after which his blood pressure improved to 110/54 mm Hg. He was admitted to the hospital where his recovery was uneventful. EIA and FDEIA are uncommon forms of physical allergy, but they represent important entities for emergency physicians to consider. Recognition of the association with exercise is key, as recurrences can be prevented by avoiding triggers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott K; Radak, Zsolt; Ji, Li Li

    2016-09-15

    The existence of free radicals in living cells was first reported in 1954 and this important finding helped launch the field of free radical biology. However, the discovery that muscular exercise is associated with increased biomarkers of oxidative stress did not occur until 1978. Following the initial report that exercise promotes oxidative stress in humans, many studies have confirmed that prolonged or short-duration high intensity exercise results in increased radical production in active skeletal muscles resulting in the formation of oxidized lipids and proteins in the working muscles. Since these early descriptive studies, the investigation of radicals and redox biology related to exercise and skeletal muscle has grown as a discipline and the importance of this research in the biomedical sciences is widely recognized. This review will briefly summarize the history of research in exercise-induced oxidative stress and will discuss the major paradigm shifts that the field has undergone and continues to experience. We conclude with a discussion of future directions in the hope of stimulating additional research in this important field. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. [Exercise-induced urticaria and angioedema - case report].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Sztafińska, Anna; Lechańka, Joanna; Balcerak, Joanna; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Urticaria is a heterogeneous group of disorders, with various clinical manifestations and intensity of symptoms. Urticaria can be induced with a wide variety of environmental stimuli, such as cold, pressure, vibration, sunlight, exercise, temperature changes, heat, and water. In a select group of patients, exercise can induce a spectrum of urticaria symptoms, ranging from cutaneous pruritus and warmth, generalised urticaria, angioedema, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse, upper respiratory distress, and anaphylaxis. Specific provocation tests should be carried out on an individual basis to investigate the suspected cause and proper diagnosis. Modification of activities and behaviour is the mainstay of treatment in patients with physical urticaria. The aim of this study was to emphasise that primary care paediatricians should be able to recognise physical urticaria, supply a patient with rescue medications, and refer him/her to a specialist. In the article, the authors present a 13-year-old girl with typical urticaria lesions and angioedema after exercise. According to the history, physical examination, and provocation test, exercise-induced urticaria and angioedema were diagnosed.

  1. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  2. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

  3. Exercise-Induced Vasculitis: A Review with Illustrated Cases.

    PubMed

    Espitia, Olivier; Dréno, Brigitte; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Didier, Quentin; Quillard, Thibaut; Nicol, Christelle; Le Bouch, Yann; Planchon, Bernard; Pistorius, Marc-Antoine

    2016-12-01

    Although exercise-induced vasculitis (EIV) is usually misdiagnosed, it is not uncommon. Occurring mostly after prolonged exercise, especially in hot weather, EIV is an isolated cutaneous vasculitis with stereotypical presentation. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of EIV based on the published literature. We report 99 patients who developed EIV after walking, dancing, swimming, or hiking especially during hot weather, including the records of 16 patients with EIV treated at our hospital from 2007 to 2015. Erythematous or purpuric plaques arise on the lower legs, without the involvement of compression socks or stockings. Symptoms include itch, pain, and a burning sensation. EIV is an isolated cutaneous vasculitis. Lesions resolve spontaneously after 10 days. When triggering conditions persist, relapses are frequent (77.5 %). Histopathology demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis in 95 % of cases with C3 or immunoglobulin M deposits in 88 and 46 % of cases, respectively. Blood investigations are negative. EIV appears to be a consequence of venous stasis induced by an acute failure of the muscle pump of the calf and thermoregulation decompensation. Both appear after prolonged and unusual exercise in hot weather. Treatment is not codified; topical corticosteroids may reduce symptoms and wearing light clothes might limit lesion occurrence.

  4. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Caroline S; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Casper, Markus; Lammert, Frank

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of gallstones is increasing in association with the obesity epidemic, but rapid weight loss also increases the risk of stone formation. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of strategies to prevent gallbladder stones in adults as they lose weight. Randomized controlled trials of nonsurgical strategies to prevent gallstones were identified by electronic and manual searches. Our final analysis included 13 trials, comprising 1836 participants undergoing weight loss through dieting (8 trials) or bariatric surgery (5 trials). The trials compared ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or high-fat weight loss diets with control interventions. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and evaluated heterogeneity and bias with subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analysis. UDCA reduced the risk of ultrasound-verified gallstones compared with control interventions (risk ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.60; number needed to treat, 9). This effect was significantly larger in trials of diets alone (risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.11-0.25) than in trials of patients who underwent bariatric surgery (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83) (test for subgroup differences, P =.03). UDCA reduced the risk of cholecystectomy for symptomatic stones (risk ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.53). Diets high in fat content also reduced gallstones, compared with those with low fat content (risk ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). The meta-analyses were confirmed in trials with a low risk of bias but not in sequential analysis. No additional beneficial or harmful outcomes were identified. On the basis of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, during weight loss, UDCA and/or higher dietary fat content appear to prevent formation of gallstones. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. During rapid weight loss in obese children, reductions in TSH predict improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of changes in body weight or fat.

    PubMed

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Jung, Andreas; Murer, Stefanie B; Wildhaber, Johannes; Wildhaber-Brooks, Joanne; Knöpfli, Bruno H; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n=206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat loss in a standardized, multidisciplinary, 2-month, in-patient weight loss program. This was a prospective study that determined thyroid function, glucose and lipid parameters, leptin, anthropometric measures, and body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, 52% of children had TSH concentrations in the high normal range (>2.5 mU/liter), but TSH was not correlated with body weight, body mass index sd scores, lean body mass, or body fat percentage. At baseline, independent of adiposity, TSH significantly correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013), fasting insulin (P=0.010), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) (P=0.004), and leptin (P=0.006). During the intervention, mean body fat, TSH, HOMA, and fasting insulin decreased by 21, 11, 53, and 54%, respectively. Change (Δ) in TSH did not correlate with Δbody weight or Δbody composition, but ΔTSH significantly correlated with, Δfasting insulin and ΔHOMA, independent of Δbody weight or Δbody composition (P<0.05). TSH concentrations are elevated in obese children but are not correlated with the amount of excess body weight or fat. During weight loss, independent of changes in body weight or composition, decreases in elevated serum TSH predict decreases in fasting insulin and HOMA. These findings suggest interventions that target high TSH concentrations during weight loss in obese subjects may improve insulin sensitivity.

  6. Reversal of adipose tissue loss by probucol in mice with deficiency of both scavenger receptor class B type 1 and LDL receptor on high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Liao, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2017-05-15

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1(SR-B1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) play vital roles in cholesterol homeostasis. Previous studies indicated a strong link between cholesterol and adipose tissue (AT). In this study, adult male SR-B1 and LDLR double knockout (DKO) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. Interestingly, we found severe loss of AT in DKO mice fed with HFD. To reverse the AT loss in DKO mice, 1% probucol was added in HFD. In DKO mice on HFD, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) levels were increased 6 and 15 folds respectively compared with wild type (WT) mice. We found severe loss of AT in whole body of DKO mice compared with WT or single KO mice. In AT of DKO mice, histology showed the very small size of adipocytes and infiltration of inflammatory cells; Genes expressions related to fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis and adipogenesis were decreased; TUNEL analysis and related genes expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation were significantly higher than those of WT or single KO mice. Probucol could reduce increased TC and FC levels, and reverse the loss of fat and apoptosis of AT in DKO mice. AT loss in DKO mice with HFD was probably due to high levels of FC which led to apoptosis induced by ER stress and inflammation of AT. This study provided a novel utility of probucol in rescue of fat loss in DKO mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Quist, J S; Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, M B; Gram, A S; Sjödin, A; Stallknecht, B

    2017-10-10

    Aerobic exercise is recommended for weight management but energy balance is often less negative than predicted from exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). To examine effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity. We randomized 130 younger, physically inactive women and men with overweight and obesity (body mass index: 25-35 kg/m(2)) to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (CON, n=18), active commuting (BIKE, n=35), or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2peak reserve, n=39) or vigorous intensity (VIG, 70% VO2peak reserve, n=38). The primary outcome was change in fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry which was analyzed intention-to-treat. Accumulated energy balance was calculated based on changes in body composition, and ExEE was calculated based on heart rate monitoring during exercise. Testing at 3 and 6 months was completed by 95 and 90 participants, respectively. Fat mass was reduced after 3 and 6 months in BIKE (3 months: -3.6 [-5.5; -1.7] kg (mean [95% CI]); 6 months: -4.2 [-6.6; -1.9] kg; both: P<0.001), MOD (3 months: -2.2 [-3.9; -0.4] kg; 6 months: -2.6 [-4.8; -0.5] kg, both: P<0.02), and VIG (3 months: -3.4 [-5.2; -1.7] kg; 6 months: -4.5 [-6.6; -2.3] kg; both: P<0.001) compared with CON. Furthermore, fat loss was greater in VIG compared with MOD (6 months: -1.8 [-3.6; -0.1] kg, P=0.043). Based on the ExEE and the accumulated energy balance MOD compensated for the ExEE (77 [48; 106] %) but not BIKE (38 [-18; 95] %) and VIG (21 [-14; 55] %). A meaningful fat loss was obtained by 6 months of active commuting and leisure-time exercise, but fat loss was greater with vigorous compared to moderate intensity exercise. Active commuting is an alternative to leisure-time exercise in the management of overweight and obesity. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01962259 (main trial) and NCT01973686 (energy metabolism sub-study).International Journal of Obesity accepted

  8. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control.

    PubMed

    Major, Geneviève C; Alarie, Francine P; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2009-03-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to compare the effect of a 15-week weight-reducing programme ( -2900 kJ/d) coupled with a calcium plus vitamin D (calcium+D) supplementation (600 mg elemental calcium and 5 microg vitamin D, consumed twice a day) or with a placebo, on body fat and on spontaneous energy/macronutrient intake. Sixty-three overweight or obese women (mean age 43 years, mean BMI 32 kg/m2) reporting a daily calcium intake < 800 mg participated in present study. Anthropometric variables, resting energy expenditure and spontaneous energy intake were measured before and after the 15-week programme. The calcium+D supplementation induced no statistically significant increase in fat mass loss in response to the programme. However, when analyses were limited to very low-calcium consumers only (initial calcium intake < or =600 mg/d, n 7 for calcium+D, n 6 for placebo), a significant decrease in body weight and fat mass (P < 0.01) and in spontaneous dietary lipid intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the calcium+D but not in the placebo group. In very low-calcium consumers, change in fat mass was positively correlated with change in lipid intake. During the weight-reducing programme, a calcium+D supplementation was necessary in female overweight/obese very low-calcium consumers to reach significant fat mass loss that seemed to be partly explained by a decrease in lipid intake. We propose that this change in lipid intake could be influenced by a calcium-specific appetite control.

  9. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C.; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition. Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat. Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037). Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation. PMID:26844473

  10. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  11. Exercise-induced increments in plasma levels of propranolol and noradrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, G A; Webb, J G; Walle, T; Bai, S A; Daniell, H B; Gourley, L; Boyd Loadholt, C; Gaffney, T E

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced changes in the plasma levels of propranolol and noradrenaline were determined in nine volunteers. Total plasma propranolol levels were increased during submaximal treadmill exercise, with exercise-induced increments of 13 +/- 4% at 4 h after the last dose, 18 +/- 7% at 9 h and 41 +/- 5% at 16 h. Exercise-induced increments in plasma propranolol were observed after single as well as repeated doses. During exercise, increments in plasma propranolol were correlated temporally with changes in plasma noradrenaline. Exercise-induced increments in plasma noradrenaline were greater during propranolol administration than during placebo periods. The changes in plasma propranolol concentration during exercise may reflect a redistribution of propranolol at its site(s) of action. PMID:6661342

  12. Exercise-induced neuroprotection in the spastic Han Wistar rat: the possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Van Kummer, Brooke H; Cohen, Randy W

    2015-01-01

    Moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to enhance motor skills and protect the nervous system from neurodegenerative diseases, like ataxia. Our lab uses the spastic Han Wistar rat as a model of ataxia. Mutant rats develop forelimb tremor and hind limb rigidity and have a decreased lifespan. Our lab has shown that exercise reduced Purkinje cell degeneration and delayed motor dysfunction, significantly increasing lifespan. Our study investigated how moderate exercise may mediate neuroprotection by analyzing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB. To link BDNF to exercise-induced neuroprotection, mutant and normal rats were infused with the TrkB antagonist K252a or vehicle into the third ventricle. During infusion, rats were subjected to moderate exercise regimens on a treadmill. Exercised mutants receiving K252a exhibited a 21.4% loss in Purkinje cells compared to their controls. Cerebellar TrkB expression was evaluated using non-drug-treated mutants subjected to various treadmill running regimens. Running animals expressed three times more TrkB than sedentary animals. BDNF was quantified via Sandwich ELISA, and cerebellar expression was found to be 26.6% greater in mutant rats on 7-day treadmill exercise regimen compared to 30 days of treadmill exercise. These results suggest that BDNF is involved in mediating exercise-induced neuroprotection.

  13. Effect of exercise intensity on abdominal fat loss during calorie restriction in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Wang, Xuewen; You, Tongjian; Lyles, Mary F; Demons, Jamehl; Easter, Linda; Berry, Michael J; Lenchik, Leon; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exercise intensity may affect the selective loss of abdominal adipose tissue. Objective: This study showed whether aerobic exercise intensity affects the loss of abdominal fat and improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors under conditions of equal energy deficit in women with abdominal obesity. Design: This was a randomized trial in 112 overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–40; waist circumference >88 cm], postmenopausal women assigned to one of three 20-wk interventions of equal energy deficit: calorie restriction (CR only), CR plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CR + moderate-intensity), or CR plus vigorous-intensity exercise (CR + vigorous-intensity). The diet was a controlled program of underfeeding during which meals were provided at individual calorie levels (≈400 kcal/d). Exercise (3 d/wk) involved treadmill walking at an intensity of 45–50% (moderate-intensity) or 70–75% (vigorous-intensity) of heart rate reserve. The primary outcome was abdominal visceral fat volume. Results: Average weight loss for the 95 women who completed the study was 12.1 kg (±4.5 kg) and was not significantly different across groups. Maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) increased more in the CR + vigorous-intensity group than in either of the other groups (P < 0.05). The CR-only group lost relatively more lean mass than did either exercise group (P < 0.05). All groups showed similar decreases in abdominal visceral fat (≈25%; P < 0.001 for all). However, changes in visceral fat were inversely related to increases in O2max (P < 0.01). Changes in lipids, fasting glucose or insulin, and 2-h glucose and insulin areas during the oral-glucose-tolerance test were similar across treatment groups. Conclusion: With a similar amount of total weight loss, lean mass is preserved, but there is not a preferential loss of abdominal fat when either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise is performed during caloric restriction. This trial was

  14. Lack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Teri L; Sutherland, Julie P; Wolfe, Pamela; Allian-Sauer, Marybeth; Capell, Warren H; Talley, Natalie D; Wyatt, Holly R; Foster, Gary D; Hill, James O; Eckel, Robert H

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about the comparative effect of weight-loss diets on metabolic profiles during dieting. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (< or =20 g/d) with a high-carbohydrate diet (55% of total energy intake) on fasting and hourly metabolic variables during active weight loss. Healthy, obese adults (n = 32; 22 women, 10 men) were randomly assigned to receive either a carbohydrate-restricted diet [High Fat; mean +/- SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 35.8 +/- 2.9] or a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet (High Carb; BMI: 36.7 +/- 4.6) for 6 wk. A 24-h in-patient feeding study was performed at baseline and after 6 wk. Glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and triglycerides were measured hourly during meals, at regimented times. Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol was measured every 4 h. Patients lost a similar amount of weight in both groups (P = 0.57). There was an absence of any diet treatment effect between groups on fasting triglycerides or on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, which was the main outcome. Fasting insulin decreased (P = 0.03), and both fasting (P = 0.040) and 24-h FFAs (P < 0.0001) increased within the High Fat group. Twenty-four-hour insulin decreased (P < 0.05 for both groups). Fasting LDL cholesterol decreased in the High Carb group only (P = 0.003). In both groups, the differences in fasting and 24-h FFAs at 6 wk were significantly correlated with the change in LDL cholesterol (fasting FFA: r = 0.41, P = 0.02; 24-h FFA: r = 0.52, P = 0.002). Weight loss was similar between diets, but only the high-fat diet increased LDL-cholesterol concentrations. This effect was related to the lack of suppression of both fasting and 24-h FFAs.

  15. Reduction in fat intake is not associated with weight loss in most women after breast cancer diagnosis: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Thomson, C; Caan, B J; Flatt, S W; Newman, V; Ritenbaugh, C; Marshall, J R; Hollenbach, K A; Stefanick, M L; Pierce, J P

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in dietary fat intake has been suggested as a method to promote weight loss in women at risk for breast cancer recurrence. Weight change in response to diet intervention was examined in 1010 women who had completed treatment for Stage I, Stage II, or Stage IIIA (American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system) primary operable breast cancer during their first year of participation in a randomized, controlled, diet intervention trial to reduce risk of recurrence. Diet intervention was performed by telephone counseling and promoted a low fat diet that also was high in fiber, vegetables, and fruit. The comparison group was provided with general dietary guidelines to reduce disease risk. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relations among demographic and personal characteristics, changes in diet composition and exercise level, and change in body weight or body mass index. The average weight change in the 1-year period was 0.04 kg for the intervention group and 0.46 kg for the comparison group. For the total group, body weight was stable (+/- 5% baseline weight) for 743 women (74%), whereas 114 (11%) lost weight, and 153 (15%) gained weight. These distributions were similar in the two study groups inclusive of all study participants and for only those women with a baseline body mass index of > or = 25 kg/m2. Initial body mass index and changes in fiber and vegetable intakes, but not change in percent of energy obtained from fat, were associated independently with change in weight or body mass index. For most women at risk for breast cancer recurrence, diet intervention to promote a reduction in fat intake was not associated with significant weight loss. Testing the effect of a substantial change in diet composition on risk for breast cancer recurrence is unlikely to be confounded by weight loss in subjects who were the recipients of intensive intervention efforts. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  16. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage. Key points When the recovery period between competitions was short, a curcumin and piperine supplementation could be an effective recovery

  17. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Dawson, R; Biasetti, M; Messina, S; Dominy, J

    2002-06-01

    exercise in the liver and both taurine and beta-alanine blocked this effect. There was no effect of either exercise or the diets on MPO activity in the lung or spleen. Running performance as assessed by a subjective rating scale was improved by taurine supplementation and there was a significant loss in body weight in the beta-alanine-treated rats 24 hours after exercise. In summary, taurine supplementation or taurine depletion had measurable cytoprotective actions to attenuate exercise-induced injury.

  18. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Perception of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Burnett, David M; Vardiman, John P; Deckert, Jake A; Ward, Jaimie L; Sharpe, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can lead to long-term respiratory illness and even death. EIB prevalence rates are both high and variable in college athletes. Also, prevalence rates may be underestimated due to ineffective screening. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EIB and the perceived impact of EIB in college athletes via a self-report questionnaire. A self-report EIB questionnaire was administered to college athletes on 8 different sports teams. Information collected was used to identify athletes who self-reported: (1) a history of EIB and/or asthma, (2) respiratory symptoms during exercise, (3) medication use, and (4) concern about EIB. Results showed that 56 of 196 athletes (28.6%) self-reported a history of EIB or asthma. Over half (52%) reported a history of EIB/asthma or current EIB symptoms. Forty-six of the 140 athletes (32.9%) who did not report a history of EIB or asthma indicated symptoms of EIB during sports, training, or exercise. Fourteen of 56 athletes (25%) self-reporting a history of EIB or asthma did not report the use of a respiratory medication. Nineteen of 196 athletes (9.7%) reported being concerned that EIB was adversely affecting their sports performance. College athletes self-report a high prevalence of EIB or asthma. Although college athletes may not report a history of EIB or asthma, they indicate symptoms of EIB. A majority of athletes reported a history or current symptoms related to EIB or asthma. Many athletes with a history of EIB or asthma are not taking any asthma medication. Last, athletes report concern about EIB adversely affecting their sports performance. More work is needed using a combination of a screening questionnaire and standardized EIB testing to develop a validated tool for accurately screening and diagnosing EIB in college athletes. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Exercise-induced neuromuscular dysfunction under reflex conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, T; Burke, J R; Davis, J M; Durstine, J L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe further the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on reflex sensitivity. The subjects were eight physically active, but untrained males, between the ages of 18 and 29 years. The effects of eccentric and concentric exercise on patellar tendon reflex responses were determined. The 8 week experiment consisted of two, 5 day, test protocols with a 6 week wash-out period between test protocols. Each 5 day test protocol consisted of the following six test sessions: (1) day 1--baseline, (2) day 2 baseline, (3) day 2--immediate post-exercise, and (4-6) days 3-5: 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. On day 2, the subjects made either 100 fatiguing concentric or eccentric isotonic contractions using the right leg at 75% of the corresponding repetition maximum values. During each test session, the electromyogram (EMG) and force-time characteristics of basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses were measured. The reflex amplitudes of basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses were decreased following fatiguing concentric exercise. There were no immediate effects of fatiguing eccentric exercise on the basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses, but the EMG amplitudes of these reflex responses were reduced on the days following eccentric exercise. The amount of conditioned patellar tendon reflex facilitation was decreased following the concentric exercise protocol and at 48 h post-eccentric exercise. Our conditioned reflex data suggest that post-exercise changes to the physiological mechanisms that modulate the recruitment gain of the alpha-motoneuron pool may depend upon the type of fatiguing exercise.

  1. Exercise-induced arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunting in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stickland, Michael K; Lovering, Andrew T; Eldridge, Marlowe W

    2007-08-01

    We have previously shown, using contrast echocardiography, that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are inducible in healthy humans during exercise; however, this technique does not allow for determination of arteriovenous vessel size or shunt magnitude. The purpose of this study was to determine whether large-diameter (more than 25 microm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are present in the dog, and whether exercise recruits these conduits. Through the right forelimb, 10.8 million 25-microm stable isotope-labeled microspheres (BioPAL, Inc., Worcester, MA) were injected either at rest (n = 8) or during high-intensity exercise (6- 8 mph, 10-15% grade, n = 6). Systemic arterial blood was continuously sampled during and for 3 minutes after injection. After euthanasia, tissue samples were obtained from the heart, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle. In addition, 25- and 50-microm microspheres were infused into four isolated dog lungs that were ventilated and perfused at constant pressures similar to exercise. Blood and tissue samples were commercially analyzed for the presence of microspheres. No microspheres were detected in the arterial blood or tissue samples from resting dogs. In contrast, five of six exercising dogs showed evidence of exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting, as microspheres were detected in arterial blood and/or tissue. Furthermore, shunt magnitude was calculated to be 1.4 +/- 0.8% of cardiac output (n = 3). Evidence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses was also found in three of four isolated lungs. Consistent with previous human findings, these data demonstrate that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in the dog and are recruited with exercise.

  2. Exercise-induced Arteriovenous Intrapulmonary Shunting in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Stickland, Michael K.; Lovering, Andrew T.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: We have previously shown, using contrast echocardiography, that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are inducible in healthy humans during exercise; however, this technique does not allow for determination of arteriovenous vessel size or shunt magnitude. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether large-diameter (more than 25 μm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are present in the dog, and whether exercise recruits these conduits. Methods: Through the right forelimb, 10.8 million 25-μm stable isotope-labeled microspheres (BioPAL, Inc., Worcester, MA) were injected either at rest (n = 8) or during high-intensity exercise (6– 8 mph, 10–15% grade, n = 6). Systemic arterial blood was continuously sampled during and for 3 minutes after injection. After euthanasia, tissue samples were obtained from the heart, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle. In addition, 25- and 50-μm microspheres were infused into four isolated dog lungs that were ventilated and perfused at constant pressures similar to exercise. Measurements and Main Results: Blood and tissue samples were commercially analyzed for the presence of microspheres. No microspheres were detected in the arterial blood or tissue samples from resting dogs. In contrast, five of six exercising dogs showed evidence of exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting, as microspheres were detected in arterial blood and/or tissue. Furthermore, shunt magnitude was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.8% of cardiac output (n = 3). Evidence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses was also found in three of four isolated lungs. Conclusions: Consistent with previous human findings, these data demonstrate that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in the dog and are recruited with exercise. PMID:17478619

  3. Screening for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in college athletes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jonathan P; Cosmar, David; Phillips, Gary; Kaeding, Christopher; Best, Thomas M; Mastronarde, John G

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have reported that the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes is higher than that of the general population. There is increasing evidence that athletes fail to recognize and report symptoms of EIB. As a result, there has been debate whether athletes should be screened for EIB, particularly in high-risk sports. We prospectively studied 144 athletes from six different varsity sports at a large National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletic program. Baseline demographics and medical history were obtained and the presence of asthma symptoms during exercise was documented. Each athlete subsequently underwent a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test to document the presence of EIB. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) quantification was performed immediately before EVH testing. EIB was defined as a ≥10% decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second compared with baseline. Only 4 of 144 (2.7%) athletes were EIB-positive after EVH testing. The presence of symptoms was not predictive of EIB as only 2 of the 64 symptomatic athletes (3%) were EIB-positive based on EVH testing. Two of the four athletes who were found to be EIB-positive denied such symptoms. The mean baseline eNO in the four EIB-positive athletes was 13.25 parts per billion (ppb) and 24.5 ppb in the EIB-negative athletes. Our data argue that screening for EIB is not recommended given the surprisingly low prevalence of EIB in the population we studied. In addition, the presence or absence of symptoms was not predictive of EIB and eNO testing was not effective in predicting EIB.

  4. Effects of ipratropium on exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, L C; Araujo, A C; Martinez, J B; Vianna, E O

    2010-07-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is the transient narrowing of the airways that follows vigorous exercise. Ipratropium bromide may be used to prevent EIB, but its effect varies among individuals. We hypothesized that time of administration of ipratropium interferes with its action. This was a prospective, double-blind, cross-over study carried out to evaluate the bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium at different times of day. The study consisted of 4 exercise challenge tests (2 at 7 am and 2 at 6 pm). In the morning, one of the tests was performed after placebo administration and the other one after ipratropium (80 microg) and the two tests (placebo and ipratropium) were repeated in the evening. Twenty-one patients with severe or moderate asthma and previous confirmation of EIB were enrolled in this prospective trial. The bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium was 0.25+/-0.21 L or 13.11+/-10.99% (p=0.001 compared to baseline values) in the morning, and 0.14+/-0.25 L or 7.25+/-11.37% (p>0.05) in the evening. In the morning, EIB was 0.58+/-0.29 L on the placebo day and 0.38+/-0.22 L on the treatment day (p=0.01). In the evening, EIB was 0.62+/-0.28 L on the placebo day and 0.51+/-0.35 L on the treatment day (p>0.05). We suggest that the use of ipratropium for the treatment of asthma and EIB should take into consideration the time of administration.

  5. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.

  6. Beta2-agonists and exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sandra D; Caillaud, Corinne; Brannan, John D

    2006-01-01

    Beta2-agonists taken immediately before exercise provide significant protection against exercise- induced asthma (EIA) in most patients. However, when they are taken daily, there are some negative aspects regarding severity, control, and recovery from EIA. First, there is a significant minority (15-20%) of asthmatics whose EIA is not prevented by beta2-agonists, even when inhaled corticosteroids are used concomitantly. Second, with daily use, there is a decline in duration of the protective effect of long-acting beta2-agonists. Third, if breakthrough EIA occurs, recovery of lung function is slower in response to a beta2-agonist, and additional doses are often required to achieve pre-exercise values. If a person who takes a beta2-agonist daily experiences problems with exercise, then the physician should consider changing the treatment regimen to achieve better control of EIA. These problems likely result from desensitization of the beta2-receptor on the mast cell, which enhances mediator release, and on the bronchial smooth muscle, which enhances the bronchoconstrictor response and delays recovery from EIA. These effects are reversed within 72 h after cessation of a beta2-agonists. The important clinical question is: Are we actually compromising the beneficial effects of beta2-agonists on the prevention and recovery from EIA by prescribing them daily? Patients with EIA need to ensure that their doses of inhaled corticosteroid or other anti-inflammatory therapy are optimized so that, if necessary, a beta2-agonist can be used intermittently as prophylactic medication with greater confidence in the outcome.

  7. Sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, N C; Patel, K R; Kerr, J W

    1978-01-01

    In thirteen patients with extrinsic asthma the effects of placebo, sodium cromoglycate, ipratropium bromide, and ipratropium bromide plus sodium cromoglycate were studied in a random double-blind fashion to assess their inhibitory action in exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Exercise testing consisted of steady state running on an inclined treadmill for up to eight minutes. In eight of the 13 patients studied the baseline ratio of expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity (VC) breathing helium-oxygen (V50He) to V50air was over 1.20 and they were called responders; the remaining five patients were called non-responders. There was a significantly lower baseline maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF) in non-responders (P less than 0.02) as compared to responders but no difference in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FVC). Sodium cromoglycate (P less than 0.02), ipratropium bromide (P less than 0.01), and ipratropium bromide plus spdium cromoglycate (P less than 0.01) all significantly inhibited the percentage fall in FEV1 after exercise in the responders. Ipratropium bromide had no preventive action on non-responders, unlike sodium cromoglycate (P less than 0.05) and ipratropium bromide plus sodium cromoglycate (P less than 0.02). It is postulated that mediator release is an important factor in development of EIA in most extrinsic asthmatics, whereas cholinergic mechanisms are relevant only in those patients in whom the main site of airflow obstruction is in the large central airways. PMID:154747

  8. Exercise-induced bronchospasm, asthma control, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K; Parsons, Jonathan P; Eid, Nemr S; Craig, Timothy J; Stoloff, Stuart; Hayden, Mary Lou; Colice, Gene L

    2013-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) commonly affects patients with asthma. However, the relationship between EIB and asthma control remains unclear. Exercise limitation due to asthma might lead to reduced physical activity, but little information is available regarding obesity and EIB in asthma. A recent survey evaluated the frequency of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms in a large number of patients with asthma. The survey results were reanalyzed to address any relationship between EIB and asthma control and obesity. A nationwide random sample of children aged 4-12 years (n = 250), adolescents aged 13-17 years (n = 266), and adults aged ≥18 years (n = 1001) with asthma were interviewed by telephone. Questions in the survey addressed asthma symptoms in general, medication use, and height and weight. Asthma control was categorized using established methods in the Expert Panel Report 3. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using standard nomograms and obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Most children (77.6%), adolescents (71.1%), and adults (83.1%) had either "not well" or "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children with "not well" controlled asthma reported a history of EIB significantly more often than those with "well" controlled" asthma. Asthma patients of all ages who had "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma described multiple (four or more) exercise-related respiratory symptoms significantly more often than those with "well-controlled" asthma. Obesity was significantly more common in adolescents with "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma and adults with "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children, adolescents, and adults with asthma infrequently have well-controlled disease. A history of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms occur more commonly in patients with not well and very poorly controlled asthma. Obesity was found more often in adolescents and adults, but not children, with asthma, which was not well and

  9. Exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin in humans.

    PubMed

    Broom, D R; Stensel, D J; Bishop, N C; Burns, S F; Miyashita, M

    2007-06-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted from endocrine cells in the stomach and other tissues. Acylation of ghrelin is essential for appetite regulation. Vigorous exercise induces appetite suppression, but this does not appear to be related to suppressed concentrations of total ghrelin. This study examined the effect of exercise and feeding on plasma acylated ghrelin and appetite. Nine male subjects aged 19-25 yr participated in two, 9-h trials (exercise and control) in a random crossover design. Trials began at 0800 in the morning after an overnight fast. In the exercise trial, subjects ran for 60 min at 72% of maximum oxygen uptake between 0800 and 0900. After this, they rested for 8 h and consumed a test meal at 1100. In the control trial, subjects rested for 9 h and consumed a test meal at 1100. Area under the curve values for plasma acylated ghrelin concentration (assessed from venous blood samples) were lower over the first 3 h and the full 9 h of the exercise trial compared with the control trial: 317+/-135 vs. 510+/-186 pg.ml(-1).3 h and 917+/-342 vs. 1,401+/-521 pg.ml(-1).9 h (means+/-SE) respectively (P<0.05). Area under the curve values for hunger (assessed using a visual scale) were lower over the first 3 h of the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P=0.013). These findings demonstrate that plasma acylated ghrelin concentration and hunger are suppressed during running.

  10. Effects of polyphenolic antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ruiz, J M; Villegas García, J A; López, F J; Vidal-Guevara, M L; Zafrilla, P

    2006-06-01

    Polyphenols are of increasing interest to consumers and food manufacturers for several reasons. Commonly referred to as antioxidants (they are the most abundant antioxidants in our diets), they may prevent various oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammation and others. Physical activity is known to induce oxidative stress in individuals after intensive exercise. In this study, the effect of the flavonoid contents (which are the most abundant polyphenols) was investigated, as the only antioxidant in a replacement drink designed for sportsmen on various oxidative stress biomarkers after two identical trials of sub-maximal aerobic exercise, in a group of 30 sportsmen. In one of the trials, the cyclists consumed the antioxidant supplement (with 2.3g polyphenols/trial), and in another they consumed a placebo. Blood samples were collected both at rest and after exercise immediately and 45 minutes (min) later, for measurements of plasmatic indices of oxidative stress: lipid oxidation (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS); protein oxidation (carbonyl groups, CO) and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) enzymes for each trial. All values were adjusted for changes in plasma volume. No changes were detected in plasma TAS and LDH after exercise or after the polyphenolic supplement. CK and TBARS increased after exercise in both tests. However, in response to strenuous exercise, the polyphenol-supplemented test showed a smaller increase in plasma TBARS and CK than the placebo test. CO increased by 12% in response to the placebo test, whereas it decreased by 23% in the polyphenol-supplement test. This may indicate that the antioxidant supplement offered protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Modulating exercise-induced hormesis: Does less equal more?

    PubMed

    Peake, Jonathan M; Markworth, James F; Nosaka, Kazunori; Raastad, Truls; Wadley, Glenn D; Coffey, Vernon G

    2015-08-01

    Hormesis encompasses the notion that low levels of stress stimulate or upregulate existing cellular and molecular pathways that improve the capacity of cells and organisms to withstand greater stress. This notion underlies much of what we know about how exercise conditions the body and induces long-term adaptations. During exercise, the body is exposed to various forms of stress, including thermal, metabolic, hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress. These stressors activate biochemical messengers, which in turn activate various signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and adaptive responses. Historically, antioxidant supplements, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cryotherapy have been favored to attenuate or counteract exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. However, reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators are key signaling molecules in muscle, and such strategies may mitigate adaptations to exercise. Conversely, withholding dietary carbohydrate and restricting muscle blood flow during exercise may augment adaptations to exercise. In this review article, we combine, integrate, and apply knowledge about the fundamental mechanisms of exercise adaptation. We also critically evaluate the rationale for using interventions that target these mechanisms under the overarching concept of hormesis. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish whether these treatments exert dose-dependent effects on muscle adaptation. However, there appears to be some dissociation between the biochemical/molecular effects and functional/performance outcomes of some of these treatments. Although several of these treatments influence common kinases, transcription factors, and proteins, it remains to be determined if these interventions complement or negate each other, and whether such effects are strong enough to influence adaptations to exercise.

  12. Diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Pravettoni, Valerio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood. One of the best-characterized types of FDEIAn is that due to ω5-gliadin of wheat, though cases of FDEIAn after wheat ingestion by sensitization to wheat lipid transfer protien (LTP) are described. Some pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EIAn have been hypothesized, such as increase/alteration in gastrointestinal permeability, alteration of tissue transglutaminase promoting IgE cross-linking, enhanced expression of cytokines, redistribution of blood during physical exercise leading to altered mast-cell degranulation, and also changes in the acid–base balance. Nevertheless, until now, none of these hypotheses has been validated. The diagnosis of EIAn and FDEIAn is achieved by means of a challenge, with physical exercise alone for EIAn, and with the assumption of the suspected food followed by physical exercise for FDEIAn; in cases of doubtful results, a double-blind placebo-controlled combined food–exercise challenge should be performed. The prevention of this particular kind of anaphylaxis is the avoidance of the specific trigger, ie, physical exercise for EIAn, the assumption of the culprit food before exercise for FDEIAn, and in general the avoidance of the recognized cofactors. Patients must be supplied with an epinephrine autoinjector, as epinephrine has been clearly recognized as the first-line intervention for anaphylaxis. PMID:27822074

  13. Exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia in patients with vasospastic angina

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, M.; Koyanagi, S.; Sakai, K.; Irie, T.; Takeshita, A.; Nakamura, M.; Nakagaki, O. )

    1990-03-01

    To clarify the incidence and clinical characteristics of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with vasospastic angina, we performed exercise thallium computed tomography in 25 patients who had no significant coronary artery stenosis greater than 70%. Coronary artery spasm was documented by coronary angiography in all patients. Eleven patients (44%) developed exercise-induced perfusion defects, but only four of them had anginal pain (36%). Diltiazem (90 mg, administered orally) prevented the development of exercise-induced perfusion defects in all patients. Multivessel coronary spasm was documented by coronary angiography in 11 patients, and nine of them (82%) showed exercise-induced perfusion defects (p less than 0.05). From this study it can be concluded: (1) Exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was demonstrated in 44% of patients who had vasospastic angina without fixed coronary stenosis, and 64% of them were asymptomatic. (2) Patients with multivessel spasm had a greater prevalence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia than those with single-vessel spasm.

  14. Hyperthermia, dehydration, and osmotic stress: unconventional sources of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-15

    Evidence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is observed in the circulation during exercise in humans. This is exacerbated at elevated body temperatures and attenuated when normal exercise-induced body temperature elevations are suppressed. Why ROS production during exercise is temperature dependent is entirely unknown. This review covers the human exercise studies to date that provide evidence that oxidant and antioxidant changes observed in the blood during exercise are dependent on temperature and fluid balance. We then address possible mechanisms linking exercise with these variables that include shear stress, effects of hemoconcentration, and signaling pathways involving muscle osmoregulation. Since pathways of muscle osmoregulation are rarely discussed in this context, we provide a brief review of what is currently known and unknown about muscle osmoregulation and how it may be linked to oxidant production in exercise and hyperthermia. Both the circulation and the exercising muscle fibers become concentrated with osmolytes during exercise in the heat, resulting in a competition for available water across the muscle sarcolemma and other tissues. We conclude that though multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance in the blood during exercise, a strong case can be made that a significant component of ROS produced during some forms of exercise reflect requirements of adapting to osmotic challenges, hyperthermia challenges, and loss of circulating fluid volume. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Contrast Water Therapy and Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bieuzen, François; Bleakley, Chris M.; Costello, Joseph Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of Contrast Water Therapy (CWT) on recovery following exercise induced muscle damage. Controlled trials were identified from computerized literature searching and citation tracking performed up to February 2013. Eighteen trials met the inclusion criteria; all had a high risk of bias. Pooled data from 13 studies showed that CWT resulted in significantly greater improvements in muscle soreness at the five follow-up time points (<6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) in comparison to passive recovery. Pooled data also showed that CWT significantly reduced muscle strength loss at each follow-up time (<6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) in comparison to passive recovery. Despite comparing CWT to a large number of other recovery interventions, including cold water immersion, warm water immersion, compression, active recovery and stretching, there was little evidence for a superior treatment intervention. The current evidence base shows that CWT is superior to using passive recovery or rest after exercise; the magnitudes of these effects may be most relevant to an elite sporting population. There seems to be little difference in recovery outcome between CWT and other popular recovery interventions. PMID:23626806

  16. High-protein, low-fat, short-term diet results in less stress and fatigue than moderate-protein moderate-fat diet during weight loss in male weightlifters: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Helms, Eric R; Zinn, Caryn; Rowlands, David S; Naidoo, Ruth; Cronin, John

    2015-04-01

    Athletes risk performance and muscle loss when dieting. Strategies to prevent losses are unclear. This study examined the effects of two diets on anthropometrics, strength, and stress in athletes. This double-blind crossover pilot study began with 14 resistance-trained males (20-43 yr) and incurred one dropout. Participants followed carbohydrate-matched, high-protein low-fat (HPLF) or moderate-protein moderate-fat (MPMF) diets of 60% habitual calories for 2 weeks. Protein intakes were 2.8g/kg and 1.6g/kg and mean fat intakes were 15.4% and 36.5% of calories, respectively. Isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and completion. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were completed daily. Outcomes were presented statistically as probability of clinical benefit, triviality, or harm with effect sizes (ES) and qualitative assessments. Differences of effect between diets on IMTP and anthropometrics were likely or almost certainly trivial, respectively. Worse than normal scores on DALDA part A, part B and the part A "diet" item were likely more harmful (ES 0.32, 0.4 and 0.65, respectively) during MPMF than HPLF. The POMS fatigue score was likely more harmful (ES 0.37) and the POMS total mood disturbance score (TMDS) was possibly more harmful (ES 0.29) during MPMF than HPLF. For the 2 weeks observed, strength and anthropometric differences were minimal while stress, fatigue, and diet-dissatisfaction were higher during MPMF. A HPLF diet during short-term weight loss may be more effective at mitigating mood disturbance, fatigue, diet dissatisfaction, and stress than a MPMF diet.

  17. Exercise-induced hypertension in men with metabolic syndrome: anthropometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic features.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Valérie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cardiac morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) in men with metabolic syndrome and to explore potential associations with anthropometric and metabolic variables. A total of 179 normotensive men with metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal symptom-limited treadmill test. Blood pressure was measured at 5-min rest prior to exercise testing (anticipatory blood pressure), at every 3 min during the exercise, and during the recovery period. EIH was defined as maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥220 mmHg and/or maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mmHg. Of the 179 men, 87 (47%) presented EIH. Resting blood pressure values at baseline were 127±10/83±6 mmHg in EIH and 119±9/80±6 mmHg (P=0.01 for both) in normal blood pressure responders to exercise. Anticipatory SBP and DPS were higher in the group with EIH (P=0.001). Subjects with EIH presented higher waist circumference (WC) (P<0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels as well as insulin resistance (all P<0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and total body fat mass were comparable between groups. Subjects with EIH had higher abdominal visceral adipose tissue (P<0.001). The best predictors of EIH were resting SBP and abdominal obesity. Each increment of 5 cm in WC was associated with an odds ratio of 1.30 (1.20-1.68) for EIH. About half of our subjects with metabolic syndrome showed EIH. These men are characterized by a worsened metabolic profile. Our data suggest that a treadmill exercise test may be helpful to identify a potentially higher risk metabolic syndrome subset of subjects.

  18. Ectopic fat storage in the pancreas using 1H-MRS: importance of diabetic status and modulation with bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    Gaborit, B; Abdesselam, I; Kober, F; Jacquier, A; Ronsin, O; Emungania, O; Lesavre, N; Alessi, M-C; Martin, J C; Bernard, M; Dutour, A

    2015-03-01

    Recent literature suggests that ectopic fat deposition in the pancreas may contribute to endocrine and exocrine organ dysfunction, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with pancreatic triglyceride content (PTGC), and to investigate the impact of bariatric surgery on ectopic fat pads, pancreatic fat (PTGC) and hepatic fat (HTGC). In all, 45 subjects (13 lean, 13 obese nondiabetics and 19 T2D, matched for age and gender) underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, computed tomography of the visceral abdominal fat, metabolic and lipidomic analysis, including insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), insulin-secretion homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B) and plasma fatty-acid composition. Twenty obese subjects were reassessed 6 months after the bariatric surgery. PTGC was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic subjects (23.8±3.2%) compared with obese (14.0±3.3; P=0.03) and lean subjects (7.5±0.9%; P=0.0002). PTGC remained significantly associated with T2D after adjusting for age and sex (β=0.47; P=0.004) or even after adjusting for waist circumference, triglycerides and HOMA-IR (β=0.32; P=0.04). T2D, C18:1n-9 (oleic acid), uric acid, triglycerides and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were the five more important parameters involved in PTGC prediction (explained 80% of PTGC variance). Bariatric surgery induced a huge reduction of both HTGC (-51.2±7.9%) and PTGC (-43.8±7.0%) reaching lean levels, whereas body mass index remained greatly elevated. An improvement of insulin resistance HOMA-IR and no change in HOMA-B were observed after bariatric surgery. The PTGC or HTGC losses were not correlated, suggesting tissue-specific mobilization of these ectopic fat stores. Pancreatic fat increased with T2D and drastically decreased after the bariatric surgery. This suggests that decreased PTGC may contribute to improved beta cell function seen after the bariatric

  19. Adiponectin deficiency rescues high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and autophagy loss despite persistent steatosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Nair, S; Zhang, Y; Ren, J

    2017-09-01

    Background &aims:Low levels of adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, are associated with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis although its role in high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury and steatosis remains unclear. Here we hypothesized that APN deficiency alters fat diet-induced hepatic function. To this end, we examined the effect of APN deficiency on high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and steatosis. Adult wild type and APN knockout mice were fed a low- or high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides, steatosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and autophagy were examined. High-fat feeding led to elevated body (48.2%) and liver weights (18.8%), increased levels of ALT (87.8%), serum cholesterol (104.4%), hepatic triglycerides (305.6%) and hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by Oil Red O staining, along with a reduced AST/ALT ratio and unchanged AST. Although APN knockout itself did not affect hepatic function and morphology, it reconciled fat diet-induced hepatic injury (P<0.05 vs WT-HF group) without reversing changes in body and liver weights, serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis. In addition, fat diet intake promoted AMPK phosphorylation, p62 accumulation and apoptosis, including elevated Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, along with suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3 and JNK, and the autophagy makers Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3B (P<0.05 vs WT-LF group) without affecting hepatic interlelukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, the effects were reversed or significantly attenuated by APN knockout (P<0.05 vs WT-HF group). In vitro study using HepG2 cells revealed that STAT3 activation rescued palmitic acid-induced cell injury whereas STAT3 inhibition nullified APN knockdown-offered beneficial effects. Our results revealed that high-fat diet intake promotes hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and

  20. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P < 0.07). Ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake

  1. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Voils, Corrine I.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Mayer, Stephanie B.; Smith, Valerie A.; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J.; Yancy, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the ‘choice’ arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern

  2. 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced growth hormone response in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Morishima, Takuma; Hasegawa, Yuta; Mori, Ayaka; Ijichi, Toshiaki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of high-intensity interval training on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) responses, whole body and regional fat content. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomized to either a high-intensity interval training (HIT) group or a low-intensity continuous training (LT) group. The HIT group performed intermittent exercises at 85% of [Formula: see text], whereas the LT group performed continuous exercise for 22 min at 45% of [Formula: see text]. Before and after 4 weeks of training, hormonal and metabolic responses to acute exercise were determined. Acute exercise significantly increased GH concentrations in both groups (p < 0.05). However, the responses did not change after training period in either group. Furthermore, the training did not significantly affect intramyocellular or intrahepatic lipid content in either group. The present study indicates that 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced GH responses, whole body fat mass or intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipid content in sedentary males.

  3. Less-than-expected weight loss in normal-weight women undergoing caloric restriction and exercise is accompanied by preservation of fat-free mass and metabolic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Koehler, K; De Souza, M J; Williams, N I

    2017-03-01

    Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic hormones associated with energy conservation. Weight loss occurred in SEV (-3.7±0.9 kg, P<0.001) and MOD (-2.7±0.8 kg; P=0.003), but weight loss was significantly less than predicted (SEV: -11.1±1.0 kg; MOD: -6.5±1.1 kg; both P<0.001 vs actual). Fat mass declined in SEV (P<0.001) and MOD (P=0.006), whereas fat-free mass remained unchanged in all groups (P>0.33). RMR decreased by -6±2% in MOD (P=0.020). In SEV, RMR did not change on a group level (P=0.66), but participants whose RMR declined lost more weight (P=0.020) and had a higher baseline RMR (P=0.026) than those whose RMR did not decrease. Characteristic changes in leptin (P=0.003), tri-iodothyronine (P=0.013), insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.016) and ghrelin (P=0.049) occurred only in SEV. The energy deficit and adaptive changes in RMR explained 54% of the observed weight loss. In normal-weight women, caloric restriction and exercise resulted in less-than-predicted weight loss. In contrast to previous literature, weight loss consisted almost exclusively of fat mass, whereas fat-free mass was preserved.

  4. Exercise-induced ROS in heat shock proteins response.

    PubMed

    Dimauro, Ivan; Mercatelli, Neri; Caporossi, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cells have evolved multiple and sophisticated stress response mechanisms aiming to prevent macromolecular (including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) damage and to maintain or re-establish cellular homeostasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are among the most highly conserved, ubiquitous, and abundant proteins in all organisms. Originally discovered more than 50 years ago through heat shock stress, they display multiple, remarkable roles inside and outside cells under a variety of stresses, including also oxidative stress and radiation, recognizing unfolded or misfolded proteins and facilitating their restructuring. Exercise consists in a combination of physiological stresses, such as metabolic disturbances, changes in circulating levels of hormones, increased temperature, induction of mild to severe inflammatory state, increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). As a consequence, exercise is one of the main stimuli associated with a robust increase in different HSPs in several tissues, which appears to be also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodeling processes related to the training regime. Among all factors involved in the exercise-related modulation of HSPs level, the ROS production in the contracting muscle or in other tissues represents one of the most attracting, but still under discussion, mechanism. Following exhaustive or damaging muscle exercise, major oxidative damage to proteins and lipids is likely involved in HSP expression, together with mechanically induced damage to muscle proteins and the inflammatory response occurring several days into the recovery period. Instead, the transient and reversible oxidation of proteins by physiological concentrations of ROS seems to be involved in the activation of stress response following non-damaging muscle exercise. This review aims to provide a critical update on the role of HSPs response in exercise-induced adaptation or damage in humans, focusing on experimental

  5. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in Thokoza schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Mashalane, M B N; Stewart, A; Feldman, C; Becker, P; de Charmoy, S

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a common childhood illness, with a prevalence of 1 in 10 children. Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a common feature of asthma and is found more often in children than in adults. To determine the prevalence and potential impact of various factors on the prevalence of EIB in Thokoza schoolchildren. Data were collected on respiratory health and the home environment of children living in Thokoza, Gauteng. A total of 475 9- and 10-year-old children performed the free-running asthma screening test (FRAST). An abnormal response to FRAST was defined as a reduction in the post-exercise peak flow of more than 15% of the pre-exercise value, at 3- and 10- minute intervals. All children who had a fall in post-exercise flow rate (PEFR) of more than 15% on 2 occasions after FRAST were classified as having EIB. Using the above criteria to diagnose EIB, an overall prevalence rate of 7.26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5 - 10.3%) was recorded. A less rigorous definition of EIB is a fall in PEFR of more than 10% on 2 occasions after FRAST, and if this was used then the prevalence of EIB was 15.69% (95% CI: 10.6 - 20.8%). Difficulty breathing and a tight chest were the most prevalent respiratory symptoms in children with EIB (odds ratio (OR): 1.79, 95% CI: 0.49 - 6.49 and OR 1.69, 95% CI: 0.72 - 3.99, respectively). The use of gas and electricity as domestic fuels was the strongest risk factor associated with EIB, as shown by logistical regression analysis using an adjusted OR in a reduced model (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 0.71 - 8.44 and OR 2.33, 95% CI: 0.59 - 9.24, respectively). The prevalence of EIB reported in this study is higher than that reported in studies from other African countries, with the exception of a study from Kenya. Findings of the present study suggest that there may be a trend towards increasing prevalence of EIB in South African urban areas.

  6. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  7. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  8. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  9. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  10. High-fat diet enhances and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency attenuates bone loss in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...

  11. Effect of dietary patterns differing in carbohydrate and fat content on blood lipid and glucose profiles based on weight-loss success of breast-cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Sedlacek, Scot M; Paul, Devchand; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Playdon, Mary C; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Bartels, Sara N; Wisthoff, Mark R

    2012-01-06

    Healthy body weight is an important factor for prevention of breast cancer recurrence. Yet, weight loss and weight gain are not currently included in clinical-practice guidelines for posttreatment of breast cancer. The work reported addresses one of the questions that must be considered in recommending weight loss to patients: does it matter what diet plan is used, a question of particular importance because breast cancer treatment can increase risk for cardiovascular disease. Women who completed treatment for breast cancer were enrolled in a nonrandomized, controlled study investigating effects of weight loss achieved by using two dietary patterns at the extremes of macronutrient composition, although both diet arms were equivalent in protein: high fat, low carbohydrate versus low fat, high carbohydrate. A nonintervention group served as the control arm; women were assigned to intervention arms based on dietary preferences. During the 6-month weight-loss program, which was menu and recipe defined, participants had monthly clinical visits at which anthropometric data were collected and fasting blood was obtained for safety monitoring for plasma lipid profiles and fasting glucose. Results from 142 participants are reported. Adverse effects on fasting blood lipids or glucose were not observed in either dietary arm. A decrease in fasting glucose was observed with progressive weight loss and was greater in participants who lost more weight, but the effect was not statistically significant, even though it was observed across both diet groups (P = 0.21). Beneficial effects of weight loss on cholesterol (4.7%; P = 0.001), triglycerides (21.8%; P = 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (5.8%; P = 0.06) were observed in both groups. For cholesterol (P = 0.07) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.13), greater reduction trends were seen on the low-fat diet pattern; whereas, for triglycerides (P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.08), a decrease

  12. Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d(-1) for 7 d followed by 6g.d(-1) for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d(-1) of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key pointsEccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage.Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis.Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days).Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage.Ergogenic effect of creatine

  13. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  14. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  15. Preliminary data about the influence of vitamin D status on the loss of body fat in young overweight/obese women following two types of hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Bermejo, Laura M; Perea, José M; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Andrés, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    The loss of weight was analysed in a group of sixty overweight/obese women of childbearing age (20-35 years) according to their initial vitamin D status. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets: Diet V, in which the consumption of vegetables was increased, or Diet C, in which the relative consumption of cereals (especially breakfast cereals) was increased. Dietetic, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the start of the study and again at 2 weeks after dividing the women into groups depending on their having an initial serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of < 50 nmol/l (LD) or>or=50 nmol/l (HD). Dietary intervention led to a reduction in energy intake, body weight and BMI in all groups. The HD women showed greater body fat losses during the study than the LD women (1.7 (SD 1.8) kg compared to 0.5 (SD 0.8) kg). A better vitamin D status therefore aided the loss of body fat over the experimental period (OR 0.462; CI 0.271, 0.785; P < 0.001). However, when the dietary groups were analysed separately, this effect was only seen in the C subjects (OR 0.300; CI 0.121, 0.748; P < 0.001). The present results suggest that women with a better vitamin D status respond more positively to hypocaloric diets and lose more body fat; this was especially clear among the C subjects who had a greater vitamin D supply during the experimental period.

  16. Examination of mechanisms (E-MECHANIC) of exercise-induced weight compensation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight loss induced only by exercise is frequently less than expected, possibly because of compensatory changes in energy intake and/or energy expenditure. The purpose of the Examination of Mechanisms (E-MECHANIC) of Exercise-Induced Weight Compensation trial is to examine whether increased energy intake and/or reduced spontaneous activity or energy expenditure (outside of structured exercise) account for the less than expected, exercise-associated weight loss. Methods/Design E-MECHANIC is a three-arm, 6-month randomized (1:1:1) controlled trial. The two intervention arms are exercise doses that reflect current recommendations for (1) general health (8 kcal/kg body weight per week (8 KKW), about 900 kcal/wk) and (2) weight loss (20 KKW, about 2,250 kcal/wk). The third arm, a nonexercise control group, will receive health information only. The sample will include a combined total of 198sedentary, overweight or obese (body mass index: ≥25 kg/m2 to ≤45 kg/m2) men and women ages 18 to 65 years. The exercise dose will be supervised and tightly controlled in an exercise training laboratory. The primary outcome variables are energy intake, which will be measured using doubly labeled water (adjusted for change in energy stores) and laboratory-based food intake tests, and the discrepancy between expected weight loss and observed weight loss. Secondary outcomes include changes in resting metabolic rate (adjusted for change in body mass), activity levels (excluding structured exercise) and body composition. In an effort to guide the development of future interventions, the participants will be behaviorally phenotyped and defined as those who do compensate (that is, fail to lose the amount of weight expected) or do not compensate (that is, lose the amount of weight expected or more). Discussion In this study, we will attempt to identify underlying mechanisms to explain why exercise elicits less weight loss than expected. This information will guide the

  17. Examination of mechanisms (E-MECHANIC) of exercise-induced weight compensation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candice A; Johnson, William D; Earnest, Conrad P; Rood, Jennifer C; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Johannsen, Neil M; Cocreham, Shannon; Harris, Melissa; Church, Timothy S; Martin, Corby K

    2014-06-07

    Weight loss induced only by exercise is frequently less than expected, possibly because of compensatory changes in energy intake and/or energy expenditure. The purpose of the Examination of Mechanisms (E-MECHANIC) of Exercise-Induced Weight Compensation trial is to examine whether increased energy intake and/or reduced spontaneous activity or energy expenditure (outside of structured exercise) account for the less than expected, exercise-associated weight loss. E-MECHANIC is a three-arm, 6-month randomized (1:1:1) controlled trial. The two intervention arms are exercise doses that reflect current recommendations for (1) general health (8 kcal/kg body weight per week (8 KKW), about 900 kcal/wk) and (2) weight loss (20 KKW, about 2,250 kcal/wk). The third arm, a nonexercise control group, will receive health information only. The sample will include a combined total of 198sedentary, overweight or obese (body mass index: ≥25 kg/m² to ≤45 kg/m²) men and women ages 18 to 65 years. The exercise dose will be supervised and tightly controlled in an exercise training laboratory. The primary outcome variables are energy intake, which will be measured using doubly labeled water (adjusted for change in energy stores) and laboratory-based food intake tests, and the discrepancy between expected weight loss and observed weight loss. Secondary outcomes include changes in resting metabolic rate (adjusted for change in body mass), activity levels (excluding structured exercise) and body composition. In an effort to guide the development of future interventions, the participants will be behaviorally phenotyped and defined as those who do compensate (that is, fail to lose the amount of weight expected) or do not compensate (that is, lose the amount of weight expected or more). In this study, we will attempt to identify underlying mechanisms to explain why exercise elicits less weight loss than expected. This information will guide the development of interventions to increase

  18. Regulation of exercise-induced lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kiens, Bente

    2014-12-01

    Exercise increases the utilization of lipids in muscle. The sources of lipids are long-chain fatty acids taken up from the plasma and fatty acids released from stores of intramuscular triacylglycerol by the action of intramuscular lipases. In the present review, we focus on the role of fatty acid binding proteins, particularly fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), in the exercise- and contraction-induced increase in uptake of long-chain fatty acids in muscle. The FAT/CD36 translocates from intracellular depots to the surface membrane upon initiation of exercise/muscle contractions. This occurs independently of AMP-activated protein kinase, and data suggest that Ca(2+)-related signalling is responsible. The FAT/CD36 has an important role; long-chain fatty acid uptake is markedly decreased in FAT/CD36 knockout mice during contractions/exercise compared with wild-type control mice. In skeletal muscle, 98% of the lipase activity is accounted for by adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Give that inhibition or knockout of hormone-sensitive lipase does not impair lipolysis in muscle during contraction, the data point to an important role of adipose triglyceride lipase in regulation of muscle lipolysis. Although the molecular regulation of the lipases in muscle is not understood, it is speculated that intramuscular lipolysis may be regulated in part by the availability of the plasma concentration of long-chain fatty acids. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated

  20. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, Scot M; Playdon, Mary C; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Wisthoff, Mark R; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-07-06

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m²) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  1. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson's disease: What is the evidence telling us?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Mark A; Iyer, Sanjay S; Sanjak, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    While animal models of exercise and PD have pushed the field forward, few studies have addressed exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. As a first step toward promoting greater international collaboration on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD, we present data on 8 human PD studies (published between 2008 and 2015) with 144 adults with PD of varying disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to stage 3), using various experimental (e.g., randomized controlled trial) and quasi-experimental designs on the effects of cognitive and physical activity on brain structure or function in PD. We focus on plasticity mechanisms of intervention-induced increases in maximal corticomotor excitability, exercise-induced changes in voxel-based gray matter volume changes and increases in exercise-induced serum levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, we provide a future perspective for promoting international, collaborative research on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. An emerging body of evidence suggests exercise triggers several plasticity related events in the human PD brain including corticomotor excitation, increases and decreases in gray matter volume and changes in BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are involved in fat loss in JunB-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pinent, Montserrat; Prokesch, Andreas; Hackl, Hubert; Voshol, Peter J; Klatzer, Ariane; Walenta, Evelyn; Panzenboeck, Ute; Kenner, Lukas; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Hoefler, Gerald; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G

    2011-07-01

    Proteins of the activator protein-1 family are known to have roles in many physiological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation. However, their role in fat metabolism has yet to be defined in more detail. Here we study the impact of JunB deficiency on the metabolic state of mice. JunB knockout (JunB-KO) mice show markedly decreased weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a low survival rate compared with control mice. If fed a high-fat diet, the weight gain of JunB-KO mice is comparable to control mice and the survival rate improves dramatically. Along with normal expression of adipogenic marker genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of JunB-KO mice, this suggests that adipogenesis per se is not affected by JunB deficiency. This is supported by in vitro data, because neither JunB-silenced 3T3-L1 cells nor mouse embryonic fibroblasts from JunB-KO mice show a change in adipogenic potential. Interestingly, the key enzymes of lipolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly increased in WAT of fasted JunB-KO mice. Concomitantly, the ratio of plasma free fatty acids per gram fat mass was increased, suggesting an elevated lipolytic rate under fasting conditions. Furthermore, up-regulation of TNFα and reduced expression of perilipin indicate that this pathway is also involved in increased lipolytic rate in these mice. Additionally, JunB-KO mice are more insulin sensitive than controls and show up-regulation of lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle, indicating a shuttling of energy substrates from WAT to skeletal muscle. In summary, this study provides valuable insights into the impact of JunB deficiency on the metabolic state of mice.

  3. Differential effects of sauna-, diuretic-, and exercise-induced hypohydration.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J E; Ahonen, E; Nousiainen, U

    1984-10-01

    The physiological effects on submaximal and maximal exercise of three methods commonly used by athletes for achieving rapid weight loss were determined by measuring cardiorespiratory variables in 62 nonendurance athletes. A mean weight loss of 4.1% was achieved by those who followed either a sauna (SAU), diuretic (DIU), or exercise (ACT) protocol, compared with the average weight loss of 1.2% in the control group. At maximal exercise O2 consumption, O2 pulse, blood lactate concentration, and work load decreased in SAU and DIU groups relative to the ACT group, whereas only a few differences were observed at the aerobic threshold. Weight loss achieved over a 48-h period was less detrimental to an athlete than was a more rapid (24-h) weight reduction achieved through sauna bathing or the use of diuretics. We conclude that not only the quantity of weight loss but also the method itself may limit physical performance.

  4. Effects of a Stimulant-Free Dietary Supplement on Body Weight and Fat Loss in Obese Adults: A Six-Week Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. Methods: In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20–50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m2) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Results: Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21–48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m2 [range, 28.9–50.9 kg/m2]) were assigned to the treatment

  5. Liraglutide and obesity in elderly: efficacy in fat loss and safety in order to prevent sarcopenia. A perspective case series study.

    PubMed

    Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Bologna, Chiara; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Guerriero, Fabio; Isu, Antonio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-12-01

    For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue (liraglutide) appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Given this background, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the liraglutide treatment, at doses up to 3.0 mg per day, on the body composition, focusing on sarcopenia, in overweight and obese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A perspective study was carried out in overweight and obese T2DM patients with HbA1c equal to 7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) ~10.0 % (86), under 3-month treatment (at least) of maximal dose of metformin at stable regime, and additional liraglutide at doses up to 3.0 mg per day. Body composition markers such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), android and gynoid fat mass, and arms and legs fat free mass, was measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was also carried out by glucose and HbA1c. Nine subjects (male/female 6/3, mean age 68.22 ± 3.86 years, BMI 32.34 ± 4.89 kg/m(2)) were evaluated. We noted a median decrease in BMI (-0.78 kg/m(2)), weight (-2000 g), fat mass (-1498 g) and android fat (-0.9 %), and a increase in SMI (+0.03 kg/m(2)) from baseline. Glycemic control also improved, with a median change HbA1c of -0.80 %. Twenty-four weeks of liraglutide treatment was associated with reductions in fat mass and android fat. In addition, in order to prevent sarcopenia, it preserved the muscular tropism.

  6. Efficacy of a meal-replacement program for promoting blood lipid changes and weight and body fat loss in US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Karl, J Philip; Young, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    Excess weight is associated with negative health outcomes. Meal replacements are effective in promoting favorable body composition changes in civilian populations; however, their efficacy with military service members who have unique lifestyles is unknown. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the Army's education-based weight-management program, "Weigh to Stay," with and without meal replacements for improving blood lipids, and to promote weight and body fat loss in overweight US Army soldiers. Soldiers (n=113; 76 males/37 females) attending Weigh to Stay at Fort Bragg, NC, in 2006/2007 were randomized to Weigh to Stay only or a commercially available meal-replacement program (two meal replacements per day) in conjunction with Weigh to Stay, and followed until Army body fat standards were met or for 6 months if standards were not met. Study completers (n=46) in both treatment groups lost weight (Weigh to Stay: -2.7+/-4.3 kg; meal replacers: -3.8+/-3.5 kg) and fat mass (Weigh to Stay, -2.7+/-3.2 kg; meal replacers: -2.9+/-2.5 kg), and improved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (Weigh to Stay: 13+/-9 mg/dL [0.34+/-0.23 mmol/L]; meal replacers: 8+/-7 mg/dL [0.21+/-0.18 mmol/L]; P<0.05); however, no between-group differences were observed. Attrition was lower (P=0.009) and success in meeting body fat standards tended to be higher (P=0.06) for the meal replacers vs Weigh to Stay participants. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated that meal replacers lost more weight (1.2+/-0.5 kg), percent body fat (1.0%+/-0.4%), and fat mass (0.8+/-0.4 kg) compared to Weigh to Stay volunteers (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that meal replacement use can be recommended as a potential adjunct strategy to Weigh to Stay.

  7. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    PubMed

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, P<0.001; carbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, P<0.001; energy, fresh vs thawed: 64.93±12.97 vs 56.63±16.82 kcal/100 ml, P<0.0001), whereas protein content remained unchanged (protein, fresh vs thawed: 1.14±0.36 vs 1.15±0.37 g/100 ml, P=0.7). The decline in carbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  8. Lack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet123

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Julie P; Wolfe, Pamela; Allian-Sauer, Marybeth; Capell, Warren H; Talley, Natalie D; Wyatt, Holly R; Foster, Gary D; Hill, James O; Eckel, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the comparative effect of weight-loss diets on metabolic profiles during dieting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (≤20 g/d) with a high-carbohydrate diet (55% of total energy intake) on fasting and hourly metabolic variables during active weight loss. Design: Healthy, obese adults (n = 32; 22 women, 10 men) were randomly assigned to receive either a carbohydrate-restricted diet [High Fat; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 35.8 ± 2.9] or a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet (High Carb; BMI: 36.7 ± 4.6) for 6 wk. A 24-h in-patient feeding study was performed at baseline and after 6 wk. Glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and triglycerides were measured hourly during meals, at regimented times. Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol was measured every 4 h. Results: Patients lost a similar amount of weight in both groups (P = 0.57). There was an absence of any diet treatment effect between groups on fasting triglycerides or on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, which was the main outcome. Fasting insulin decreased (P = 0.03), and both fasting (P = 0.040) and 24-h FFAs (P < 0.0001) increased within the High Fat group. Twenty-four-hour insulin decreased (P < 0.05 for both groups). Fasting LDL cholesterol decreased in the High Carb group only (P = 0.003). In both groups, the differences in fasting and 24-h FFAs at 6 wk were significantly correlated with the change in LDL cholesterol (fasting FFA: r = 0.41, P = 0.02; 24-h FFA: r = 0.52, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Weight loss was similar between diets, but only the high-fat diet increased LDL-cholesterol concentrations. This effect was related to the lack of suppression of both fasting and 24-h FFAs. PMID:20107198

  9. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals MicroRNAs Regulating Biological Pathways in Exercise-Induced Cardiac Physiological Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiahong; Liu, Yang; Xie, Yuan; Zhao, Cuimei; Wang, Hongbao

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Various miRNA targets and molecular pathways, such as Fatty acid elongation, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and ECM-receptor interaction, were identified. This study could prompt the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals MicroRNAs Regulating Biological Pathways in Exercise-Induced Cardiac Physiological Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiahong; Liu, Yang; Xie, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Various miRNA targets and molecular pathways, such as Fatty acid elongation, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and ECM-receptor interaction, were identified. This study could prompt the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28286759

  11. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Offringa, Lisa C; Hartle, Jennifer C; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2016-01-01

    To test for differential weight loss response to low-fat (LF) vs. low-carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) , were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. Baseline % carbohydrate:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6 months, the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; there was no significant diet × IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet × IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  13. A novel dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, KBP-089, induces weight loss through a reduction in fat, but not lean mass, while improving food preference.

    PubMed

    Gydesen, Sofie; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Freving, Zenia; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Sonne, Nina; Hellgren, Lars I; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges. Hence, there is an important need to develop weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities. The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on body weight, glucose homeostasis and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue and on food preference was investigated. Furthermore, we elucidated weight-independent effects of KBP-089 using a weight-matched group. Rats fed a high-fat diet were treated, s.c., with KBP-089 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 μg·kg(-1) or vehicle. KB-089 induced in a dose-dependent and sustained weight loss (~17% by 2.5 μg·kg(-1) ). Moreover, KBP-089 reduced fat depot size and reduced lipid accumulation in muscle and liver. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, KBP-089 improved glucose homeostasis through improved insulin action. To obtain a weight-matched group, significantly less food was offered (9% less than in the KBP-089 group). Weight matching led to improved glucose homeostasis by reducing plasma insulin; however, these effect were inferior compared to those of KBP-089. In the food preference test, rats fed a normal diet obtained 74% of their calories from chocolate. KBP-089 reduced total caloric intake and induced a relative increase in chow consumption while drastically reducing chocolate consumption compared with vehicle. The novel DACRA, KBP-089, induces a sustained weight loss, leading to improved metabolic parameters including food preference, and these are beyond those observed simply by diet-induced weight loss. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. The effects of fat loss after bariatric surgery on inflammation, serum hepcidin, and iron absorption: a prospective 6-mo iron stable isotope study.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C; Allende-Labastida, Javier; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Osendarp, Saskia Jm; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Moretti, Diego; Rodriguez-Lastra, Ramiro; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco; Villalpando, Salvador; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-10-01

    Iron deficiency is common in obese subjects. This may be due to an increase in serum hepcidin and a decrease in iron absorption from adiposity-related inflammation. We evaluated whether weight and fat loss in obese subjects would decrease inflammation and serum hepcidin and thereby improve iron absorption. We performed a 6-mo prospective study in obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) ≥35 and <45] adults who had recently undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. At 2 and 8 mo postsurgery, subjects consumed a test drink with 6 mg (57)Fe as ferrous sulfate and were intravenously infused with 100 μg (58)Fe as iron citrate. We then compared erythrocyte incorporation of iron isotopic labels, changes in body composition, iron status, hepcidin, and inflammation at each time point. Forty-three subjects were studied at baseline, and 38 completed the protocol (32 women and 6 men). After 6 mo, total body fat, interleukin IL-6, and hepcidin were significantly lower (all P < 0.005). In iron-deficient subjects (n = 17), geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption increased by 28% [from 9.7% (6.5%, 14.6%) to 12.4% (7.7%, 20.1%); P = 0.03], whereas in iron-sufficient subjects (n = 21), absorption did not change [5.9% (4.0%, 8.6%) and 5.6% (3.9%, 8.2%); P = 0.81]. Adiposity-related inflammation is associated with a reduction in the normal upregulation of iron absorption in iron-deficient obese subjects, and this adverse effect may be ameliorated by fat loss. This protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Wageningen University, ETH Zurich, the University of Monterrey, and the Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks, and registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01347905. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Carbenoxolone Treatment Ameliorated Metabolic Syndrome in WNIN/Ob Obese Rats, but Induced Severe Fat Loss and Glucose Intolerance in Lean Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad Sakamuri, Siva Sankara Vara; Sukapaka, Mahesh; Prathipati, Vijay Kumar; Nemani, Harishankar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Pothana, Shailaja; Koppala, Swarupa Rani; Ponday, Lakshmi Raj Kumar; Acharya, Vani; Veetill, Giridharan Nappan; Ayyalasomayajula, Vajreswari

    2012-01-01

    Background 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX) on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight) or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment). Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions. PMID:23284633

  16. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, H M; Larsen, T M; Poulsen, S K; Licht, T R; Bahl, M I; Zohar, Y; Astrup, A

    2017-09-08

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total of 62 participants with increased waist circumference were randomly assigned to receive an ad libitum New Nordic Diet (NND) high in fiber/wholegrain or an Average Danish Diet (ADD) for 26 weeks. Participants were grouped into two discrete enterotypes by their relative abundance of Prevotella spp. divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, P<0.001) larger body fat loss compared to ADD whereas no differences was observed among individuals with low P/B (0.88 kg [95% CI -0.61;2.37, P=0.25]). Consequently, a 2.27 kg (95%CI 0.09;4.45, P=0.041) difference in responsiveness to the diets were found between the two groups. In summary, subjects with high P/B-ratio appeared more susceptible to lose body fat on diets high in fiber and wholegrain than subjects with a low P/B-ratio.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 08 September 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.220.

  17. Comparison of reducing epicardial fat by exercise, diet or bariatric surgery weight loss strategies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, S W; Campbell, H

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to determine whether epicardial fat (EAT) is subject to modification, and whether various strategies accomplish this end point and the relationship between weight loss and EAT. A systematic review of the literature following meta-analysis guidelines was conducted using the search strategy 'epicardial fat' OR 'epicardial adipose tissue' AND 'diet' OR 'exercise' OR 'bariatric surgery (BS)' OR 'change in body weight' limited to humans. Eleven articles were identified with 12 intervention approaches of which eight studies showed a statistically significant reduction in EAT. A random-effects meta-analysis suggests an overall significant reduction of 1.12 standardized units (95% CI = [-1.71, -0.54], P value < 0.01). While there is a large amount of heterogeneity across study groups, a substantial amount of this variability can be accounted for by considering intervention type and change in body mass index (BMI). These variables were incorporated into a random-effects meta-regression model. Using this analysis, significant EAT reduction occurred with diet and BS but not with exercise. BMI reductions correlated significantly with EAT reductions for diet-based interventions, i.e. for some but not all interventions. In conclusion, EAT, a factor that is significantly associated with coronary artery disease, can be modified. The type of intervention, in addition to the amount of weight loss achieved, is predictive of the amount of EAT reduction.

  18. Ocular Complications Following Autologous Fat Injections into Facial Area: Case Report of a Recovery from Visual Loss After Ophthalmic Artery Occlusion and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Szantyr, Aleksandra; Orski, Michał; Marchewka, Ida; Szuta, Mariusz; Orska, Małgorzata; Zapała, Jan

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in popularity of the use of cosmetic fillers in plastic and esthetic surgery, the possibility of severe ocular complications should not be neglected. Of the fillers used, autologous fat is the most common to cause permanent visual deterioration, one of the most severe complications associated with the use of cosmetic fillers. Here we present the first report of a complete recovery of visual acuity from an instance of visual loss with no light perception caused by ophthalmic artery occlusion of the right eye following autologous fat injection in the facial area. Immediate ophthalmological intervention and comprehensive therapy with prostaglandins and vinpocetine made it possible to restore retinal perfusion and achieve complete recovery of visual acuity. Awareness of the iatrogenic artery occlusions associated with facial fillers and the need for immediate treatment should be popularized among injectors to prevent devastating consequences, such as permanent vision loss. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis -importance of omega-5 gliadin and HMW-glutenin as causative antigens for wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis-.

    PubMed

    Morita, Eishin; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Chinuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Dahlström, Jörgen; Tanaka, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a special form of food allergy where a food-intake alone does not induce any symptoms. However, allergic symptoms are elicited when triggering factors such as exercise or aspirin-intake are added after ingestion of the causative food. The most frequent causative foodstuff in Japan is wheat. The triggering factors, both exercise and aspirin-intake, facilitate allergen absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in allergic symptoms in the patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Analysis using purified wheat proteins revealed that approximately 80% of the patients with WDEIA have IgE reacting to omega-5 gliadin and the remaining of the patients to high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-glutenin). Simultaneous measurement of specific IgE to omega-5 gliadin and HMW-glutenin was found to be highly useful in diagnosing WDEIA compared with the routine diagnostic system for wheat.

  20. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  1. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  2. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M.; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m2) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipi