Sample records for exercise-induced glucose uptake

  1. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30-60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5-10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake.

  2. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  3. AMPK and Exercise: Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    AMPK is an evolutionary conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated during exercise. Pharmacological activation of AMPK promotes glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity; processes that are reduced in obesity and contribute to the development of insulin resistance. AMPK deficient mouse models have been used to provide direct genetic evidence either supporting or refuting a role for AMPK in regulating these processes. Exercise promotes glucose uptake by an insulin dependent mechanism involving AMPK. Exercise is important for improving insulin sensitivity; however, it is not known if AMPK is required for these improvements. Understanding how these metabolic processes are regulated is important for the development of new strategies that target obesity-induced insulin resistance. This review will discuss the involvement of AMPK in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism (glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and insulin sensitivity). PMID:23441028

  4. Role of nitric oxide in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yet Hoi; Betik, Andrew C; McConell, Glenn K

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide is produced within skeletal muscle fibres and has various functions in skeletal muscle. There is evidence that NO may be essential for normal increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise. Although there have been some discrepant results, it has been consistently demonstrated that inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction in mouse and rat muscle ex vivo, during in situ contraction in rats and during exercise in humans. The NO-mediated increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise is probably due to the modulation of intramuscular signalling that ultimately increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and is, surprisingly, independent of blood flow. In this review, we discuss the evidence for and against a role of NO in regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise and outline the possible mechanism(s) involved. Emerging findings regarding the role of neuronal NOS mu (nNOSμ) in this process are also discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. Influence of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Röhling, Martin; Herder, Christian; Stemper, Theodor; Müssig, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes. It arises from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental and lifestyle factors including lack of physical exercise and poor nutrition habits. The increased risk of type 2 diabetes is molecularly based on defects in insulin signaling, insulin secretion, and inflammation. The present review aims to give an overview on the molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake of glucose and related signaling pathways after acute and chronic exercise. Physical exercise, as crucial part in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, has marked acute and chronic effects on glucose disposal and related inflammatory signaling pathways. Exercise can stimulate molecular signaling pathways leading to glucose transport into the cell. Furthermore, physical exercise has the potential to modulate inflammatory processes by affecting specific inflammatory signaling pathways which can interfere with signaling pathways of the glucose uptake. The intensity of physical training appears to be the primary determinant of the degree of metabolic improvement modulating the molecular signaling pathways in a dose-response pattern, whereas training modality seems to have a secondary role. PMID:27069930

  6. Contrasting effects of exercise and NOS inhibition on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake in mice.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Bracy, Deanna; Malabanan, Carlo; Yue, Zou; Clanton, Jeff; Wasserman, David H

    2002-07-01

    Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

  7. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial function, increases mitochondrial biogenesis, and increases the expression of glucose transporter proteins and numerous metabolic genes. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. PMID:25434013

  8. Involvement of bradykinin in acute exercise-induced increase of glucose uptake and GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle: studies in normal and diabetic humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, T; Kishikawa, H; Motoshima, H; Sakai, K; Nishiyama, T; Yoshizato, K; Shirakami, A; Toyonaga, T; Shirontani, T; Araki, E; Shichiri, M

    2000-07-01

    Acute exercise induces glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in vivo, but the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon remains to be identified. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of bradykinin in exercise-induced glucose uptake in humans and rats. In human studies, plasma bradykinin concentrations increased significantly during an ergometer exercise (20 minutes) in 8 healthy normoglycemic subjects and 6 well-controlled type 2 diabetic patients (mean hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], 6.4% +/- 0.6%), but not in 6 poorly controlled type 2 diabetics (mean HbA1c, 11.6% +/- 2.6%). In rat studies, plasma bradykinin concentrations also significantly increased after 1 hour of swimming in nondiabetic and mildly diabetic (streptozotocin [STZ] 45 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) rats, but not in rats with severe diabetes (STZ 65 mg/kg IV). Glucose influx (maximum velocity [Vmax]) and GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle of nondiabetic rats significantly increased after 1 hour of swimming, but these increases were abrogated by subcutaneous infusion of bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140 (400 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity in response to insulin injection (20 U/kg IV) in the portal vein were significantly attenuated in exercised rats pretreated with HOE-140 compared with saline-treated exercised rats. Our results suggest that plasma bradykinin concentrations increase in response to acute exercise and this increase is affected by blood glucose status in diabetic patients. Moreover, the exercise-induced increase in bradykinin may be involved in modulating exercise-induced glucose transport through an increase of GLUT-4 translocation, as well as enhancement of the insulin signal pathway, during the postexercise period in skeletal muscle, resulting in a decrease of blood glucose.

  9. Novel single skeletal muscle fiber analysis reveals a fiber type-selective effect of acute exercise on glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Cartee, Gregory D; Arias, Edward B; Yu, Carmen S; Pataky, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    One exercise session can induce subsequently elevated insulin sensitivity that is largely attributable to greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Because skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue comprised of diverse fiber types, our primary aim was to determine exercise effects on insulin-independent and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by single fibers of different fiber types. We hypothesized that each fiber type featuring elevated insulin-independent glucose uptake immediately postexercise (IPEX) would be characterized by increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake at 3.5 h postexercise (3.5hPEX). Rat epitrochlearis muscles were isolated and incubated with 2-[ 3 H]deoxyglucose. Muscles from IPEX and sedentary (SED) controls were incubated without insulin. Muscles from 3.5hPEX and SED controls were incubated ± insulin. Glucose uptake (2-[ 3 H]deoxyglucose accumulation) and fiber type (myosin heavy chain isoform expression) were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. Major new findings included the following: 1) insulin-independent glucose uptake was increased IPEX in single fibers of each fiber type (types I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX), 2) glucose uptake values from insulin-stimulated type I and IIA fibers exceeded the values for the other fiber types, 3) insulin-stimulated glucose uptake for type IIX exceeded IIB fibers, and 4) the 3.5hPEX group vs. SED had greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in type I, IIA, IIB, and IIBX but not type IIX fibers. Insulin-dependent glucose uptake was increased at 3.5hPEX in each fiber type except for IIX fibers, although insulin-independent glucose uptake was increased IPEX in all fiber types (including type IIX). Single fiber analysis enabled the discovery of this fiber type-related difference for postexercise, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Predicting Insulin Absorption and Glucose Uptake during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Spencer; Hinshaw, Ling; Basu, Rita; Szeri, Andrew; Basu, Ananda

    2017-11-01

    A dose of insulin infused into subcutaneous tissue has been shown to absorb more quickly during exercise, potentially causing hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes. We develop a model that relates exercise-induced physiological changes to enhanced insulin-absorption (k) and glucose uptake (GU). Drawing on concepts of the microcirculation we derive a relationship that reveals that k and GU are mainly determined by two physiological parameters that characterize the tissue: the tissue perfusion rate (Q) and the capillary permeability surface area (PS). Independently measured values of Q and PS from the literature are used in the model to make predictions of k and GU. We compare these predictions to experimental observations of healthy and diabetic patients that are given a meal followed by rest or exercise. The experiments show that during exercise insulin concentrations significantly increase and that glucose levels fall rapidly. The model predictions are consistent with the experiments and show that increases in Q and PS directly increase k and GU. This mechanistic understanding provides a basis for handling exercise in control algorithms for an artificial pancreas. Now at University of British Columbia.

  11. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial…

  12. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates insulin- and oxidative stress-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle myotubes.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Dean L; McCammon, Karen M; Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn S; Adamo, Martin L; Roman, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    Previously published studies strongly suggested that insulin- and exercise-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake require nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin and contraction regulated NO production and subsequent glucose transport are not known. In the present study, we utilized the myotube cell lines treated with insulin or hydrogen peroxide, the latter to mimic contraction-induced oxidative stress, to characterize these mechanisms. We found that insulin stimulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, NO production, and GLUT4 translocation were all significantly reduced by inhibition of either nNOS or Akt2. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced phosphorylation of nNOS at the same residue as did insulin, and also stimulated NO production and GLUT4 translocation. nNOS inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced GLUT4 translocation. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 activation and phosphorylation of nNOS, leading to reduced NO production and significantly attenuated GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that nNOS phosphorylation and subsequently increased NO production are required for both insulin- and H 2 O 2 -stimulated glucose transport. Although the two stimuli result in phosphorylation of the same residue on nNOS, they do so through distinct protein kinases. Thus, insulin and H 2 O 2 -activated signaling pathways converge on nNOS, which is a common mediator of glucose uptake in both pathways. However, the fact that different kinases are utilized provides a basis for the use of exercise to activate glucose transport in the face of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. GLUT4 Is Not Necessary for Overload-Induced Glucose Uptake or Hypertrophic Growth in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    McMillin, Shawna L.; Schmidt, Denise L.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    GLUT4 is necessary for acute insulin- and contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but its role in chronic muscle loading (overload)-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether GLUT4 is required for overload-induced glucose uptake. Overload was induced in mouse plantaris muscle by unilateral synergist ablation. After 5 days, muscle weights and ex vivo [3H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake were assessed. Overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and hypertrophic growth were not impaired in muscle-specific GLUT4 knockout mice, demonstrating that GLUT4 is not necessary for these processes. To assess which transporters mediate overload-induced glucose uptake, chemical inhibitors were used. The facilitative GLUT inhibitor cytochalasin B, but not the sodium-dependent glucose cotransport inhibitor phloridzin, prevented overload-induced uptake demonstrating that GLUTs mediate this effect. To assess which GLUT, hexose competition experiments were performed. Overload-induced [3H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake was not inhibited by d-fructose, demonstrating that the fructose-transporting GLUT2, GLUT5, GLUT8, and GLUT12 do not mediate this effect. To assess additional GLUTs, immunoblots were performed. Overload increased GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and GLUT10 protein levels twofold to fivefold. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GLUT4 is not necessary for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake or hypertrophic growth and suggest that GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and/or GLUT10 mediate overload-induced glucose uptake. PMID:28279980

  14. GLUT4 Is Not Necessary for Overload-Induced Glucose Uptake or Hypertrophic Growth in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Shawna L; Schmidt, Denise L; Kahn, Barbara B; Witczak, Carol A

    2017-06-01

    GLUT4 is necessary for acute insulin- and contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but its role in chronic muscle loading (overload)-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether GLUT4 is required for overload-induced glucose uptake. Overload was induced in mouse plantaris muscle by unilateral synergist ablation. After 5 days, muscle weights and ex vivo [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake were assessed. Overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and hypertrophic growth were not impaired in muscle-specific GLUT4 knockout mice, demonstrating that GLUT4 is not necessary for these processes. To assess which transporters mediate overload-induced glucose uptake, chemical inhibitors were used. The facilitative GLUT inhibitor cytochalasin B, but not the sodium-dependent glucose cotransport inhibitor phloridzin, prevented overload-induced uptake demonstrating that GLUTs mediate this effect. To assess which GLUT, hexose competition experiments were performed. Overload-induced [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake was not inhibited by d-fructose, demonstrating that the fructose-transporting GLUT2, GLUT5, GLUT8, and GLUT12 do not mediate this effect. To assess additional GLUTs, immunoblots were performed. Overload increased GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and GLUT10 protein levels twofold to fivefold. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GLUT4 is not necessary for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake or hypertrophic growth and suggest that GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and/or GLUT10 mediate overload-induced glucose uptake. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Exercise induces autophagy in peripheral tissues and in the brain.

    PubMed

    He, Congcong; Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth

    2012-10-01

    We recently identified physical exercise as a newly defined inducer of autophagy in vivo. Exercise induced autophagy in multiple organs involved in metabolic regulation, such as muscle, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. To study the physiological role of exercise-induced autophagy, we generated mice with a knock-in nonphosphorylatable mutation in BCL2 (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) (BCL2 AAA) that are defective in exercise- and starvation-induced autophagy but not in basal autophagy. We found that BCL2 AAA mice could not run on a treadmill as long as wild-type mice, and did not undergo exercise-mediated increases in skeletal glucose muscle uptake. Unlike wild-type mice, the BCL2 AAA mice failed to reverse high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance after 8 weeks of exercise training, possibly due to defects in signaling pathways that regulate muscle glucose uptake and metabolism during exercise. Together, these findings suggested a hitherto unknown important role of autophagy in mediating exercise-induced metabolic benefits. In the present addendum, we show that treadmill exercise also induces autophagy in the cerebral cortex of adult mice. This observation raises the intriguing question of whether autophagy may in part mediate the beneficial effects of exercise in neurodegeneration, adult neurogenesis and improved cognitive function.

  16. Exercise-induced changes in local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vissing, J; Andersen, M; Diemer, N H

    1996-07-01

    In exercise, little is known about local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU), which is an index of functional neurogenic activity. We measured LCGU in resting and running (approximately 85% of maximum O2 uptake) rats (n = 7 in both groups) previously equipped with a tail artery catheter. LCGU was measured quantitatively from 2-deoxy-D-[1-14C]glucose autoradiographs. During exercise, total cerebral glucose utilization (TCGU) increased by 38% (p < 0.005). LCGU increased (p < 0.05) in areas involved in motor function (motor cortex 39%, cerebellum approximately 110%, basal ganglia approximately 30%, substantia nigra approximately 37%, and in the following nuclei: subthalamic 47%, posterior hypothalamic 74%, red 61%, ambiguous 43%, pontine 61%), areas involved in sensory function (somatosensory 27%, auditory 32%, and visual cortex 42%, thalamus approximately 75%, and in the following nuclei: Darkschewitsch 22%, cochlear 51%, vestibular 30%, superior olive 23%, cuneate 115%), areas involved in autonomic function (dorsal raphe nucleus 30%, and areas in the hypothalamus approximately 35%, amygdala approximately 35%, and hippocampus 29%), and in white matter of the corpus callosum (36%) and cerebellum (52%). LCGU did not change with exercise in prefrontal and frontal cortex, cingulum, inferior olive, nucleus of solitary tract and median raphe, lateral septal and interpenduncular nuclei, or in areas of the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Glucose utilization did not decrease during exercise in any of the studied cerebral regions. In summary, heavy dynamic exercise increases TCGU and evokes marked differential changes in LCGU. The findings provide clues to the cerebral areas that participate in the large motor, sensory, and autonomic adaptation occurring in exercise.

  17. Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    He, Congcong; Bassik, Michael C; Moresi, Viviana; Sun, Kai; Wei, Yongjie; Zou, Zhongju; An, Zhenyi; Loh, Joy; Fisher, Jill; Sun, Qihua; Korsmeyer, Stanley; Packer, Milton; May, Herman I; Hill, Joseph A; Virgin, Herbert W; Gilpin, Christopher; Xiao, Guanghua; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Scherer, Philipp E; Levine, Beth

    2012-01-18

    Exercise has beneficial effects on human health, including protection against metabolic disorders such as diabetes. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. The lysosomal degradation pathway, autophagy, is an intracellular recycling system that functions during basal conditions in organelle and protein quality control. During stress, increased levels of autophagy permit cells to adapt to changing nutritional and energy demands through protein catabolism. Moreover, in animal models, autophagy protects against diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory diseases, ageing and insulin resistance. Here we show that acute exercise induces autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of fed mice. To investigate the role of exercise-mediated autophagy in vivo, we generated mutant mice that show normal levels of basal autophagy but are deficient in stimulus (exercise- or starvation)-induced autophagy. These mice (termed BCL2 AAA mice) contain knock-in mutations in BCL2 phosphorylation sites (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) that prevent stimulus-induced disruption of the BCL2-beclin-1 complex and autophagy activation. BCL2 AAA mice show decreased endurance and altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise, as well as impaired chronic exercise-mediated protection against high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance. Thus, exercise induces autophagy, BCL2 is a crucial regulator of exercise- (and starvation)-induced autophagy in vivo, and autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise.

  18. Glucose uptake patterns in exercised skeletal muscles of elite male long-distance and short-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Tai, Suh-Jun; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Kuo, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2010-04-30

    The aim of this study was to determine glucose uptake patterns in exercised skeletal muscles of elite male long-distance and short-distance runners. Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was performed to determine the patterns of glucose uptake in lower limbs of short-distance (SD group, n=8) and long-distance (LD group, n=8) male runners after a modified 20 min Bruce treadmill test. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to delineate the muscle groups in lower limbs. Muscle groups from hip, knee, and ankle movers were measured. The total FDG uptake and the standard uptake value (SUV) for each muscle group were compared between the 2 groups. For the SD and LD runners, the 2 major muscle groups utilizing glucose during running were knee extensors and ankle plantarflexors, which accounted for 49.3 +/- 8.1% (25.1 +/- 4.7% and 24.2 +/- 6.0%) of overall lower extremity glucose uptake for SD group, and 51.3 +/- 8.0% (27.2 +/- 2.7% and 24.0 +/- 8.1%) for LD group. No difference in muscle glucose uptake was noted for other muscle groups. For SD runners, the SUVs for the muscle groups varied from 0.49 +/- 0.27 for the ankle plantarflexors, to 0.20 +/- 0.08 for the hip flexor. For the LD runners, the highest and lowest SUVs were 0.43 +/- 0.15 for the ankle dorsiflexors and 0.21 +/- 0.19 for the hip. For SD and LD groups, no difference in muscle SUV was noted for the muscle groups. However, the SUV ratio between the ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors in the LD group was significantly greater than that in the SD group. We thus conclude that the major propelling muscle groups account for approximately 50% of lower limb glucose utilization during running. Thus, the other muscle groups involving maintenance of balance, limb deceleration, and shock absorption utilize an equal amount. This result provides a new insight into glucose distribution in skeletal muscle, suggesting that propellers and supporters are both energetically important

  19. Exercise-Induced Changes in Glucose Metabolism Promote Physiological Cardiac Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Andrew A.; Epstein, Paul N.; Uchida, Shizuka; Zheng, Yuting; McNally, Lindsey A.; Obal, Detlef; Katragadda, Kartik; Trainor, Patrick; Conklin, Daniel J.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Tseng, Michael T.; Wang, Jianxun; Jones, Steven P.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exercise promotes metabolic remodeling in the heart, which is associated with physiological cardiac growth; however, it is not known whether or how physical activity–induced changes in cardiac metabolism cause myocardial remodeling. In this study, we tested whether exercise-mediated changes in cardiomyocyte glucose metabolism are important for physiological cardiac growth. Methods: We used radiometric, immunologic, metabolomic, and biochemical assays to measure changes in myocardial glucose metabolism in mice subjected to acute and chronic treadmill exercise. To assess the relevance of changes in glycolytic activity, we determined how cardiac-specific expression of mutant forms of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase affect cardiac structure, function, metabolism, and gene programs relevant to cardiac remodeling. Metabolomic and transcriptomic screenings were used to identify metabolic pathways and gene sets regulated by glycolytic activity in the heart. Results: Exercise acutely decreased glucose utilization via glycolysis by modulating circulating substrates and reducing phosphofructokinase activity; however, in the recovered state following exercise adaptation, there was an increase in myocardial phosphofructokinase activity and glycolysis. In mice, cardiac-specific expression of a kinase-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase transgene (GlycoLo mice) lowered glycolytic rate and regulated the expression of genes known to promote cardiac growth. Hearts of GlycoLo mice had larger myocytes, enhanced cardiac function, and higher capillary-to-myocyte ratios. Expression of phosphatase-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase in the heart (GlycoHi mice) increased glucose utilization and promoted a more pathological form of hypertrophy devoid of transcriptional activation of the physiological cardiac growth program. Modulation of phosphofructokinase activity was sufficient to regulate the

  20. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metaboli...

  1. 12,13-diHOME: An Exercise-Induced Lipokine that Increases Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Uptake.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Lynes, Matthew D; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Baer, Lisa A; Arts, Peter J; May, Francis J; Lehnig, Adam C; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Richard, Jeffrey J; So, Kawai; Chen, Emily Y; Gao, Fei; Narain, Niven R; Distefano, Giovanna; Shettigar, Vikram K; Hirshman, Michael F; Ziolo, Mark T; Kiebish, Michael A; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Coen, Paul M; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2018-05-01

    Circulating factors released from tissues during exercise have been hypothesized to mediate some of the health benefits of regular physical activity. Lipokines are circulating lipid species that have recently been reported to affect metabolism in response to cold. Here, lipidomics analysis revealed that a bout of moderate-intensity exercise causes a pronounced increase in the circulating lipid 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-diHOME) in male, female, young, old, sedentary, and active human subjects. In mice, both a single bout of exercise and exercise training increased circulating 12,13-diHOME and surgical removal of brown adipose tissue (BAT) negated the increase in 12,13-diHOME, suggesting that BAT is the tissue source for exercise-stimulated 12,13-diHOME. Acute 12,13-diHOME treatment of mice in vivo increased skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and oxidation, but not glucose uptake. These data reveal that lipokines are novel exercise-stimulated circulating factors that may contribute to the metabolic changes that occur with physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    BARILLAS, SALDIAM R.; WATKINS, CASEY M.; WONG, MEGAN A.; DOBBS, IAN J.; ARCHER, DAVID C.; MUNGER, CAMERON N.; GALPIN, ANDREW J.; COBURN, JARED W.; BROWN, LEE E.

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds’ rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake. PMID:29170708

  3. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  4. Decreased insulin-stimulated brown adipose tissue glucose uptake after short-term exercise training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Motiani, Piryanka; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Joonas J; Middelbeek, Roeland J; Goodyear, Laurie J; Savolainen, Anna M; Kemppainen, Jukka; Jensen, Jørgen; Din, Mueez U; Saunavaara, Virva; Parkkola, Riitta; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) improve brown adipose tissue (BAT) insulin sensitivity. Healthy middle-aged men (n = 18, age 47 years [95% confidence interval {CI} 49, 43], body mass index 25.3 kg/m 2 [95% CI 24.1-26.3], peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) 34.8 mL/kg/min [95% CI 32.1, 37.4] ) were recruited and randomized into six HIIT or MICT sessions within 2 weeks. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was measured using 2-[ 18 F]flouro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography in BAT, skeletal muscle, and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) depots before and after the training interventions. Training improved VO 2peak (P = .0005), insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the quadriceps femoris muscle (P = .0009) and femoral subcutaneous WAT (P = .02) but not into BAT, with no difference between the training modes. Using pre-intervention BAT glucose uptake, we next stratified subjects into high BAT (>2.9 µmol/100 g/min; n = 6) or low BAT (<2.9 µmol/100 g/min; n = 12) groups. Interestingly, training decreased insulin-stimulated BAT glucose uptake in the high BAT group (4.0 [2.8, 5.5] vs 2.5 [1.7, 3.6]; training*BAT, P = .02), whereas there was no effect of training in the low BAT group (1.5 [1.2, 1.9] vs 1.6 [1.2, 2.0] µmol/100 g/min). Participants in the high BAT group had lower levels of inflammatory markers compared with those in the low BAT group. Participants with functionally active BAT have an improved metabolic profile compared with those with low BAT activity. Short-term exercise training decreased insulin-stimulated BAT glucose uptake in participants with active BAT, suggesting that training does not work as a potent stimulus for BAT activation. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. IL-15 Activates the Jak3/STAT3 Signaling Pathway to Mediate Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krolopp, James E.; Thornton, Shantaé M.; Abbott, Marcia J.

    2016-01-01

    Myokines are specialized cytokines that are secreted from skeletal muscle (SKM) in response to metabolic stimuli, such as exercise. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine with potential to reduce obesity and increase lean mass through induction of metabolic processes. It has been previously shown that IL-15 acts to increase glucose uptake in SKM cells. However, the downstream signals orchestrating the link between IL-15 signaling and glucose uptake have not been fully explored. Here we employed the mouse SKM C2C12 cell line to examine potential downstream targets of IL-15-induced alterations in glucose uptake. Following differentiation, C2C12 cells were treated overnight with 100 ng/ml of IL-15. Activation of factors associated with glucose metabolism (Akt and AMPK) and known downstream targets of IL-15 (Jak1, Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5) were assessed with IL-15 stimulation. IL-15 stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. IL-15 treatment had no effect on phospho-Akt, phospho-Akt substrates, phospho-AMPK, phospho-Jak1, or phospho-STAT5. However, with IL-15, phospho-Jak3 and phospho-STAT3 levels were increased along with increased interaction of Jak3 and STAT3. Additionally, IL-15 induced a translocation of phospho-STAT3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. We have evidence that a mediator of glucose uptake, HIF1α, expression was dependent on IL-15 induced STAT3 activation. Finally, upon inhibition of STAT3 the positive effects of IL-15 on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were abolished. Taken together, we provide evidence for a novel signaling pathway for IL-15 acting through Jak3/STAT3 to regulate glucose metabolism. PMID:28066259

  6. Intracerebroventricular administration of okadaic acid induces hippocampal glucose uptake dysfunction and tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Broetto, Núbia; Hansen, Fernanda; Brolese, Giovana; Batassini, Cristiane; Lirio, Franciane; Galland, Fabiana; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Intraneuronal aggregates of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), together with beta-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis, are histological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of sporadic AD remains poorly understood, but abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is suggested to have a role in NFTs genesis, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. Okadaic acid (OKA), a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, has been used to induce dementia similar to AD in rats. We herein investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of OKA (100 and 200ng) on hippocampal tau phosphorylation at Ser396, which is considered an important fibrillogenic tau protein site, and on glucose uptake, which is reduced early in AD. ICV infusion of OKA (at 200ng) induced a spatial cognitive deficit, hippocampal astrogliosis (based on GFAP increment) and increase in tau phosphorylation at site 396 in this model. Moreover, we observed a decreased glucose uptake in the hippocampal slices of OKA-treated rats. In vitro exposure of hippocampal slices to OKA altered tau phosphorylation at site 396, without any associated change in glucose uptake activity. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of OKA neurotoxicity, in vivo and vitro, particularly with regard to the role of tau phosphorylation, and reinforce the importance of the OKA dementia model for studying the neurochemical alterations that may occur in AD, such as NFTs and glucose hypometabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resistin modulates glucose uptake and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression in trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Di Simone, Nicoletta; Di Nicuolo, Fiorella; Marzioni, Daniela; Castellucci, Mario; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; D'lppolito, Silvia; Caruso, Alessandro

    2009-02-01

    The adipocytokine resistin impairs glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Here, we examine the effect of resistin on glucose uptake in human trophoblast cells and we demonstrate that transplacental glucose transport is mediated by glucose transporter (GLUT)-1. Furthermore, we evaluate the type of signal transduction induced by resistin in GLUT-1 regulation. BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and primary cytotrophoblast cells were cultured with increasing resistin concentrations for 24 hrs. The main outcome measures include glucose transport assay using [(3)H]-2-deoxy glucose, GLUT-1 protein expression by Western blot analysis and GLUT-1 mRNA detection by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Quantitative determination of phospho(p)-ERK1/2 in cell lysates was performed by an Enzyme Immunometric Assay and Western blot analysis. Our data demonstrate a direct effect of resistin on normal cytotrophoblastic and on BeWo cells: resistin modulates glucose uptake, GLUT-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression in placental cells. We suggest that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is involved in the GLUT-1 regulation induced by resistin. In conclusion, resistin causes activation of both the ERK1 and 2 pathway in trophoblast cells. ERK1 and 2 activation stimulated GLUT-1 synthesis and resulted in increase of placental glucose uptake. High resistin levels (50-100 ng/ml) seem able to affect glucose-uptake, presumably by decreasing the cell surface glucose transporter.

  8. Two weeks of moderate-intensity continuous training, but not high-intensity interval training, increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Anna M.; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Grönroos, Tove J.; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2017-01-01

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged, sedentary men were randomized for 2 wk of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [18F]FDG and [18F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal GLUT2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity (P = 0.001) and whole body insulin sensitivity (P = 0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon (HIIT = 0%; MICT = 37%) (P = 0.02 for time × training) and tended to increase in the jejunum (HIIT = −4%; MICT = 13%) (P = 0.08 for time × training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups (HIIT = −6%; MICT = −48%) (P = 0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group (HIIT = 0%; MICT = −38%) (P = 0.08 for time × training). In rats, both training groups had higher GLUT2 and CD36 expression compared with control animals. This study shows that already 2 wk of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy, middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study where the effects of exercise training on the intestinal substrate uptake have been investigated using the most advanced techniques

  9. Effects of AICAR and exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, signaling, and GLUT-4 content in rat muscles.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus; Buhl, Esben S; Jensen, Lasse S; Schmitz, Ole; Lund, Sten

    2003-04-01

    Physical activity is known to increase insulin action in skeletal muscle, and data have indicated that 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the molecular mechanisms behind this beneficial effect. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) can be used as a pharmacological tool to repetitively activate AMPK, and the objective of this study was to explore whether the increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after either long-term exercise or chronic AICAR administration was followed by fiber-type-specific changes in insulin signaling and/or changes in GLUT-4 expression. Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: an exercise group trained on treadmill for 5 days, an AICAR group exposed to daily subcutaneous injections of AICAR, and a sedentary control group. AMPK activity, insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signaling, and GLUT-4 expression were determined in muscles characterized by different fiber type compositions. Both exercised and AICAR-injected animals displayed a fiber-type-specific increase in glucose transport with the most marked increase in muscles with a high content of type IIb fibers. This increase was accompanied by a concomitant increase in GLUT-4 expression. Insulin signaling as assessed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and PKB/Akt activity was enhanced only after AICAR administration and in a non-fiber-type-specific manner. In conclusion, chronic AICAR administration and long-term exercise both improve insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in a fiber-type-specific way, and this is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 content.

  10. Mitochondrial antioxidative capacity regulates muscle glucose uptake in the conscious mouse: effect of exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Lee-Young, Robert S; Mayes, Wesley H; James, Freyja D; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is augmented by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) scavenging capacity. This hypothesis was tested in genetically altered mice fed chow or a high-fat (HF) diet that accelerates mtROS formation. Mice overexpressing SOD2 (sod2(Tg)), mitochondria-targeted catalase (mcat(Tg)), and combined SOD2 and mCAT (mtAO) were used to increase mtROS scavenging. mtROS was assessed by the H(2)O(2) emitting potential (JH(2)O(2)) in muscle fibers. sod2(Tg) did not decrease JH(2)O(2) in chow-fed mice, but decreased JH(2)O(2) in HF-fed mice. mcat(Tg) and mtAO decreased JH(2)O(2) in both chow- and HF-fed mice. In parallel, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was unaltered in sod2(Tg) in chow-fed mice, but was increased in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and both chow- and HF-fed mcat(Tg) and mtAO. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of NO-dependent, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced nitrative stress, was decreased in both chow- and HF-fed sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO mice. This effect was not changed with exercise. Kg, an index of MGU was assessed using 2-[(14)C]-deoxyglucose during exercise. In chow-fed mice, sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO increased exercise Kg compared with wild types. Exercise Kg was also augmented in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and mcat(Tg) mice but unchanged in HF-fed mtAO mice. In conclusion, mtROS scavenging is a key regulator of exercise-mediated MGU and this regulation depends on nutritional state.

  11. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) induces a diabetogenic situation: its impact on blood glucose, plasma insulin, gluconeogenesis, glucose uptake and GLUT-4 transporters.

    PubMed

    Verspohl, E J; Hohmeier, N; Lempka, M

    2003-12-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates such as Ap4A are physiologically released compounds for which both receptors as well as a role as second messengers for influencing insulin release have been shown. So far little is known about their pathophysiological impact on diabetes with respect to blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucose production via gluconeogenesis, glucose uptake and GLUT-4 expression. Rats given an intravenous bolus of Ap4A (0.75 mg/kg) developed a rapid and dramatic increase in blood glucose. Plasma insulin was only transiently increased (for 4 min), but did not follow the normally stimulatory effect of the elevated blood glucose. A bolus of 25 microg Ap4A quickly increased glucose release from perfused rat liver. Glucose uptake was reduced in 3T3 adipocytes. Reduced amounts of translocated GLUT-4 were found in 3T3 cell membranes incubated with 10 microM Ap4A. Thus, Ap4A itself induces a diabetic situation which is likely to be mediated by an increase in gluconeogenesis and/or an insulin resistance caused by a decrease in GLUT-4 and an attenuation of glucose uptake.

  12. In uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid hormone and sympathetic activators induce thermogenesis without increasing glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsen, Miles E; Thaler, Joshua P; Wisse, Brent E; Guyenet, Stephan J; Meek, Thomas H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Cubelo, Alex; Fischer, Jonathan D; Kaiyala, Karl J; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) imaging technology have renewed interest in the identification of BAT activators for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. In uncontrolled diabetes (uDM), activation of BAT is implicated in glucose lowering mediated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of leptin, which normalizes blood glucose levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The potent effect of icv leptin to increase BAT glucose uptake in STZ-diabetes is accompanied by the return of reduced plasma thyroxine (T4) levels and BAT uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) mRNA levels to nondiabetic controls. We therefore sought to determine whether activation of thyroid hormone receptors is sufficient in and of itself to lower blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetes and whether this effect involves activation of BAT. We found that, although systemic administration of the thyroid hormone (TR)β-selective agonist GC-1 increases energy expenditure and induces further weight loss in STZ-diabetic rats, it neither increased BAT glucose uptake nor attenuated diabetic hyperglycemia. Even when GC-1 was administered in combination with a β(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist to mimic sympathetic nervous system activation, glucose uptake was not increased in STZ-diabetic rats, nor was blood glucose lowered, yet this intervention potently activated BAT. Similar results were observed in animals treated with active thyroid hormone (T3) instead of GC-1. Taken together, our data suggest that neither returning normal plasma thyroid hormone levels nor BAT activation has any impact on diabetic hyperglycemia, and that in BAT, increases of Ucp1 gene expression and glucose uptake are readily dissociated from one another in this setting.

  13. Artemisia princeps extract promoted glucose uptake in cultured L6 muscle cells via glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Ueda, Manabu; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Sato, Takuya; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia princeps is a familiar plant as a food substance and medicinal herb. In this study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of A. princeps (APE) on glucose uptake in differentiated L6 muscle cells. Treatment with APE elevated deoxyglucose uptake, and translocation of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane in L6 myotubes occurred. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 attenuated glucose uptake induced by APE. Phosphorylation of the Ser(473) residue of Akt was not observed, but phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt (Thr(308)), and atypical PKC was. In addition, APE stimulated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at a level similar to 5'-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide-riboside (AICAR). These results indicate that APE stimulates glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation, which is in part mediated by combination of the PI3K-dependent atypical PKC pathway and AMPK pathways.

  14. PFOS induces adipogenesis and glucose uptake in association with activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu, Jialin; Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881; Shimpi, Prajakta

    PFOS is a chemical of nearly ubiquitous exposure in humans. Recent studies have associated PFOS exposure to adipose tissue-related effects. The present study was to determine whether PFOS alters the process of adipogenesis and regulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse and human preadipocytes. In murine-derived 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, PFOS enhanced hormone-induced differentiation to adipocytes and adipogenic gene expression, increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μM, and enhanced Glucose transporter type 4 and Insulin receptor substrate-1 expression. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 and Glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit were significantly induced in 3T3-L1more » cells treated with PFOS, along with a robust induction of Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) reporter in mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ARE-hPAP transgenic mice by PFOS treatment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further illustrated that PFOS increased Nrf2 binding to ARE sites in mouse Nqo1 promoter, suggesting that PFOS activated Nrf2 signaling in murine-derived preadipocytes. Additionally, PFOS administration in mice (100 μg/kg/day) induced adipogenic gene expression and activated Nrf2 signaling in epididymal white adipose tissue. Moreover, the treatment on human visceral preadipocytes illustrated that PFOS (5 and 50 μM) promoted adipogenesis and increased cellular lipid accumulation. It was observed that PFOS increased Nrf2 binding to ARE sites in association with Nrf2 signaling activation, induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α expression, and increased adipogenesis. This study points to a potential role of PFOS in dysregulation of adipose tissue expandability, and warrants further investigations on the adverse effects of persistent pollutants on human health. - Highlights: • PFOS induces adipogenesis in

  15. Supplementation of pyruvate prevents palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake in C2 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong Gab; Choi, Sung-E; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Sang-A; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yup; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-10-15

    Elevated fatty acid levels have been thought to contribute to insulin resistance. Repression of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene as well as impaired GLUT4 translocation may be a mediator for fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. This study was initiated to determine whether palmitate treatment repressed GLUT4 expression, whether glucose/fatty acid metabolism influenced palmitate-induced GLUT4 gene repression (PIGR), and whether attempts to prevent PIGR restored palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake (PIIGU) in C2 myotubes. Not only stimulators of fatty acid oxidation, such as bezafibrate, AICAR, and TOFA, but also TCA cycle substrates, such as pyruvate, leucine/glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate/monomethyl succinate, significantly prevented PIGR. In particular, supplementing with pyruvate through methyl pyruvate resulted in nearly complete prevention of PIIGU, whereas palmitate treatment reduced the intracellular pyruvate level. These results suggest that pyruvate depletion plays a critical role in PIGR and PIIGU; thus, pyruvate supplementation may help prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atypical blood glucose response to continuous and interval exercise in a person with type 1 diabetes: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moser, Othmar; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Eckstein, Max L; Bracken, Richard M; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-30

    Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses. A Caucasian man diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for 24 years performed three different continuous high-intensity interval cycle ergometer exercises as part of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02075567). Intensities for both modes of exercises were set at 5% below and 5% above the first lactate turn point and 5% below the second lactate turn point. Short-acting insulin doses were reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. Measurements taken included blood glucose, blood lactate, gas exchange, heart rate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Unexpectedly, no significant blood glucose decreases were observed during all exercise sessions (start versus end, 12.97 ± 2.12 versus 12.61 ± 2.66 mmol L -1 , p = 0.259). All hormones showed the expected response, dependent on the different intensities and modes of exercises. People with type 1 diabetes typically experience a decrease in blood glucose levels, particularly during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. In our patient, we clearly found no decline in blood glucose, despite a normal hormone response and no history of any insulin insensitivity. This report indicates that there might be patients for whom the recommended preexercise therapy adaptation to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia needs to be questioned because this could increase the risk of severe hyperglycemia and ketosis.

  17. Electrical stimulation of human lower extremities enhances energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Taku; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kazuwa; Moritani, Toshio

    2004-03-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation (ES) of quadriceps muscles alone significantly enhanced glucose disposal rate (GDR) during euglycemic clamp (Hamada T, Sasaki H, Hayashi T, Moritani T, and Nakao K. J Appl Physiol 94: 2107-2112, 2003). The present study is further follow-up to examine the acute metabolic effects of ES to lower extremities compared with voluntary cycle exercise (VE) at identical intensity. In eight male subjects lying in the supine position, both lower leg (tibialis anterior and triceps surae) and thigh (quadriceps and hamstrings) muscles were sequentially stimulated to cocontract in an isometric manner at 20 Hz with a 1-s on-off duty cycle for 20 min. Despite small elevation of oxygen uptake by 7.3 +/- 0.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) during ES, the blood lactate concentration was significantly increased by 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l in initial period (5 min) after the onset of the ES (P < 0.01), whereas VE showed no such changes at identical oxygen uptake (7.5 +/- 0.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). ES also induced enhanced whole body carbohydrate oxidation as shown by the significantly higher respiratory gas exchange ratio than with VE (P < 0.01). These data indicated increased anaerobic glycolysis by ES. Furthermore, whole body glucose uptake determined by GDR during euglycemic clamp demonstrated a significant increase during and after the cessation of ES for at least 90 min (P < 0.01). This post-ES effect was significantly greater than that of the post-VE period (P < 0.01). These results suggest that ES can substantially enhance energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake at low intensity of exercise. Percutaneous ES may become a therapeutic utility to enhance glucose metabolism in humans.

  18. AMPKα2 deficiency uncovers time dependency in the regulation of contraction-induced palmitate and glucose uptake in mouse muscle.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Marcia J; Bogachus, Lindsey D; Turcotte, Lorraine P

    2011-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensor in skeletal muscle with multiple downstream signaling targets that may be triggered by increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]). The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] induced by caffeine act solely via AMPKα(2) and whether AMPKα(2) is essential to increase glucose uptake, fatty acid (FA) uptake, and FA oxidation in contracting skeletal muscle. Hindlimbs from wild-type (WT) or AMPKα(2) dominant-negative (DN) transgene mice were perfused during rest (n = 11), treatment with 3 mM caffeine (n = 10), or muscle contraction (n = 11). Time-dependent effects on glucose and FA uptake were uncovered throughout the 20-min muscle contraction perfusion period (P < 0.05). Glucose uptake rates did not increase in DN mice during muscle contraction until the last 5 min of the protocol (P < 0.05). FA uptake rates were elevated at the onset of muscle contraction and diminished by the end of the protocol in DN mice (P < 0.05). FA oxidation rates were abolished in the DN mice during muscle contraction (P < 0.05). The DN transgene had no effect on caffeine-induced FA uptake and oxidation (P > 0.05). Glucose uptake rates were blunted in caffeine-treated DN mice (P < 0.05). The DN transgene resulted in a greater use of intramuscular triglycerides as a fuel source during muscle contraction. The DN transgene did not alter caffeine- or contraction-mediated changes in the phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I or ERK1/2 (P > 0.05). These data suggest that AMPKα(2) is involved in the regulation of substrate uptake in a time-dependent manner in contracting muscle but is not necessary for regulation of FA uptake and oxidation during caffeine treatment.

  19. Acute effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute repeated bouts of aerobic exercise decrease leg arterial stiffness. However, the influence of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion is unknown. The present study investigates the acute effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten healthy young men (age, 23.2 ± 0.9 years) performed repeated bouts of aerobic exercise trial (RE, 65% peak oxygen uptake; two 15 min bouts of cycling performed 20 min apart) and control trial (CON, seated and resting in a quiet room) at 80 min before the 75-g OGTT on separate days in a randomized, controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) and femoral-ankle (leg) pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, brachial and ankle blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (baseline) and 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg pulse wave velocity, ankle systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the CON trial, but not in the RE trial. The present findings indicate that acute repeated bouts of aerobic exercise before glucose ingestion suppress increases in leg arterial stiffness following glucose ingestion. RE trial repeated bouts of aerobic exercise trial; CON trial control trial; BG blood glucose; VO 2peak peak oxygen uptake; PWV Pulse wave velocity; AIx carotid augmentation index; BP blood pressure; HR heart rate; CVs coefficients of variation; RPE Ratings of perceived exertion; SE standard error.

  20. Autophagy activation, not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, may mediate exercise-induced improvements in glucose handling during diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Caldwell, Megan E; Brown, Jacob L; Lee, David E; Blackwell, Thomas A; Turner, Kyle W; Brown, Lemuel A; Perry, Richard A; Haynie, Wesley S; Washington, Tyrone A; Greene, Nicholas P

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the individual and combined effects of muscle-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) overexpression and physical activity during high-fat feeding on glucose and exercise tolerance? What is the main finding and its importance? Our main finding is that muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression provides no protection against lipid-overload pathologies nor does it enhance exercise adaptations. Instead, physical activity, regardless of PGC-1α content, protects against high-fat diet-induced detriments. Activation of muscle autophagy was correlated with exercise protection, suggesting that autophagy might be a mediating factor for exercise-induced protection from lipid overload. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is alarmingly high. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α and physical activity on glucose handling during diet-induced obesity. Wild-type (WT, ∼20) and PGC-1α muscle transgenic (MCK-PGC-1α, ∼20) mice were given a Western diet (WD) at 8 weeks age and allowed to consume food ab libitum throughout the study. At 12 weeks of age, all animals were divided into sedentary (SED) or voluntary wheel running (VWR) interventions. At 7, 11 and 15 weeks of age, animals underwent glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and graded exercise tests (GXT). At 16 weeks of age, tissues were collected. At 11 weeks, the MCK-PGC-1α animals had 50% greater glucose tolerance integrated area under the curve compared with WT. However, at 15 weeks, SED animals also had greater GTT integrated area under the curve compared with VWR, regardless of genotype; furthermore, SED

  1. Insulin and glucose responses during bed rest with isotonic and isometric exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, C. B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of daily intensive isotonic (68% maximum oxygen uptake) and isometric (21% maximum extension force) leg exercise on plasma insulin and glucose responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 14-day bed-rest (BR) periods were investigated in seven young healthy men. The OGTT was given during ambulatory control and on day 10 of the no-exercise, isotonic, and isometric exercise BR periods during the 15-wk study. The subjects were placed on a controlled diet starting 10 days before each BR period. During BR, basal plasma glucose concentration remained unchanged with no exercise, but increased (P less 0.05) to 87-89 mg/100 ml with both exercise regimens on day 2, and then fell slightly below control levels on day 13. The fall in glucose content during BR was independent of the exercise regimen and was an adjustment for the loss of plasma volume. The intensity of the responses of insulin and glucose to the OGTT was inversely proportional to the total daily energy expenditure during BR. It was estimated that at least 1020 kcal/day must be provided by supplemental exercise to restore the hyperinsulinemia to control levels.

  2. Mechanisms for greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in normal and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle after acute exercise

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity can persist for up to 24–48 h after one exercise session. This review focuses on potential mechanisms for greater postexercise and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) by muscle in individuals with normal or reduced insulin sensitivity. A model is proposed for the processes underlying this improvement; i.e., triggers initiate events that activate subsequent memory elements, which store information that is relayed to mediators, which translate memory into action by controlling an end effector that directly executes increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Several candidates are potential triggers or memory elements, but none have been conclusively verified. Regarding potential mediators in both normal and insulin-resistant individuals, elevated postexercise ISGU with a physiological insulin dose coincides with greater Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation without improved proximal insulin signaling at steps from insulin receptor binding to Akt activity. Causality remains to be established between greater AS160 phosphorylation and improved ISGU. The end effector for normal individuals is increased GLUT4 translocation, but this remains untested for insulin-resistant individuals postexercise. Following exercise, insulin-resistant individuals can attain ISGU values similar to nonexercising healthy controls, but after a comparable exercise protocol performed by both groups, ISGU for the insulin-resistant group has been consistently reported to be below postexercise values for the healthy group. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the improved postexercise ISGU in individuals with normal or subnormal insulin sensitivity and to explain the disparity between these groups after similar exercise. PMID:26487009

  3. Thrombin-induced glucose transport via Src–p38 MAPK pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Yasunari; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Thrombin is a mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and has been implicated in the development in atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of thrombin in glucose transport in VSMC. In this study, we examined the effect of thrombin on glucose uptake in rat A10 VSMC. We found that thrombin induced glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner while hirudin, a potent thrombin inhibitor, prevented glucose uptake in the cells. PP2, a selective inhibitor of Src, prevented the thrombin-induced glucose uptake, but did not affect insulin-induced uptake. We also examined whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors influenced thrombin-induced glucose uptake. The p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) inhibited thrombin-induced glucose uptake, but the MEK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. In contrast to thrombin, SB203580 did not affect insulin-induced glucose uptake. Furthermore, thrombin failed to translocate the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. These findings suggest that thrombin stimulates glucose transport via Src and subsequent p38 MAPK activation in VSMC. PMID:15951827

  4. Inhibition of Glutathione Synthesis Induced by Exhaustive Running Exercise via the Decreased Influx Rate of L-Cysteine in Rat Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuling; Yan, Jingtong; Cai, Yu; Zhang, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on L-cysteine uptake and its effect on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), exhaustive running exercise (ERE) and moderate running exercise (MRE) (n=12 rats/group). We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx in vitro in rat erythrocytes and its relationship with GSH synthesis. Total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values for each exercise group. In addition, the glucose metabolism enzyme activity of erythrocytes was also measured under in vitro incubation conditions. Biochemical studies confirmed that exhaustive running exercise significantly increased oxidative damage parameters in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and methemoglobin levels. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that L-cysteine influx was positively correlated with erythrocyte GSH synthesis and FRAP values in both the control and exercise groups. In vitro oxidation incubation significantly decreased the level of glucose metabolism enzyme activity in the control group. We presented evidence of the exhaustive exercise-induced inhibition of GSH synthesis due to a dysfunction in L-cysteine transport. In addition, oxidative stress-induced changes in glucose metabolism were the driving force underlying decreased L-cysteine uptake in the exhaustive exercise group. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice.

    PubMed

    Coomans, Claudia P; Biermasz, Nienke R; Geerling, Janine J; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Havekes, Louis M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2011-12-01

    Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated tissue-specific glucose uptake. Tolbutamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels), or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle in the basal state and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions in postabsorptive, chow-fed C57Bl/6J mice and in postabsorptive C57Bl/6J mice with diet-induced obesity. Whole-body glucose uptake was measured by d-[(14)C]glucose kinetics and tissue-specific glucose uptake by 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose uptake. During clamp conditions, intracerebroventricular administration of tolbutamide impaired the ability of insulin to inhibit EGP by ∼20%. In addition, intracerebroventricular tolbutamide diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle (by ∼59%) but not in heart or adipose tissue. In contrast, in insulin-resistant mice with diet-induced obesity, intracerebroventricular tolbutamide did not alter the effects of insulin during clamp conditions on EGP or glucose uptake by muscle. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in muscle in part through effects via K(ATP) channels in the central nervous system, in analogy with the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. High-fat diet-induced obesity abolished the central effects of insulin on liver and muscle. These observations stress the role of central insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of diet-induced insulin resistance.

  6. Glucose oxidation positively regulates glucose uptake and improves cardiac function recovery after myocardial reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Jie; Qin, Xinghua; Hou, Zuoxu; Guo, Yongzheng; Liu, Zhenhua; Wu, Jianjiang; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Xing; Gao, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Myocardial reperfusion decreases glucose oxidation and uncouples glucose oxidation from glycolysis. Therapies that increase glucose oxidation lessen myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the regulation of glucose uptake during reperfusion remains poorly understood. We found that glucose uptake was remarkably diminished in the myocardium following reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats as detected by 18 F-labeled and fluorescent-labeled glucose analogs, even though GLUT1 was upregulated by threefold and GLUT4 translocation remained unchanged compared with those of sham-treated rats. The decreased glucose uptake was accompanied by suppressed glucose oxidation. Interestingly, stimulating glucose oxidation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), a rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation, increased glucose uptake and alleviated I/R injury. In vitro data in neonatal myocytes showed that PDK4 overexpression decreased glucose uptake, whereas its knockdown increased glucose uptake, suggesting that PDK4 has a role in regulating glucose uptake. Moreover, inhibition of PDK4 increased myocardial glucose uptake with concomitant enhancement of cardiac insulin sensitivity following myocardial I/R. These results showed that the suppressed glucose oxidation mediated by PDK4 contributes to the reduced glucose uptake in the myocardium following reperfusion, and enhancement of glucose uptake exerts cardioprotection. The findings suggest that stimulating glucose oxidation via PDK4 could be an efficient approach to improve recovery from myocardial I/R injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Polymethoxyflavonoids tangeretin and nobiletin increase glucose uptake in murine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Onda, Kenji; Horike, Natsumi; Suzuki, Tai-ichi; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2013-02-01

    Tangeretin and nobiletin are polymethoxyflavonoids that are contained in citrus fruits. Polymethoxyflavonoids are reported to have several biological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, or anti-diabetic effects. However, whether polymethoxyflavonoids directly affect glucose uptake in tissues is not well understood. In the current study, we investigated whether tangeretin and nobiletin affect glucose uptake in insulin target cells such as adipocytes. We observed that treatment with tangeretin or nobiletin significantly increased the uptake of [(3) H]-deoxyglucose in differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Data showed that phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase, Akt1/2, and the protein kinase A pathways were involved in the increase in glucose uptake induced by polymethoxyflavonoids. These data suggest that the anti-diabetic action of polymethoxyflavonoids is partly exerted via these signaling pathways in insulin target tissues. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Preliminary Evidence for Adipocytokine Signals in Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Akihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2018-01-01

    The cross talk between the adipose tissue and insulin target tissues is a key mechanism for obesity-associated insulin resistance. However, the precise role of the interaction between the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue for insulin signaling and glucose uptake is questionable. L6 myocytes were co-cultured with or without 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~5 × 10 3 cells/cm 2 ) up to 24 h. Glucose uptake was evaluated by 2-[ 3 H] deoxyglucose uptake assay. Levels of mRNA expression of Glut1 and Glut4 and mitochondrial enzymes were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Levels of Glut1 and Glut4 protein and phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) were analyzed by immunoblotting. Study 1: co-culture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased glucose uptake in dose- and time-dependent manner in L6 myocytes under insulin-untreated conditions. When co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells, reactive oxygen species production and levels of Glut1 mRNA and protein were increased in L6 cells, while these changes were abrogated and the glucose uptake partially inhibited by antioxidant treatment. Study 2: co-culture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myocytes. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 decreased, which was proportional to 3T3-L1 density. Antioxidant treatment partially reversed this effect. Interactions between skeletal muscle and adipose tissues are important for glucose uptake under insulin-untreated or -treated condition through oxygen stress mechanism.

  9. Increased Brain Glucose Uptake After 12 Weeks of Aerobic High-Intensity Interval Training in Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew M; Lowe, Val J; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can increase brain volume and blood flow, but the impact on brain metabolism is less known. We determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases brain metabolism by measuring brain glucose uptake in younger and older adults. Brain glucose uptake was measured before and after HIIT or a sedentary (SED) control period within a larger exercise study. Study procedures were performed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Participants were younger (18 to 30 years) or older (65 to 80 years) SED adults who were free of major medical conditions. Group sizes were 15 for HIIT (nine younger and six older) and 12 for SED (six younger and six older). Participants completed 12 weeks of HIIT or SED. HIIT was 3 days per week of 4 × 4 minute intervals at over 90% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) with 2 days per week of treadmill walking at 70% VO2peak. Resting brain glucose uptake was measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at baseline and at week 12. Scans were performed at 96 hours after exercise. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Glucose uptake increased significantly in the parietal-temporal and caudate regions after HIIT compared with SED. The gains with HIIT were not observed in all brain regions. VO2peak was increased for all participants after HIIT and did not change with SED. We demonstrate that brain glucose metabolism increased after 12 weeks of HIIT in adults in regions where it is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros A; Elahi, Dariush; Hentosz, Teresa; Doverspike, Aaron; Huerbin, Rhonda; Zourelias, Lee; Stolarski, Carol; Shen, You-tang; Shannon, Richard P

    2004-08-24

    The failing heart demonstrates a preference for glucose as its metabolic substrate. Whether enhancing myocardial glucose uptake favorably influences left ventricular (LV) contractile performance in heart failure remains uncertain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with potent insulinotropic effects the action of which is attenuated when glucose levels fall below 4 mmol. We examined the impact of recombinant GLP-1 (rGLP-1) on LV and systemic hemodynamics and myocardial substrate uptake in conscious dogs with advanced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as a mechanism for overcoming myocardial insulin resistance and enhancing myocardial glucose uptake. Thirty-five dogs were instrumented and studied in the fully conscious state. Advanced DCM was induced by 28 days of rapid pacing. Sixteen dogs with advanced DCM received a 48-hour infusion of rGLP-1 (1.5 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Eight dogs with DCM served as controls and received 48 hours of a saline infusion (3 mL/d). Infusion of rGLP-1 was associated with significant (P<0.02) increases in LV dP/dt (98%), stroke volume (102%), and cardiac output (57%) and significant decreases in LV end-diastolic pressure, heart rate, and systemic vascular resistance. rGLP-1 increased myocardial insulin sensitivity and myocardial glucose uptake. There were no significant changes in the saline control group. rGLP-1 dramatically improved LV and systemic hemodynamics in conscious dogs with advanced DCM induced by rapid pacing. rGLP-1 has insulinomimetic and glucagonostatic properties, with resultant increases in myocardial glucose uptake. rGLP-1 may be a useful metabolic adjuvant in decompensated heart failure.

  11. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  12. Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jais, Alexander; Solas, Maite; Backes, Heiko; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Kleinridders, André; Theurich, Sebastian; Mauer, Jan; Steculorum, Sophie M; Hampel, Brigitte; Goldau, Julia; Alber, Jens; Förster, Carola Y; Eming, Sabine A; Schwaninger, Markus; Ferrara, Napoleone; Karsenty, Gerard; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-05-05

    High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGF(Δmyel) mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGF(Δmyel) mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer's disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxyntomodulin stimulates intestinal glucose uptake in rats.

    PubMed

    Collie, N L; Zhu, Z; Jordan, S; Reeve, J R

    1997-06-01

    Enteroglucagon peptides have long been proposed as mediators of intestinal adaptation, including mucosal growth and nutrient absorptive capacity. The hypothesis that infusions of oxyntomodulin, a bioactive form of enteroglucagon, would stimulate glucose and amino acid uptake was tested and its effects were compared with those of glucagon. Rats were infused intravenously via minipumps with either saline, rat oxyntomodulin (0.47 nmol x kg(-1) x h[-1]), or glucagon (0.88 nmol x kg(-1) x h[-1]) for 7 days, and plasma hormone levels were measured. At death, intestinal dimensions and brush border uptake of D-glucose and L-proline were measured using an in vitro everted sleeve technique. Plasma enteroglucagon and glucagon levels were increased 4- and 12-fold, respectively, but there were no effects on food intake, body weight, or intestinal dimensions. In contrast, oxyntomodulin and glucagon significantly stimulated total intestinal glucose uptake capacity by 44% and 53%, respectively, over controls. Oxyntomodulin most potently enhanced glucose uptake in the ileum (215%), whereas glucagon's greatest effect was in the jejunum (63%-85%). However, neither peptide affected proline uptake. These results support a new, specific action for oxyntomodulin in intestinal adaptation as a glucose uptake stimulator and confirm glucagon's role as a regulator of glucose uptake.

  14. Regional cerebral (18)FDG uptake during subarachnoid hemorrhage induced vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Novak, Laszlo; Emri, Miklos; Molnar, Peter; Balkay, Laszlo; Szabo, Sandor; Rozsa, Laszlo; Lengyel, Zsolt; Tron, Lajos

    2006-12-01

    The aim was to elucidate whether aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm induces changes of regional glucose uptake in surgically treated, asymptomatic cases. (18)FDG uptake (standardized uptake value, SUV) was analysed with PET in eight surgically treated aneurismal patients with a mean middle cerebral artery flow velocity >120 cm/seconds measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Data were compared with a healthy control group using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99b). Six of the eight patients had no focal neurological signs. The inhomogeneous bilateral increase in SUV (p<0.0001) was asymmetrical, with an almost 70% larger volume on the operated side. Reduced glucose uptake was found in the frontal and temporobasal regions of the two patients with neurological deficits (p<0.0001); the affected volume was 40% larger on the operated side. SAH-induced vasospasm results in widespread increase of glucose uptake-probably reflecting increased glycolysis. This was earlier than neurological focal signs appear. Decreased glucose uptake can be detected in severe cases of vasospasm reflected by neurological deficit. Although the changes are more prominent where surgery had taken place our results suggest that not only the surgery, but also subarachnoid blood might have resulted in our findings.

  15. Neuregulin-1β promotes glucose uptake via PI3K/Akt in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Heim, Philippe; Lebboukh, Sonia; Morandi, Christian; Xu, Lifen; Brink, Marijke

    2016-05-01

    Nrg1β is critically involved in cardiac development and also maintains function of the adult heart. Studies conducted in animal models showed that it improves cardiac performance under a range of pathological conditions, which led to its introduction in clinical trials to treat heart failure. Recent work also implicated Nrg1β in the regenerative potential of neonatal and adult hearts. The molecular mechanisms whereby Nrg1β acts in cardiac cells are still poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of Nrg1β on glucose uptake in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and investigated to what extent mTOR/Akt signaling pathways are implicated. We show that Nrg1β enhances glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes as efficiently as IGF-I and insulin. Nrg1β causes phosphorylation of ErbB2 and ErbB4 and rapidly induces the phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr(861)), Akt (Thr(308) and Ser(473)), and its effector AS160 (Thr(642)). Knockdown of ErbB2 or ErbB4 reduces Akt phosphorylation and blocks the glucose uptake. The Akt inhibitor VIII and the PI3K inhibitors LY-294002 and Byl-719 abolish Nrg1β-induced phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Finally, specific mTORC2 inactivation after knockdown of rictor blocks the Nrg1β-induced increases in Akt-p-Ser(473) but does not modify AS160-p-Thr(642) or the glucose uptake responses to Nrg1β. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that Nrg1β enhances glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes via ErbB2/ErbB4 heterodimers, PI3Kα, and Akt. Furthermore, although Nrg1β activates mTORC2, the resulting Akt-Ser(473) phosphorylation is not essential for glucose uptake induction. These new insights into pathways whereby Nrg1β regulates glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes may contribute to the understanding of its regenerative capacity and protective function in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Arrhythmia causes lipid accumulation and reduced glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Lenski, Matthias; Schleider, Gregor; Kohlhaas, Michael; Adrian, Lucas; Adam, Oliver; Tian, Qinghai; Kaestner, Lars; Lipp, Peter; Lehrke, Michael; Maack, Christoph; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by irregular contractions of atrial cardiomyocytes and increased energy demand. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of arrhythmia on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in cardiomyocytes, mice and human left atrial myocardium. Compared to regular pacing, irregular (pseudo-random variation at the same number of contractions/min) pacing of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced shorter action potential durations and effective refractory periods and increased diastolic [Ca(2+)]c. This was associated with the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Membrane expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and (14)C-palmitic acid uptake were augmented while membrane expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT-4) as well as (3)H-glucose uptake were reduced. Inhibition of AMPK and CaMKII prevented these arrhythmia-induced metabolic changes. Similar alterations of FA metabolism were observed in a transgenic mouse model (RacET) for spontaneous AF. Consistent with these findings samples of left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to matched samples of patients with sinus rhythm showed up-regulation of CaMKII and AMPK and increased membrane expression of FAT/CD36, resulting in lipid accumulation. These changes of FA metabolism were accompanied by decreased membrane expression of GLUT-4, increased glycogen content and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein bax. Irregular pacing of cardiomyocytes increases diastolic [Ca(2+)]c and activation of CaMKII and AMPK resulting in lipid accumulation, reduced glucose uptake and increased glycogen synthesis. These metabolic changes are accompanied by an activation of pro-apoptotic signalling pathways.

  17. NFAT-133 increases glucose uptake in L6 myotubes by activating AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Chandni S; Kate, Abhijeet S; Desai, Dattatraya C; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha A

    2015-12-15

    NFAT-133 is an aromatic compound with cinammyl alcohol moiety, isolated from streptomycetes strain PM0324667. We have earlier reported that NFAT-133 increases insulin stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes using a PPARγ independent mechanism and reduces plasma or blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Here we investigated the effects of NFAT-133 on cellular signaling pathways leading to glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Our studies demonstrate that NFAT-133 increases glucose uptake in a dose- and time-dependent manner independent of the effects of insulin. Treatment with Akti-1/2, wortmannin and increasing concentrations of insulin had no effect on NFAT-133 mediated glucose uptake. NFAT-133 induced glucose uptake is completely mitigated by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Further, the kinases upstream of AMPK activation namely; LKB-1 and CAMKKβ are not involved in NFAT-133 mediated AMPK activation nor does the compound NFAT-133 have any effect on AMPK enzyme activity. Further analysis confirmed that NFAT-133 indirectly activates AMPK by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing the ratio of AMP:ATP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ability of higenamine and related compounds to enhance glucose uptake in L6 cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Kawabata, Jun

    2017-12-15

    β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists are employed as bronchodilators to treat pulmonary disorders, but are attracting attention for their modulation of glucose handling and energy expenditure. Higenamine is a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in several plant species and has β2AR agonist activity, but the involvement of each functional groups in β2AR agonist activity and its effectiveness compared with endogenous catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) has rarely been studied. Glucose uptake of muscle cells are known to be induced through β2AR activation. Here, the ability to enhance glucose uptake of higenamine was compared with that of several methylated derivatives of higenamine or endogenous catecholamines. We found that: (i) the functional groups of higenamine except for the 4'-hydroxy group are required to enhance glucose uptake; (ii) higenamine shows a comparable ability to enhance glucose uptake with that of epinephrine and norepinephrine; (iii) the S-isomer shows a greater ability to enhance glucose uptake compared with that of the R-isomer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Translocation of myocardial GLUT-4 and increased glucose uptake through activation of AMPK by AICAR.

    PubMed

    Russell, R R; Bergeron, R; Shulman, G I; Young, L H

    1999-08-01

    Insulin increases glucose uptake through the translocation of GLUT-4 via a pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In contrast, myocardial glucose uptake during ischemia and hypoxia is stimulated by the translocation of GLUT-4 to the surface of cardiac myocytes through a PI3K-independent pathway that has not been characterized. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is also increased by myocardial ischemia, and we examined whether AMPK stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT-4 translocation. In isolated rat ventricular papillary muscles, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, as well as cyanide-induced chemical hypoxia and insulin, increased 2-[(3)H]deoxyglucose uptake two- to threefold. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, did not affect either the AICAR- or the cyanide-stimulated increase in deoxyglucose uptake but eliminated the insulin-stimulated increase in deoxyglucose uptake. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated translocation of GLUT-4 to the myocyte sarcolemma in response to stimulation with AICAR, cyanide, or insulin. Preincubation of papillary muscles with the kinase inhibitor iodotubercidin or adenine 9-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (araA), a precursor of araATP (a competitive inhibitor of AMPK), decreased AICAR- and cyanide-stimulated glucose uptake but did not affect basal or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In vivo infusion of AICAR caused myocardial AMPK activation and GLUT-4 translocation in the rat. We conclude that AMPK activation increases cardiac muscle glucose uptake through translocation of GLUT-4 via a pathway that is independent of PI3K. These findings suggest that AMPK activation may be important in ischemia-induced translocation of GLUT-4 in the heart.

  20. Insulin-induced microvascular recruitment in skin and muscle are related and both are associated with whole-body glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Rick I; De Boer, Michiel P; Groen, Martine R; Eringa, Etto C; Rattigan, Stephen; Barrett, Eugene J; Smulders, Yvo M; Serne, Erik H

    2012-08-01

    Insulin-induced capillary recruitment is considered a determinant of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin action on the microvasculature has been assessed in skin; however, there is concern as to whether the vascular responses observed in skin reflect those in the muscle. We hypothesized that insulin-induced capillary recruitment in skin would correlate with microvascular recruitment in muscle in a group of subjects displaying a wide variation in insulin sensitivity. Capillary recruitment in skin was assessed using capillary videomicroscopy, and skeletal muscle microvascular recruitment (i.e., increase in MBV) was studied using CEU in healthy volunteers (n = 18, mean age: 30.6 ± 11.1 years). Both microvascular measurements were performed during saline infusion, and during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. During hyperinsulinemia, capillary recruitment in skin was augmented from 58.1 ± 18.2% to 81.0 ± 23.9% (p < 0.0001). Hyperinsulinemia increased MBV in muscle from 7.00 (2.66-17.67) to 10.06 (2.70-41.81) units (p = 0.003). Insulin's vascular effect in skin and muscle was correlated (r = 0.57). Insulin's microvascular effects in skin and muscle showed comparable strong correlations with insulin-mediated glucose uptake (r = 0.73 and 0.68, respectively). Insulin-augmented capillary recruitment in skin parallels insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment in muscle and both are related to insulin-mediated glucose uptake. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cystine uptake through the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT triggers glioblastoma cell death under glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Goji, Takeo; Takahara, Kazuhiko; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2017-12-01

    Oncogenic signaling in cancer cells alters glucose uptake and utilization to supply sufficient energy and biosynthetic intermediates for survival and sustained proliferation. Oncogenic signaling also prevents oxidative stress and cell death caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species. However, elevated glucose metabolism in cancer cells, especially in glioblastoma, results in the cells becoming sensitive to glucose deprivation ( i.e. in high glucose dependence), which rapidly induces cell death. However, the precise mechanism of this type of cell death remains unknown. Here, we report that glucose deprivation alone does not trigger glioblastoma cell death. We found that, for cell death to occur in glucose-deprived glioblastoma cells, cystine and glutamine also need to be present in culture media. We observed that cystine uptake through the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT under glucose deprivation rapidly induces NADPH depletion, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and cell death. We conclude that although cystine uptake is crucial for production of antioxidant glutathione in cancer cells its transport through xCT also induces oxidative stress and cell death in glucose-deprived glioblastoma cells. Combining inhibitors targeting cancer-specific glucose metabolism with cystine and glutamine treatment may offer a therapeutic approach for glioblastoma tumors exhibiting high xCT expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Glucose Uptake in Prochlorococcus: Diversity of Kinetics and Effects on the Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Marín, María del Carmen; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Díez, Jesús; Beynon, Robert J.; González-Ballester, David; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; García-Fernández, José M.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that Prochlorococcus sp. SS120 strain takes up glucose by using a multiphasic transporter encoded by the Pro1404 gene. Here, we studied the glucose uptake kinetics in multiple Prochlorococcus strains from different ecotypes, observing diverse values for the Ks constants (15–126.60 nM) and the uptake rates (0.48–6.36 pmol min-1 mg prot-1). Multiphasic kinetics was observed in all studied strains, except for TAK9803-2. Pro1404 gene expression studies during the 21st Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise showed positive correlation with glucose concentrations in the ocean. This suggests that the Pro1404 transporter has been subjected to diversification along the Prochlorococcus evolution, in a process probably driven by the glucose availabilities at the different niches it inhabits. The glucose uptake mechanism seems to be a primary transporter. Glucose addition induced detectable transcriptomic and proteomic changes in Prochlorococcus SS120, but photosynthetic efficiency was unaffected. Our studies indicate that glucose is actively taken up by Prochlorococcus, but its uptake does not significantly alter the trophic ways of this cyanobacterium, which continues performing photosynthesis. Therefore Prochlorococcus seems to remain acting as a fundamentally phototrophic organism, capable of using glucose as an extra resource of carbon and energy when available in the environment. PMID:28337178

  3. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase increases glucose uptake independent of GLUT4 translocation in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher T; Ussher, John R; Mohammad, Askar; Lam, Anna; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2014-04-01

    Glucose uptake and glycolysis are increased in the heart during ischemia, and this metabolic alteration constitutes an important contributing factor towards ischemic injury. Therefore, it is important to understand glucose uptake regulation in the ischemic heart. There are primarily 2 glucose transporters controlling glucose uptake into cardiac myocytes: GLUT1 and GLUT4. In the non-ischemic heart, insulin stimulates GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemmal membrane, while both GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocation can occur following AMPK stimulation. Using a newly developed technique involving [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose, we measured glucose uptake in H9c2 ventricular myoblasts, and demonstrated that while insulin has no detectable effect on glucose uptake, phenformin-induced AMPK activation increases glucose uptake 2.5-fold. Furthermore, insulin treatment produced no discernible effect on either Akt serine 473 phosphorylation or AMPKα threonine 172 phosphorylation, while treatment with phenformin results in an increase in AMPKα threonine 172 phosphorylation, and a decrease in Akt serine 473 phosphorylation. Visualization of a dsRed-GLUT4 fusion construct in H9c2 cells by laser confocal microscopy showed that unlike insulin, AMPK activation did not redistribute GLUT4 to the sarcolemmal membrane, suggesting that AMPK may regulate glucose uptake via another glucose transporter. These studies suggest that AMPK is a major regulator of glucose uptake in cardiac myocytes.

  4. Methamphetamine Inhibits the Glucose Uptake by Human Neurons and Astrocytes: Stabilization by Acetyl-L-Carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Szlachetka, Adam M.; Haorah, James

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), an addictive psycho-stimulant drug exerts euphoric effects on users and abusers. It is also known to cause cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity. Here, we hypothesized that METH exposure impairs the glucose uptake and metabolism in human neurons and astrocytes. Deprivation of glucose is expected to cause neurotoxicity and neuronal degeneration due to depletion of energy. We found that METH exposure inhibited the glucose uptake by neurons and astrocytes, in which neurons were more sensitive to METH than astrocytes in primary culture. Adaptability of these cells to fatty acid oxidation as an alternative source of energy during glucose limitation appeared to regulate this differential sensitivity. Decrease in neuronal glucose uptake by METH was associated with reduction of glucose transporter protein-3 (GLUT3). Surprisingly, METH exposure showed biphasic effects on astrocytic glucose uptake, in which 20 µM increased the uptake while 200 µM inhibited glucose uptake. Dual effects of METH on glucose uptake were paralleled to changes in the expression of astrocytic glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1). The adaptive nature of astrocyte to mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acid appeared to contribute the survival of astrocytes during METH-induced glucose deprivation. This differential adaptive nature of neurons and astrocytes also governed the differential sensitivity to the toxicity of METH in these brain cells. The effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for enhanced production of ATP from fatty oxidation in glucose-free culture condition validated the adaptive nature of neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that deprivation of glucose-derived energy may contribute to neurotoxicity of METH abusers. PMID:21556365

  5. Scoparia dulcis (SDF7) endowed with glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes compared insulin.

    PubMed

    Beh, Joo Ee; Latip, Jalifah; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Muhajir

    2010-05-04

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and promotes the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) to the plasma membrane on L6 myotubes. The aim of this study is to investigate affect of Scoparia dulcis Linn water extracts on glucose uptake activity and the Glut 4 translocation components (i.e., IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, PKB/Akt2, PKC and TC 10) in L6 myotubes compared to insulin. Extract from TLC fraction-7 (SDF7) was used in this study. The L6 myotubes were treated by various concentrations of SDF7 (1 to 50 microg/ml) and insulin (1 to 100 nM). The glucose uptake activities of L6 myotubes were evaluated using 2-Deoxy-D-glucose uptake assay in with or without fatty acid-induced medium. The Glut 4 translocation components in SDF7-treated L6 myotubes were detected using immunoblotting and quantified by densitometry compared to insulin. Plasma membrane lawn assay and glycogen colorimetry assay were carried out in SDF7- and insulin-treated L6 myotubes in this study. Here, our data clearly shows that SDF7 possesses glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes that are dose-dependent, time-dependent and plasma membrane Glut 4 expression-dependent. SDF7 successfully stimulates glucose uptake activity as potent as insulin at a maximum concentration of 50 microg/ml at 480 min on L6 myotubes. Furthermore, SDF7 stimulates increased Glut 4 expression and translocation to plasma membranes at equivalent times. Even in the insulin resistance stage (free fatty acids-induced), SDF7-treated L6 myotubes were found to be more capable at glucose transport than insulin treatment. Thus, we suggested that Scoparia dulcis has the potential to be categorized as a hypoglycemic medicinal plant based on its good glucose transport properties. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  7. Cinnamon extract enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myocytes by inducing LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK.

  8. Mild traumatic brain injury results in depressed cerebral glucose uptake: An (18)FDG PET study.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Reed; Hockenbury, Nicole; Jaiswal, Shalini; Mathur, Sanjeev; Armstrong, Regina C; Byrnes, Kimberly R

    2013-12-01

    Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans and rats induces measurable metabolic changes, including a sustained depression in cerebral glucose uptake. However, the effect of a mild TBI on brain glucose uptake is unclear, particularly in rodent models. This study aimed to determine the glucose uptake pattern in the brain after a mild lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI. Briefly, adult male rats were subjected to a mild LFP and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG), which was performed prior to injury and at 3 and 24 h and 5, 9, and 16 days post-injury. Locomotor function was assessed prior to injury and at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injury using modified beam walk tasks to confirm injury severity. Histology was performed at either 10 or 21 days post-injury. Analysis of function revealed a transient impairment in locomotor ability, which corresponds to a mild TBI. Using reference region normalization, PET imaging revealed that mild LFP-induced TBI depresses glucose uptake in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres in comparison with sham-injured and naïve controls from 3 h to 5 days post-injury. Further, areas of depressed glucose uptake were associated with regions of glial activation and axonal damage, but no measurable change in neuronal loss or gross tissue damage was observed. In conclusion, we show that mild TBI, which is characterized by transient impairments in function, axonal damage, and glial activation, results in an observable depression in overall brain glucose uptake using (18)FDG-PET.

  9. Glucose-fructose ingestion and exercise performance: The gastrointestinal tract and beyond.

    PubMed

    Rosset, Robin; Egli, Léonie; Lecoultre, Virgile

    2017-08-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance exercise performance. In the past two decades, research has repeatedly reported the performance benefits of formulations comprising both glucose and fructose (GLUFRU) over those based on glucose (GLU). This has been usually related to additive effects of these two monosaccharides on the gastrointestinal tract whereby intestinal carbohydrate absorption is enhanced and discomfort limited. This is only a partial explanation, since glucose and fructose are also metabolized through different pathways after being absorbed from the gut. In contrast to glucose that is readily used by every body cell type, fructose is specifically targeted to the liver where it is mainly converted into glucose and lactate. The ingestion of GLUFRU may thereby profoundly alter hepatic function ultimately raising both glucose and lactate fluxes. During exercise, this particular profile of circulating carbohydrate may induce a spectrum of effects on muscle metabolism possibly resulting in an improved performance. Compared to GLU alone, GLUFRU ingestion could also induce several non-metabolic effects which are so far largely unexplored. Through its metabolite lactate, fructose may act on central fatigue and/or alter metabolic regulation. Future research could further define the effects of GLUFRU over other exercise modalities and different athletic populations, using several of the hypotheses discussed in this review.

  10. Exercise training, glucose transporters, and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodnick, K. J.; Henriksen, E. J.; James, D. E.; Holloszy, J. O.

    1992-01-01

    It was previously found that voluntary wheel running induces an increase in the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter, i.e., the GLUT4 isoform, in rat plantaris muscle (K. J. Rodnick, J. O. Holloszy, C. E. Mondon, and D. E. James. Diabetes 39: 1425-1429, 1990). The present study was undertaken to determine whether 1) the increase in muscle GLUT4 protein is associated with an increase in maximally stimulated glucose transport activity, 2) a conversion of type IIb to type IIa or type I muscle fibers plays a role in the increase in GLUT4 protein, and 3) an increase in the GLUT1 isoform is a component of the adaptation of muscle to endurance exercise. Five weeks of voluntary wheel running that resulted in a 33% increase in citrate synthase activity induced a 50% increase in GLUT4 protein in epitrochlearis muscles of female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rate of 2-deoxy-glucose transport maximally stimulated with insulin or insulin plus contractions was increased approximately 40% (P less than 0.05). There was no change in muscle fiber type composition, evaluated by myosin ATPase staining, in the epitrochlearis. There was also no change in GLUT1 protein concentration. We conclude that an increase in GLUT4, but not of GLUT1 protein, is a component of the adaptive response of muscle to endurance exercise and that the increase in GLUT4 protein is associated with an increased capacity for glucose transport.

  11. Interstitial Glucose and Physical Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes: Integrative Physiology, Technology, and the Gap In-Between

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Othmar; Yardley, Jane E.; Bracken, Richard M.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise. We present an understanding of the physiological and metabolic changes taking place with acute exercise and detail the blood and interstitial glucose responses with different forms of exercise, namely sustained endurance, high-intensity, and strength exercises in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Further, we detail novel technical information on currently available patient devices. As more health services and insurance companies advocate their use, understanding continuous and flash glucose monitoring for its strengths and limitations may offer more confidence for patients aiming to manage glycemia around exercise. PMID:29342932

  12. Leucine facilitates the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells: involving mTORC1 and mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Rui; Xiong, Yufang; Li, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolei; Ma, Yan; Guo, Huailan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Wang, Di; Yang, Xuefeng

    2014-08-01

    Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, has been shown to promote glucose uptake and increase insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, but the exact mechanism remains unestablished. We addressed this issue in cultured skeletal muscle cells in this study. Our results showed that leucine alone did not have an effect on glucose uptake or phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), but facilitated the insulin-induced glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation were inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, but the inhibition was partially reversed by leucine. The inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), rapamycin, had no effect on the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, but eliminated the facilitating effect of leucine in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation. In addition, leucine facilitation of the insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation was neutralized by knocking down the core component of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) with specific siRNA. Together, these findings show that leucine can facilitate the insulin-induced insulin signaling and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells through both mTORC1 and mTORC2, implicating the potential importance of this amino acid in glucose homeostasis and providing new mechanistic insights.

  13. D-Xylose as a sugar complement regulates blood glucose levels by suppressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and by enhancing glucose uptake in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequently diagnosed and is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. D-Xylose, a sucrase inhibitor, may be useful as a functional sugar complement to inhibit increases in blood glucose levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of D-xylose both in vitro and stretpozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA)-induced models in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: (i) normal control; (ii) diabetic control; (iii) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 5% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose; and (iv) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 10% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose. These groups were maintained for two weeks. The effects of D-xylose on blood glucose levels were examined using oral glucose tolerance test, insulin secretion assays, histology of liver and pancreas tissues, and analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) expression in liver tissues of a STZ-NA-induced experimental rat model. Levels of glucose uptake and insulin secretion by differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were analyzed. RESULTS In vivo, D-xylose supplementation significantly reduced fasting serum glucose levels (P < 0.05), it slightly reduced the area under the glucose curve, and increased insulin levels compared to the diabetic controls. D-Xylose supplementation enhanced the regeneration of pancreas tissue and improved the arrangement of hepatocytes compared to the diabetic controls. Lower levels of PEPCK were detected in the liver tissues of D-xylose-supplemented rats (P < 0.05). In vitro, both 2-NBDG uptake by C2C12 cells and insulin secretion by INS-1 cells were increased with D-xylose supplementation in a dose-dependent manner compared to treatment with glucose alone. CONCLUSIONS In this study, D-xylose exerted anti-diabetic effects in vivo by

  14. Ibervillea sonorae (Cucurbitaceae) induces the glucose uptake in human adipocytes by activating a PI3K-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A

    2014-03-28

    Ibervillea sonorae (S. Watson) Greene (Cucurbitaceae), a plant used for the empirical treatment of type 2 diabetes in México, exerts antidiabetic effects on animal models but its mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic mechanism of an Ibervillea sonorae aqueous extract (ISE). Non-toxic ISE concentrations were assayed on the glucose uptake by insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human cultured adipocytes, both in the absence or the presence of insulin signaling pathway inhibitors, and on murine and human adipogenesis. Chemical composition of ISE was examined by spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques. ISE stimulated the 2-NBDGlucose uptake by mature adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. ISE 50 µg/ml induced the 2-NBDG uptake in insulin-sensitive 3T3-F442A, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes by 100%, 63% and 33%, compared to insulin control. Inhibitors for the insulin receptor, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 blocked the 2-NBDG uptake in murine cells, but human adipocytes were insensitive to the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin. ISE 50 µg/ml also stimulated the 2-NBDG uptake in insulin-resistant adipocytes by 117% (3T3-F442A), 83% (3T3-L1) and 48% (human). ISE induced 3T3-F442A adipogenesis but lacked proadipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 and human preadipocytes. Chemical analyses showed the presence of phenolics in ISE, mainly an appreciable concentration of gallic acid. Ibervillea sonorae exerts its antidiabetic properties by means of hydrosoluble compounds stimulating the glucose uptake in human preadipocytes by a PI3K-independent pathway and without proadipogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Losartan counteracts the effects of cardiomyocyte swelling on glucose uptake and insulin receptor substrate-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Gerena, Yamil; Lozada, Janice Griselle; Collazo, Bryan Jael; Méndez-Álvarez, Jarold; Méndez-Estrada, Jennifer; De Mello, Walmor C

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates an association between Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers (ARBs) and enhanced glucose metabolism during ischemic heart disease. Despite these encouraging results, the mechanisms responsible for these effects during ischemia remain poorly understood. In this study we investigated the influence of losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, and secreted Ang II (sAng II) on glucose uptake and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) levels during cardiomyocyte swelling. H9c2 cells were differentiated to cardiac muscle and the levels of myogenin, Myosin Light Chain (MLC), and membrane AT1 receptors were measured using flow cytometry. Intracellular Ang II (iAng II) was overexpressed in differentiated cardiomyocytes and swelling was induced after incubation with hypotonic solution for 40min. Glucose uptake and IRS-1 levels were monitored by flow cytometry using 2-NBDG fluorescent glucose (10μM) or an anti-IRS-1 monoclonal antibody in the presence or absence of losartan (10 -7 M). Secreted Angiotensin II was quantified from the medium using a specific Ang II-EIA kit. To evaluate the relationship between sAng II and losartan effects on glucose uptake, transfected cells were pretreated with the drug for 24h and then exposed to hypotonic solution in the presence or absence of the secreted peptide. The results indicate that: (1) swelling of transfected cardiomyocytes decreased glucose uptake and induced the secretion of Ang II to the extracellular medium; (2) losartan antagonized the effects of swelling on glucose uptake and IRS-1 levels in transfected cardiomyocytes; (3) the effects of losartan on glucose uptake were observed during swelling only in the presence of sAng II in the culture medium. Our study demonstrates that both losartan and sAng II have essential roles in glucose metabolism during cardiomyocyte swelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lrp5 Has a Wnt-Independent Role in Glucose Uptake and Growth for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Emily N.; Martin, Joshua A.; Kim, Soyoung; Fakhraldeen, Saja A.

    2015-01-01

    Lrp5 is typically described as a Wnt signaling receptor, albeit a less effective Wnt signaling receptor than the better-studied sister isoform, Lrp6. Here we show that Lrp5 is only a minor player in the response to Wnt3a-type ligands in mammary epithelial cells; instead, Lrp5 is required for glucose uptake, and glucose uptake regulates the growth rate of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Thus, a loss of Lrp5 leads to profound growth suppression, whether growth is induced by serum or by specific growth factors, and this inhibition is not due to a loss of Wnt signaling. Depletion of Lrp5 decreases glucose uptake, lactate secretion, and oxygen consumption rates; inhibition of glucose consumption phenocopies the loss of Lrp5 function. Both Lrp5 knockdown and low external glucose induce mitochondrial stress, as revealed by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of the ROS-sensitive checkpoint, p38α. In contrast, loss of function of Lrp6 reduces Wnt responsiveness but has little impact on growth. This highlights the distinct functions of these two Lrp receptors and an important Wnt ligand-independent role of Lrp5 in glucose uptake in mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26711269

  17. Post-exercise ingestion of a unique, high molecular weight glucose polymer solution improves performance during a subsequent bout of cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Francis B; Roig, Marc; Armstrong, Gerald; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2008-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of post-exercise ingestion of a unique, high molecular weight glucose polymer solution, known to augment gastric emptying and post-exercise muscle glycogen re-synthesis, on performance during a subsequent bout of intense exercise. On three randomized visits, eight healthy men cycled to exhaustion at 73.0% (s = 1.3) maximal oxygen uptake (90 min, s = 15). Immediately after this, participants consumed a one-litre solution containing sugar-free flavoured water (control), 100 g of a low molecular weight glucose polymer or 100 g of a very high molecular weight glucose polymer, and rested on a bed for 2 h. After recovery, a 15-min time-trial was performed on a cycle ergometer, during which work output was determined. Post-exercise ingestion of the very high molecular weight glucose polymer solution resulted in faster and greater increases in blood glucose (P < 0.001) and serum insulin (P < 0.01) concentrations than the low molecular weight glucose polymer solution, and greater work output during the 15-min time-trial (164.1 kJ, s = 21.1) than both the sugar-free flavoured water (137.5 kJ, s = 24.2; P < 0.05) and the low molecular weight glucose polymer (149.4 kJ, s = 21.8; P < 0.05) solutions. These findings could be of practical importance for athletes wishing to optimize performance by facilitating rapid re-synthesis of the muscle glycogen store during recovery following prolonged sub-maximal exercise.

  18. Exercising Tactically for Taming Postmeal Glucose Surges.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Elsamma

    2016-01-01

    This review seeks to synthesize data on the timing, intensity, and duration of exercise found scattered over some 39 studies spanning 3+ decades into optimal exercise conditions for controlling postmeal glucose surges. The results show that a light aerobic exercise for 60 min or moderate activity for 20-30 min starting 30 min after meal can efficiently blunt the glucose surge, with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Exercising at other times could lead to glucose elevation caused by counterregulation. Adding a short bout of resistance exercise of moderate intensity (60%-80%  VO2max) to the aerobic activity, 2 or 3 times a week as recommended by the current guidelines, may also help with the lowering of glucose surges. On the other hand, high-intensity exercise (>80%  VO2max) causes wide glucose fluctuations and its feasibility and efficacy for glucose regulation remain to be ascertained. Promoting the kind of physical activity that best counters postmeal hyperglycemia is crucial because hundreds of millions of diabetes patients living in developing countries and in the pockets of poverty in the West must do without medicines, supplies, and special diets. Physical activity is the one tool they may readily utilize to tame postmeal glucose surges. Exercising in this manner does not violate any of the current guidelines, which encourage exercise any time.

  19. Effect of a 2-h hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp to promote glucose storage on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Maclaren, D P M; Mohebbi, H; Nirmalan, M; Keegan, M A; Best, C T; Perera, D; Harvie, M N; Campbell, I T

    2011-09-01

    Carbohydrate stores within muscle are considered essential as a fuel for prolonged endurance exercise, and regimes for enhancing such stores have proved successful in aiding performance. This study explored the effects of a hyperglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp performed 18 h previously on subsequent prolonged endurance performance in cycling. Seven male subjects, accustomed to prolonged endurance cycling, performed 90 min of cycling at ~65% VO(2max) followed by a 16-km time trial 18 h after a 2-h hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (HCC). Hyperglycemia (10 mM) with insulin infused at 300 mU/m(2)/min over a 2-h period resulted in a total glucose uptake of 275 g (assessed by the area under the curve) of which glucose storage accounted for about 73% (i.e. 198 g). Patterns of substrate oxidation during 90-min exercise at 65% VO(2max) were not altered by HCC. Blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were higher during exercise after HCC compared with control (p < 0.05) while plasma NEFA was similar. Exercise performance was improved by 49 s and power output was 10-11% higher during the time trial (p < 0.05) after HCC. These data suggest that carbohydrate loading 18 h previously by means of a 2-h HCC improves cycling performance by 3.3% without any change in pattern of substrate oxidation.

  20. 17beta-estradiol supplementation decreases glucose rate of appearance and disappearance with no effect on glycogen utilization during moderate intensity exercise in men.

    PubMed

    Devries, Michaela C; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Graham, Terry E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Women use less carbohydrate during endurance exercise, as compared with men. In rodents, 17beta-estradiol (E2) supplementation robustly increases lipid use and lowers muscle and liver glycogen use during exercise. E2 supplementation has been found to influence substrate selection by decreasing glucose rate of appearance (Ra), disappearance (Rd), and metabolic clearance rate during exercise in humans; however, neither a change in total carbohydrate use nor a sparing of muscle glycogen was demonstrated. We investigated the effect of 8 d of E2 (2 mg/d) supplementation on glucose turnover and net muscle glycogen use in 11 men using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Subjects underwent primed constant infusion of [6,6-(2)H]glucose, and muscle biopsies were taken before and after 90 min of cycling at 65% maximal oxygen uptake. E2 supplementation decreased the respiratory exchange ratio (P = 0.03) and glucose Ra and Rd (both P = 0.04) during exercise, as compared with placebo. E2 supplementation lowered proglycogen (P < 0.05) and total glycogen (P = 0.04) concentration, as compared with placebo; however, there was no effect of E2 on net muscle glycogen use during exercise. These findings show that E2 supplementation alters fuel selection in exercising men by increasing lipid use and reducing carbohydrate use, glucose Ra (primarily liver glucose production), and Rd (primarily muscle glucose uptake). Furthermore, E2 reduces the basal level of total muscle glycogen, particularly the proglycogen form.

  1. Ecm33 is a novel factor involved in efficient glucose uptake for nutrition-responsive TORC1 signaling in yeast.

    PubMed

    Umekawa, Midori; Ujihara, Masato; Nakai, Daiki; Takematsu, Hiromu; Wakayama, Mamoru

    2017-11-01

    Glucose uptake is crucial for providing both an energy source and a signal that regulates cell proliferation. Therefore, it is important to clarify the mechanisms underlying glucose uptake and its transmission to intracellular signaling pathways. In this study, we searched for a novel regulatory factor involved in glucose-induced signaling by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model. Requirement of the extracellular protein Ecm33 in efficient glucose uptake and full activation of the nutrient-responsive TOR kinase complex 1 (TORC1) signaling pathway is shown. Cells lacking Ecm33 elicit a series of starvation-induced pathways even in the presence of extracellular high glucose concentration. This results in delayed cell proliferation, reduced ATP, induction of autophagy, and dephosphorylation of the TORC1 substrates Atg13 and Sch9. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  3. Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy is due to mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter GLUT1

    PubMed Central

    Suls, Arvid; Dedeken, Peter; Goffin, Karolien; Van Esch, Hilde; Dupont, Patrick; Cassiman, David; Kempfle, Judith; Wuttke, Thomas V.; Weber, Yvonne; Lerche, Holger; Afawi, Zaid; Vandenberghe, Wim; Korczyn, Amos D.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Ekstein, Dana; Kivity, Sara; Ryvlin, Philippe; Claes, Lieve R. F.; Deprez, Liesbet; Maljevic, Snezana; Vargas, Alberto; Van Dyck, Tine; Goossens, Dirk; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Laere, Koen; De Jonghe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia (PED) can occur in isolation or in association with epilepsy, but the genetic causes and pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. We performed a clinical evaluation and genetic analysis in a five-generation family with co-occurrence of PED and epilepsy (n = 39), suggesting that this combination represents a clinical entity. Based on a whole genome linkage analysis we screened SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter of the blood-brain-barrier, GLUT1 and identified heterozygous missense and frameshift mutations segregating in this and three other nuclear families with a similar phenotype. PED was characterized by choreoathetosis, dystonia or both, affecting mainly the legs. Predominant epileptic seizure types were primary generalized. A median CSF/blood glucose ratio of 0.52 (normal >0.60) in the patients and a reduced glucose uptake by mutated transporters compared with the wild-type as determined in Xenopus oocytes confirmed a pathogenic role of these mutations. Functional imaging studies implicated alterations in glucose metabolism in the corticostriate pathways in the pathophysiology of PED and in the frontal lobe cortex in the pathophysiology of epileptic seizures. Three patients were successfully treated with a ketogenic diet. In conclusion, co-occurring PED and epilepsy can be due to autosomal dominant heterozygous SLC2A1 mutations, expanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with GLUT1 deficiency and providing a potential new treatment option for this clinical syndrome. PMID:18577546

  4. Green tea extract does not affect exogenous glucose appearance but reduces insulinemia with glucose ingestion in exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian J; McGlory, Chris; MacInnis, Martin J; Allison, Mary K; Phillips, Stuart M; Gibala, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057-1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 , peak O 2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design. In the fasted state, a primed constant infusion of [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose was started, and 1 h later, subjects performed a graded exercise test (25 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested a 75-g glucose beverage containing 2 g of [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 3 h of recovery. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation was lower during exercise after GTE vs. PLA (1.26 ± 0.34 vs. 1.48 ± 0.51 g/min, P = 0.04). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different between treatments after drink ingestion (GTE = 1,067 ± 133 vs. PLA = 1,052 ± 91 mM/180 min, P = 0.91). Insulin AUC was lower after GTE vs. PLA (5,673 ± 2,153 vs. 7,039 ± 2,588 µIU/180 min, P = 0.05), despite similar rates of glucose appearance (GTE = 0.42 ± 0.16 vs. PLA = 0.43 ± 0.13 g/min, P = 0.74) and disappearance (GTE = 0.43 ± 0.14 vs. PLA = 0.44 ± 0.14 g/min, P = 0.57). We conclude that short-term GTE supplementation did not affect glucose kinetics following ingestion of an oral glucose load postexercise; however, GTE was associated with attenuated insulinemia. These findings suggest GTE lowers the insulin required for a given glucose load during postexercise recovery, which warrants further mechanistic studies in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Green tea extract does not affect exogenous glucose appearance but reduces insulinemia with glucose ingestion in exercise recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brian J.; McGlory, Chris; MacInnis, Martin J.; Allison, Mary K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2016-01-01

    We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057–1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m2, peak O2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg−1·min−1; means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design. In the fasted state, a primed constant infusion of [U-13C6]glucose was started, and 1 h later, subjects performed a graded exercise test (25 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested a 75-g glucose beverage containing 2 g of [6,6-2H2]glucose, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 3 h of recovery. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation was lower during exercise after GTE vs. PLA (1.26 ± 0.34 vs. 1.48 ± 0.51 g/min, P = 0.04). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different between treatments after drink ingestion (GTE = 1,067 ± 133 vs. PLA = 1,052 ± 91 mM/180 min, P = 0.91). Insulin AUC was lower after GTE vs. PLA (5,673 ± 2,153 vs. 7,039 ± 2,588 µIU/180 min, P = 0.05), despite similar rates of glucose appearance (GTE = 0.42 ± 0.16 vs. PLA = 0.43 ± 0.13 g/min, P = 0.74) and disappearance (GTE = 0.43 ± 0.14 vs. PLA = 0.44 ± 0.14 g/min, P = 0.57). We conclude that short-term GTE supplementation did not affect glucose kinetics following ingestion of an oral glucose load postexercise; however, GTE was associated with attenuated insulinemia. These findings suggest GTE lowers the insulin required for a given glucose load during postexercise recovery, which warrants further mechanistic studies in humans. PMID:27763877

  6. Substrate source utilization during moderate intensity exercise with glucose ingestion in Type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, M; Dubé, M-C; Weisnagel, S J; Prud'homme, D; Massicotte, D; Péronnet, F; Lavoie, C

    2007-07-01

    Substrate oxidation and the respective contributions of exogenous glucose, glucose released from the liver, and muscle glycogen oxidation were measured by indirect respiratory calorimetry combined with tracer technique in eight control subjects and eight diabetic patients (5 men and 3 women in both groups) of similar age, height, body mass, and maximal oxygen uptake, over a 60-min exercise period on cycle ergometer at 50.8% (SD 4.0) maximal oxygen uptake [131.0 W (SD 38.2)]. The subjects and patients ingested a breakfast (containing approximately 80 g of carbohydrates) 3 h before and 30 g of glucose (labeled with 13C) 15 min before the beginning of exercise. The diabetic patients also received their usual insulin dose [Humalog = 9.1 U (SD 0.9); Humulin N = 13.9 U (SD 4.4)] immediately before the breakfast. Over the last 30 min of exercise, the oxidation of carbohydrate [1.32 g/min (SD 0.48) and 1.42 g/min (SD 0.63)] and fat [0.33 g/min (SD 0.10) and 0.30 g/min (SD 0.10)] and their contribution to the energy yield were not significantly different in the control subjects and diabetic patients. Exogenous glucose oxidation was also not significantly different in the control subjects and diabetic patients [6.3 g/30 min (SD 1.3) and 5.2 g/30 min (SD 1.6), respectively]. In contrast, the oxidation of plasma glucose and oxidation of glucose released from the liver were significantly lower in the diabetic patients than in control subjects [14.5 g/30 min (SD 4.3) and 9.3 g/30 min (SD 2.8) vs. 27.9 g/30 min (SD 13.3) and 21.6 g/30 min (SD 12.8), respectively], whereas that of muscle glycogen was significantly higher [28.1 g/30 min (SD 15.5) vs. 11.6 g/30 min (SD 8.1)]. These data indicate that, compared with control subjects, in diabetic patients fed glucose before exercise, substrate oxidation and exogenous glucose oxidation overall are similar but plasma glucose oxidation is lower; this is associated with a compensatory higher utilization of muscle glycogen.

  7. No effect of NOS inhibition on skeletal muscle glucose uptake during in situ hindlimb contraction in healthy and diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yet Hoi; Betik, Andrew C; Premilovac, Dino; Dwyer, Renee M; Keske, Michelle A; Rattigan, Stephen; McConell, Glenn K

    2015-05-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise, especially in individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). To examine the potential mechanisms, we examined the effect of local NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on muscle glucose uptake and muscle capillary blood flow during contraction in healthy and T2D rats. T2D was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using a combined high-fat diet (23% fat wt/wt for 4 wk) and low-dose streptozotocin injections (35 mg/kg). Anesthetized animals had one hindlimb stimulated to contract in situ for 30 min (2 Hz, 0.1 ms, 35 V) with the contralateral hindlimb rested. After 10 min, the NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 5 μM) or saline was continuously infused into the femoral artery of the contracting hindlimb until the end of contraction. Surprisingly, there was no increase in skeletal muscle NOS activity during contraction in either group. Local NOS inhibition had no effect on systemic blood pressure or muscle contraction force, but it did cause a significant attenuation of the increase in femoral artery blood flow in control and T2D rats. However, NOS inhibition did not attenuate the increase in muscle capillary recruitment during contraction in these rats. Muscle glucose uptake during contraction was significantly higher in T2D rats compared with controls but, unlike our previous findings in hooded Wistar rats, NOS inhibition had no effect on glucose uptake during contraction. In conclusion, NOS inhibition did not affect muscle glucose uptake during contraction in control or T2D Sprague-Dawley rats, and this may have been because there was no increase in NOS activity during contraction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Extracellular Signal–Regulated Kinase in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Mediates Leptin-Induced Glucose Uptake in Red-Type Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Chitoku; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Kageyama, Haruaki; Okamoto, Shiki; Coutinho, Eulalia A.; Sato, Tatsuya; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Yokota, Shigefumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Tang, Lijun; Saito, Kumiko; Shioda, Seiji; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a key regulator of glucose metabolism in mammals, but the mechanisms of its action have remained elusive. We now show that signaling by extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and its upstream kinase MEK in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) mediates the leptin-induced increase in glucose utilization as well as its insulin sensitivity in the whole body and in red-type skeletal muscle of mice through activation of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) in the VMH. In contrast, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not the MEK-ERK pathway, in the VMH by leptin enhances the insulin-induced suppression of endogenous glucose production in an MCR-independent manner, with this effect of leptin occurring only in the presence of an increased plasma concentration of insulin. Given that leptin requires 6 h to increase muscle glucose uptake, the transient activation of the MEK-ERK pathway in the VMH by leptin may play a role in the induction of synaptic plasticity in the VMH, resulting in the enhancement of MCR signaling in the nucleus and leading to an increase in insulin sensitivity in red-type muscle. PMID:23530005

  9. The Effects of Capillary Transit Time Heterogeneity (CTH) on the Cerebral Uptake of Glucose and Glucose Analogs: Application to FDG and Comparison to Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Angleys, Hugo; Jespersen, Sune N.; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Glucose is the brain's principal source of ATP, but the extent to which cerebral glucose consumption (CMRglc) is coupled with its oxygen consumption (CMRO2) remains unclear. Measurements of the brain's oxygen-glucose index OGI = CMRO2/CMRglc suggest that its oxygen uptake largely suffices for oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, during functional activation and in some disease states, brain tissue seemingly produces lactate although cerebral blood flow (CBF) delivers sufficient oxygen, so-called aerobic glycolysis. OGI measurements, in turn, are method-dependent in that estimates based on glucose analog uptake depend on the so-called lumped constant (LC) to arrive at CMRglc. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH), which is believed to change during functional activation and in some disease states, affects the extraction efficacy of oxygen from blood. We developed a three-compartment model of glucose extraction to examine whether CTH also affects glucose extraction into brain tissue. We then combined this model with our previous model of oxygen extraction to examine whether differential glucose and oxygen extraction might favor non-oxidative glucose metabolism under certain conditions. Our model predicts that glucose uptake is largely unaffected by changes in its plasma concentration, while changes in CBF and CTH affect glucose and oxygen uptake to different extents. Accordingly, functional hyperemia facilitates glucose uptake more than oxygen uptake, favoring aerobic glycolysis during enhanced energy demands. Applying our model to glucose analogs, we observe that LC depends on physiological state, with a risk of overestimating relative increases in CMRglc during functional activation by as much as 50%. PMID:27790110

  10. Study on kinetics of glucose uptake by some species of plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenquan; Wang, Xian; Zhang, Yaohua

    1993-03-01

    The rates of glucose uptake by some species of plankton were determined by3H-glucose tracer method. Experimental results indicated that the observed glucose uptake at natural seawater concentrations by Platymonas subcordiformis and Brachionus plicatilis was principally a metabolic process fitted with the Michaelis-Menten equation in the range of adaptive temperatures. Heterotrophic uptake by Platymonas subcordiformis was mainly dependent on diffusion at high glucose levels. The uptake by Brachionus plicatilis showed active transport even at high glucose levels, indicating its high heterotrophic activity. The uptake rate by Artemia salina was lower, and its V m/K ratio was lower than those of the other two species of plankton.

  11. Ursolic Acid Increases Glucose Uptake through the PI3K Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghan; Li, Wen; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuocheng; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Background Ursolic acid (UA), a triterpenoid compound, is reported to have a glucose-lowering effect. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is one of peripheral tissues that collectively control the circulating glucose levels. Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the effect and further the mechanism of action of UA in adipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate and treated with different concentrations of UA. NBD-fluorescent glucose was used as the tracer to measure glucose uptake and Western blotting used to determine the expression and activity of proteins involved in glucose transport. It was found that 2.5, 5 and 10 µM of UA promoted glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner (17%, 29% and 35%, respectively). 10 µM UA-induced glucose uptake with insulin stimulation was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (1 µM), but not by SB203580 (10 µM), the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or compound C (2.5 µM), the inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Furthmore, the downstream protein activities of the PI3K pathway, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) and phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threoninekinase (AKT) were increased by 10 µM of UA in the presence of insulin. Interestingly, the activity of AS160 and protein kinase C (PKC) and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were stimulated by 10 µM of UA under either the basal or insulin-stimulated status. Moreover, the translocation of GLUT4 from cytoplasm to cell membrane was increased by UA but decreased when the PI3K inhibitor was applied. Conclusions Our results suggest that UA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the PI3K pathway, providing important information regarding the mechanism of action of UA for its anti-diabetic effect. PMID:25329874

  12. The Exercise-Induced Irisin Is Associated with Improved Levels of Glucose Homeostasis Markers in Pregnant Women Participating in 8-Week Prenatal Group Fitness Program: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Szumilewicz, Anna; Worska, Aneta; Piernicka, Magdalena; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Kortas, Jakub; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Jaworska, Joanna; Micielska, Katarzyna; Ziemann, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Both exercise and pregnancy influence serum irisin concentration. To determine how the interaction of pregnancy and exercise affects irisin level and whether various patterns of exercise adherence had different effect on irisin concentration. It was a one-group pretest-posttest study among 9 Caucasian nulliparous healthy women in normal pregnancy (age 23 ± 3 years, 21 ± 2 weeks of gestation; mean ± SD) who participated in 8-week group fitness program. Before and after exercise intervention, we determined serum concentrations of irisin and selected parameters of lipid profile and glucose homeostasis markers. In active women, irisin slightly decreased with the development of pregnancy. After 8 weeks of exercising, irisin correlated negatively with fasting glucose ( R = -0.922; p = 0.001), glycated hemoglobin ( R = -0.784; p = 0.012), and insulin concentrations ( R = -0.845; p = 0.004). In women exercising below recommended level, we observed a significant drop in irisin concentration, whereas in women exercising at least three times a week this myokine slightly increased (31% difference; 90% confidence limits ±28; a large, clear effect). Irisin stimulated by prenatal exercise may improve glucose homeostasis markers in healthy women and compensate for metabolic changes induced by pregnancy. Moreover, the frequency of exercise may regulate the changes in exercise-induced irisin concentration.

  13. Tracing Fasting Glucose Fluxes with Unstressed Catheter Approach in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Xu, Xiao; Meng, Ying; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhai, Hualing; Lu, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Blood glucose concentrations of type 1 diabetic rats are vulnerable, especially to stress and trauma. The present study aimed to investigate the fasting endogenous glucose production and skeletal muscle glucose uptake of Streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats using an unstressed vein and artery implantation of catheters at the tails of the rats as a platform. Research Design and Methods. Streptozotocin (65 mg·kg−1) was administered to induce type 1 diabetic state. The unstressed approach of catheters of vein and artery at the tails of the rats was established before the isotope tracer injection. Dynamic measurement of fasting endogenous glucose production was assessed by continuously infusing stable isotope [6, 6-2H2] glucose, while skeletal muscle glucose uptake by bolus injecting radioactively labeled [1-14C]-2-deoxy-glucose. Results. Streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats displayed polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria along with overt hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. They also had enhanced fasting endogenous glucose production and reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle compared to nondiabetic rats. Conclusions. The dual catheters implantation at the tails of the rats together with isotope tracers injection is a save time, unstressed, and feasible approach to explore the glucose metabolism in animal models in vivo. PMID:24772449

  14. Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.

  15. Brain Glucose Transporter (Glut3) Haploinsufficiency Does Not Impair Mouse Brain Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Charles A.; Ross, Ian R.; Howell, Mary E. A.; McCurry, Melanie P.; Wood, Thomas G.; Ceci, Jeffrey D.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Mouse brain expresses three principle glucose transporters. Glut1 is an endothelial marker and is the principal glucose transporter of the blood-brain barrier. Glut3 and Glut6 are expressed in glial cells and neural cells. A mouse line with a null allele for Glut3 has been developed. The Glut3−/− genotype is intrauterine lethal by seven days post-coitis, but the heterozygous (Glut3+/−) littermate survives, exhibiting rapid post-natal weight gain, but no seizures or other behavioral aberrations. At twelve weeks of age, brain uptake of tail vein-injected 3H-2-deoxy glucose in Glut3+/− mice was not different from Glut3+/+ littermates, despite 50% less Glut3 protein expression in the brain. The brain uptake of injected 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose was similarly not different from Glut3+/− littermates in the total amount, time course, or brain imaging in the Glut3+/− mice. Glut1 and Glut6 protein expressions evaluated by immunoblots were not affected by the diminished Glut3 expression in the Glut3+/− mice. We conclude that a 50% decrease in Glut3 is not limiting for the uptake of glucose into the mouse brain, since Glut3 haploinsufficiency does not impair brain glucose uptake or utilization. PMID:21316350

  16. Effects of postmeal exercise on postprandial glucose excursions in people with type 2 diabetes treated with add-on hypoglycemic agents.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Melissa L; Little, Jonathan P; Gay, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment primarily focuses on reducing hyperglycemia, including postprandial glucose excursions. Hypoglycemic agents are used clinically to lower fasting and postprandial glucose. Metformin is the first-line therapy; however, if metformin is inadequate then 'add-on' hypoglycemic agents are implemented. Postmeal exercise has been shown to lower postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to assess if postmeal exercise provides additional glucose-lowering benefit, beyond medication alone, in those on add-on hypoglycemic agents. Postprandial glucose excursions in eight participants with type 2 diabetes (Age: 60±10.7, HbA 1C : 7.9±2.3) being treated with add-on hypoglycemic agents were assessed during both drug-treated sedentary and drug-treated postmeal exercise conditions. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess peak and area under the glucose curve (AUC) during exercise, as well as peak within a 2-h time window, 2-h total and 2-h incremental AUC after a standardized breakfast meal. Postmeal exercise consisted of 3×10-min intervals of treadmill walking at 50% maximal oxygen uptake. Glucose peak (drug only: 13.8±3.7, drug/exercise: 9.9±2.7mmol/L; p=0.02) and AUC (drug only: 500±136, drug/exercise: 357±89mmol/L×40min; p=0.03) were reduced during postmeal exercise. Breakfast 2-h incremental AUC was also reduced (drug only: 585±291, drug/exercise: 330±294; p=0.047). Post-breakfast exercise lowered glucose during the exercise bout, although this effect was not sustained on later meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidation and metabolic effects of fructose or glucose ingested before exercise.

    PubMed

    Décombaz, J; Sartori, D; Arnaud, M J; Thélin, A L; Schürch, P; Howald, H

    1985-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fructose (F) and glucose (G) intake before exercise on oxidation of the ingested substrate, glycogen utilization, work output, and metabolic changes. Ten trained subjects ingested F or G (1 g/kg), both of which were naturally enriched in 13C. After 1 h of rest, they exercised on an ergometer at 61% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) for 45 min, which was immediately followed by 15 min at their maximal voluntary output. During the resting hour, blood insulin and glucose were lower (p less than 0.05) and respiratory quotient and blood lactate higher (p less than 0.01) after F. During exercise, the differences disappeared, apart from a transient but moderate (4.3 mmol/l) hypoglycemia after G compared to F. No difference between F and G was observed for uric acid, glycerol, FFA, and glucagon. Glycogen decrements in the vastus lateralis muscle were 67 +/- 9 (F) and 97 +/- 15 (G) mmol/kg, values not significantly different from each other (P greater than 0.05). The maximal voluntary work produced during the last 15 min did not differ between treatments. During the 2 h after sugar ingestion, 30 +/- 3 g of F and 26 +/- 3 g of G were oxidized to 13CO2. These findings indicate that fructose ingested before exercise was utilized at least as well as glucose, allowed a more stable glycemia, and did not modify performance.

  18. Mifepristone enhances insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Sore, Izela; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; Osorio-Fuentealba, César; Díaz-Castro, Francisco; Del Campo, Andrea; Donoso-Barraza, Camila; Porras, Omar; Lavandero, Sergio; Troncoso, Rodrigo

    2018-02-05

    Mifepristone is the only FDA-approved drug for glycaemia control in patients with Cushing's syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Mifepristone also has beneficial effects in animal models of diabetes and patients with antipsychotic treatment-induced obesity. However, the mechanisms through which Mifepristone produces its beneficial effects are not completely elucidated. To determine the effects of mifepristone on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on a model of L6 rat-derived skeletal muscle cells. Mifepristone enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and Akt Ser 473 phosphorylation in L6 myotubes. In addition, mifepristone reduced oxygen consumption and ATP levels and increased AMPK Thr 172 phosphorylation. The knockdown of AMPK prevented the effects of mifepristone on insulin response. Mifepristone enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through a mechanism that involves a decrease in mitochondrial function and AMPK activation in skeletal muscle cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Marchetti, Christine M.; Stanley, William C.; Kirwan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFAox) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; −598 ± 125 kcal/day, 66 ± 1 yr, 32.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 ± 2 yr, 35.3 ± 2.1 kg/m2) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-14C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU·m−2·min−1 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin resistance was induced in the last 5 h by a sustained elevation in plasma FFA (intralipid/heparin infusion). Despite greater weight loss in the hypocaloric group (−7.7 ± 0.5 vs. −3.3 ± 0.7%, P < 0.001), FFA-induced peripheral insulin resistance was improved equally in both groups. However, circulating FFA concentrations (2,123 ± 261 vs. 1,764 ± 194 μmol/l, P < 0.05) and FFA turnover (3.20 ± 0.58 vs. 2.19 ± 0.58 μmol·kg FFM−1·min−1, P < 0.01) during hyperlipemia were suppressed only in the hypocaloric group. In contrast, whole body FFAox was improved in both groups at rest and during hyperlipemia. These changes were driven by increases in intracellular lipid-derived FFAox (12.3 ± 7.7 and 14.7 ± 7.8%, P < 0.05). We conclude that the exercise-induced improvement in FFA-induced insulin resistance is independent of the magnitude of weight loss and FFA turnover, yet it is linked to increased intracellular FFA utilization. PMID:19531640

  20. PPARγ activation attenuates glucose intolerance induced by mTOR inhibition with rapamycin in rats.

    PubMed

    Festuccia, William T; Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Belchior, Thiago; Chimin, Patricia; Paschoal, Vivian A; Magdalon, Juliana; Hirabara, Sandro M; Simões, Daniel; St-Pierre, Philippe; Carpinelli, Angelo; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves

    2014-05-01

    mTOR inhibition with rapamycin induces a diabetes-like syndrome characterized by severe glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which is due to increased hepatic glucose production as well as reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake and adipose tissue PPARγ activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological PPARγ activation attenuates the diabetes-like syndrome associated with chronic mTOR inhibition. Rats treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in combination or not with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone (15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 15 days were evaluated for insulin secretion, glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake, and insulin signaling. Rosiglitazone corrected fasting hyperglycemia, attenuated the glucose and insulin intolerances, and abolished the increase in fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels induced by rapamycin. Surprisingly, rosiglitazone markedly increased the plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to refeeding in rapamycin-treated rats. Furthermore, rosiglitazone partially attenuated rapamycin-induced gluconeogenesis, as evidenced by the improved pyruvate tolerance and reduced mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Rosiglitazone also restored insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and its incorporation into glycogen in skeletal muscle of rapamycin-treated rats, which was associated with normalization of Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. However, the rapamycin-mediated impairments of adipose tissue glucose uptake and incorporation into triacylglycerol were unaffected by rosiglitazone. Our findings indicate that PPARγ activation ameliorates some of the disturbances in glucose homeostasis and insulin action associated with chronic rapamycin treatment by reducing gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion and restoring muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake.

  1. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein attenuates glucose uptake via a nitric oxide-mediated pathway in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kyoung Jae; Hwang, Eun Ah; Mun, Kyo-Cheol; Ha, Eunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Carbamylation is a cyanate-mediated posttranslational modification. We previously reported that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) increases reactive oxygen species and apoptosis via a lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor mediated pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. A recent study reported an association between cLDL and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the current study, the effects of cLDL on glucose transport were explored in skeletal muscle cells. The effect of cLDL on glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and signaling pathway were examined in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using 2-deoxyglucose uptake, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The quantity of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by the Griess reaction. The effect of native LDL (nLDL) from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF-nLDL) on glucose uptake was also determined. It was observed that cLDL significantly attenuated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the membrane, which was mediated via the increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO production. Tyrosine nitration of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS‑1) was increased. It was demonstrated that CRF-nLDL markedly reduced glucose uptake compared with nLDL from healthy subjects. Collectively, these findings indicate that cLDL, alone, attenuates glucose uptake via NO-mediated tyrosine nitration of IRS‑1 in L6 rat muscle cells and suggests the possibility that cLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  2. The Exercise-Induced Irisin Is Associated with Improved Levels of Glucose Homeostasis Markers in Pregnant Women Participating in 8-Week Prenatal Group Fitness Program: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Worska, Aneta; Piernicka, Magdalena; Kortas, Jakub; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Jaworska, Joanna; Micielska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Background Both exercise and pregnancy influence serum irisin concentration. Aim To determine how the interaction of pregnancy and exercise affects irisin level and whether various patterns of exercise adherence had different effect on irisin concentration. Methods It was a one-group pretest-posttest study among 9 Caucasian nulliparous healthy women in normal pregnancy (age 23 ± 3 years, 21 ± 2 weeks of gestation; mean ± SD) who participated in 8-week group fitness program. Before and after exercise intervention, we determined serum concentrations of irisin and selected parameters of lipid profile and glucose homeostasis markers. Results In active women, irisin slightly decreased with the development of pregnancy. After 8 weeks of exercising, irisin correlated negatively with fasting glucose (R = −0.922; p = 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (R = −0.784; p = 0.012), and insulin concentrations (R = −0.845; p = 0.004). In women exercising below recommended level, we observed a significant drop in irisin concentration, whereas in women exercising at least three times a week this myokine slightly increased (31% difference; 90% confidence limits ±28; a large, clear effect). Conclusions Irisin stimulated by prenatal exercise may improve glucose homeostasis markers in healthy women and compensate for metabolic changes induced by pregnancy. Moreover, the frequency of exercise may regulate the changes in exercise-induced irisin concentration. PMID:29226153

  3. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC 50  = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU 50  = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU 50  = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  4. Effects of arecoline on adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake of adipocytes-A possible role of betel-quid chewing in metabolic syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fen; Tsou, Tsui-Chun, E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.t; Chao, How-Ran

    To investigate the possible involvement of betel-quid chewing in adipocyte dysfunction, we determined the effects of arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, on adipogenic differentiation (adipogenesis), lipolysis, and glucose uptake by fat cells. Using mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we showed that arecoline inhibited adipogenesis as determined by oil droplet formation and adipogenic marker gene expression. The effects of arecoline on lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by the glycerol release assay, indicating that arecoline induced lipolysis in an adenylyl cyclase-dependent manner. The diabetogenic effects of arecoline on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated by the glucose uptake assay, revealing thatmore » {>=} 300 {mu}M arecoline significantly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake; however, no marked effect on basal glucose uptake was detected. Moreover, using 94 subjects that were randomly selected from a health check-up, we determined the association of betel-quid chewing with hyperlipidemia and its related risk factors. Hyperlipidemia frequency and serum triglyceride levels of betel-quid chewers were significantly higher than those of non-betel-quid chewers. In this study, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibits adipogenic differentiation, induces adenylyl cyclase-dependent lipolysis, and interferes with insulin-induced glucose uptake. Arecoline-induced fat cell dysfunction may lead to hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia/insulin-resistance. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence of betel-quid chewing modulation of adipose cell metabolism that could contribute to the explanation of the association of this habit with metabolic syndrome disorders.« less

  5. Antimetabolic Effects of Polyphenols in Breast Cancer Cells: Focus on Glucose Uptake and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima

    2018-01-01

    In the last years, metabolic reprogramming became a new key hallmark of tumor cells. One of its components is a deviant energetic metabolism, known as Warburg effect-an aerobic lactatogenesis- characterized by elevated rates of glucose uptake and consumption with high-lactate production even in the presence of oxygen. Because many cancer cells display a greater sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity than normal cells, inhibitors of glucose cellular uptake (facilitative glucose transporter 1 inhibitors) and oxidative metabolism (glycolysis inhibitors) are potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Polyphenols, abundantly contained in fruits and vegetables, are dietary components with an established protective role against cancer. Several molecular mechanisms are involved in the anticancer effect of polyphenols, including effects on apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways, and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, inhibition of glucose cellular uptake and metabolism in cancer cell lines has been described for several polyphenols, and this effect was shown to be associated with their anticarcinogenic effect. This work will review data showing an antimetabolic effect of polyphenols and its involvement in the chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic potential of these dietary compounds, in relation to breast cancer.

  6. Effect of exercise on the pseudodiabetes of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of intensive isotonic exercise and isometric exercise (with its low metabolic rate) during bed rest on plasma insulin and glucose tolerance test was investigated. The subjects were seven healthy men, 19 to 22 years in age, 166 to 188 cm in height, and 62.40 to 103.80 kg in weight; maximal oxygen uptakes ranged from 3.36 to 4.38 liters/min. It appears that bed-rest-induced glucose intolerance is diminished with increasing energy expenditure during both bed rest and recovery.

  7. Effects of oral glucose on exercise thermoregulation in men after water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, Alan S.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Greenleaf, John E.; Barnes, Paul R.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Breckler, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis elevated blood glucose would attenuate the rise in exercise rectal temperature, six men age 35 plus or minus S.D. 7 years participated in each of three trials by 4-hr water immersion to the neck: (1) 2.0 g/kg body wt of oral glucose (33.8 percent wt./vol.) was consumed followed by 80 min controlled rest (Glu/Rest), and 70 min horizontal supine cycle exercise at 62.8 percent plus or minus S.E. 0.5 percent (1.97 plus or minus 0.02 L/min) of peak O2 uptake followed by 10 min recovery (2) with (Glu/Ex) and (3) without prior flucose (No Glu/Ex). Blood samples were taken at -25, 0, 15, 45, and 68 min of exercise and after plus 10 min of recovery for measurement of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood glucose. Both mean skin (T sub sk) (from six sites) and rectal temperatures (T sub re) were monitored continuously. Sweat rate was measured by resistanc hygrometry. The mean of delta PV for the exercise trials was -12.2 plus or minus 2.1 percent. Mean blood glucose for the Glu/Ex trial was higher than that of the No Glu/Ex trial was (108.4 equal or minus 3.9 and 85.6 plus or minus 1.6 mg/dl, respectively, P less than 0.05. At the end of exercise T(sub sk) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Ex(32.0 plus or minus 0.3 and 32.4 equals or minus 0.2 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); T(sub re) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Es (38.22 plus or minus 0.17 and 38.60 plus or minus 0.11 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); and forearm sweat rate for the Glu/Ex trial (0.34 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.43 plus or minus g/sq cm, respectively, P less than 0.05). These data suggest that elevation of blood glucose prior to horizontal exercise following hypohydration attenuates the increase in body temperature without altering heat production or exercise hypovolemia.

  8. Metabolism and acetylation contribute to leucine-mediated inhibition of cardiac glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Renguet, Edith; Ginion, Audrey; Gélinas, Roselle; Bultot, Laurent; Auquier, Julien; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Daneault, Caroline; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Des Rosiers, Christine; Hue, Louis; Horman, Sandrine; Beauloye, Christophe; Bertrand, Luc

    2017-08-01

    High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells have suggested that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts. Although leucine activated mTOR/p70S6K, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin did not prevent leucine's inhibitory action on glucose uptake, ruling out the contribution of the insulin-negative feedback loop. α-Ketoisocaproate, the first metabolite of leucine catabolism, mimicked leucine's effect on glucose uptake. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with [ 13 C]leucine ascertained its metabolism to ketone bodies (KBs), which had a similar negative impact on insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Both leucine and KBs reduced glucose uptake by affecting translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Finally, we found that leucine elevated the global protein acetylation level. Pharmacological inhibition of lysine acetyltransferases counteracted this increase in protein acetylation and prevented leucine's inhibitory action on both glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, these results indicate that leucine metabolism into KBs contributes to inhibition of cardiac glucose uptake by hampering the translocation of GLUT4-containing vesicles via acetylation. They offer new insights into the establishment of insulin resistance in the heart. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid leucine into ketone bodies efficiently inhibits cardiac glucose uptake through decreased translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane. Leucine increases protein acetylation. Pharmacological inhibition of acetylation

  9. Cinnamon water extracts increase glucose uptake but inhibit adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    PubMed

    Roffey, Benjamin; Atwal, Avtar; Kubow, Stan

    2006-08-01

    The effects of three concentrations (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/mL) of a cinnamon extract (CE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined in the presence and absence of 0.5 nM and 50 nM insulin. In the absence of insulin, adipocytes exposed to 0.2 mg/mL CE showed an approximate two-fold increase in glucose uptake relative to controls although glucose uptake was unaffected by the two higher concentrations of CE. No effect of CE on glucose uptake was noted in the presence of 0.5 nM insulin whereas the two highest concentrations (0.3 and 0.4 mg/mL) of CE showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in glucose uptake in the presence of 50 nM insulin. Treatment of the adipocytes with 50 nM wortmannin, an irreversible inhibitor of the p110 isoform of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase, was associated with complete inhibition of the stimulated glucose uptake induced by 0.2 mg/mL CE. Treatment of the adipocytes with 0.2 mg/mL CE was associated with an inhibition of adiponectin secretion to levels that were nondetectable. The present study indicates that although 0.2 mg/mL CE has insulin-mimetic action in 3T3-adipocytes in terms of glucose uptake, secretion of the antidiabetic hormone adiponectin is adversely affected.

  10. Lack of O-GlcNAcylation enhances exercise-dependent glucose utilization potentially through AMP-activated protein kinase activation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koichiro; Morino, Katsutaro; Ida, Shogo; Ohashi, Natsuko; Lemecha, Mengistu; Park, Shi-Young; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kume, Shinji; Choi, Cheol Soo; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2018-01-08

    O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification that is characterized by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt). The degree of O-GlcNAcylation is thought to be associated with glucotoxicity and diabetic complications, because GlcNAc is produced by a branch of the glycolytic pathway. However, its role in skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we created skeletal muscle-specific Ogt knockout (Ogt-MKO) mice and analyzed their glucose metabolism. During an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, blood glucose was slightly lower in Ogt-MKO mice than in control Ogt-flox mice. High fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance were reversed in Ogt-MKO mice. In addition, 12-month-old Ogt-MKO mice had lower adipose and body mass. A single bout of exercise significantly reduced blood glucose in Ogt-MKO mice, probably because of higher AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) protein expression. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, an AMPK activator, resulted in a more marked decrease in blood glucose levels in Ogt-MKO mice than in controls. Finally, Ogt knockdown by siRNA in C2C12 myotubes significantly increased protein expression of AMPKα, glucose uptake and oxidation. In conclusion, loss of O-GlcNAcylation facilitates glucose utilization in skeletal muscle, potentially through AMPK activation. The inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation in skeletal muscle may have an anti-diabetic effect, through an enhancement of glucose utilization during exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P < 0.05, effect size = 0.517). After lunch, peak glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P < 0.05, effect size = 0.484). After dinner, peak glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial

  12. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside increases glucose uptake by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Ha; Lee, Hyun Ah; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effect of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) on glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes was studied. C3R significantly increased glucose uptake, which was associated with enhanced plasma membrane glucose transporter type 4 (PM-GLUT4) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The potentiating effect of C3R on glucose uptake and PM-GLUT4 expression was related to enhanced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and Akt, as well as augmented activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) in the insulin signaling pathway. C3R induced glucose uptake was inhibited only by the PI3K inhibitor, but not by an AMPK inhibitor in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, C3R likely up-regulates glucose uptake and PM-GLUT4 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activating the PI3K/Akt pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucose uptake in rat soleus - Effect of acute unloading and subsequent reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Eric J.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acutely reduced weight bearing (unloading) on the in vitro uptake of 2-1,2-H-3-deoxy-D-glucose was studied in the soleus muscle by tail casting and suspending rats. After just 4 h, the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose fell (-19 percent) and declined further after an additional 20 h of unloading. This diminution at 24 h was associated with slower oxidation of C-14-glucose and incorporation of C-14-glucose into glycogen. At 3 days of unloading, basal uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not differ from control. Reloading of the soleus after 1 or 3 days of unloading increased uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose above control and returned it to normal within 6 h and 4 days, respectively. These effects of unloading and recovery were caused by local changes in the soleus, because the extensor digitorum longus from the same hindlimbs did not display any alterations in uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose or metabolism of glucose.

  14. Postmeal exercise blunts postprandial glucose excursions in people on metformin monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Melissa L; Little, Jonathan P; Gay, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-08-01

    Metformin is used clinically to reduce fasting glucose with minimal effects on postprandial glucose. Postmeal exercise reduces postprandial glucose and may offer additional glucose-lowering benefit beyond that of metformin alone, yet controversy exists surrounding exercise and metformin interactions. It is currently unknown how postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy in combination will affect postprandial glucose. Thus, we examined the independent and combined effects of postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy on postprandial glucose. A randomized crossover design was used to assess the influence of postmeal exercise on postprandial glucose excursions in 10 people treated with metformin monotherapy (57 ± 10 yr, HbA 1C  = 6.3 ± 0.6%). Each participant completed the following four conditions: sedentary and postmeal exercise (5 × 10-min bouts of treadmill walking at 60% V̇o 2max ) with metformin and sedentary and postmeal exercise without metformin. Peak postprandial glucose within a 2-h time window and 2-h total area under the curve was assessed after a standardized breakfast meal, using continuous glucose monitoring. Postmeal exercise significantly blunted 2-h peak ( P = 0.001) and 2-h area under the curve ( P = 0.006), with the lowest peak postprandial glucose excursion observed with postmeal exercise and metformin combined ( P < 0.05 vs. all other conditions: metformin/sedentary: 12 ± 3.4, metformin/exercise: 9.7 ± 2.3, washout/sedentary: 13.3 ± 3.2, washout/exercise: 11.1 ± 3.4 mmol/l). Postmeal exercise and metformin in combination resulted in the lowest peak postprandial glucose excursion compared with either treatment modality alone. Exercise timed to the postprandial phase may be important for optimizing glucose control during metformin monotherapy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The interactive effects of metformin and exercise on key physiological outcomes remain an area of controversy. Findings from this study show that the combination of

  15. [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography--an established clinical tool opening a new window into exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an established clinical tool primarily used to diagnose and evaluate disease status in patients with cancer. PET imaging using FDG can be a highly valuable tool to investigate normal human physiology by providing a noninvasive, quantitative measure of glucose uptake into various cell types. Over the past years it has also been increasingly used in exercise physiology studies to identify changes in glucose uptake, metabolism, and muscle activity during different exercise modalities. Metabolically active cells transport FDG, an (18)fluorine-labeled glucose analog tracer, from the blood into the cells where it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. This metabolic trapping process forms the basis of this method's use during exercise. The tracer is given to a participant during an exercise task, and the actual PET imaging is performed immediately after the exercise. Provided the uptake period is of sufficient duration, and the imaging is performed shortly after the exercise; the captured image strongly reflects the metabolic activity of the cells used during the task. When combined with repeated blood sampling to determine tracer blood concentration over time, also known as the input function, glucose uptake rate of the tissues can be quantitatively calculated. This synthesis provides an accounting of studies using FDG-PET to measure acute exercise-induced skeletal muscle activity, describes the advantages and limitations of this imaging technique, and discusses its applications to the field of exercise physiology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Improving glucose tolerance by muscle-damaging exercise.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chien-Te; Otaka, Machiko; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Tissue damage is regarded as an unwanted medical condition to be avoided. However, introducing tolerable tissue damages has been used as a therapeutic intervention in traditional and complementary medicine to cure discomfort and illness. Eccentric exercise is known to cause significant necrosis and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of muscle damage and blood glucose responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after eccentric training in 21 young participants. They were challenged by 5 times of 100-meter downhill sprinting and 20 times of squats training at 30 pounds weight load for 3 days, which resulted in a wide spectrum of muscle creatine kinase (CK) surges in plasma, 48 h after the last bout of exercise. Participants were then divided into two groups according the magnitude of CK increases (low CK: +48% ± 0.3; high CK: +137% ± 0.5, P < 0.05). Both groups show comparable decreases in blood glucose levels in OGTT, suggesting that this muscle-damaging exercise does not appear to decrease but rather improve glycemic control in men. The result of the study rejects the hypothesis that eccentric exercise decreases glucose tolerance. Improved glucose tolerance with CK increase implicates a beneficial effect of replacing metabolically weaker muscle fibers by eccentric exercise in Darwinian natural selection fashion.

  17. Sodium nitroprusside increases human skeletal muscle blood flow, but does not change flow distribution or glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Pitkanen, O P; Laine, H; Kemppainen, J; Eronen, E; Alanen, A; Raitakari, M; Kirvela, O; Ruotsalainen, U; Knuuti, J; Koivisto, V A; Nuutila, P

    1999-12-15

    1. The role of blood flow as a determinant of skeletal muscle glucose uptake is at present controversial and results of previous studies are confounded by possible direct effects of vasoactive agents on glucose uptake. Since increase in muscle blood flow can be due to increased flow velocity or recruitment of new capillaries, or both, it would be ideal to determine whether the vasoactive agent affects flow distribution or only increases the mean flow. 2. In the present study blood flow, flow distribution and glucose uptake were measured simultaneously in both legs of 10 healthy men (aged 29 +/- 1 years, body mass index 24 +/- 1 kg m-2) using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). The role of blood flow in muscle glucose uptake was studied by increasing blood flow in one leg with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and measuring glucose uptake simultaneously in both legs during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (insulin infusion 6 pmol kg-1 min-1). 3. SNP infusion increased skeletal muscle blood flow by 86 % (P < 0.01), but skeletal muscle flow distribution and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (61.4 +/- 7. 5 vs. 67.0 +/- 7.5 micromol kg-1 min-1, control vs. SNP infused leg, not significant), as well as flow distribution between different tissues of the femoral region, remained unchanged. The effect of SNP infusion on blood flow and distribution were unchanged during infusion of physiological levels of insulin (duration, 150 min). 4. Despite a significant increase in mean blood flow induced by an intra-arterial infusion of SNP, glucose uptake and flow distribution remained unchanged in resting muscles of healthy subjects. These findings suggest that SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator, increases non-nutritive, but not nutritive flow or capillary recruitment.

  18. (S)-[6]-Gingerol enhances glucose uptake in L6 myotubes by activation of AMPK in response to [Ca2+]i.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Koolaji, Nooshin; Duke, Colin; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of (S)-[6]-gingerol in promoting glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The effect of (S)-[6]-gingerol on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes was examined using 2-[1,2-3H]-deoxy-D-glucose. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured using Fluo-4. Phosphorylation of AMPKα was determined by Western blotting analysis. (S)-[6]-Gingerol time-dependently enhanced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. (S)-[6]-Gingerol elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration and subsequently induced a dose- and time-dependent enhancement of threonine172 phosphorylated AMPKα in L6 myotubes via modulation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. The results indicated that (S)-[6]-gingerol increased glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells by activating AMPK. (S)-[6]-gingerol, a major component of Zingiber officinale, may have potential for development as an antidiabetic agent.

  19. Brain activity-induced neuronal glucose uptake/glycolysis: Is the lactate shuttle not required?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2018-03-01

    The astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) hypothesis posits that during neuronal activation, astrocytic glycolysis consumes glucose and generates lactate, with the latter then imported by neurons as a preferred fuel. The hypothesis has been controversial, with multiple theoretical postulates for and against, and with empirical evidence that were either supportive or otherwise. Recent findings using direct in vivo imaging of lactate and glucose uptake as well as associated metabolic changes in neurons have now placed important constraints on the hypothesis. Here, I review these recent findings and discuss their implications on neuronal energetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucose Uptake and Its Effect on Gene Expression in Prochlorococcus

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; López-Lozano, Antonio; Gil-Martínez, Jorge; Lucena, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús; Candau, Pedro; García-Fernández, Jose Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus have been considered photoautotrophic microorganisms, although the utilization of exogenous sugars has never been specifically addressed in them. We studied glucose uptake in different high irradiance- and low irradiance-adapted Prochlorococcus strains, as well as the effect of glucose addition on the expression of several glucose-related genes. Glucose uptake was measured by adding radiolabelled glucose to Prochlorococcus cultures, followed by flow cytometry coupled with cell sorting in order to separate Prochlorococcus cells from bacterial contaminants. Sorted cells were recovered by filtration and their radioactivity measured. The expression, after glucose addition, of several genes (involved in glucose metabolism, and in nitrogen assimilation and its regulation) was determined in the low irradiance-adapted Prochlorococcus SS120 strain by semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR, using the rnpB gene as internal control. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the Prochlorococcus strains studied in this work take up glucose at significant rates even at concentrations close to those found in the oceans, and also exclude the possibility of this uptake being carried out by eventual bacterial contaminants, since only Prochlorococcus cells were used for radioactivity measurements. Besides, we show that the expression of a number of genes involved in glucose utilization (namely zwf, gnd and dld, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively) is strongly increased upon glucose addition to cultures of the SS120 strain. This fact, taken together with the magnitude of the glucose uptake, clearly indicates the physiological importance of the phenomenon. Given the significant contribution of Prochlorococcus to the global primary production, these findings have strong implications for the understanding of the phytoplankton role in the carbon cycle in nature

  1. Exercise training decreases pancreatic fat content and improves beta cell function regardless of baseline glucose tolerance: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Motiani, Kumail K; Mari, Andrea; Saunavaara, Virva; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Koivumäki, Mikko; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2018-05-02

    Pancreatic fat accumulation may contribute to the development of beta cell dysfunction. Exercise training improves whole-body insulin sensitivity, but its effects on pancreatic fat content and beta cell dysfunction are unclear. The aim of this parallel-group randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on pancreatic fat and beta cell function in healthy and prediabetic or type 2 diabetic participants and to test whether the responses were similar regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Using newspaper announcements, a total of 97 sedentary 40-55-year-old individuals were assessed for eligibility. Prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes were defined by ADA criteria. Of the screened candidates, 28 healthy men and 26 prediabetic or type 2 diabetic men and women met the inclusion criteria and were randomised into 2-week-long sprint interval or moderate-intensity continuous training programmes in a 1:1 allocation ratio using random permuted blocks. The primary outcome was pancreatic fat, which was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As secondary outcomes, beta cell function was studied using variables derived from OGTT, and whole-body insulin sensitivity and pancreatic fatty acid and glucose uptake were measured using positron emission tomography. The measurements were carried out at the Turku PET Centre, Finland. The analyses were based on an intention-to-treat principle. Given the nature of the intervention, blinding was not applicable. At baseline, the group of prediabetic or type 2 diabetic men had a higher pancreatic fat content and impaired beta cell function compared with the healthy men, while glucose and fatty acid uptake into the pancreas was similar. Exercise training decreased pancreatic fat similarly in healthy (from 4.4% [3.0%, 6.1%] to 3.6% [2.4%, 5.2%] [mean, 95% CI]) and prediabetic or type 2 diabetic men (from 8.7% [6.0%, 11.9%] to 6.7% [4.4%, 9.6%]; p

  2. Tangeretin Improves Glucose Uptake in a Coculture of Hypertrophic Adipocytes and Macrophages by Attenuating Inflammatory Changes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Kang, Seong-Il; Ko, Hee-Chul; Park, Deok-Bae; Kim, Se-Jae

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, which are aggravated by the interaction between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects of tangeretin on inflammatory changes and glucose uptake in a coculture of hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages. Tangeretin decreased nitric oxide production and the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in a coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 cells. Tangeretin also increased glucose uptake in the coculture system, but did not affect the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt. These results suggest that tangeretin improves insulin resistance by attenuating obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue.

  3. Glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in muscles from immobilized limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, W. F.; Watson, P. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    Defects in glucose metabolism in muscles of immobilized limbs of mice were related to alterations in insulin binding, insulin responsiveness, glucose supply, and insulin activation of glycogen synthase. These were tested by in vitro methodology. A significant lessening in the insulin-induced maximal response of 2-deoxyglucose uptake into the mouse soleus muscle occurred between the 3rd and 8th h of limb immobilization, suggesting a decreased insulin responsiveness. Lack of change in the specific binding of insulin to muscles of 24-h immobilized limbs indicates that a change in insulin receptor number did not play a role in the failure of insulin to stimulate glucose metabolism. Its inability to stimulate glycogen synthesis in muscle from immobilized limbs is due, in part, to a lack of glucose supply to glycogen synthesis and also to the ineffectiveness of insulin to increase the percentage of glycogen synthase in its active form in muscles from 24-h immobilized limbs.

  4. ATP-sensitive potassium channels participate in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takashi; Minami, Kohtaro; Zhang, Li; Morita, Mizuo; Gonoi, Tohru; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Seino, Susumu

    2002-12-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are known to be critical in the control of both insulin and glucagon secretion, the major hormones in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. The involvement of K(ATP) channels in glucose uptake in the target tissues of insulin, however, is not known. We show here that Kir6.2(-/-) mice lacking Kir6.2, the pore-forming subunit of these channels, have no K(ATP) channel activity in their skeletal muscles. A 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose uptake experiment in vivo showed that the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipose tissues of Kir6.2(-/-) mice is enhanced compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, in vitro measurement of glucose uptake indicates that disruption of the channel increases the basal glucose uptake in Kir6.2(-/-) extensor digitorum longus and the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in Kir6.2(-/-) soleus muscle. In contrast, glucose uptake in adipose tissue, measured in vitro, was similar in Kir6.2(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that the increase in glucose uptake in Kir6.2(-/-) adipocytes is mediated by altered extracellular hormonal or neuronal signals altered by disruption of the K(ATP) channels.

  5. Development of fluorescent glucose bioprobes and their application on real-time and quantitative monitoring of glucose uptake in living cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Jae Jeong; Park, Jongmin; Park, Seung Bum

    2011-01-03

    We developed a novel fluorescent glucose bioprobe, GB2-Cy3, for the real-time and quantitative monitoring of glucose uptake in living cells. We synthesized a series of fluorescent glucose analogues by adding Cy3 fluorophores to the α-anomeric position of D-glucose through various linkers. Systematic and quantitative analysis of these Cy3-labeled glucose analogues revealed that GB2-Cy3 was the ideal fluorescent glucose bioprobe. The cellular uptake of this probe competed with the cellular uptake of D-glucose in the media and was mediated by a glucose-specific transport system, and not by passive diffusion. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed that GB2-Cy3 is ten times more sensitive than 2-NBDG, a leading fluorescent glucose bioprobe. GB2-Cy3 can also be utilized for the quantitative flow cytometry monitoring of glucose uptake in metabolically active C2C12 myocytes under various treatment conditions. As opposed to a glucose uptake assay performed by using radioisotope-labeled deoxy-D-glucose and a scintillation counter, GB2-Cy3 allows the real-time monitoring of glucose uptake in living cells under various experimental conditions by using fluorescence microscopy or confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Therefore, we believe that GB2-Cy3 can be utilized in high-content screening (HCS) for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and for making significant advances in biomedical studies and diagnosis of various diseases, especially metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Short communication: Protein kinase C regulates glucose uptake and mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT8 in lactating bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, K; Liu, H-Y; Zhao, F-Q; Liu, J-X

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulating glucose uptake in lactating bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). The BMEC were cultured and treated with different concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA;0, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL), the classic activator of PKC, for 48 h. Compared with the cells with no PMA treatment, 50 and 100 ng of PMA/mL significantly stimulated the glucose uptake of the BMEC, whereas the glucose uptake by the cells treated with the lowest and the highest amounts of PMA (25 and 200 ng/mL, respectively) did not show a significant difference. Consistently, the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 8 showed a similar pattern of increase under the treatments of PMA. Furthermore, when the cells were pretreated with GF1090203X (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 μM), an inhibitor of PKC, for 30 min before exposed to PMA (50 ng/mL), the PMA-induced glucose uptake and GLUT1 and GLUT8 expression were decreased by GF1090203X in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that PKC is involved in the regulation of glucose uptake by BMEC, and this function may work, at least partly, through upregulating the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT8. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chromium picolinate on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes involve activation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-qun; Yao, Ming-hui

    2009-12-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been discovered as a supplemental or alternative medication for type 2 diabetes, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible anti-diabetic mechanisms of CrPic in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes; the insulin resistance was induced by treatment with high glucose and insulin for 24 h. The effects of CrPic on glucose metabolism and the glucose uptake-inducing activity of CrPic were investigated. Meanwhile, the effects of CrPic on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation were visualized by immonofluorescence microscopy. In addition, its effects on insulin signaling pathways and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades were assessed by immunoblotting analysis and real-time PCR. The results showed that CrPic induced glucose metabolism and uptake, as well as GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane (PM) in both control and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes without any changes in insulin receptor beta (IR-beta), protein kinase B (AKt), c-Cbl, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun phosphorylation and c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP) mRNA levels. Interestingly, CrPic was able to increase the basal and insulin-stimulated levels of p38 MAPK activation in the control and insulin-resistant cells. Pretreatment with the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 partially inhibited the CrPic-induced glucose transport, but CrPic-activated translocation of GLUT4 was not inhibited by SB203580. This study provides an experimental evidence of the effects of CrPic on glucose uptake through the activation of p38 MAPK and it is independent of the effect on GLUT4 translocation. The findings also suggest exciting new insights into the role of p38 MAPK in glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation.

  8. Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) Enhances Cellular Uptake of Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/− mice, but not in Sglt2−/− mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2−/− mice compared to Sglt2+/− mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/− mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/− mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25268124

  9. Protection of muscle membrane excitability during prolonged cycle exercise with glucose supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R D; Duhamel, T A; Foley, K P; Ouyang, J; Smith, I C; Green, H J

    2007-07-01

    To determine if exercise-induced depressions in neuromuscular function are altered with oral glucose supplementation, 15 untrained participants (Vo2 peak = 45 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), mean +/- SE) performed prolonged cycle exercise at approximately 60% Vo2 peak on two occasions: without glucose supplementation (NG) and with oral glucose supplementation (G). The oral G began at 30 min of exercise and was administered every 15 min (total ingested = 1.23 +/- 0.11 g carbohydrate/kg body mass). Quadriceps isometric properties and membrane excitability were assessed prior to exercise, after 90 min of exercise, and at fatigue. Cycle time to fatigue was greater (P < 0.05) in G compared with NG (137 +/- 7 vs. 115 +/- 6 min). Progressive reductions (P < 0.05) in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, N) were observed for NG at 90 min (441 +/- 29) and at fatigue (344 +/- 33) compared with pre-exercise (666 +/- 30). At fatigue in G, the reduction in MVC was not as pronounced (P < 0.05) as in NG. Motor unit activation assessed with the interpolated twitch technique during an MVC following exercise was not different between conditions. During cycling, the G condition also resulted in a higher (P < 0.05) muscle compound potential (M-wave) amplitude (mV) at both 90 min (+50%) and at fatigue (+87%) compared with NG. Similar effects were also found M-wave area (mV/ms). These results suggest that the ergogenic effect of glucose supplementation occurs not as a result of decreased neural activation but to improved muscle function, possibly as a consequence of protection of muscle membrane excitability.

  10. Mitochondria-specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training-induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Shill, Daniel D; Southern, W Michael; Willingham, T Bradley; Lansford, Kasey A; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2016-12-01

    Reducing excessive oxidative stress, through chronic exercise or antioxidants, can decrease the negative effects induced by excessive amounts of oxidative stress. Transient increases in oxidative stress produced during acute exercise facilitate beneficial vascular training adaptations, but the effects of non-specific antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are an exercise-inducible subset of white blood cells that maintain vascular integrity. We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training in CACs, muscle mitochondrial capacity and maximal oxygen uptake in young healthy men. We show that endurance exercise training increases multiple CAC types, an adaptation that is not altered by MitoQ supplementation. Additionally, MitoQ does not affect skeletal muscle or whole-body aerobic adaptations to exercise training. These results indicate that MitoQ supplementation neither enhances nor attenuates endurance training adaptations in young healthy men. Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3 + , CD3 + /CD31 + , CD14 + /CD31 + , CD31 + , CD34 + /VEGFR2 + and CD62E + peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) in healthy men aged 22.1 ± 0.7 years, with a body mass index of 26.9 ± 0.9 kg m -2 , and 24.8 ± 1.3% body fat. Analysis of main effects revealed that training induced 33, 105 and 285% increases in CD14 + /CD31

  11. Metabolic and thermodynamic responses to dehydration-induced reductions in muscle blood flow in exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Nielsen, Bodil

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined whether reductions in muscle blood flow with exercise-induced dehydration would reduce substrate delivery and metabolite and heat removal to and from active skeletal muscles during prolonged exercise in the heat. A second aim was to examine the effects of dehydration on fuel utilisation across the exercising leg and identify factors related to fatigue. Seven cyclists performed two cycle ergometer exercise trials in the heat (35°C; 61 ± 2% of maximal oxygen consumption rate, VO2,max), separated by 1 week. During the first trial (dehydration, DE), they cycled until volitional exhaustion (135 ± 4 min, mean ±s.e.m.), while developing progressive DE and hyperthermia (3.9 ± 0.3% body weight loss and 39.7 ± 0.2°C oesophageal temperature, Toes). On the second trial (control), they cycled for the same period of time maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids and stabilising Toes at 38.2 ± 0.1°C. After 20 min of exercise in both trials, leg blood flow (LBF) and leg exchange of lactate, glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were similar. During the 20 to 135 ± 4 min period of exercise, LBF declined significantly in DE but tended to increase in control. Therefore, after 120 and 135 ± 4 min of DE, LBF was 0.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 l min−1 lower (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with control. The lower LBF after 2 h in DE did not alter glucose or FFA delivery compared with control. However, DE resulted in lower (P < 0.05) net FFA uptake and higher (P < 0.05) muscle glycogen utilisation (45%), muscle lactate accumulation (4.6-fold) and net lactate release (52%), without altering net glycerol release or net glucose uptake. In both trials, the mean convective heat transfer from the exercising legs to the body core ranged from 6.3 ± 1.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3 kJ min−1, thereby accounting for 35-40 % of the estimated rate of heat production (∼18 kJ min−1). At exhaustion in DE, blood lactate values were low whereas blood glucose and

  12. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Wilkerson, Donald C.; Tobia, Christine M.; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y.; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Esser, Karyn A.; Egan, Josephine M.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring. PMID:22932781

  13. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on glucose uptake in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miederer, I; Uebbing, K; Röhrich, J; Maus, S; Bausbacher, N; Krauter, K; Weyer-Elberich, V; Lutz, B; Schreckenberger, M; Urban, R

    2017-05-01

    Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected. The data were acquired for 70 min and arterial blood samples were collected throughout the scan. THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH were determined at 55 min p.i. Nine volumes of interest were defined, and the cerebral glucose uptake was calculated for each brain region. Low blood THC levels of < 1 ng/ml (injected dose: ≤ 0.01 mg/kg) corresponded to an increased glucose uptake (6-30 %), particularly in the hypothalamus (p = 0.007), while blood THC levels > 10 ng/ml (injected dose: ≥ 0.05 mg/kg) coincided with a decreased glucose uptake (-2 to -22 %), especially in the cerebellar cortex (p = 0.008). The effective concentration in this region was estimated 2.4 ng/ml. This glucose PET study showed that stimulation of CB1 receptors by THC affects the glucose uptake in the rat brain, whereby the effect of THC is regionally different and dependent on dose - an effect that may be of relevance in behavioural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondria‐specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training‐induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake

    PubMed Central

    Shill, Daniel D.; Southern, W. Michael; Willingham, T. Bradley; Lansford, Kasey A.; McCully, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reducing excessive oxidative stress, through chronic exercise or antioxidants, can decrease the negative effects induced by excessive amounts of oxidative stress. Transient increases in oxidative stress produced during acute exercise facilitate beneficial vascular training adaptations, but the effects of non‐specific antioxidants on exercise training‐induced vascular adaptations remain elusive.Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are an exercise‐inducible subset of white blood cells that maintain vascular integrity.We investigated whether mitochondria‐specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training in CACs, muscle mitochondrial capacity and maximal oxygen uptake in young healthy men.We show that endurance exercise training increases multiple CAC types, an adaptation that is not altered by MitoQ supplementation. Additionally, MitoQ does not affect skeletal muscle or whole‐body aerobic adaptations to exercise training.These results indicate that MitoQ supplementation neither enhances nor attenuates endurance training adaptations in young healthy men. Abstract Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training‐induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria‐specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3+, CD3+/CD31+, CD14+/CD31+, CD31+, CD34+/VEGFR2+ and CD62E+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) in healthy men aged 22.1 ± 0.7 years, with a body mass index of 26.9 ± 0.9 kg m–2, and 24.8 ± 1.3% body fat. Analysis of main effects revealed that training induced 33, 105 and 285% increases

  15. Skeletal muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase micro protein is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and is not normalized by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Scott J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Canny, Benedict J; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is greatly elevated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas endothelial NOS is at normal levels. Diabetic rat studies suggest that skeletal muscle neuronal NOS (nNOS) micro protein expression may be reduced in human insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and whether exercise training increases nNOSmicro protein expression in these individuals because exercise training increases skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in rats. Seven people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and 7 matched (sex, age, fitness, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile) healthy controls aged 36 to 60 years participated in this study. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies for nNOSmicro protein determination were obtained, aerobic fitness was measured (peak pulmonary oxygen uptake [Vo(2) peak]), and glucose tolerance and insulin homeostasis were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of cycling exercise training (60% Vo(2) peak, 50 minutes x 5 d wk(-1)). Skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein was significantly lower (by 32%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes compared with that in controls before training (17.7 +/- 1.2 vs 26.2 +/- 3.4 arbitrary units, P < .05). The Vo(2) peak and indicators of insulin sensitivity improved with exercise training in both groups (P < .05), but there was no effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in either group. In conclusion, individuals with impaired glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content. However, because exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without influencing skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression, it seems that changes in skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein are not central to the control of insulin

  16. Glucose response to exercise in the post-prandial period is independent of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Shambrook, P; Kingsley, M I; Wundersitz, D W; Xanthos, P D; Wyckelsma, V L; Gordon, B A

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the acute glucose response to low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity interval exercise compared to no-exercise in healthy insufficiently active males using a four-arm, randomized, crossover design. Ten males (age: 37.3 ± 7.3 years, BMI: 29.3 ± 6.5 kg·m -2 ) completed four 30-minute interventions at weekly intervals comprising low-intensity exercise (LIE) at ~35% V˙O 2 R, moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) at ~50% V˙O 2 R, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) at ~80% V˙O 2 R, and a no-exercise control. Participants performed cycle ergometer exercise 30 minutes after finishing breakfast. Glucose response was assessed using a continuous glucose monitor under free-living conditions with dietary intake replicated. A significant effect for intensity on energy expenditure was identified (P < .001) with similar energy cost in MIE (mean ± SD: 869 ± 148 kJ) and HIIE (806 ± 145 kJ), which were both greater than LIE (633 ± 129 kJ). The pattern of glucose response between the interventions over time was different (P = .02). Glucose was lower 25 minutes into each of the HIIE, MIE and LIE trials respectively (mean difference ± SD: -0.7 ± 1.1; -0.9 ± 1.1; -0.6 ± 0.9 mmol·L -1 ; P < .05) than in the no-exercise trial. Glucose response was not different between exercise intensities (P > .05). Twenty-four-hour AUC was not affected by exercise intensity (P = .75). There was a significant effect for exercise enjoyment (P = .02), with LIE (69 ± 4) preferred less than HIIE (mean ± SD: 84 ± 14; P = .02), MIE (73 ± 5; P = .03), and no-exercise (75 ± 4; P = .03). Exercise at any intensity 30 minutes after a meal affects glycemic regulation equally in insufficiently active males. Moderate to vigorous exercise intensities were preferred, and therefore, the exercise guidelines appear appropriate for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A

  17. Regional glucose utilization in infarcted and remote myocardium: its relation to coronary anatomy and perfusion.

    PubMed

    Fragasso, G; Chierchia, S L; Landoni, C; Lucignani, G; Rossetti, E; Sciammarella, M; Vanoli, G E; Fazio, F

    1998-07-01

    We studied the relationship between coronary anatomy, perfusion and metabolism in myocardial segments exhibiting transient and persistent perfusion defects on stress/rest 99Tcm-MIBI single photon emission tomography in 35 patients (31 males, 4 females, mean age 56 +/- 7 years) with a previous myocardial infarction. Quantitative coronary angiography and assessment of myocardial perfusion reserve and glucose metabolism were performed within 1 week of one another. Perfusion was assessed by SPET after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of 99Tcm-MIBI at rest and after exercise. Regional myocardial glucose metabolism was assessed by position emission tomography at rest (200 MBq of 18F-2-deoxyglucose, FDG) after an overnight fast with no glucose loading. All 35 patients exhibited persistent perfusion defects consistent with the clinically identified infarct site, and 27 (77%) also showed various degrees of within-infarct FDG uptake; 11 patients developed exercise-induced transient perfusion defects within, or in the vicinity of, 15 infarct segments and resting FDG uptake was present in 10 of these segments (67%). Five patients also showed exercise-induced transient perfusion defects in nine segments remote from the site of infarct: resting FDG uptake was present in six of these regions (67%). Finally, nine patients had increased glucose uptake in non-infarcted regions not showing transient perfusion defects upon exercise testing and perfused by coronary arteries with only minor irregularities. Our results confirm the presence of viable tissue in a large proportion of infarct sites. Moreover, FDG uptake can be seen in regions perfused by coronary arteries showing minor irregularities, not necessarily resulting in detectable transient perfusion defects on a MIBI stress scan. Since the clinical significance of such findings is not clear, further studies should be conducted to assess the long-term evolution of perfusion, function and metabolism in non

  18. Effects of fat on glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Boden, G; Chen, X

    1995-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to determine whether FFA inhibit insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. We performed five types of isoglycemic (approximately 11mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin; (c) with insulin plus glycerol; (d) with saline; (e) with saline plus fat/heparin and two types of euglycemic (approximately 5mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin. During these studies, we determined rates of glucose uptake, glycolysis (both with 3[3H] glucose), glycogen synthesis (determined as glucose uptake minus glycolysis), carbohydrate oxidation (by indirect calorimetry) and nonoxidative glycolysis (determined as glycolysis minus carbohydrate oxidation). Fat/heparin infusion did not affect basal glucose uptake, but inhibited total stimulated (insulin stimulated plus basal) glucose uptake by 40-50% in isoglycemic and in euglycemic patients at plasma FFA concentration of approximately 950 and approximately 550 microM, respectively. In isoglycemic patients, the 40-50% inhibition of total stimulated glucose uptake was due to near complete inhibition of the insulin-stimulated part of glucose uptake. Proportional inhibition of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and glycolysis suggested a major FFA-mediated defect involving glucose transport and/or phosphorylation. In summary, fat produced proportional inhibitions of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and of intracellular glucose utilization. We conclude, that physiologically elevated levels of FFa could potentially be responsible for a large part of the peripheral insulin resistance in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:7657800

  19. Effects of fat on glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boden, G; Chen, X

    1995-09-01

    It was the aim of this study to determine whether FFA inhibit insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. We performed five types of isoglycemic (approximately 11mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin; (c) with insulin plus glycerol; (d) with saline; (e) with saline plus fat/heparin and two types of euglycemic (approximately 5mM) clamps: (a) with insulin; (b) with insulin plus fat/heparin. During these studies, we determined rates of glucose uptake, glycolysis (both with 3[3H] glucose), glycogen synthesis (determined as glucose uptake minus glycolysis), carbohydrate oxidation (by indirect calorimetry) and nonoxidative glycolysis (determined as glycolysis minus carbohydrate oxidation). Fat/heparin infusion did not affect basal glucose uptake, but inhibited total stimulated (insulin stimulated plus basal) glucose uptake by 40-50% in isoglycemic and in euglycemic patients at plasma FFA concentration of approximately 950 and approximately 550 microM, respectively. In isoglycemic patients, the 40-50% inhibition of total stimulated glucose uptake was due to near complete inhibition of the insulin-stimulated part of glucose uptake. Proportional inhibition of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and glycolysis suggested a major FFA-mediated defect involving glucose transport and/or phosphorylation. In summary, fat produced proportional inhibitions of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and of intracellular glucose utilization. We conclude, that physiologically elevated levels of FFa could potentially be responsible for a large part of the peripheral insulin resistance in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  20. Local nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces skeletal muscle glucose uptake but not capillary blood flow during in situ muscle contraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Ross, Renee M; Wadley, Glenn D; Clark, Michael G; Rattigan, Stephen; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-12-01

    We have previously shown in humans that local infusion of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor into the femoral artery attenuates the increase in leg glucose uptake during exercise without influencing total leg blood flow. However, rodent studies examining the effect of NOS inhibition on contraction-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake have yielded contradictory results. This study examined the effect of local infusion of an NOS inhibitor on skeletal muscle glucose uptake (2-deoxyglucose) and capillary blood flow (contrast-enhanced ultrasound) during in situ contractions in rats. Male hooded Wistar rats were anesthetized and one hindleg electrically stimulated to contract (2 Hz, 0.1 ms) for 30 min while the other leg rested. After 10 min, the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (arterial concentration of 5 micromol/l) or saline was infused into the epigastric artery of the contracting leg. Local NOS inhibition had no effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or muscle contraction force. Contractions increased (P < 0.05) skeletal muscle NOS activity, and this was prevented by L-NAME infusion. NOS inhibition caused a modest significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of the increase in femoral blood flow during contractions, but importantly there was no effect on capillary recruitment. NOS inhibition attenuated (P < 0.05) the increase in contraction-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake by approximately 35%, without affecting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. NOS inhibition attenuated increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction without influencing capillary recruitment, suggesting that NO is critical for part of the normal increase in skeletal muscle fiber glucose uptake during contraction.

  1. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Adams, O Peter

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed. HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed. Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females) requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week) improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects) were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%. Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and non-diabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long-term efficacy, and optimal exercise intensity and duration.

  2. Endothelial HIF-1α Enables Hypothalamic Glucose Uptake to Drive POMC Neurons.

    PubMed

    Varela, Luis; Suyama, Shigetomo; Huang, Yan; Shanabrough, Marya; Tschöp, Matthias H; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Giordano, Frank J; Horvath, Tamas L

    2017-06-01

    Glucose is the primary driver of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. We show that endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) controls glucose uptake in the hypothalamus and that it is upregulated in conditions of undernourishment, during which POMC neuronal activity is decreased. Endothelium-specific knockdown of HIF-1α impairs the ability of POMC neurons to adapt to the changing metabolic environment in vivo, resulting in overeating after food deprivation in mice. The impaired functioning of POMC neurons was reversed ex vivo or by parenchymal glucose administration. These observations indicate an active role for endothelial cells in the central control of metabolism and suggest that central vascular impairments may cause metabolic disorders. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Effects of exercise on obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jun-Won; No, Mi-Hyun; Park, Dong-Ho; Kang, Ju-Hee; Seo, Dae Yun; Han, Jin; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e.g., decrease in O2 respiration and increase in oxidative stress) in skeletal muscle. The balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Obesity impairs mitochondrial dynamics, leading to an unbalance between fusion and fission by favorably shifting fission or reducing fusion proteins. Mitophagy is the catabolic process of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria. Obesity reduces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and increases accumulation of dysfunctional cellular organelles, suggesting that mitophagy does not work properly in obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are reported to trigger apoptosis, and mitochondrial apoptosis is induced by obesity in skeletal muscle. It is well known that exercise is the most effective intervention to protect against obesity. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise protects against obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are not clearly elucidated, exercise training attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, allows mitochondria to maintain the balance between mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, and reduces apoptotic signaling in obese skeletal muscle. PMID:29200899

  4. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  5. Limited effects of exogenous glucose during severe hypoxia and a lack of hypoxia-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated rainbow trout cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Tracy A.; DellaValle, Brian; Gesser, Hans; Rodnick, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined whether exogenous glucose affects contractile performance of electrically paced ventricle strips from rainbow trout under conditions known to alter cardiomyocyte performance, ion regulation and energy demands. Physiological levels of d-glucose did not influence twitch force development for aerobic preparations (1) paced at 0.5 or 1.1 Hz, (2) at 15 or 23°C, (3) receiving adrenergic stimulation or (4) during reoxygenation with or without adrenaline after severe hypoxia. Contractile responses to ryanodine, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, were also not affected by exogenous glucose. However, glucose did attenuate the fall in twitch force during severe hypoxia. Glucose uptake was assayed in non-contracting ventricle strips using 2-[3H] deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, at different incubation temperatures and with different inhibitors. Based upon a lack of saturation of 2-DG uptake and incomplete inhibition of uptake by cytochalasin B and d-glucose, 2-DG uptake was mediated by a combination of facilitated transport and simple diffusion. Hypoxia stimulated lactate efflux sixfold to sevenfold with glucose present, but did not increase 2-DG uptake or reduce lactate efflux in the presence of cytochalasin B. Increasing temperature (14 to 24°C) also did not increase 2-DG uptake, but decreasing temperature (14 to 4°C) reduced 2-DG uptake by 45%. In conclusion, exogenous glucose improves mechanical performance under hypoxia but not under any of the aerobic conditions applied. The extracellular concentration of glucose and cold temperature appear to determine and limit cardiomyocyte glucose uptake, respectively, and together may help define a metabolic strategy that relies predominantly on intracellular energy stores. PMID:23685969

  6. Murine remote preconditioning increases glucose uptake and suppresses gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes via a brain-liver neurocircuit, leading to counteracting glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Chiharu; Matsumoto, Waka; Naganuma, Seiji; Furihata, Mutsuo; Inoue, Keiji; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Our previous study revealed that cyclic hindlimb ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) activates cardiac acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis through the cholinergic nervous system and cell-derived ACh accelerates glucose uptake. However, the mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in vivo remain unknown. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of IR in mice under pathophysiological conditions. Using IR-subjected male C57BL/6J mice, the effects of IR on blood sugar (BS), glucose uptake, central parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and those of ACh on hepatocellular glucose uptake were assessed. IR decreased BS levels by 20% and increased c-fos immunoreactivity in the center of the PNS (the solitary tract and the dorsal motor vagal nucleus). IR specifically downregulated hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and activities (glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and accelerated hepatic glucose uptake. Transection of a hepatic vagus nerve branch decreased this uptake and reversed BS decrease. Suppressed gluconeogenic enzyme expression was reversed by intra-cerebroventricular administration of a choline acetyltransferase inhibitor. Moreover, IR significantly attenuated hyperglycaemia in murine model of type I and II diabetes mellitus. IR provides another insight into a therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus due to regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose-uptake and advocates an adjunctive mode rectifying disturbed glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John Douglas R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using 2-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyze the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identifies the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging. PMID:25904018

  8. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John D R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-04-23

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging.

  9. Osthole activates glucose uptake but blocks full activation in L929 fibroblast cells, and inhibits uptake in HCLE cells

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Ola D.; Gunnink, Stephen M.; Kuiper, Benjamin D.; Kerk, Samuel A.; Braun, Emily; Louters, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Osthole, a coumarin derivative, has been used in Chinese medicine and studies have suggested a potential use in treatment of diabetes and cancers. Therefore, we investigated the effects of osthole and other coumarins on GLUT1 activity in two cell lines that exclusively express GLUT1. Main Methods We measured the magnitude and time frame of the effects of osthole and related coumarins on glucose uptake in two cells lines; L929 fibroblast cells which have low GLUT1 expression levels and low basal glucose uptake and HCLE cells which have high GLUT1 concentrations and high basal uptake. We also explored the effects of these coumarins in combination with other GLUT1 activators. Key findings Osthole activates glucose uptake in L929 cells with a modest maximum 1.7-fold activation achieved by 50 µM with both activation and recovery occurring within minutes. However, osthole blocks full acute activation of glucose uptake by other, more robust activators. This behavior mimics the effects of other thiol reactive compounds and suggests that osthole is interacting with cysteine residues, possibly within GLUT1 itself. Coumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, and 7-methoxycoumarin, do not affect glucose uptake, which is consistent with the notion that the isoprenoid structure in osthole may be important to gain membrane access to GLUT1. In contrast to its effects in L929 cells, osthole inhibits basal glucose uptake in the more active HCLE cells. Significance The differential effects of osthole in L929 and HCLE cells indicated that regulation of GLUT1 varies, likely depending on its membrane concentration. PMID:24657891

  10. Osthole activates glucose uptake but blocks full activation in L929 fibroblast cells, and inhibits uptake in HCLE cells.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Ola D; Gunnink, Stephen M; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Kerk, Samuel A; Braun, Emily; Louters, Larry L

    2014-05-02

    Osthole, a coumarin derivative, has been used in Chinese medicine and studies have suggested a potential use in treatment of diabetes and cancers. Therefore, we investigated the effects of osthole and other coumarins on GLUT1 activity in two cell lines that exclusively express GLUT1. We measured the magnitude and time frame of the effects of osthole and related coumarins on glucose uptake in two cells lines; L929 fibroblast cells which have low GLUT1 expression levels and low basal glucose uptake and HCLE cells which have high GLUT1 concentrations and high basal uptake. We also explored the effects of these coumarins in combination with other GLUT1 activators. Osthole activates glucose uptake in L929 cells with a modest maximum 1.7-fold activation achieved by 50 μM with both activation and recovery occurring within minutes. However, osthole blocks full acute activation of glucose uptake by other, more robust activators. This behavior mimics the effects of other thiol reactive compounds and suggests that osthole is interacting with cysteine residues, possibly within GLUT1 itself. Coumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, and 7-methoxycoumarin, do not affect glucose uptake, which is consistent with the notion that the isoprenoid structure in osthole may be important to gain membrane access to GLUT1. In contrast to its effects in L929 cells, osthole inhibits basal glucose uptake in the more active HCLE cells. The differential effects of osthole in L929 and HCLE cells indicated that regulation of GLUT1 varies, likely depending on its membrane concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AMPK-α2 is involved in exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Marcia J; Turcotte, Lorraine P

    2014-10-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been studied extensively and postulated to be a target for the treatment and/or prevention of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been deemed a beneficial treatment for obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, exercise is a feasible method to combat high-fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AMPK-α2 activity is required to gain beneficial effects of exercise training with high-fat feeding. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK-α2 dominant-negative (DN) male mice were fed standard diet (SD), underwent voluntary wheel running (TR), fed HFD, or trained with HFD (TR + HFD). By week 6, TR, irrespective of genotype, decreased blood glucose and increased citrate synthase activity in both diet groups and decreased insulin levels in HFD groups. Hindlimb perfusions were performed, and, in WT mice with SD, TR increased insulin-mediated palmitate uptake (76.7%) and oxidation (>2-fold). These training-induced changes were not observed in the DN mice. With HFD, TR decreased palmitate oxidation (61-64%) in both WT and DN and increased palmitate uptake (112%) in the WT with no effects on palmitate uptake in the DN. With SD, TR increased ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype. With HFD, TR reduced JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 expression in WT, and CD36 expression in both DN and WT. These data suggest that low AMPK-α2 signaling disrupts, in part, the exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following HFD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Effects of prior exercise on the action of insulin-like growth factor I in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Louters, L. L.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Prior exercise increases insulin sensitivity for glucose and system A neutral amino acid transport activities in skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) also activates these transport processes in resting muscle. It is not known, however, whether prior exercise increases IGF-I action in muscle. Therefore we determined the effect of a single exhausting bout of swim exercise on IGF-I-stimulated glucose transport activity [assessed by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake] and system A activity [assessed by alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB) uptake] in the isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle. When measured 3.5 h after exercise, the responses to a submaximal concentration (0.2 nM), but not a maximal concentration (13.3 nM), of insulin for activation of 2-DG uptake and MeAIB uptake were enhanced. In contrast, prior exercise increased markedly both the submaximal (5 nM) and maximal (20 nM) responses to IGF-I for activation of 2-DG uptake, whereas only the submaximal response to IGF-I (3 nM) for MeAIB uptake was enhanced after exercise. We conclude that 1) prior exercise significantly enhances the response to a submaximal concentration of IGF-I for activation of the glucose transport and system A neutral amino acid transport systems in skeletal muscle and 2) the enhanced maximal response for IGF-I action after exercise is restricted to the signaling pathway for activation of the glucose transport system.

  13. Calorie restriction enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscle of 24-month-old rats.

    PubMed

    Sequea, Donel A; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2012-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) induces enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fast-twitch (type II) muscle from old rats, but the effect of CR on slow-twitch (type I) muscle from old rats is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins in isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from 24-month-old ad libitum fed and CR (consuming 65% of ad libitum, intake) rats. Muscles were incubated with and without 1.2 nM insulin. CR versus ad libitum rats had greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) on T308 and S473 for both muscles incubated with insulin. GLUT4 protein abundance and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Y1162/1163) and AS160 (T642) were unaltered by CR in both muscles. These results implicate enhanced pAkt as a potential mechanism for the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus of old rats.

  14. Aerobic exercise is necessary to improve glucose utilization with moderate weight loss in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alice S; Nicklas, Barbara J; Berman, Dora M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the effects of weight loss (WL) alone and combined with aerobic exercise on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intramuscular fat, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the rate of decline in free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. We studied 33 sedentary, obese (BMI = 32 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) postmenopausal women who completed a 6-month (three times per week) program of either WL alone (n = 16) or WL + aerobic exercise (AEX) (n = 17). Glucose utilization (M) was measured during a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m(2) per minute). M/I, the amount of glucose metabolized per unit of plasma insulin (I), was used as an index of insulin sensitivity. Body weight, total fat mass, and percentage fat decreased similarly in both groups (p < 0.01). VAT, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, mid-thigh subcutaneous fat, and intramuscular fat decreased to a similar extent in both groups and between 14% and 27% after WL and WL+AEX (p < 0.05). WL alone did not change M or M/I; however, M and M/I increased 15% and 21% after WL+AEX (p < 0.05). Fasting concentrations and rate of decline of FFA did not change in either group. In stepwise regression models to determine the independent predictors of changes in M and M/I, the change in VAT was the single independent predictor of M (r(2) = 0.30) and M/I (r(2) = 0.33). Intramuscular fat decreases similarly with 6 months of moderate WL alone or with aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. In contrast, only WL combined with exercise results in increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity. These findings should be validated in a larger population.

  15. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Uptake Using Both Exercise and Non-Exercise Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James D.; Paul, Samantha L.; Hyde, Annette; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to develop a regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]) based on submaximal treadmill exercise (EX) and non-exercise (N-EX) data involving 116 participants, ages 18-65 years. The EX data included the participants' self-selected treadmill speed (at a level grade) when exercise heart rate first reached…

  16. β-arrestin-2 is involved in irisin induced glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes via p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yaling; Zhu, Haihui; Xu, Jianqin; Yang, Lihua; Liu, Lingjiao; Li, Jing

    2017-11-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disease worldwide. It has been reported that irisin play regulatory role in glucose metabolism in T2DM. However, the underlying mechanism involved in that is not completely known. Herein, we determined the novel role of β-arrestin-2 in irisin-induced glucose utilization in diabetes. Effects of irisin and β-arrestin-2 on glucose utilization were investigated in a rat model of diabetes and in diabetic C2C12 cells in vitro. Results showed that irisin had positive role in glucose metabolism via regulating glucose tolerance as well as uptake in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues, as evidenced by IPGTT, 2-deoxyglucose uptake and plasma membrane GLUT-4 assay. β-arrestin-2 also improved glucose utilization in diabetes by increasing the glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, as shown in mice overexpressing β-arrestin-2. In diabetic C2C12 myocytes, irisin-induced GLUT4 and glucose uptake were restrained by β-arrestin-2 inhibition, but was enhanced by β-arrestin-2 overexpression. Additionally, irisin and β-arrestin-2 increased the activation of p38 MAPK in diabetic C2C12 cells, and the repression of p38 MAPK activation decreased the glucose uptake and plasma membrane GLUT-4 was enhanced by irisin and β-arrestin-2 overexpression in diabetic C2C12 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that β-arrestin-2 has a crucial role in irisin induced glucose metabolism in T2DM by regulating the p38 MAPK signaling. This might present a novel therapeutic target of treatment for human diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  18. Effect of baicalin on GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in myotubes of rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Min, Wen; Wan, Dan; Han, Shiyu; Shan, Yizhi; Wang, Rui; Shi, Mingyi; Zhang, Zhenwen; Bo, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Although baicalin could attenuate obesity-induced insulin resistance, the detailed mechanism of baicalin on glucose uptake has not been sufficiently explored as yet. The aim of this study was to survey if baicalin might facilitate glucose uptake and to explore its signal mechanisms in L6 myotubes. L6 myotubes were treated with 100, 200, 400 μM baicalin for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h in this study. Then 2-NBDG and insulin signal protein levels in myotubes of L6 cells were examined. We discovered that administration of baicalin enhanced GLUT4, PGC-1α, pP38MAPK, pAKT and pAS160 contents, as well as GLUT4 mRNA and PGC-1α mRNA levels in L6 myotubes. The beneficial metabolic changes elicited by baicalin were abrogated in myotubes of L6 by P38MAPK or AKT inhibitors. These results suggest that baicalin promoted glucose uptake in myotubes by differential regulation on P38MAPK and AKT activity. In conclusion, these data provide insight that baicalin is a powerful and promising agent for the treament of hyperglycemia via AKT/AS160/GLUT4 and P38MAPK/PGC1α/GLUT4 pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Older Adults' Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and 'solutions' included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults' attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults' uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors' perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.

  20. Effect of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate on tissue uptake of glucose.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, A D

    1987-09-01

    In vitro studies have suggested that ascorbate or dehydroascorbate share with glucose the same tissue-transport carrier. To determine if ascorbic acid or its oxidized form can inhibit tissue uptake of glucose, the brain uptake index (BUI) and muscle uptake index of glucose were determined by single arterial injection tissue-sampling technique. The injectate was either buffered Ringer's solution with varying concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate (pH 7.4), or 70% serum from individuals on vitamin C supplements. Ascorbic acid over a wide range of concentrations (0-10,000 mg/L) did not reduce the BUI. Ascorbic acid reduced BUI from the control value of 33 +/- 3.2 to 20.1 +/- 2.2% (P less than .01) only at 100,000 mg/L; this effect was probably secondary to osmotic disruption of blood-brain barrier. In contrast, dehydroascorbate inhibited the BUI of glucose from baseline value of 32.8 +/- 1.1 to 10.7 +/- 0.67%, with an estimated Ki of 13.0 mM. Masseter muscle glucose uptake was not significantly altered over a wide range of ascorbate or dehydroascorbate concentrations in the injectate. Dehydroascorbate (7500 mg/L) did not significantly reduce the BUI of [14C]phenylalanine (55.2 +/- 4.4 vs. 62.1 +/- 4.2% in controls). When serum from six individuals on calcium ascorbate (3-5 g/day) was compared with that of nine controls, the BUI was not different (19.3 +/- 1.7 vs. 19.3 +/- 1.1%). Similarly, supplementing the diet of eight healthy volunteers with 1 g calcium ascorbate for 8 days did not alter the BUI of glucose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Sorbitol increases muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and inhibits intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo and in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sorbitol, a known polyol sweetener, possesses glycemic control potentials. However, the effect of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake still remains elusive. The present study investigated the effects of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake as possible anti-hyperglycemic or glycemic control potentials using ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. Sorbitol (2.5% to 20%) inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejuna (IC 50 = 14.6% ± 4.6%) and increased glucose uptake in isolated rat psoas muscle with (GU 50 = 3.5% ± 1.6%) or without insulin (GU 50 = 7.0% ± 0.5%) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sorbitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, accelerated digesta transit, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption, and reduced blood glucose increase in both normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of coingestion with glucose. Data of this study suggest that sorbitol exhibited anti-hyperglycemic potentials, possibly via increasing muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and reducing intestinal glucose absorption in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Hence, sorbitol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycemic sweetener.

  2. Effect of Alpinia calcarata on glucose uptake in diabetic rats-an in vitro and in vivo model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose The main objective of the present work is to study the effect of Alpinia calcarata on glucose uptake in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods The diabetes was induced by single dose of STZ (45 mg/kg) in citrate buffer, while the normal control group was given the vehicle (citrate buffer) only. After induction of diabetes, the diabetic animals were treated with ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata (200 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) for 30 days. Blood glucose estimation was performed every week of the study. At the end of study period, animals were sacrificed for biochemical studies. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats shows the altered levels of various biochemical profiles. Those levels were brought back to near normal upon treatment with ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata and standard drug glibanclamide. No significant changes were observed on treatment with plant extract alone group indicated that there are no toxic substances present in Alpinia calcarata. The antidiabetic activity of plant extract was also further confirmed by histopathological studies. The ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata shows significant inhibition of alpha glucosidase activity and also enhancing the glucose uptake in rat hemidiaphragm. Conclusions In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata ameliorates the condition associated with diabetes. PMID:24502532

  3. Distinct Akt phosphorylation states are required for insulin regulated Glut4 and Glut1-mediated glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Beg, Muheeb; Abdullah, Nazish; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Altorki, Nasser K; McGraw, Timothy E

    2017-06-07

    Insulin, downstream of Akt activation, promotes glucose uptake into fat and muscle cells to lower postprandial blood glucose, an enforced change in cellular metabolism to maintain glucose homeostasis. This effect is mediated by the Glut4 glucose transporter. Growth factors also enhance glucose uptake to fuel an anabolic metabolism required for tissue growth and repair. This activity is predominantly mediated by the Glut1. Akt is activated by phosphorylation of its kinase and hydrophobic motif (HM) domains. We show that insulin-stimulated Glut4-mediated glucose uptake requires PDPK1 phosphorylation of the kinase domain but not mTORC2 phosphorylation of the HM domain. Nonetheless, an intact HM domain is required for Glut4-mediated glucose uptake. Whereas, Glut1-mediated glucose uptake also requires mTORC2 phosphorylation of the HM domain, demonstrating both phosphorylation-dependent and independent roles of the HM domain in regulating glucose uptake. Thus, mTORC2 links Akt to the distinct physiologic programs related to Glut4 and Glut1-mediated glucose uptake.

  4. Glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in adipose tissue from rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet.

    PubMed

    Brito, S R; Moura, M A; Kawashita, N H; Brito, M N; Kettelhut, I C; Migliorini, R H

    2001-10-01

    Rates of glucose uptake by epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue in vivo, as well as rates of hexose uptake and glycolytic flux in isolated adipocytes, were determined in rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet and in control rats fed a balanced (N) diet. Adaptation to the HP diet induced a significant reduction in rates of glucose uptake, estimated with 2-deoxy-[1-(3)H]-glucose, both by adipose tissue (epididymal and retroperitoneal) in vivo and by isolated adipocytes. Twelve hours after replacement of the HP diet with the balanced diet, rates of adipose tissue uptake in vivo in HP-adapted rats returned to levels that did not differ significantly from those in N-fed rats. The rate of flux in the glycolytic pathway, estimated with (3)H[5]-glucose, was also significantly reduced in adipocytes from HP-fed rats. In agreement with the above findings, the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), and pyruvate kinase (PK) were markedly reduced in adipose tissue from HP-adapted rats. The activity of pyruvate kinase was partially reverted by diet replacement for 12 hours. The low-plasma insulin and high-glucagon levels in HP-fed rats may have played an important role in the reduction of adipose tissue glucose utilization in these animals. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  5. 27-Hydroxycholesterol impairs neuronal glucose uptake through an IRAP/GLUT4 system dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, Laura; Maioli, Silvia; Ali, Zeina; Gulyás, Balázs; Winblad, Bengt; Savitcheva, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with cognitively deteriorated states. Here, we show that excess 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH), a cholesterol metabolite passing from the circulation into the brain, reduced in vivo brain glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression, and spatial memory. Furthermore, patients exhibiting higher 27-OH levels had reduced 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. This interplay between 27-OH and glucose uptake revealed the engagement of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). 27-OH increased the levels and activity of IRAP, countered the IRAP antagonist angiotensin IV (AngIV)–mediated glucose uptake, and enhanced the levels of the AngIV-degrading enzyme aminopeptidase N (AP-N). These effects were mediated by liver X receptors. Our results reveal a molecular link between cholesterol, brain glucose, and the brain renin-angiotensin system, all of which are affected in some neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, reducing 27-OH levels or inhibiting AP-N maybe a useful strategy in the prevention of the altered glucose metabolism and memory decline in these disorders. PMID:28213512

  6. Ethanol stimulates glucose uptake and translocation of GLUT-4 in H9c2 myotubes via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Schroeder, A; Nagy, L E

    2000-12-01

    Short-term exposure to ethanol impairs glucose homeostasis, but the effects of ethanol on individual components of the glucose disposal pathway are not known. To understand the mechanisms by which ethanol disrupts glucose homeostasis, we have investigated the direct effects of ethanol on glucose uptake and translocation of GLUT-4 in H9c2 myotubes. Short-term treatment with 12.5-50 mM ethanol increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by 1.8-fold in differentiated myotubes. Pretreatment of H9c2 myotubes with 100 nM wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, had no effect on ethanol-induced increases in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, preincubation with 25 microM dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, blocked the stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by ethanol. Increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake after ethanol treatment was associated with a decrease in small intracellular GLUT-4 vesicles and an increase in GLUT-4 localized at the cell surface. In contrast, ethanol had no effect on the quantity of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 at the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol disrupt the trafficking of GLUT-4 in H9c2 myotubes resulting in translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane and increased glucose uptake.

  7. Delivery Rate Affects Uptake of a Fluorescent Glucose Analog in Murine Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Frees, Amy E.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Zhong, Jim; Hansen, Katherine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical strategy using intravital microscopy of dorsal skin flap window chamber models to image glucose uptake and vascular oxygenation in vivo. Glucose uptake was imaged using a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG). SO2 was imaged using the differential absorption properties of oxygenated [HbO2] and deoxygenated hemoglobin [dHb]. This study was carried out on two sibling murine mammary adenocarcinoma lines, 4T1 and 4T07. 2-NBDG uptake in the 4T1 tumors was lowest when rates of delivery and clearance were lowest, indicating perfusion-limited uptake in poorly oxygenated tumor regions. For increasing rates of delivery that were still lower than the glucose consumption rate (as measured in vitro), both 2-NBDG uptake and the clearance rate from the tumor increased. When the rate of delivery of 2-NBDG exceeded the glucose consumption rate, 2-NBDG uptake decreased with any further increase in rate of delivery, but the clearance rate continued to increase. This inflection point was not observed in the 4T07 tumors due to an absence of low delivery rates close to the glucose consumption rate. In the 4T07 tumors, 2-NBDG uptake increased with increasing rates of delivery at low rates of clearance. Our results demonstrate that 2-NBDG uptake in tumors is influenced by the rates of delivery and clearance of the tracer. The rates of delivery and clearance are, in turn, dependent on vascular oxygenation of the tumors. Knowledge of the kinetics of tracer uptake as well as vascular oxygenation is essential to make an informed assessment of glucose demand of a tumor. PMID:24204635

  8. Influence of exercise induced hyperlactatemia on retinal blood flow during normo- and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Garhöfer, Gerhard; Kopf, Andreas; Polska, Elzbieta; Malec, Magdalena; Dorner, Guido T; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2004-05-01

    Short term hyperglycemia has previously been shown to induce a blood flow increase in the retina. The mechanism behind this effect is poorly understood. We set out to investigate whether exercise-induced hyperlactatemia may alter the response of retinal blood flow to hyperglycemia. We performed a randomized, controlled two-way cross over study comprising 12 healthy subjects, performed a 6-minutes period of dynamic exercise during an euglcaemic or hyperglycaemic insulin clamp. Retinal blood flow was assessed by combined vessel size measurement with the Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer and measurement of red blood cell velocities using bi-directional laser Doppler velocimetry. Retinal and systemic hemodynamic parameters were measured before, immediately after and 10 and 20 minutes after isometric exercise. On the euglycemic study day retinal blood flow increased after dynamic exercise. The maximum increase in retinal blood flow was observed 10 minutes after the end of exercise when lactate plasma concentration peaked. Hyperglycemia increased retinal blood flow under basal conditions, but had no incremental effect during exercise induced hyperlactatemia. Our results indicate that both lactate and glucose induce an increase in retinal blood flow in healthy humans. This may indicate a common pathway between glucose and lactate induced blood flow changes in the human retina.

  9. Screening for Bioactive Metabolites in Plant Extracts Modulating Glucose Uptake and Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    El-Houri, Rime B.; Kotowska, Dorota; Olsen, Louise C. B.; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Christensen, Lars P.; Oksbjerg, Niels; Færgeman, Nils; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Kathrine B.

    2014-01-01

    Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven different food and medicinal plants were tested in a screening platform for identification of extracts with potential bioactivity related to insulin-dependent glucose uptake and fat accumulation. The screening platform included a series of in vitro bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of golden root (Rhodiola rosea) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) as well as the dichloromethane extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) were able to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake in both adipocytes and myotubes while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake. PMID:25254050

  10. Protective effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on chronic ethanol-induced injuries to the cytoskeleton and on glucose uptake in rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Mónica; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Durán, Juan M; Marín, Pilar; Renau-Piqueras, Jaime; Egea, Gustavo

    2003-10-01

    Ethanol induces severe alterations in membrane trafficking in hepatocytes and astrocytes, the molecular basis of which is unclear. One of the main candidates is the cytoskeleton and the molecular components that regulate its organization and dynamics. Here, we examine the effect of chronic exposure to ethanol on the organization and dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and glucose uptake in rat astrocytes. Ethanol-treated cells cultured in either the presence or absence of fetal calf serum showed a significant increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Ethanol also caused alterations in actin organization, consisting of the dissolution of stress fibres and the appearance of circular filaments beneath the plasma membrane. When lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is a normal constituent of serum and a potent intercellular lipid mediator with growth factor and actin rearrangement activities, was added to ethanol-treated astrocytes cultured without fetal calf serum, it induced the re-appearance of actin stress fibres and the normalization of 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Furthermore, ethanol also perturbed the microtubule dynamics, which delayed the recovery of the normal microtubule organization following removal of the microtubule-disrupting agent nocodazole. Again, pre-treatment with LPA prevented this alteration. Ethanol-treated rodent fibroblast NIH3T3 cells that constitutively express an activated Rho mutant protein (GTP-bound form) were insensitive to ethanol, as they showed no alteration either in actin stress-fibre organization or in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. We discuss the putative signalling targets by which ethanol could alter the cytoskeleton and hexose uptake and the cytoprotective effect of LPA against ethanol-induced damages. The latter opens the possibility that LPA or a similar non-hydrolysable lipid derivative could be used as a cytoprotective agent against the noxious effects of ethanol.

  11. Blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during high-intensity forearm exercise.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, S K; Berg, O K; Helgerud, J; Wang, E

    2017-04-01

    The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25 ± 2 yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound, and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO 2diff ) during 6-min bouts of 60, 80, and 100% of maximal work rate (WR max ), respectively. Blood flow and oxygen uptake increased ( P < 0.05) from 60%WR max [557 ± 177(SD) ml/min; 56.0 ± 21.6 ml/min] to 80%WR max (679 ± 190 ml/min; 70.6 ± 24.8 ml/min), but no change was seen from 80%WR max to 100%WR max Blood velocity (49.5 ± 11.5 to 58.1 ± 11.6 cm/s) and brachial diameter (0.49 ± 0.05 to 0.50 ± 0.06 cm) showed concomitant increases ( P < 0.05) with blood flow from 60% to 80%WR max, whereas no differences were observed in a-vO 2diff Shear rate also increased ( P < 0.05) from 60% (822 ± 196 s -1 ) to 80% (951 ± 234 s -1 ) of WR max The mean response time (MRT) was slower ( P < 0.05) for blood flow (60%WR max 50 ± 22 s; 80%WR max 51 ± 20 s; 100%WR max 51 ± 23 s) than a-vO 2diff (60%WR max 29 ± 9 s; 80%WR max 29 ± 5 s; 100%WR max 20 ± 5 s), but not different from oxygen uptake (60%WR max 44 ± 25 s; 80%WR max 43 ± 14 s; 100%WR max 41 ± 32 s). No differences were observed in MRT for blood flow or oxygen uptake with increased exercise intensity. In conclusion, when approaching maximal intensity, oxygen uptake appeared to reach a critical level at ~80% of WR max and be regulated by blood flow. This implies that high, but not maximal, exercise intensity may be an optimal stimulus for shear stress-induced small muscle mass training adaptations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study evaluated blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during small muscle mass forearm exercise with high to

  12. Oscillation in O2 uptake in impulse exercise.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Afroundeh, R; Yamanaka, R; Arimitsu, T; Lian, C S; Shirakawa, K; Yunoki, T

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine 1) whether O(2) uptake (VO(2)) oscillates during light exercise and 2) whether the oscillation is enhanced after impulse exercise. After resting for 1 min on a bicycle seat, subjects performed 5-min pre-exercise with 25 watts work load, 10-s impulse exercise with 200 watts work load and 15-min post exercise with 25 watts work load at 80 rpm. VO(2) during pre-exercise significantly increased during impulse exercise and suddenly decreased and re-increased until 23 s after impulse exercise. In the cross correlation between heart rate (HR) and VO(2) after impulse exercise, VO(2) strongly correlated to HR with a time delay of -4 s. Peak of power spectral density (PSD) in HR appeared at 0.0039 Hz and peak of PSD in VO(2) appeared at 0.019 Hz. The peak of the cross power spectrum between VO(2) and HR appeared at 0.0078 Hz. The results suggested that there is an oscillation in O(2) uptake during light exercise that is associated with the oscillation in O(2) consumption in active muscle. The oscillation is enhanced not only by change in O(2) consumption but also by O(2) content transported from active muscle to the lungs.

  13. Effects of ketamine on glucose uptake by glucose transporter type 3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes: The role of protein kinase C

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tomioka, Shigemasa, E-mail: tomioka@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Kaneko, Miyuki; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2009-10-09

    We investigated the effects of ketamine on the type 3 facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT3), which plays a major role in glucose transport across the plasma membrane of neurons. Human-cloned GLUT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of GLUT3 mRNA. GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake was examined by measuring oocyte radioactivity following incubation with 2-deoxy-D-[1,2-{sup 3}H]glucose. While ketamine and S(+)-ketamine significantly increased GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake, this effect was biphasic such that higher concentrations of ketamine inhibited glucose uptake. Ketamine (10 {mu}M) significantly increased V{sub max} but not K{sub m} of GLUT3 for 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Although staurosporine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) increased glucosemore » uptake, no additive or synergistic interactions were observed between staurosporine and racemic ketamine or S(+)-ketamine. Treatment with ketamine or S(+)-ketamine partially prevented GLUT3 inhibition by the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myrisate-13-acetate. Our results indicate that ketamine increases GLUT3 activity at clinically relevant doses through a mechanism involving PKC inhibition.« less

  14. The interrelation between aPKC and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle during contraction and insulin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, J M; Benite-Ribeiro, S A; Queiroz, G; Duarte, J A

    2014-12-01

    Contraction and insulin increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. While the insulin pathway, better characterized, requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and atypical protein kinase (aPKC), muscle contraction seems to share insulin-activated components to increase glucose uptake. This study aimed to investigate the interrelation between the pathway involved in glucose uptake evoked by insulin and muscle contraction. Isolated muscle of rats was treated with solvent (control), insulin, wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and the combination of insulin plus wortmannin. After treatment, muscles were electrically stimulated (contracted) or remained at rest. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) localization, glucose uptake and phospho-aPKC (aPKC activated form) were assessed. Muscle contraction and insulin increased glucose uptake in all conditions when compared with controls not stimulating an effect that was accompanied by an increase in GLUT4 and of phospho-aPKC at the muscle membrane. Contracted muscles treated with insulin did not show additive effects on glucose uptake or aPKC activity compared with the response when these stimuli were applied alone. Inhibition of PI3K blocked insulin effect on glucose uptake and aPKC but not in the contractile response. Thus, muscle contraction seems to stimulate aPKC and glucose uptake independently of PI3K. Therefore, aPKC may be a convergence point and a rate limit step in the pathway by which, insulin and contraction, increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Leptin-induced basal Akt phosphorylation and its implication in exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xianjie; Niu, Sen

    2018-01-29

    Physical exercise is an efficient therapeutical tool in the management of insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic diseases. Leptin, the well-known obesity hormone and the absence of which leads to IR, showed controversial effects on IR as research continues. Thus, in this study, a detailed investigation of the effect of leptin on exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity and its underlying mechanism was carried out. Using a rat model of chronic or acute swimming exercise training, we found that serum leptin increased 1 h after either acute exercise or the last session of chronic exercise, when impaired insulin action was observed in previous reports. However, chronic exercise reducd basal serum leptin levels and promoted insulin sensitivity compared with sedentary controls or rats subjected to one bout of aerobic exercise. Our animal results indicated the potential linkage between leptin and insulin sensitivity, which is further investigated in the skeletal muscle L6 cells. Leptin treatment in L6 cells promoted the basal levels of insulin signaling as well as glucose uptake, while blocking JAK2 signaling with either pharmacological intervention (JAK2 inhibitor AG490) or genetic manipulation (siRNA knockdown) decreased the basal levels of insulin signaling. Furthermore, leptin treatment inhibited insulin-stimulated insulin signaling and glucose uptake, while blocking JAK2 signaling restored leptin-attenuated insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results demonstrated that reduced serum leptin, at least in part, contributes to exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity, indicating JAK2 as a potent therapeutical target of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endothelin‐1 suppresses insulin‐stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake via GPCR kinase 2 in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Higa, Tsunaki; Karki, Sarita; Terada, Koji; Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Nepal, Prabha; Mazaki, Yuichi; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) reduces insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, inducing insulin resistance. Here, we have determined the molecular mechanisms underlying negative regulation by ET‐1 of insulin signalling. Experimental Approach We used the rat L6 skeletal muscle cells fully differentiated into myotubes. Changes in the phosphorylation of Akt was assessed by Western blotting. Effects of ET‐1 on insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake was assessed with [3H]‐2‐deoxy‐d‐glucose ([3H]2‐DG). The C‐terminus region of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2‐ct), a dominant negative GRK2, was overexpressed in L6 cells using adenovirus‐mediated gene transfer. GRK2 expression was suppressed by transfection of the corresponding short‐interfering RNA (siRNA). Key Results In L6 myotubes, insulin elicited sustained Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473, which was suppressed by ET‐1. The inhibitory effects of ET‐1 were prevented by treatment with a selective ETA receptor antagonist and a Gq protein inhibitor, overexpression of GRK2‐ct and knockdown of GRK2. Insulin increased [3H]2‐DG uptake rate in a concentration‐dependent manner. ET‐1 noncompetitively antagonized insulin‐stimulated [3H]2‐DG uptake. Blockade of ETA receptors, overexpression of GRK2‐ct and knockdown of GRK2 prevented the ET‐1‐induced suppression of insulin‐stimulated [3H]2‐DG uptake. In L6 myotubes overexpressing FLAG‐tagged GRK2, ET‐1 facilitated the interaction of endogenous Akt with FLAG‐GRK2. Conclusions and Implications Activation of ETA receptors with ET‐1 suppressed insulin‐induced Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 and [3H]2‐DG uptake in a GRK2‐dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. These findings suggest that ETA receptors and GRK2 are potential targets for overcoming insulin resistance. PMID:26660861

  17. Impact of assimilable nitrogen availability in glucose uptake kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The expression and activity of the different Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexose uptake systems (Hxt) and the kinetics of glucose uptake are considered essential to industrial alcoholic fermentation performance. However, the dynamics of glucose uptake kinetics during the different stages of fermentation, depending on glucose and nitrogen availability, is very poorly characterized. The objective of the present work was to examine thoroughly the alterations occurring in glucose uptake kinetics during alcoholic fermentation, by the wine strain S. cerevisiae PYCC 4072, of a synthetic grape juice basal medium with either a limiting or non-limiting initial nitrogen concentration and following nitrogen supplementation of the nitrogen-depleted sluggish fermentation. Results Independently of the initial concentration of the nitrogen source, glucose transport capacity is maximal during the early stages of fermentation and presumably sustained by the low-affinity and high-capacity glucose transporter Hxt1p. During nitrogen-limited sluggish fermentation, glucose uptake capacity was reduced to approximately 20% of its initial values (Vmax = 4.9 ± 0.8 compared to 21.9 ± 1.2 μmol h-1 10-8 cells), being presumably sustained by the low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt3p (considering the calculated Km = 39.2 ± 8.6 mM). The supplementation of the sluggish fermentation broth with ammonium led to the increase of glucose transport capacity associated to the expression of different glucose uptake systems with low and high affinities for glucose (Km = 58.2 ± 9.1 and 2.7 ± 0.4 mM). A biclustering analysis carried out using microarray data, previously obtained for this yeast strain transcriptional response to equivalent fermentation conditions, indicates that the activation of the expression of genes encoding the glucose transporters Hxt2p (during the transition period to active fermentation) and Hxt3p, Hxt4p, Hxt6p and Hxt7p (during the

  18. Dysregulated hepatic expression of glucose transporters in chronic disease: contribution of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase to hepatic glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sumera; Liaskou, Evaggelia; Fear, Janine; Garg, Abhilok; Reynolds, Gary; Claridge, Lee; Adams, David H; Newsome, Philip N; Lalor, Patricia F

    2014-12-15

    Insulin resistance is common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) are also increased in these patients. The amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of transporters to the cell membrane in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. We aimed to document human hepatocellular expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and to determine if VAP-1 activity influences receptor expression and hepatic glucose uptake. Quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to study human liver tissue and cultured cells. We also used tissue slices from humans and VAP-1-deficient mice to assay glucose uptake and measure hepatocellular responses to stimulation. We report upregulation of GLUT1, -3, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, and -13 in CLD. VAP-1 expression and enzyme activity increased in disease, and provision of substrate to hepatic VAP-1 drives hepatic glucose uptake. This effect was sensitive to inhibition of VAP-1 and could be recapitulated by H2O2. VAP-1 activity also altered expression and subcellular localization of GLUT2, -4, -9, -10, and -13. Therefore, we show, for the first time, alterations in hepatocellular expression of glucose and fructose transporters in CLD and provide evidence that the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 modifies hepatic glucose homeostasis and may contribute to patterns of GLUT expression in chronic disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Exercise Protects against PCB-Induced Inflammation and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Margaret O.; Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB- induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE−/− mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12 week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 hours before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12 week exercise intervention significantly reduced these pro-atherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. Keywords: exercise, polychlorinated biphenyl, endothelial function, antioxidant response, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, oxidative stress PMID:25586614

  20. Methylphenidate increases glucose uptake in the brain of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Scaini, Giselli; Titus, Stephanie E; Furlanetto, Camila B; Wessler, Leticia B; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Jeremias, Gabriela C; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2015-10-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the drug of choice for pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies have pointed to the role of glucose and lactate as well as in the action mechanisms of drugs used to treat these neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effects of MPH administration on lactate release and glucose uptake in the brains of young and adult rats. MPH (1.0, 2.0 and 10.0mg/kg) or saline was injected in young and adult Wistar male rats either acutely (once) or chronically (once daily for 28 days). Then, the levels of lactate release and glucose uptake were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Chronic MPH treatment increased glucose uptake at the dose of 10.0mg/kg in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, and at the dose of 2.0mg/kg in the cerebral cortex of young rats. In adult rats, an increase in glucose uptake was observed after acute administration of MPH at the dose of 10.0mg/kg in the prefrontal cortex. After chronic treatment, there was an increase in glucose uptake with MPH doses of 2.0 and 10.0mg/kg in the prefrontal cortex, and at an MPH dose of 2.0mg/kg in the striatum of adult rats. The lactate release did not change with either acute or chronic treatments in young or adult rats. These findings indicate that MPH increases glucose consumption in the brain, and that these changes are dependent on age and posology. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of parturition and body condition score on glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Eger, Melanie; Hussen, Jamal; Drong, Caroline; Meyer, Ulrich; von Soosten, Dirk; Frahm, Jana; Daenicke, Sven; Breves, Gerhard; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-15

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is associated with a higher incidence of infectious diseases like mastitis or metritis, particularly in high-yielding animals. The onset of lactation induces a negative energy balance and a shift of glucose distribution toward the udder. Glucose is used as primary fuel by monocytes which give rise to macrophages, key cells in the defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze whether animals with high or low body condition score (BCS) differ in composition and glucose uptake capacities of bovine monocyte subsets. Blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows starting 42 days before parturition until day 56 after parturition. The cows were allocated to two groups according to their BCS. A feeding regime was applied, in which the BCS high group received higher amounts of concentrate before parturition and concentrate feeding was more restricted in the BCS high group after parturition compared with the BCS low group, to promote postpartal lipolysis and enhance negative energy balance in the BCS high group. Blood cell counts of classical (cM), intermediate (intM) and nonclassical monocytes (ncM) were increased at day 7 after calving. In the BCS low group intM numbers were significantly higher compared to the BCS high group at day 7 after parturition. Within the BCS low group cows suffering from mastitis or metritis showed significantly higher numbers of cM, intM and ncM at day 7 after parturition. Classical monocytes and intM showed similar glucose uptake capacities while values for ncM were significantly lower. Compared with antepartal capacities and irrespective of BCS and postpartal mastitis or metritis, glucose uptake of all monocyte subsets decreased after parturition. In conclusion, whereas glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets is altered by parturition, it is not linked to the energy supply of the animals or to postpartal infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel Alaska pollack-derived peptide, which increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells, lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Ota, Wakana; Kawabata, Fuminori; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2015-08-01

    We found that the tryptic digest of Alaska pollack protein exhibits a glucose-lowering effect in KK-Ay mice, a type II diabetic model. We then searched for glucose-lowering peptides in the digest. Ala-Asn-Gly-Glu-Val-Ala-Gln-Trp-Arg (ANGEVAQWR) was identified from a peak of the HPLC fraction selected based on the glucose-lowering activity in an insulin resistance test using ddY mice. ANGEVAQWR (3 mg kg(-1)) decreased the blood glucose level after intraperitoneal administration. Among its fragment peptides, the C-terminal tripeptide, Gln-Trp-Arg (QWR, 1 mg kg(-1)), lowered the blood glucose level, suggesting that the C-terminal is critical for glucose-lowering activity. QWR also enhanced glucose uptake into C2C12, a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. QWR did not induce the phosphorylation of serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We also demonstrated that QWR lowered the blood glucose level in NSY and KK-Ay, type II diabetic models.

  3. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Glucocorticoid deprivation alters in vivo glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues of GTG-obese mice.

    PubMed

    Blair, S C; Caterson, I D; Cooney, G J

    1995-11-01

    The effect of 1 wk of glucocorticoid deprivation by surgical adrenalectomy (ADX) on tissue 2-deoxy(-)[U-14C]glucose (2-DG) uptake and hepatic glucose production (HGP) was assessed in conscious, catheterized mice 5 wk after the induction of obesity with gold thioglucose (GTG). Despite the prevailing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, glucose uptake by heart, quadriceps muscle, and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) of GTG-obese mice was unchanged compared with controls, suggesting that the hyperglycemia of GTG-obese mice is able to compensate for the insulin resistance of these tissues. In contrast, epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) of GTG-obese mice showed increased glucose uptake with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. ADX decreased the hyperglycemia and lowered the elevated glycogen content of the liver of GTG-obese mice. ADX reduced glucose uptake by heart and WAT of control and GTG-obese mice, consistent with the concomitant decrease in insulinemia. Glucose uptake by muscle of control and GTG-obese mice was not significantly decreased after ADX despite the decrease in insulin, and ADX increased glucose uptake by BAT of GTG-obese mice, suggesting increased sympathetically mediated thermogenesis in this tissue. HGP was increased in GTG-obese mice compared with controls, and ADX significantly reduced HGP in both GTG-obese and control mice. These results suggest that the improved glucose tolerance of ADX GTG-obese mice and ADX control mice is due to a decrease in HGP rather than an increase in peripheral glucose uptake.

  5. Computer-aided rational design of the phosphotransferase system for enhanced glucose uptake in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Yousuke; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the sugar transportation machinery that is widely distributed in prokaryotes and is critical for enhanced production of useful metabolites. To increase the glucose uptake rate, we propose a rational strategy for designing the molecular architecture of the Escherichia coli glucose PTS by using a computer-aided design (CAD) system and verified the simulated results with biological experiments. CAD supports construction of a biochemical map, mathematical modeling, simulation, and system analysis. Assuming that the PTS aims at controlling the glucose uptake rate, the PTS was decomposed into hierarchical modules, functional and flux modules, and the effect of changes in gene expression on the glucose uptake rate was simulated to make a rational strategy of how the gene regulatory network is engineered. Such design and analysis predicted that the mlc knockout mutant with ptsI gene overexpression would greatly increase the specific glucose uptake rate. By using biological experiments, we validated the prediction and the presented strategy, thereby enhancing the specific glucose uptake rate. PMID:18197177

  6. In vivo stimulation of oestrogen receptor α increases insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Gorres, Brittany K; Bomhoff, Gregory L; Morris, Jill K; Geiger, Paige C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggest oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is involved in oestrogen-mediated regulation of glucose metabolism and is critical for maintenance of whole body insulin action. Despite this, the effect of direct ERα modulation in insulin-responsive tissues is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of ERα activation, using the ER subtype-selective ligand propylpyrazoletriyl (PPT), on skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Two-month-old female Sprague–Dawley rats, ovariectomized for 1 week, were given subcutaneous injections of PPT (10 mg kg−1), oestradiol benzoate (EB; 20 μg kg−1), the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 10 mg kg−1) or vehicle every 24 h for 3 days. On the fourth day, insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake was measured in vitro and insulin signalling intermediates were assessed via Western blotting. Activation of ERα with PPT resulted in increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, activation of insulin signalling intermediates (as measured by phospho-Akt (pAkt) and pAkt substrate (PAS)) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT4 protein was increased only in the EDL muscle. Rats treated with EB or DPN for 3 days did not show an increase in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake compared to vehicle-treated animals. These new findings reveal that direct activation of ERα positively mediates glucose uptake and insulin action in skeletal muscle. Evidence that oestrogens and ERα stimulate glucose uptake has important implications for understanding mechanisms of glucose homeostasis, particularly in postmenopausal women. PMID:21486807

  7. Pharmacological activation of AMPK and glucose uptake in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from patients with ME/CFS.

    PubMed

    Brown, Audrey E; Dibnah, Beth; Fisher, Emily; Newton, Julia L; Walker, Mark

    2018-06-29

    Skeletal muscle fatigue and post-exertional malaise are key symptoms of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We have previously shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glucose uptake are impaired in primary human skeletal muscle cell cultures derived from patients with ME/CFS in response to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS), a method which induces contraction of muscle cells in vitro The aim of the present study was to assess if AMPK could be activated pharmacologically in ME/CFS. Primary skeletal muscle cell cultures from patients with ME/CFS and healthy controls were treated with either metformin or compound 991. AMPK activation was assessed by Western blot and glucose uptake measured. Both metformin and 991 treatment significantly increased AMPK activation and glucose uptake in muscle cell cultures from both controls and ME/CFS. Cellular ATP content was unaffected by treatment although ATP content was significantly decreased in ME/CFS compared with controls. Pharmacological activation of AMPK can improve glucose uptake in muscle cell cultures from patients with ME/CFS. This suggests that the failure of EPS to activate AMPK in these muscle cultures is due to a defect proximal to AMPK. Further work is required to delineate the defect and determine whether pharmacological activation of AMPK improves muscle function in patients with ME/CFS. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, M. Harold

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply “more is better.” Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and

  9. Cocoa flavonoids protect hepatic cells against high-glucose-induced oxidative stress: relevance of MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a main role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cocoa and (-)-epicatechin (EC), a main cocoa flavanol, have been suggested to exert beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus because of their protective effects against oxidative stress and insulin-like properties. In this study, the protective effect of EC and a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) against oxidative stress induced by a high-glucose challenge, which causes insulin resistance, was investigated on hepatic HepG2 cells. Oxidative status, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and p-(Ser)-IRS-1 expression, and glucose uptake were evaluated. EC and CPE regulated antioxidant enzymes and activated extracellular-regulated kinase and Nrf2. EC and CPE pre-treatment prevented high-glucose-induced antioxidant defences and p-MAPKs, and maintained Nrf2 stimulation. The presence of selective MAPK inhibitors induced changes in redox status, glucose uptake, p-(Ser)- and total IRS-1 levels that were observed in CPE-mediated protection. EC and CPE recovered redox status of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, suggesting that the functionality in EC- and CPE-treated cells was protected against high-glucose-induced oxidative insult. CPE beneficial effects on redox balance and insulin resistance were mediated by targeting MAPKs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Deletion of Rab GAP AS160 modifies glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and impairs glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lansey, Melissa N; Walker, Natalie N; Hargett, Stefan R; Stevens, Joseph R; Keller, Susanna R

    2012-11-15

    Tight control of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes is crucial to glucose homeostasis and is mediated by regulating glucose transporter GLUT4 subcellular distribution. In cultured cells, Rab GAP AS160 controls GLUT4 intracellular retention and release to the cell surface and consequently regulates glucose uptake into cells. To determine AS160 function in GLUT4 trafficking in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and investigate its role in glucose homeostasis, we characterized AS160 knockout (AS160(-/-)) mice. We observed increased and normal basal glucose uptake in isolated AS160(-/-) adipocytes and soleus, respectively, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was impaired and GLUT4 expression decreased in both. No such abnormalities were found in isolated AS160(-/-) extensor digitorum longus muscles. In plasma membranes isolated from AS160(-/-) adipose tissue and gastrocnemius/quadriceps, relative GLUT4 levels were increased under basal conditions and remained the same after insulin treatment. Concomitantly, relative levels of cell surface-exposed GLUT4, determined with a glucose transporter photoaffinity label, were increased in AS160(-/-) adipocytes and normal in AS160(-/-) soleus under basal conditions. Insulin augmented cell surface-exposed GLUT4 in both. These observations suggest that AS160 is essential for GLUT4 intracellular retention and regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles in which it is normally expressed. In vivo studies revealed impaired insulin tolerance in the presence of normal (male) and impaired (female) glucose tolerance. Concurrently, insulin-elicited increases in glucose disposal were abolished in all AS160(-/-) skeletal muscles and liver but not in AS160(-/-) adipose tissues. This suggests AS160 as a target for differential manipulation of glucose homeostasis.

  11. [Effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ping-xian; Ye, Ping-zhen; Zhu, Jian-hua; Chen, Wei; Gao, Dan-chen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study was performed. Sixty patients with diastolic dysfunction (mitral flow velocity E/A <1) and exercise-induced hypertension (SBP>200 mm Hg) treated with atorvastatin (20 mg q.d) or placebo for 1 year. Cardiopulmonary exercise test and exercise blood pressure measurement were performed. Plasma B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration at rest and at peak exercise, plasma high sensitive-C reaction protein (hs-CRP) and endothelin (ET) concentration were determined at baseline and after treatment. After treatment by atorvastatin, the resting SBP, pulse pressure, the peak exercise SBP and BNP were significantly decreased; and the exercise time, metabolic equivalent, maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold were increased. All of these parameters had significant differences with baseline levels (P<0.05) and the rest pulse pressure, the peak exercise SBP and BNP, and the exercise time had significant differences compared with placebo treatment (P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and ET were markedly reduced by atorvastatin treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P<0.05). No difference in above parameters was found before and after placebo treatment (P>0.05). In patients with diastolic dysfunction at rest and exercise-induced hypertension, atorvastatin can effectively reduce plasma hs-CRP and ET level, lower blood pressure and peak exercise SBP, decrease peak exercise plasma BNP concentration, and ultimately improve exercise tolerance.

  12. Oral [13C]glucose oxidation during prolonged exercise after high- and low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Rhéaume, N; Lavoie, C; Hillaire-Marcel, C; Massicotte, D

    1998-08-01

    The effect of a diet either high or low in carbohydrates (CHO) on exogenous 13C-labeled glucose oxidation (200 g) during exercise (ergocycle: 120 min at 64.0 +/- 0.5% maximal oxygen uptake) was studied in six subjects. Between 40 and 80 min, exogenous glucose oxidation was significantly higher after the diet low in CHO (0.63 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.04 g/min), but this difference disappeared between 80 and 120 min (0.71 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.69 +/- 0.04 g/min). The oxidation rate of plasma glucose, computed from the volume of 13CO2 produced the 13C-to-12C ratio in plasma glucose at 80 min, and of glucose released from the liver, computed from the difference between plasma glucose and exogenous glucose oxidation, was higher after the diet low in CHO (1.68 +/- 0.26 vs. 1.41 +/- 0.17 and 1.02 +/- 0.20 vs. 0.81 +/- 0.14 g/min, respectively). In contrast the oxidation rate of glucose plus lactate from muscle glycogen (computed from the difference between total CHO oxidation and plasma glucose oxidation) was lower (0.31 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.59 +/- 0.20 g/min). After a diet low in CHO, the oxidation of exogenous glucose and of glucose released from the liver is increased and partly compensates for the reduction in muscle glycogen availability and oxidation.

  13. Prophylactic effects of swimming exercise on autophagy-induced muscle atrophy in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes decreases skeletal muscle mass and induces atrophy. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency modify muscle mass are not well defined. In this study, we evaluated the effects of swimming exercise on muscle mass and intracellular protein degradation in diabetic rats, and proposed that autophagy inhibition induced by swimming exercise serves as a hypercatabolic mechanism in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats, supporting a notion that swimming exercise could efficiently reverse the reduced skeletal muscle mass caused by diabetes. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes and then submitted to 1 hr per day of forced swimming exercise, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. We conducted an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test on the animals and measured body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and protein degradation and examined the level of autophagy in the isolated extensor digitorum longus, plantaris, and soleus muscles. Body weight and muscle tissue mass were higher in the exercising diabetic rats than in control diabetic rats that remained sedentary. Compared to control rats, exercising diabetic rats had lower blood glucose levels, increased intracellular contractile protein expression, and decreased autophagic protein expression. We conclude that swimming exercise improves muscle mass in diabetes-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, suggesting the activation of autophagy in diabetes contributes to muscle atrophy through hypercatabolic metabolism and that aerobic exercise, by suppressing autophagy, may modify or reverse skeletal muscle wasting in diabetic patients. PMID:23091517

  14. Multipathway modulation of exercise and glucose stress effects upon GH secretion in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Olson, Thomas P; Takahashi, Paul Y; Miles, John M; Joyner, Michael J; Yang, Rebecca J; Wigham, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Exercise evokes pulsatile GH release followed by autonegative feedback, whereas glucose suppresses GH release followed by rebound-like GH release (feedforward escape). Here we test the hypothesis that age, sex steroids, insulin, body composition and physical power jointly determine these dynamic GH responses. This was a prospectively randomized glucose-blinded study conducted in the Mayo Center for Advancing Translational Sciences in healthy men ages 19-77 years (N=23). Three conditions, fasting/rest/saline, fasting/exercise/saline and fasting/rest/iv glucose infusions, were used to drive GH dynamics during 10-min blood sampling for 6h. Linear correlation analysis was applied to relate peak/nadir GH dynamics to age, sex steroids, insulin, CT-estimated abdominal fat and physical power (work per unit time). Compared with the fasting/rest/saline (control) day, fasting/exercise/saline infusion evoked peak GH within 1h, followed by negative feedback 3-5h later. The dynamic GH excursion was strongly (R(2)=0.634) influenced by (i) insulin negatively (P=0.011), (ii) power positively (P=0.0008), and (iii) E2 positively (P=0.001). Dynamic glucose-modulated GH release was determined by insulin negatively (P=0.0039) and power positively (P=0.0034) (R(2)=0.454). Under rest/saline, power (P=0.031) and total abdominal fat (P=0.012) (R(2)=0.267) were the dominant correlates of GH excursions. In healthy men, dynamic GH perturbations induced by exercise and glucose are strongly related to physical power, insulin, estradiol, and body composition, thus suggesting a network of regulatory pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake via p38alpha MAP kinase-mediated, nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms in conscious dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhashyam, Siva; Fields, Anjali V; Patterson, Brandy; Testani, Jeffrey M; Chen, Li; Shen, You-Tang; Shannon, Richard P

    2010-07-01

    We have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1[7-36] amide) stimulates myocardial glucose uptake in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) independent of an insulinotropic effect. The cellular mechanisms of GLP-1-induced myocardial glucose uptake are unknown. Myocardial substrates and glucoregulatory hormones were measured in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs at control (n=6), DCM (n=9) and DCM after treatment with a 48-hour infusion of GLP-1 (7-36) amide (n=9) or vehicle (n=6). GLP-1 receptors and cellular pathways implicated in myocardial glucose uptake were measured in sarcolemmal membranes harvested from the 4 groups. GLP-1 stimulated myocardial glucose uptake (DCM: 20+/-7 nmol/min/g; DCM+GLP-1: 61+/-12 nmol/min/g; P=0.001) independent of increased plasma insulin levels. The GLP-1 receptors were upregulated in the sarcolemmal membranes (control: 98+/-2 density units; DCM: 256+/-58 density units; P=0.046) and were expressed in their activated (65 kDa) form in DCM. The GLP-1-induced increases in myocardial glucose uptake did not involve adenylyl cyclase or Akt activation but was associated with marked increases in p38alpha MAP kinase activity (DCM+vehicle: 97+/-22 pmol ATP/mg/min; DCM+GLP-1: 170+/-36 pmol ATP/mg/min; P=0.051), induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 (DCM+vehicle: 151+/-13 density units; DCM+GLP-1: 306+/-12 density units; P=0.001), and GLUT-1 translocation (DCM+vehicle: 21+/-3% membrane bound; DCM+GLP-1: 39+/-3% membrane bound; P=0.005). The effects of GLP-1 on myocardial glucose uptake were blocked by pretreatment with the p38alpha MAP kinase inhibitor or the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine. GLP-1 stimulates myocardial glucose uptake through a non-Akt-1-dependent mechanism by activating cellular pathways that have been identified in mediating chronic hibernation and the late phase of ischemic preconditioning.

  16. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  17. γ-Oryzanol Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Lee, Da-Hye; Ahn, Jiyun; Lee, Hyunjung; Choi, Won Hee; Jang, Young Jin; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz), a group of ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and triterpene alcohols. Here, we found that Orz stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increased the protein expression of adipogenic marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). Moreover, Orz significantly increased the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) from the cytosol to the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism by which Orz stimulated cell differentiation, we examined its effects on cellular signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central mediator of cellular growth and proliferation. The Orz treatment increased mTORC1 kinase activity based on phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). The effect of Orz on adipocyte differentiation was dependent on mTORC1 activity because rapamycin blocks cell differentiation in Orz-treated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Orz stimulates adipocyte differentiation, enhances glucose uptake, and may be associated with cellular signaling mediated by PPAR-γ and mTORC1. PMID:26083118

  18. γ-Oryzanol Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Lee, Da-Hye; Ahn, Jiyun; Lee, Hyunjung; Choi, Won Hee; Jang, Young Jin; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2015-06-15

    Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz), a group of ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and triterpene alcohols. Here, we found that Orz stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increased the protein expression of adipogenic marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). Moreover, Orz significantly increased the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) from the cytosol to the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism by which Orz stimulated cell differentiation, we examined its effects on cellular signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central mediator of cellular growth and proliferation. The Orz treatment increased mTORC1 kinase activity based on phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). The effect of Orz on adipocyte differentiation was dependent on mTORC1 activity because rapamycin blocks cell differentiation in Orz-treated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Orz stimulates adipocyte differentiation, enhances glucose uptake, and may be associated with cellular signaling mediated by PPAR-γ and mTORC1.

  19. Exercise training promotes cardioprotection through oxygen-sparing action in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lund, J; Hafstad, A D; Boardman, N T; Rossvoll, L; Rolim, N P; Ahmed, M S; Florholmen, G; Attramadal, H; Wisløff, U; Larsen, T S; Aasum, E

    2015-04-15

    Although exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial cardiovascular effects in diabetes, the effect of exercise training on hearts from obese/diabetic models is unclear. In the present study, mice were fed a high-fat diet, which led to obesity, reduced aerobic capacity, development of mild diastolic dysfunction, and impaired glucose tolerance. Following 8 wk on high-fat diet, mice were assigned to 5 weekly high-intensity interval training (HIT) sessions (10 × 4 min at 85-90% of maximum oxygen uptake) or remained sedentary for the next 10 constitutive weeks. HIT increased maximum oxygen uptake by 13%, reduced body weight by 16%, and improved systemic glucose homeostasis. Exercise training was found to normalize diastolic function, attenuate diet-induced changes in myocardial substrate utilization, and dampen cardiac reactive oxygen species content and fibrosis. These changes were accompanied by normalization of obesity-related impairment of mechanical efficiency due to a decrease in work-independent myocardial oxygen consumption. Finally, we found HIT to reduce infarct size by 47% in ex vivo hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. This study therefore demonstrated for the first time that exercise training mediates cardioprotection following ischemia in diet-induced obese mice and that this was associated with oxygen-sparing effects. These findings highlight the importance of optimal myocardial energetics during ischemic stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Post-Exercise Carbohydrate-Energy Replacement Attenuates Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance the Following Morning in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Harry L.; Wu, Ching-Lin; Chen, Yung-Chih; Wang, Pin-Ging; Betts, James A.

    2018-01-01

    The carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise is thought to play a key role in increased post-exercise insulin action. However, the effects of replacing carbohydrate utilized during exercise on postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity are yet to be determined. This study therefore isolated the extent to which the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise are dependent on the carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise, relative to other exercise-mediated mechanisms. Fourteen healthy adults performed a 90-min run at 70% V˙O2max starting at 1600–1700 h before ingesting either a non-caloric artificially-sweetened placebo solution (CHO-DEFICIT) or a 15% carbohydrate solution (CHO-REPLACE; 221.4 ± 59.3 g maltodextrin) to precisely replace the measured quantity of carbohydrate oxidized during exercise. The alternate treatment was then applied one week later in a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded crossover design. A standardized low-carbohydrate evening meal was consumed in both trials before overnight recovery ahead of a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the following morning to assess glycemic and insulinemic responses to feeding. Compared to the CHO-DEFICIT condition, CHO-REPLACE increased the incremental area under the plasma glucose curve by a mean difference of 68 mmol·L−1 (95% CI: 4 to 132 mmol·L−1; p = 0.040) and decreased the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index by a mean difference of −2 au (95% CI: −1 to −3 au; p = 0.001). This is the first study to demonstrate that post-exercise feeding to replaceme the carbohydrate expended during exercise can attenuate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity the following morning. The mechanism through which exercise improves insulin sensitivity is therefore (at least in part) dependent on carbohydrate availability and so the day-to-day metabolic health benefits of exercise might be best attained by maintaining a carbohydrate deficit overnight. PMID:29370143

  1. Effect of resistance exercise under conditions of reduced blood insulin on AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation and AMPK pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Kido, Kohei; Yokokawa, Takumi; Ato, Satoru; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin downregulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation would be augmented by disruptions in insulin secretion through a decrease in AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis, 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the toxin streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) to destroy the insulin secreting β-cells. Three days postinjection, the right gastrocnemius muscle from STZ and control rats was subjected to resistance exercise by percutaneous electrical stimulation. Animals were killed 0, 1, or 3 h later; activation of the Akt/AMPK and downstream pathways in the muscle tissue was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Notably, STZ rats showed a significant decrease in basal Akt and AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation, but substantial exercise-induced increases in both AMPKα Thr172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) Ser79 phosphorylation were observed. Although no significant impact on resistance exercise-induced Akt pathway activation or glucose uptake was found, resistance exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) gene expression was augmented by STZ treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating insulin levels may regulate acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation and AMPK-dependent gene expression relating to basal AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017

  2. The laforin-malin complex negatively regulates glycogen synthesis by modulating cellular glucose uptake via glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Sweta; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2012-02-01

    Lafora disease (LD), an inherited and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by increased cellular glycogen content and the formation of abnormally branched glycogen inclusions, called Lafora bodies, in the affected tissues, including neurons. Therefore, laforin phosphatase and malin ubiquitin E3 ligase, the two proteins that are defective in LD, are thought to regulate glycogen synthesis through an unknown mechanism, the defects in which are likely to underlie some of the symptoms of LD. We show here that laforin's subcellular localization is dependent on the cellular glycogen content and that the stability of laforin is determined by the cellular ATP level, the activity of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, and the affinity of malin toward laforin. By using cell and animal models, we further show that the laforin-malin complex regulates cellular glucose uptake by modulating the subcellular localization of glucose transporters; loss of malin or laforin resulted in an increased abundance of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and therefore excessive glucose uptake. Loss of laforin or malin, however, did not affect glycogen catabolism. Thus, the excessive cellular glucose level appears to be the primary trigger for the abnormally higher levels of cellular glycogen seen in LD.

  3. Influence of glucose ingestion by humans during recovery from exercise on substrate utilisation during subsequent exercise in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Bilzon, J L J; Murphy, J L; Allsopp, A J; Wootton, S A; Williams, C

    2002-08-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during short-term recovery from prolonged running has been shown to increase the capacity for subsequent exercise in a warm environment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the amount of glucose given during recovery on substrate storage and utilisation during recovery and subsequent exercise in a warm environment. A group of 11 healthy male volunteers took part in two experiments in a controlled warm environment (35 degrees C, 40% relative humidity), 1 week apart. On each occasion the subjects completed two treadmill runs (T1 and T2) at a speed equivalent to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, for 90 min, until they were fatigued, or until aural temperature (T(aur)) reached 39 degrees C. The two runs were separated by a 4 h recovery period (REC), during which subjects consumed 55 g of naturally enriched [U-(13)C]-glucose in the form of a 7.5% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES, mass of solution 667 g) immediately after T1. The subjects then consumed either: the same quantity of CES, or an equivalent volume of an electrolyte placebo, at 60, 120 and 180 min during REC, providing a total of 220 g (C220) or 55 g (C55) of [U-(13)C]-glucose, respectively. Expired gases were collected at 15 min intervals during exercise and 60 min intervals during REC, for determination of total CHO and fat oxidation by indirect respiratory calorimetry, and orally ingested [U-(13)C]-glucose oxidation, estimated from the (13)C:(12)C ratio of expired CO(2). Substrate metabolism did not differ between conditions during T1. Despite the fact that total CHO (P < 0.05) and ingested glucose oxidation (P < 0.01) were greater during REC of the C220 condition, glycogen synthesis was estimated to be approximately fivefold greater (P < 0.01) than in the C55 condition. During T2 the rate of total CHO oxidation was higher (P < 0.01) and total fat oxidation lower (P < 0.01) at all times during the C220 compared to the C55 condition. The greater CHO oxidation

  4. Increased regional cerebral glucose uptake in an APP/PS1 model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Poisnel, Géraldine; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; El Tannir El Tayara, Nadine; Bourrin, Emmanuel; Volk, Andreas; Kober, Frank; Delatour, Benoit; Delzescaux, Thierry; Debeir, Thomas; Rooney, Thomas; Benavides, Jésus; Hantraye, Philippe; Dhenain, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the invariant cerebral accumulation of β-amyloid peptide. This event occurs early in the disease process. In humans, [18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose-Positron Emission Tomography ([18F]-FDG-PET) is largely used to follow-up in vivo cerebral glucose utilisation (CGU) and brain metabolism modifications associated to the AD pathology. Here, [18F]-FDG-PET was used to study age-related changes of CGU under resting conditions in 3, 6 and 12-month-old APPSweLon/PS1M146L, a mouse model of amyloidosis. We showed an age-dependent increase of glucose uptake in several brain regions of APP/PS1 mice but not in control animals and a higher [18F]-FDG uptake in the cortex and the hippocampus of 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice as compared to age-matched control mice. We then developed a method of 3D-microscopic autoradiography to evaluate glucose uptake at the level of amyloid plaques and showed an increased glucose uptake close to the plaques rather than in amyloid-free cerebral tissues. These data suggest a macroscopic and microscopic reorganisation of glucose uptake in relation to cerebral amyloidosis. PMID:22079157

  5. Insulin and leptin induce Glut4 plasma membrane translocation and glucose uptake in a human neuronal cell line by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Yacir; Naour, Nadia; Aubourg, Alain; Bailleux, Virginie; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Taouis, Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    The insulin-sensitive glucose transporter Glut4 is expressed in brain areas that regulate energy homeostasis and body adiposity. In contrast with peripheral tissues, however, the impact of insulin on Glut4 plasma membrane (PM) translocation in neurons is not known. In this study, we examined the role of two anorexic hormones (leptin and insulin) on Glut4 translocation in a human neuronal cell line that express endogenous insulin and leptin receptors. We show that insulin and leptin both induce Glut4 translocation to the PM of neuronal cells and activate glucose uptake. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, totally abolished insulin- and leptin-dependent Glut4 translocation and stimulation of glucose uptake. Thus, Glut4 translocation is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism in neuronal cells. Next, we investigated the impact of chronic insulin and leptin treatments on Glut4 expression and translocation. Chronic exposure of neuronal cells to insulin or leptin down-regulates Glut4 proteins and mRNA levels and abolishes the acute stimulation of glucose uptake in response to acute insulin or leptin. In addition, chronic treatment with either insulin or leptin impaired Glut4 translocation. A cross-desensitization between insulin and leptin was apparent, where exposure to insulin affects leptin-dependent Glut4 translocation and vice versa. This cross-desensitization could be attributed to the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 expression, which was demonstrated in response to each hormone. These results provide evidence to suggest that Glut4 translocation to neuronal PM is regulated by both insulin and leptin signaling pathways. These pathways might contribute to an in vivo glucoregulatory reflex involving a neuronal network and to the anorectic effect of insulin and leptin.

  6. Glucose Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Jennifer E.; Arbeláez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    The brain relies almost exclusively on glucose for fuel. Therefore, adequate uptake of glucose from the plasma is key for normal brain function and survival. Despite wide variations in glucose flux (i.e. fed state, fasting state, etc), blood glucose is maintained in a very narrow range. This is accomplished by a series of hormonal and physiologic responses. As a result, hypoglycemia is a rare occurrence in normal individuals. However, glucose counterregulatory responses are altered in patients with diabetes treated with insulin especially after repeated hypoglycemia or antecedent exercise. PMID:22783644

  7. Effect of glycogen synthase overexpression on insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake and storage.

    PubMed

    Fogt, Donovan L; Pan, Shujia; Lee, Sukho; Ding, Zhenping; Scrimgeour, Angus; Lawrence, John C; Ivy, John L

    2004-03-01

    Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake is inversely associated with the muscle glycogen concentration. To investigate whether this association is a cause and effect relationship, we compared insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in noncontracted and postcontracted muscle of GSL3-transgenic and wild-type mice. GSL3-transgenic mice overexpress a constitutively active form of glycogen synthase, which results in an abundant storage of muscle glycogen. Muscle contraction was elicited by in situ electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Right gastrocnemii from GSL3-transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to 30 min of electrical stimulation followed by hindlimb perfusion of both hindlimbs. Thirty minutes of contraction significantly reduced muscle glycogen concentration in wild-type (49%) and transgenic (27%) mice, although transgenic mice retained 168.8 +/- 20.5 micromol/g glycogen compared with 17.7 +/- 2.6 micromol/g glycogen for wild-type mice. Muscle of transgenic and wild-type mice demonstrated similar pre- (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 micromol.g(-1).h(-1) for transgenic and wild-type, respectively) and postcontraction (7.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.0 +/- 0.4 micromol.g(-1).h(-1) for transgenic and wild-type, respectively) insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes. However, the [14C]glucose incorporated into glycogen was greater in noncontracted (151%) and postcontracted (157%) transgenic muscle vs. muscle of corresponding wild-type mice. These results indicate that glycogen synthase activity is not rate limiting for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and that the inverse relationship between muscle glycogen and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is an association, not a cause and effect relationship.

  8. Oral administration of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factor 1 lowers blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaharada, Ritsuko; Nakamura, Akio; Takahashi, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Kubohara, Yuzuru

    2016-06-15

    Differentiation-inducing factor 1 (DIF-1), originally discovered in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives possess pharmacological activities, such as the promotion of glucose uptake in non-transformed mammalian cells in vitro. Accordingly, DIFs are considered promising lead candidates for novel anti-diabetic drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-diabetic and toxic effects of DIF-1 in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells in vitro and in diabetic rats in vivo. Main methods We investigated the in vitro effects of DIF-1 and DIF-1(3M), a derivative of DIF-1, on glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells by using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). We also examined the effects of DIF-1 on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. CE-TOF-MS revealed that 20μM DIF-1 and 20μM DIF-1(3M) promoted glucose uptake and metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. Oral administration of DIF-1 (30mg/kg) significantly lowered basal blood glucose levels in STZ-treated rats and promoted a decrease in blood glucose levels after oral glucose loading (2.5g/kg) in the rats. In addition, daily oral administration of DIF-1 (30mg/kg/day) for 1wk significantly lowered the blood glucose levels in STZ-treated rats but did not affect their body weight and caused only minor alterations in the levels of other blood analytes. These results indicate that DIF-1 may be a good lead compound for the development of anti-diabetic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    PubMed

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (P<0.05). The experimental group showed a decrease in blood glucose levels from baseline (108.7 mg/dL): 26.1% reduction (15 min; P<0.001), 24.2% (30 min; P<0.001), and 15.7% (45 min; P<0.001). Compared to the control group, blood glucose levels in the experimental group were reduced by 18.8% (15 min; P<0.001), 14.3% (30 min; P<0.001) and 6.9% (45 min; P=0.025). The study results provide good evidence that a prescribed exercise program on a mini-trampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  10. Tangeretin stimulates glucose uptake via regulation of AMPK signaling pathways in C2C12 myotubes and improves glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Sunny; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2012-07-06

    Although the flavonoid tangeretin (5, 6, 7, 8, 4'-pentamethoxyflavone) is known to possess beneficial health effects, the anti-diabetic effects and the mechanism of action have not been elucidated. Treatment with 100 μM tangeretin significantly increased the uptake of 2-NBDG in C2C12 myotubes. We also found that AMPK and AS160 were markedly phosphorylated by tangeretin treatment. In addition, pretreatment with an AMPK inhibitor significantly abrogated tangeretin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and Glut4 translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, disruption of AMPK using siRNA transfection prevented the glucose uptake stimulated by tangeretin. We also examined the anti-diabetic properties of tangeretin in mice on HFD. Administration of HFD plus 200 mg/kg of tangeretin significantly altered weight gain, glucose tolerance, total cholesterol levels, and the secretion of adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, and MCP-1. Moreover, AMPK was activated by 200 mg/kg of tangeretin in mouse muscle tissue, as expected from the cell system. These results suggest that tangeretin exerts anti-diabetic effects in both cell culture and mouse models, and these effects are necessary for activating AMPK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection for growth does not affect apparent energetic efficiency of jejunal glucose uptake in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y K; Croom, W J; Eisen, E J; Daniel, L R; Black, B L; McBride, B W

    1996-11-01

    Five-wk-old male mice from high growth (M16) and randomly bred control (ICR) lines, plus their reciprocal crosses, ICR x M16 and M16 x ICR, were used to investigate whether whole-body O2 consumption, jejunal respiration, jejunal glucose absorption and the apparent energetic efficiency of jejunal active glucose uptake in mice are altered by genetic selection for growth as well as by heterosis and maternal effects. Whole-body O2 consumption was measured in 12 mice from each line or cross. The mice were later killed for measurement of jejunal O2, using tissue respiration chambers and jejunal glucose transport determined by 3H-3-O-methylglucose accumulation. No heterosis or maternal effects were detected in jejunal glucose active transport and active glucose uptake. Selection for growth (M16 vs. ICR) increased daily gain (1.54 vs. 1.09 g, P < 0.001), small intestinal length and weight, but did not enhance jejunal glucose transport. The apparent energetic efficiency of jejunal active glucose uptake among lines was not different (54.0, 50.4, 51.6 and 47.1 nmol ATP expended/nmol glucose uptake for M16, ICR, M16 x ICR and ICR x M16, respectively, P > 0.63). Selection for growth in mice did not result in more energetically efficient jejunal glucose absorption.

  12. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  13. Fluoride Alteration of [3H]Glucose Uptake in Wistar Rat Brain and Peripheral Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Anna; Kuter, Katarzyna; Żelazko, Aleksandra; Głogowska-Gruszka, Anna; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Nowak, Przemysław

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of postnatal fluoride intake on [3H]glucose uptake and transport in rat brain and peripheral tissues. Sodium fluoride (NaF) in a concentration of 10 or 50 ppm was added to the drinking water of adult Wistar rats. The control group received distilled water. After 4 weeks, respective plasma fluoride levels were 0.0541 ± 0.0135 μg/ml (control), 0.0596 ± 0.0202 μg/ml (10 ppm), and 0.0823 ± 0.0199 μg/ml (50 ppm). Although plasma glucose levels were not altered in any group, the plasma insulin level in the fluoride (50 ppm) group was elevated (0.72 ± 0.13 μg/ml) versus the control group (0.48 ± 0.24 μg/ml) and fluoride (10 ppm) group. In rats receiving fluoride for 4 weeks at 10 ppm in drinking water, [3H]glucose uptake was unaltered in all tested parts of the brain. However, in rats receiving fluoride at 50 ppm, [3H]glucose uptake in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus with hypothalamus was elevated, versus the saline group. Fluoride intake had a negligible effect on [3H]glucose uptake by peripheral tissues (liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, atrium, aorta, kidney, visceral tissue, lung, skin, oral mucosa, tongue, salivary gland, incisor, molars, and jawbone). In neither fluoride group was glucose transporter proteins 1 (GLUT 1) or 3 (GLUT 3) altered in frontal cortex and striatum versus control. On the assumption that increased glucose uptake (by neural tissue) reasonably reflects neuronal activity, it appears that fluoride damage to the brain results in a compensatory increase in glucose uptake and utilization without changes in GLUT 1 and GLUT 3 expression.

  14. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen R.; Brooks, Latina M.; Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; O'Leary, Valerie B.; Kirwan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased β-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% V̇o2 max) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 ± 190, post: 1,269 ± 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 ± 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY3–36, insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in V̇o2 max (P < 0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (−8.3 ± 1.1 vs. −2.8 ± 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (ΔI0–30/ΔG0–30) and GIP (Δ0–30) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY3–36 (Δ0–30) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY3–36 response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults. PMID:19351807

  15. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; O'Leary, Valerie B; Kirwan, John P

    2009-06-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P < 0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (DeltaI(0-30)/DeltaG(0-30)) and GIP (Delta(0-30)) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY(3-36) (Delta(0-30)) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  16. Effects of Visfatin Gene Polymorphism RS4730153 on Exercise-induced Weight Loss of Obese Children and Adolescents of Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Aiping; Chen, Wenhe; Helm, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Visfatin is a recently discovered adipokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. This study investigates Visfatin RS4730153 polymorphism from the perspectives of its relations with glucose/lipid metabolism and its influence on the effects of exercise-induced weight loss. Eighty-eight obese Han Chinese children and adolescents were randomly selected from a 2008 Shanghai Weight Loss Summer Camp and were supervised to complete a 4 week aerobic exercise training program. Significant differences were observed in before-exercise TG value and exercise-induced HOMA-β change, with the AG group having a much higher TG value than the GG group (P ≤ 0.05), and the latter exhibiting a significantly larger before-and-after exercise HOMA-β change than the former (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in before exercise indices of body shape, function and quality, nor in exercise-induced changes of body shape, function, and quality. Findings suggest that Visfatin RS4730153 homozygous GG genotype may effect adjustment of glucose and lipid metabolism in obese children and adolescents by reducing TG levels and increasing insulin sensitivity to exercise. PMID:23289013

  17. Exercise modality effect on oxygen uptake off-transient kinetics at maximal oxygen uptake intensity.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Rodríguez, Ferran A; Machado, Leandro; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2015-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do the mechanical differences between swimming, rowing, running and cycling have a potential effect on the oxygen uptake (V̇O2) off-kinetics after an exercise sustained until exhaustion at 100% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) intensity? What is the main finding and its importance? The mechanical differences between exercise modes had a potential effect and contributed to distinct amplitude of the fast component (higher in running compared with cycling) and time constant (higher in swimming compared with rowing and cycling) in the V̇O2 off-kinetic patterns at 100% of V̇O2max intensity. This suggests that swimmers, unlike rowers and cyclists, would benefit more from a longer duration of training intervals after each set of exercise performed at V̇O2max intensity. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) during recovery (off-transient kinetics) for different exercise modes is largely unexplored, hampering the prescription of training and recovery to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the V̇O2 off-transient kinetics response between swimmers, rowers, runners and cyclists during their specific mode of exercise at 100% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) intensity and to examine the on-off symmetry. Groups of swimmers, rowers, runners and cyclists (n = 8 per group) performed (i) an incremental exercise protocol to assess the velocity or power associated with V̇O2max (vV̇O2max or wV̇O2max, respectively) and (ii) a square-wave exercise transition from rest to vV̇O2max/vV̇O2maxwV̇O2maxwV̇O2max until volitional exhaustion. Pulmonary exchange parameters were measured using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4b(2) ; Cosmed, Rome, Italy), and the on- and off-transient kinetics were analysed through a double-exponential approach. For all exercise modes, both transient periods were symmetrical in shape once they had both been adequately fitted by a double-exponential model. However, differences

  18. P21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) regulates glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Pallavi; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2016-07-05

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are recently reported as important players of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in tissues like muscle, pancreas and liver. However, their role in neuronal insulin signaling is still unknown. Present study reports the involvement of PAK2 in neuronal insulin signaling, glucose uptake and insulin resistance. Irrespective of insulin sensitivity, insulin stimulation decreased PAK2 activity. PAK2 downregulation displayed marked enhancement of GLUT4 translocation with increase in glucose uptake whereas PAK2 over-expression showed its reduction. Treatment with Akti-1/2 and wortmannin suggested that Akt and PI3K are mediators of insulin effect on PAK2 and glucose uptake. Rac1 inhibition demonstrated decreased PAK2 activity while inhibition of PP2A resulted in increased PAK2 activity, with corresponding changes in glucose uptake. Taken together, present study demonstrates an inhibitory role of insulin signaling (via PI3K-Akt) and PP2A on PAK2 activity and establishes PAK2 as a Rac1-dependent negative regulator of neuronal glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise-induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Vanderpool, Rebecca; Dhakal, Bishnu P.; Saggar, Rajeev; Saggar, Rajan; Vachiery, Jean-Luc; Lewis, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise stresses the pulmonary circulation through increases in cardiac output (Q.) and left atrial pressure. Invasive as well as noninvasive studies in healthy volunteers show that the slope of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP)–flow relationships ranges from 0.5 to 3 mm Hg⋅min⋅L−1. The upper limit of normal mPAP at exercise thus approximates 30 mm Hg at a Q. of less than 10 L⋅min−1 or a total pulmonary vascular resistance at exercise of less than 3 Wood units. Left atrial pressure increases at exercise with an average upstream transmission to PAP in a close to one-for-one mm Hg fashion. Multipoint PAP–flow relationships are usually described by a linear approximation, but present with a slight curvilinearity, which is explained by resistive vessel distensibility. When mPAP is expressed as a function of oxygen uptake or workload, plateau patterns may be observed in patients with systolic heart failure who cannot further increase Q. at the highest levels of exercise. Exercise has to be dynamic to avoid the increase in systemic vascular resistance and abrupt changes in intrathoracic pressure that occur with resistive exercise and can lead to unpredictable effects on the pulmonary circulation. Postexercise measurements are unreliable because of the rapid return of pulmonary vascular pressures and flows to the baseline resting state. Recent studies suggest that exercise-induced increase in PAP to a mean higher than 30 mm Hg may be associated with dyspnea-fatigue symptomatology. PMID:23348976

  20. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein Kinase Cζ Mediates Insulin-induced Glucose Transport through Actin Remodeling in L6 Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Zhong; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Zuo, Jin; Ho, Stanley K.S.; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Meng, Yan; Fang, Fu-De; Tong, Peter C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) ζ has been implicated in insulin-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cell, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of PKCζ on actin remodeling and glucose transport in differentiated rat L6 muscle cells expressing myc-tagged glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). On insulin stimulation, PKCζ translocated from low-density microsomes to plasma membrane accompanied by increase in GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Z-scan confocal microscopy revealed a spatial colocalization of relocated PKCζ with the small GTPase Rac-1, actin, and GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. The insulin-mediated colocalization, PKCζ distribution, GLUT4 translocation, and glucose uptake were inhibited by wortmannin and cell-permeable PKCζ pseudosubstrate peptide. In stable transfected cells, overexpression of PKCζ caused an insulin-like effect on actin remodeling accompanied by a 2.1-fold increase in GLUT4 translocation and 1.7-fold increase in glucose uptake in the absence of insulin. The effects of PKCζ overexpression were abolished by cell-permeable PKCζ pseudosubstrate peptide, but not wortmannin. Transient transfection of constitutively active Rac-1 recruited PKCζ to new structures resembling actin remodeling, whereas dominant negative Rac-1 prevented the insulin-mediated PKCζ translocation. Together, these results suggest that PKCζ mediates insulin effect on glucose transport through actin remodeling in muscle cells. PMID:16525020

  2. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector. E4orf1 significantly improved insulin sensitivity in response to a glucose load. Yet, their proximal insulin signaling in fat depots was impaired, as indicated by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), and significantly increased abundance of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1). In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes E4orf1 expression impaired proximal insulin signaling. Whereas, treatment with rosiglitazone reduced ENPP1 abundance. Unaffected by IR-KD (insulin receptor knockdown) with siRNA, E4orf1 significantly up-regulated distal insulin signaling pathway and enhanced cellular glucose uptake. In vivo, E4orf1 impairs proximal insulin signaling in fat depots yet improves glycemic control. This is probably explained by the ability of E4orf1 to promote cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling. E4orf1 may provide a therapeutic template to enhance glucose disposal in the presence of impaired proximal insulin signaling. PMID:27537838

  3. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector. E4orf1 significantly improved insulin sensitivity in response to a glucose load. Yet, their proximal insulin signaling in fat depots was impaired, as indicated by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), and significantly increased abundance of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1). In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes E4orf1 expression impaired proximal insulin signaling. Whereas, treatment with rosiglitazone reduced ENPP1 abundance. Unaffected by IR-KD (insulin receptor knockdown) with siRNA, E4orf1 significantly up-regulated distal insulin signaling pathway and enhanced cellular glucose uptake. In vivo, E4orf1 impairs proximal insulin signaling in fat depots yet improves glycemic control. This is probably explained by the ability of E4orf1 to promote cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling. E4orf1 may provide a therapeutic template to enhance glucose disposal in the presence of impaired proximal insulin signaling.

  4. Accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring during exercise in type 1 diabetes pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M; Caldwell, Karen; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Amiel, Stephanie A; Hovorka, Roman; Murphy, Helen R

    2013-03-01

    Performance of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) may be lower when glucose levels are changing rapidly, such as occurs during physical activity. Our aim was to evaluate accuracy of a current-generation CGM during moderate-intensity exercise in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pregnancy. As part of a study of 24-h closed-loop insulin delivery in 12 women with T1D (disease duration, 17.6 years; glycosylated hemoglobin, 6.4%) during pregnancy (gestation, 21 weeks), we evaluated the Freestyle Navigator(®) sensor (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) during afternoon (15:00-18:00 h) and morning (09:30-12:30 h) exercise (55 min of brisk walking on a treadmill followed by a 2-h recovery), compared with sedentary conditions (18:00-09:00 h). Plasma (reference) glucose, measured at regular 15-30-min intervals with the YSI Ltd. (Fleet, United Kingdom) model YSI 2300 analyzer, was used to assess CGM performance. Sensor accuracy, as indicated by the larger relative absolute difference (RAD) between paired sensor and reference glucose values, was lower during exercise compared with rest (median RAD, 11.8% vs. 18.4%; P<0.001). These differences remained significant when correcting for plasma glucose relative rate of change (P<0.001). Analysis by glucose range showed lower accuracy during hypoglycemia for both sedentary (median RAD, 24.4%) and exercise (median RAD, 32.1%) conditions. Using Clarke error grid analysis, 96% of CGM values were clinically safe under resting conditions compared with only 87% during exercise. Compared with sedentary conditions, accuracy of the Freestyle Navigator CGM was lower during moderate-intensity exercise in pregnant women with T1D. This difference was particularly marked in hypoglycemia and could not be solely explained by the glucose rate of change associated with physical activity.

  5. Gymnasium-based unsupervised exercise maintains benefits in oxygen uptake kinetics obtained following supervised training in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Macananey, Oscar; O'Shea, Donal; Warmington, Stuart A; Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel

    2012-08-01

    Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (V(T)), 80% V(T), and mid-point between V(T) and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly faster (p < 0.05) post-SE and post-UE compared with baseline at 50% V(T) (17.3 ± 10.7 s and 17.5 ± 5.9 s vs. 29.9 ± 10.7 s), 80% V(T) (18.9 ± 4.7 and 20.9 ± 8.4 vs. 34.3 ± 12.7s), and 50% Δ (20.4 ± 8.2 s and 20.2 ± 6.0 s vs. 27.6 ± 3.7 s). SE also induced faster heart rate kinetics at all 3 intensities and a larger increase in CO at 30 s in relation to 240 s at 80% V(T); and these responses were maintained post-UE. Unsupervised exercise maintained benefits in oxygen uptake kinetics obtained during a supervised exercise in subjects with diabetes, and these benefits were associated with a faster dynamic response of heart rate after training.

  6. Large enhancement of skeletal muscle cell glucose uptake and suppression of hepatocyte glucose-6-phosphatase activity by weak uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C

    2012-02-01

    Perturbation of energy homeostasis in skeletal muscle and liver resulting from a transient inhibition of mitochondrial energy transduction can produce effects of relevance for the control of hyperglycemia through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, as exemplified by the antidiabetic drug metformin. The present study focuses on uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation rather than its inhibition as a trigger for such effects. The reference weak uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol, fourteen naturally-occurring phenolic compounds identified as uncouplers in isolated rat liver mitochondria, and fourteen related compounds with little or no uncoupling activity were tested for enhancement of glucose uptake in differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells following 18 h of treatment at 25-100 μM. A subset of compounds were tested for suppression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in H4IIE hepatocytes following 16 h at 12.5-25 μM. Metformin (400 μM) was used as a standard in both assays. Dinitrophenol and nine of eleven compounds that induced 50% or more uncoupling at 100 μM in isolated mitochondria enhanced basal glucose uptake by 53 to 269%; the effect of the 4'-hydroxychalcone butein was more than 6-fold that of metformin; negative control compounds increased uptake by no more than 25%. Dinitrophenol and four 4'-hydroxychalconoids also suppressed hepatocyte G6Pase as well as, or more effectively than metformin, whereas the unsubstituted parent compound chalcone, devoid of uncoupling activity, had no effect. Activities key to glycemic control can be induced by a wide range of weak uncouplers, including compounds free of difficult-to-metabolize groups typically associated with uncouplers. Uncoupling represents a valid and possibly more efficient alternative to inhibition for triggering cytoprotective effects of therapeutic relevance to insulin resistance in both muscle and liver. Identification of actives of natural origin and the insights into their structure

  7. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  8. Sustained Liver Glucose Release in Response to Adrenaline Can Improve Hypoglycaemic Episodes in Rats under Food Restriction Subjected to Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Babata, Lucas K. R.; Pedrosa, Maria M. D.; Garcia, Rosângela F.; Peicher, Márcia V.; de Godoi, Vilma Aparecida Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Background. As the liver is important for blood glucose regulation, this study aimed at relating liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline to in vivo episodes of hypoglycaemia. Methods. The blood glucose profile during an episode of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in exercised and nonexercised male Wistar control (GC) and food-restricted (GR, 50%) rats and liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline were investigated. Results. In the GR, the hypoglycaemic episodes showed severe decreases in blood glucose, persistent hypoglycaemia, and less complete glycaemic recovery. An exercise session prior to the episode of hypoglycaemia raised the basal blood glucose, reduced the magnitude of the hypoglycaemia, and improved the recovery of blood glucose. In fed animals of both groups, liver glucose release was activated by glucagon and adrenaline. In fasted GR rats, liver glycogenolysis activated by glucagon was impaired, despite a significant basal glycogenolysis, while an adrenaline-stimulated liver glucose release was recorded. Conclusions. The lack of liver response to glucagon in the GR rats could be partially responsible for the more severe episodes of hypoglycaemia observed in vivo in nonexercised animals. The preserved liver response to adrenaline can partially account for the less severe hypoglycaemia in the food-restricted animals after acute exercise. PMID:24719616

  9. FDP-E induces adipocyte inflammation and suppresses insulin-stimulated glucose disposal: effect of inflammation and obesity on fibrinogen Bβ mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsung; Vaughan, Roger A; Paton, Chad M

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with increased fibrinogen production and fibrin formation, which produces fibrin degradation products (FDP-E and FDP-D). Fibrin and FDPs both contribute to inflammation, which would be expected to suppress glucose uptake and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, yet the effect of FDP-E and FDP-D on adipocyte function and glucose disposal is completely unknown. We tested the effects of FDPs on inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary macrophages and adipocyte glucose uptake in vitro. High-fat-fed mice increased hepatic fibrinogen mRNA expression ninefold over chow-fed mice, with concomitant increases in plasma fibrinogen protein levels. Obese mice also displayed increased fibrinogen content of epididymal fat pads. We treated cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary macrophages with FDP-E, FDP-D, or fibrinogen degradation products (FgnDP-E). FDP-D and FgnDP-E had no effect on inflammation or glucose uptake. Cytokine mRNA expression in RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with FDP-E induced inflammation with maximal effects at 100 nM and 6 h. Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose uptake was reduced by 71% in adipocytes treated with FDP-E. FDP-E, but not FDP-D or FgnDP-E, induces inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes and decreases glucose uptake in vitro. FDP-E may contribute toward obesity-associated acute inflammation and glucose intolerance, although its chronic role in obesity remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Soy β-conglycinin improves glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance in Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Yamashita, Yoko; Nagata, Mayuko; Wanezaki, Satoshi; Ashida, Hitoshi; Horio, Fumihiko; Kohno, Mitsutaka

    2014-02-01

    Although the underlying mechanism is unclear, β-conglycinin (βCG), the major component of soy proteins, regulates blood glucose levels. Here, we hypothesized that consumption of βCG would normalize blood glucose levels by ameliorating insulin resistance and stimulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscles. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the antidiabetic action of βCG in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Our results revealed that plasma adiponectin levels and adiponectin receptor 1 messenger RNA expression in skeletal muscle were higher in βCG-fed rats than in casein-fed rats. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) but not phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase was activated in βCG-fed GK rats. Subsequently, βCG increased translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane. Unlike the results in skeletal muscle, the increase in adiponectin receptor 1 did not lead to AMP kinase activation in the liver of βCG-fed rats. The down-regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1, which is induced by low insulin levels, promoted the increase in hepatic insulin receptor substrate 2 expression. Based on these findings, we concluded that consumption of soy βCG improves glucose uptake in skeletal muscle via AMP kinase activation and ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance and that these actions may help normalize blood glucose levels in GK rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intense physical exercise potentiates glucose inhibitory effect over food intake of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Joao Paulo; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Louzada, Ruy Andrade; Galina, Antônio; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Carvalho, Denise P

    2018-06-12

    What is the central question of this study? Physical exercise has emerged as a non-pharmacological treatment for obesity by promoting changes in energy balance. Despite the accumulated knowledge about exercise effects on energy expenditure, the central question of this study is to understand how an acute session of exercise might affect food intake of male Wistar rats. What is the main finding? The main finding of this work is that food intake in male Wistar rats is decreased in the first hour after physical exercise independent of the intensity. Moreover, high-intensity exercise potentiates the anorexic effect of peripheral glucose administration. Obesity has emerged as a critical metabolic disorder in modern society. An adequate lifestyle with good-oriented programs of diet and physical exercise (PE) can prevent or potentially even cure obesity. Additionally, PE might lead to weight loss by increasing energy expenditure and decreasing hunger perception. In this manuscript, we hypothesize that an acute exercise session with different intensities would potentiate the glucose inhibitory effects on food intake in male Wistar rats. Our data show that moderate- (MOD) or high-intensity (HIGH) PE significantly decreased food intake, although no changes in the expression of feeding-related neuropeptide in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus were found. Exercised animals demonstrated a reduced glucose tolerance and increased blood insulin concentration. Intraperitoneal administration of glucose decreased food intake in control animals. In the animals submitted to MOD, the decrease in food intake promoted by glucose was similar to controls; however, an interaction was observed when glucose was injected in the HIGH group, in which food intake was significantly lower than the effect produced by glucose alone. A different pattern of expression was observed for the monocarboxylate transporter isoforms (MCT1, 2 and 4) and the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2

  12. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-Chi; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2009-06-01

    People in oriental countries, including Japan and Taiwan, boil guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) in water and drink the extract as a folk medicine for diabetes. The present study investigated the enhancement of aqueous guava leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes and searched for the active compound. The extract was eluted with MeOH-H(2)O solutions through Diaion, Sephadex, and MCI-gel columns to separate into fractions with different polarities. The uptake test of 2-[1-(14)C] deoxy-D-glucose in rat clone 9 hepatocytes was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of these fractions. The active compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that phenolics are the principal component of the extract, that high polarity fractions of the guava leaf extract are enhancers to glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes, and that quercetin is the major active compound. We suggest that quercetin in the aqueous extract of guava leaves promotes glucose uptake in liver cells, and contributes to the alleviation of hypoglycemia in diabetes as a consequence.

  13. GLUT2-mediated glucose uptake and availability are required for embryonic brain development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Marín-Juez, Rubén; Rovira, Mireia; Crespo, Diego; van der Vaart, Michiel; Spaink, Herman P; Planas, Josep V

    2015-01-01

    Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2; gene name SLC2A2) has a key role in the regulation of glucose dynamics in organs central to metabolism. Although GLUT2 has been studied in the context of its participation in peripheral and central glucose sensing, its role in the brain is not well understood. To decipher the role of GLUT2 in brain development, we knocked down slc2a2 (glut2), the functional ortholog of human GLUT2, in zebrafish. Abrogation of glut2 led to defective brain organogenesis, reduced glucose uptake and increased programmed cell death in the brain. Coinciding with the observed localization of glut2 expression in the zebrafish hindbrain, glut2 deficiency affected the development of neural progenitor cells expressing the proneural genes atoh1b and ptf1a but not those expressing neurod. Specificity of the morphant phenotype was demonstrated by the restoration of brain organogenesis, whole-embryo glucose uptake, brain apoptosis, and expression of proneural markers in rescue experiments. These results indicate that glut2 has an essential role during brain development by facilitating the uptake and availability of glucose and support the involvement of glut2 in brain glucose sensing.

  14. Pre-exercise blood glucose affects glycemic variation of aerobic exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Dai, Lu; Li, Zheng; Li, Hui-Qin; Li, Feng-Fei; Liu, Bing-Li; Sun, Xiao-Juan; Ye, Lei; He, Ke; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2018-05-03

    Considering the insulin sensitivity may increase by exercise particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), glycemic variation during exercise needs to be studied when the patients are treated with insulin. This study aimed to explore the influence factors of the efficacy and safety of aerobic exercise in patients with T2D treated with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII). A total of 267 patients with T2D, treated with CSII, were included. Glycemic variations were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Patients were asked to complete 30 min aerobic exercise for at least one time during CGM. The patients were divided into effective and ineffective group by incremental glucose area under curve from 0 to 60 min after exercise (AUC 0-60 min ). The patients completed a total of 776 times of aerobic exercises. Blood glucose decreased fastest in the first 60 min of exercise. Pre-exercise blood glucose (PEBG) was negatively correlated with AUC 0-60 min (standardized β = -0.386, P < 0.001) and incremental AUC of blood glucose ≤ 4.4 mmol/L (standardized β = -0.078, P = 0.034), and was significantly higher in effective group than in ineffective group (P < 0.001). The Δglucose AUC 0-60 min during post-dinner was significantly higher than that during pre-lunch, post-lunch and pre-dinner (P < 0.05 for all). PEBG is positively correlated with efficacy of aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise will not worsen hyperglycemia when the PEBG > 16.7 mmol/L. Post-dinner exercise decreases the blood glucose better than other periods of the day. ChiCTR-ONC-17010400, www.chictr.org.cn. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Peptide Increases Cerebral Glucose Uptake by Reducing Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Controlled Cortical Impact in Mice: An 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT Study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xinghu; You, Hong; Cao, Fang; Wu, Yue; Peng, Jianhua; Pang, Jinwei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Yue; Chen, Ligang; Vitek, Michael P; Li, Fengqiao; Sun, Xiaochuan; Jiang, Yong

    2017-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reduces cerebral glucose uptake. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is believed to play a key role in TBI, and COG1410 has demonstrated neuroprotective activity in several models of TBI. However, the effects of COG1410 on VEGF and glucose metabolism following TBI are unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the expression of VEGF and glucose metabolism effects in C57BL/6J male mice subjected to experimental TBI. The results showed that controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced vestibulomotor deficits were accompanied by increases in brain edema and the expression of VEGF, with a decrease in cerebral glucose uptake. COG1410 treatment significantly improved vestibulomotor deficits and glucose uptake and produced decreases in VEGF in the pericontusion and ipsilateral hemisphere of injury, as well as in brain edema and neuronal degeneration compared with the control group. These data support that COG1410 may have potential as an effective drug therapy for TBI.

  16. Simple sugar supplementation abrogates exercise-induced increase in hepcidin in young men.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Maja; Kortas, Jakub; Flis, Damian; Skrobot, Wojciech; Camilleri, Rafal; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2017-01-01

    At present many young people experience too much body iron accumulation. The reason of this phenomenon is not clear. There is accumulating evidences that not proper diet and lack of exercise could be a main contributing factors. This investigation assessed the effects of a diet rich in simple sugars (glucose or fructose) on exercise-induced hepcidin which is hormone regulating iron metabolism. A group of physically active young men completed an incremental exercise test before and after a 3-day diet supplemented with fructose (4 g/kg BM) or glucose (4 g/kg BM). After a 1-week break, they crossed over to the alternate mode for the subsequent 3-days period. Venous blood samples were collected before and after 1 h exercise and were analysed for serum hepcidin, IL-6, CRP, iron, and ferritin. The physiological response to exercise was also determined. The concentration of hepcidin increased 1 h after exercise for the baseline test ( p  < 0.05), whereas no changes in hepcidin were observed in men whose diet was supplemented with fructose or glucose. Blood IL-6 increased significantly after exercise only in subjects supplemented with fructose. Changes in hepcidin did not correlate with shifts in serum IL-6. These data suggest that protective effects of exercise on excess iron accumulation in human body which is mediated by hepcidin can be abrogated by high sugar consumption which is typical for contemporary people.

  17. Cardiovascular and Muscular Consequences of Work-Matched Interval-Type of Concentric and Eccentric Pedaling Exercise on a Soft Robot.

    PubMed

    Flück, Martin; Bosshard, Rebekka; Lungarella, Max

    2017-01-01

    after eccentric and concentric exercise. The results highlight that the deployed interval-type of eccentric leg exercise reduces metabolic strain of the cardiovasculature and muscle compared to concentric exercise, to recommended levels for cardio-rehabilitation (i.e., 50-70% of peak heart rate). Increases in blood glucose concentration indicate that resistance to contraction-induced glucose uptake after the deployed eccentric protocol is unrelated to muscle fatigue.

  18. Cardiovascular and Muscular Consequences of Work-Matched Interval-Type of Concentric and Eccentric Pedaling Exercise on a Soft Robot

    PubMed Central

    Flück, Martin; Bosshard, Rebekka; Lungarella, Max

    2017-01-01

    reduced after eccentric and concentric exercise. The results highlight that the deployed interval-type of eccentric leg exercise reduces metabolic strain of the cardiovasculature and muscle compared to concentric exercise, to recommended levels for cardio-rehabilitation (i.e., 50–70% of peak heart rate). Increases in blood glucose concentration indicate that resistance to contraction-induced glucose uptake after the deployed eccentric protocol is unrelated to muscle fatigue. PMID:28912726

  19. Impact of Glycerol as Carbon Source onto Specific Sugar and Inducer Uptake Rates and Inclusion Body Productivity in E. coli BL21(DE3).

    PubMed

    Kopp, Julian; Slouka, Christoph; Ulonska, Sophia; Kager, Julian; Fricke, Jens; Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-12-21

    The Gram-negative bacterium E. coli is the host of choice for a multitude of used recombinant proteins. Generally, cultivation is easy, media are cheap, and a high product titer can be obtained. However, harsh induction procedures using isopropyl β-d-1 thiogalactopyranoside as inducer are often referred to cause stress reactions, leading to a phenomenon known as "metabolic" or "product burden". These high expressions of recombinant proteins mainly result in decreased growth rates and cell lysis at elevated induction times. Therefore, approaches tend to use "soft" or "tunable" induction with lactose and reduce the stress level of the production host. The usage of glucose as energy source in combination with lactose as induction reagent causes catabolite repression effects on lactose uptake kinetics and as a consequence reduced product titer. Glycerol-as an alternative carbon source-is already known to have positive impact on product formation when coupled with glucose and lactose in auto-induction systems, and has been referred to show no signs of repression when cultivated with lactose concomitantly. In recent research activities, the impact of different products on the lactose uptake using glucose as carbon source was highlighted, and a mechanistic model for glucose-lactose induction systems showed correlations between specific substrate uptake rate for glucose or glycerol (q s,C ) and the maximum specific lactose uptake rate (q s,lac,max ). In this study, we investigated the mechanistic of glycerol uptake when using the inducer lactose. We were able to show that a product-producing strain has significantly higher inducer uptake rates when being compared to a non-producer strain. Additionally, it was shown that glycerol has beneficial effects on viability of cells and on productivity of the recombinant protein compared to glucose.

  20. Vitamin E does not prevent exercise-induced increase in pulmonary clearance.

    PubMed

    Lorino, A M; Paul, M; Cocea, L; Scherrer-Crosbie, M; Dahan, E; Meignan, M; Atlan, G

    1994-11-01

    It has been observed that sustained exercise results in a prolonged increase in alveolar epithelial permeability, as assessed by the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Lorino et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 67: 2055-2059, 1989). The involvement of lipid peroxidation in this increased permeability was tested in seven nonsmoking volunteers by comparing the exercise-induced increases in pulmonary 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate clearance before and after a 3-wk supplementation with oral vitamin E (1,000 IU/day), according to a protocol designed as a single-blind crossover study. The 60-min exercise was performed on a treadmill at a constant load corresponding to 80% of maximal O2 uptake. Administration of vitamin E, a very important antioxidant, did not reduce the exercise-induced increase in lung clearance, suggesting that the exercise-induced increase in lung epithelial permeability does not primarily result from the occurrence of lipid peroxidation in the alveolar membrane. This result thus corroborates the hypothesis of an alteration of the intercellular tight junctions due to the mechanical effects of hyperventilation.

  1. Glucose uptake and lactate production in cells exposed to CoCl(2) and in cells overexpressing the Glut-1 glucose transporter.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daw-Yang; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2002-03-15

    Glut-1-mediated glucose transport is augmented in response to a variety of conditions and stimuli. In this study we examined the metabolic fate of glucose in cells in which glucose transport is stimulated by exposure to CoCl(2), an agent that stimulates the expression of a set of hypoxia-responsive genes including several glycolytic enzymes and the Glut-1 glucose transporter. Similarly, we determined the metabolic fate of glucose in stably transfected cells overexpressing Glut-1. Exposure of Clone 9 liver cell line, 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, and C(2)C(12) myoblasts to CoCl(2) resulted in an increase glucose uptake and in the activity of glucose phosphorylation ("hexokinase") and lactate dehydrogenase. In cells treated with CoCl(2), the net increase in glucose taken up was accounted for by its near-complete conversion to lactate. Cells stably transfected to overexpress Glut-1 also exhibited enhanced net uptake of glucose with the near-complete conversion of the increased glucose taken up to lactate; however, the effect in these cells was observed in the absence of any change in the activity of two glycolytic enzymes examined. These findings suggest that in cells in which glucose transport is rate-limiting for glucose metabolism, enhancement of the glucose entry step per se results in a near-complete conversion of the extra glucose to lactate.

  2. Green tea and vitamin E enhance exercise-induced benefits in body composition, glucose homeostasis, and antioxidant status in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Navot-Mintzer, Dalya; Dagan, Bracha; Levy, Yishai

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of green tea plus vitamin E in addition to exercise on body composition and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in healthy elderly individuals. Interventional randomized controlled prospective trial. For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 ± 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11). Data on anthropometrics, fasting insulin and glucose levels, physical fitness, dietary intake, safety parameters, and biomarkers of oxidation status were recorded and analyzed at the start and end of the study. Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001) and a decrease of men's and women's waist circumferences (from 100.8 and 95.7 to 96.9 and 85.0 cm, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) and fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p < 0.01). Plasma protein carbonyls dropped (from 0.93 to 0.77 nmol/mg protein, p < 0.05), whereas erythrocyte catalase activities increased (from 26.7 to 29.7 U/g hemoglobin, p < 0.05) in the GTVE group only. Oral peroxidase activities were increased in both groups. A daily dose of GTVE in healthy elderly men and women may improve exercise-induced benefits in body composition and glucose tolerance and may also lower oxidative burden.

  3. Effects of exercise on brown and beige adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewal, Revati S; Stanford, Kristin I

    2018-04-21

    Physical exercise leads to beneficial effects in numerous tissues and organ systems and offers protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated the role of exercise on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and have indicated marked adaptations to each tissue with exercise. Studies investigating the effects of exercise on BAT have produced conflicting results, with some showing an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and some demonstrating a decrease in the thermogenic activity of BAT. Human studies have observed a down-regulation of BAT activity (measured by a reduction in glucose uptake) in response to exercise. In WAT, exercise decreases adipocyte size, alters gene expression, and increases mitochondrial activity. Transplantation of exercise-trained subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) improves whole-body metabolic health. In rodents, exercise also results in a beiging of scWAT. Thus, exercise-induced changes to adipose tissue may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves metabolic health. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Asthma ▸ EIB Quiz Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction or Exercise-Induced Asthma Quiz Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (also called ...

  5. Human adenovirus Ad36 and its E4orf1 gene enhance cellular glucose uptake even in the presence of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Na, Ha-Na; Dubuisson, Olga; Hegde, Vijay; Nam, Jae-Hwan; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-05-01

    Aging and obesity are associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, which are linked to insulin resistance. Anti-inflammatory agents have marginal effect in improving insulin resistance. Hence, agents are needed to improve glycemic control despite the inflammation. Ad36, a human adenovirus, increases TNFα and MCP1 mRNA in adipose tissue, yet improves glycemic control in mice. Ad36 via its E4orf1 gene, up-regulates AKT/glucose transporter (Glut)-4 signaling to enhance cellular glucose uptake. Directly test a role of Ad36, or E4orf1 in enhancing cellular glucose uptake in presence of inflammatory cytokines. Experiment 1: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0, 10 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and infected with 0 or 5 plaque forming units (PFU) of Ad36/cell. 3T3-L1 cells that stably and inducibly express E4orf1 or a null vector (pTRE-E4orf1 or pTRE-null cells), were similarly treated with LPS and then with doxycycline, to induce E4orf1. Experiment 2: 3T3L1 preadipocytes were treated with 25 nM MCP1 or 20 nM TNFα for 16 h, followed by infection with 0 or 5 PFU of Ad36/cell. Experiment 3: pTRE-E4orf1 or -null cells were similarly treated with MCP1 or TNFα followed by doxycycline to induce E4orf1. Cellular glucose uptake and cellular signaling were determined 72 h post-Ad36 infection or E4orf1-induction, in continued presence of MCP1 or TNFα. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, Ad36, but not E4orf1, increased MCP1 and TNFα mRNA, in presence of LPS stimulation. Ad36 or E4orf1 up-regulated AKT-phosphorylation and Glut4 and increased glucose uptake (P < 0.05) in the presence of MCP1 or TNFα. Unlike Ad36, E4orf1 does not appear to stimulate inflammatory response. Ad36 and E4orf1 both enhance cellular glucose uptake even in presence of inflammation. Further research is needed to harness this novel and beneficial property of E4orf1 to improve hyperglycemia despite chronic

  6. Saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner and suppresses gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake via phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5.

    PubMed

    Seo, Woo-Duck; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Wu, Chunyan; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-11-15

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of saponarin, a flavone glucoside, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Saponarin suppressed the rate of gluconeogenesis and increased cellular glucose uptake in HepG2 and TE671 cells by regulating AMPK. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we showed that saponarin did not directly interact with the AMPK protein. Instead, saponarin increased intracellular calcium levels and induced AMPK phosphorylation, which was diminished by co-stimulation with STO-609, an inhibitor of CAMKKβ. Transcription of hepatic gluconeogenesis genes was upregulated by nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and HDAC5, coactivators of CREB and FoxO1 transcription factors, respectively. This nuclear translocation was inhibited by increased phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5 by saponarin-induced AMPK in HepG2 cells and suppression of CREB and FoxO1 transactivation activities in cells stimulated by saponarin. The results from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the reduced binding of CRTC2 on the PEPCK and G6Pase promoters. In TE671 cells, AMPK phosphorylated HDAC5, which suppressed nuclear penetration and upregulated GLUT4 transcription, leading to enhanced glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner, thus regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Modifies Exercise-Induced Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David; Brogioli, Michael; Maier, Thomas; White, Andy; Waldron, Sarah; Rittweger, Jörn; Toigo, Marco; Wettstein, Jessica; Laczko, Endre; Flück, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A silencer region (I-allele) within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle. Methods Fifty-three, not-specifically trained Caucasian men carried out a one-legged bout of cycling exercise to exhaustion and/or participated in a marathon, the aim being to identify and validate genotype effects on exercise metabolism. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), serum glucose and lipid concentration, glycogen, and metabolite content in vastus lateralis muscle based on ultra-performance lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), were assessed before and after the cycling exercise in thirty-three participants. Serum metabolites were measured in forty subjects that completed the marathon. Genotype effects were assessed post-hoc. Results Cycling exercise reduced muscle glycogen concentration and this tended to be affected by the ACE I-allele (p = 0.09). The ACE-DD genotype showed a lower maximal RER and a selective increase in serum glucose concentration after exercise compared to ACE-ID and ACE-II genotypes (+24% vs. +2% and –3%, respectively). Major metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism (i.e. phosphoenol pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, L-Aspartic acid, glutathione) were selectively affected in vastus lateralis muscle by exercise in the ACE-DD genotype. Capillary-to-fibre ratio was 24%-lower in the ACE-DD genotype. Individuals with the ACE-DD genotype demonstrated an abnormal increase in serum glucose to 7.7 mM after the marathon. Conclusion The observations imply a genetically modulated role for ACE in control of

  8. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

  9. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Touati, Sabeur; Meziri, Fayçal; Devaux, Sylvie; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet induces obesity. We investigated whether exercise would reverse the cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity without it being necessary to change from a high- to normal-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 12 wk. HFD rats were then divided into four groups: sedentary HFD (HFD-S), exercise trained (motor treadmill for 12 wk) HFD (HFD-Ex), modified diet (HFD to CD; HF/CD-S), and exercise trained with modified diet (HF/CD-Ex). Cardiovascular risk parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were measured, and contents of aortic Akt, phospho-Akt at Ser (473), total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and phospho-eNOS at Ser (1177) were determined by Western blotting. Chronic consumption of HFD induced a metabolic syndrome. Exercise and dietary modifications reduced adiposity, improved glucose and insulin levels and plasma lipid profile, and exerted an antihypertensive effect. Exercise was more effective than dietary modification in improving plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance and in correcting the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and insulin. Furthermore, independent of the diet used, exercise increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome induced by HFD is reversed by exercise and diet modification. It is demonstrated that exercise training induces these beneficial effects without the requirement for dietary modification, and these beneficial effects may be mediated by shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Thus, exercise may be an effective strategy to reverse almost all the atherosclerotic risk factors linked to obesity, particularly in the vasculature.

  10. Exercise Training-Induced Adaptations Associated with Increases in Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S.C.; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young–Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4, or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. Compared to sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of RGL(GM), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1, GSK3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks and may function as a negative feedback to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and PP1activity. PMID:23206309

  11. Arm and Intensity-Matched Leg Exercise Induce Similar Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Christof A; Paulson, Thomas A W; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2016-06-01

    The amount of active muscle mass can influence the acute inflammatory response to exercise, associated with reduced risk for chronic disease. This may affect those restricted to upper body exercise, for example, due to injury or disability. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory responses for arm exercise and intensity-matched leg exercise. Twelve male individuals performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials after determination of peak oxygen uptake for arm exercise (V˙O2peak A) and cycling (V˙O2peak C): 1) arm cranking exercise at 60% V˙O2peak A, 2) moderate cycling at 60% V˙O2peak C, and 3) easy cycling at 60% V˙O2peak A. Cytokine, adrenaline, and flow cytometric analysis of monocyte subsets were performed before and up to 4 h postexercise. Plasma IL-6 increased from resting concentrations in all trials; however, postexercise concentrations were higher for arm exercise (1.73 ± 1.04 pg·mL) and moderate cycling (1.73 ± 0.95 pg·mL) compared with easy cycling (0.87 ± 0.41 pg·mL; P < 0.04). Similarly, the plasma IL-1ra concentration in the recovery period was higher for arm exercise (325 ± 139 pg·mL) and moderate cycling (316 ± 128 pg·mL) when compared with easy cycling (245 ± 77 pg·mL, P < 0.04). Arm exercise and moderate cycling induced larger increases in monocyte numbers and larger increases of the classical monocyte subset in the recovery period than easy cycling (P < 0.05). The postexercise adrenaline concentration was lowest for easy cycling (P = 0.04). Arm exercise and cycling at the same relative exercise intensity induces a comparable acute inflammatory response; however, cycling at the same absolute oxygen uptake as arm exercise results in a blunted cytokine, monocyte, and adrenaline response. Relative exercise intensity appears to be more important to the acute inflammatory response than modality, which is of major relevance for populations restricted to upper body exercise.

  12. Dihydroartemisinin Inhibits Glucose Uptake and Cooperates with Glycolysis Inhibitor to Induce Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing; Luo, Xian-yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Ning; Li, Chun-lei; Chen, Yu-qiang; Yu, Xiu-yi; Jiang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the chemotherapy efficacy against NSCLC is still unsatisfactory. Previous studies show the herbal antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA) displays cytotoxic to multiple human tumors. Here, we showed that DHA decreased cell viability and colony formation, induced apoptosis in A549 and PC-9 cells. Additionally, we first revealed DHA inhibited glucose uptake in NSCLC cells. Moreover, glycolytic metabolism was attenuated by DHA, including inhibition of ATP and lactate production. Consequently, we demonstrated that the phosphorylated forms of both S6 ribosomal protein and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and GLUT1 levels were abrogated by DHA treatment in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, the upregulation of mTOR activation by high expressed Rheb increased the level of glycolytic metabolism and cell viability inhibited by DHA. These results suggested that DHA-suppressed glycolytic metabolism might be associated with mTOR activation and GLUT1 expression. Besides, we showed GLUT1 overexpression significantly attenuated DHA-triggered NSCLC cells apoptosis. Notably, DHA synergized with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor) to reduce cell viability and increase cell apoptosis in A549 and PC-9 cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to WI-38 cells, a normal lung fibroblast cell line. More importantly, 2DG synergistically potentiated DHA-induced activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, as well as the levels of both cytochrome c and AIF of cytoplasm. However, 2DG failed to increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels elicited by DHA. Overall, the data shown above indicated DHA plus 2DG induced apoptosis was involved in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in NSCLC cells. PMID:25799586

  13. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits glucose uptake and cooperates with glycolysis inhibitor to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yan-jun; Geng, Guo-jun; Zou, Zheng-zhi; Gao, Jing; Luo, Xian-yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Ning; Li, Chun-lei; Chen, Yu-qiang; Yu, Xiu-yi; Jiang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the chemotherapy efficacy against NSCLC is still unsatisfactory. Previous studies show the herbal antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA) displays cytotoxic to multiple human tumors. Here, we showed that DHA decreased cell viability and colony formation, induced apoptosis in A549 and PC-9 cells. Additionally, we first revealed DHA inhibited glucose uptake in NSCLC cells. Moreover, glycolytic metabolism was attenuated by DHA, including inhibition of ATP and lactate production. Consequently, we demonstrated that the phosphorylated forms of both S6 ribosomal protein and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and GLUT1 levels were abrogated by DHA treatment in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, the upregulation of mTOR activation by high expressed Rheb increased the level of glycolytic metabolism and cell viability inhibited by DHA. These results suggested that DHA-suppressed glycolytic metabolism might be associated with mTOR activation and GLUT1 expression. Besides, we showed GLUT1 overexpression significantly attenuated DHA-triggered NSCLC cells apoptosis. Notably, DHA synergized with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor) to reduce cell viability and increase cell apoptosis in A549 and PC-9 cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to WI-38 cells, a normal lung fibroblast cell line. More importantly, 2DG synergistically potentiated DHA-induced activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, as well as the levels of both cytochrome c and AIF of cytoplasm. However, 2DG failed to increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels elicited by DHA. Overall, the data shown above indicated DHA plus 2DG induced apoptosis was involved in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in NSCLC cells.

  14. Exercise training in the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition prevents glucose intolerance in alloxan-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Soares de Alencar Mota, Clécia; Ribeiro, Carla; de Araújo, Gustavo Gomes; de Araújo, Michel Barbosa; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Luciano, Eliete; de Mello, Maria Alice Rostom

    2008-10-02

    Ninety percent of cases of diabetes are of the slowly evolving non-insulin-dependent type, or Type 2 diabetes. Lack of exercise is regarded as one of the main causes of this disorder. In this study we analyzed the effects of physical exercise on glucose homeostasis in adult rats with type 2 diabetes induced by a neonatal injection of alloxan. Female Wistar rats aged 6 days were injected with either 250 mg/kg of body weight of alloxan or citrate buffer 0.01 M (controls). After weaning, half of the animals in each group were subjected to physical training adjusted to meet the aerobic-anaerobic metabolic transition by swimming 1 h/day for 5 days a week with weight overloads. The necessary overload used was set and periodically readjusted for each rat through effort tests based on the maximal lactate steady state procedure. When aged 28, 60, 90, and 120 days, the rats underwent glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and their peripheral insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the HOMA index. The area under the serum glucose curve obtained through GTT was always higher in alloxan-treated animals than in controls. A decrease in this area was observed in trained alloxan-treated rats at 90 and 120 days old compared with non-trained animals. At 90 days old the trained controls showed lower HOMA indices than the non-trained controls. Neonatal administration of alloxan induced a persistent glucose intolerance in all injected rats, which was successfully counteracted by physical training in the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition.

  15. GLUT2-mediated glucose uptake and availability are required for embryonic brain development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Juez, Rubén; Rovira, Mireia; Crespo, Diego; van der Vaart, Michiel; Spaink, Herman P; Planas, Josep V

    2015-01-01

    Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2; gene name SLC2A2) has a key role in the regulation of glucose dynamics in organs central to metabolism. Although GLUT2 has been studied in the context of its participation in peripheral and central glucose sensing, its role in the brain is not well understood. To decipher the role of GLUT2 in brain development, we knocked down slc2a2 (glut2), the functional ortholog of human GLUT2, in zebrafish. Abrogation of glut2 led to defective brain organogenesis, reduced glucose uptake and increased programmed cell death in the brain. Coinciding with the observed localization of glut2 expression in the zebrafish hindbrain, glut2 deficiency affected the development of neural progenitor cells expressing the proneural genes atoh1b and ptf1a but not those expressing neurod. Specificity of the morphant phenotype was demonstrated by the restoration of brain organogenesis, whole-embryo glucose uptake, brain apoptosis, and expression of proneural markers in rescue experiments. These results indicate that glut2 has an essential role during brain development by facilitating the uptake and availability of glucose and support the involvement of glut2 in brain glucose sensing. PMID:25294126

  16. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  17. Trinucleotide Insertions, Deletions, and Point Mutations in Glucose Transporters Confer K+ Uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hong; Ko, Christopher H.; Herman, Todd; Gaber, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Deletion of TRK1 and TRK2 abolishes high-affinity K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in the inability to grow on typical synthetic growth medium unless it is supplemented with very high concentrations of potassium. Selection for spontaneous suppressors that restored growth of trk1Δ trk2Δ cells on K+-limiting medium led to the isolation of cells with unusual gain-of-function mutations in the glucose transporter genes HXT1 and HXT3 and the glucose/galactose transporter gene GAL2. 86Rb uptake assays demonstrated that the suppressor mutations conferred increased uptake of the ion. In addition to K+, the mutant hexose transporters also conferred permeation of other cations, including Na+. Because the selection strategy required such gain of function, mutations that disrupted transporter maturation or localization to the plasma membrane were avoided. Thus, the importance of specific sites in glucose transport could be independently assessed by testing for the ability of the mutant transporter to restore glucose-dependent growth to cells containing null alleles of all of the known functional glucose transporter genes. Twelve sites, most of which are conserved among eukaryotic hexose transporters, were revealed to be essential for glucose transport. Four of these have previously been shown to be essential for glucose transport by animal or plant transporters. Eight represented sites not previously known to be crucial for glucose uptake. Each suppressor mutant harbored a single mutation that altered an amino acid(s) within or immediately adjacent to a putative transmembrane domain of the transporter. Seven of 38 independent suppressor mutations consisted of in-frame insertions or deletions. The nature of the insertions and deletions revealed a striking DNA template dependency: each insertion generated a trinucleotide repeat, and each deletion involved the removal of a repeated nucleotide sequence. PMID:9447989

  18. Amino acid and glucose uptake by rat brown adipose tissue. Effect of cold-exposure and acclimation.

    PubMed Central

    López-Soriano, F J; Fernández-López, J A; Mampel, T; Villarroya, F; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1988-01-01

    The net uptake/release of glucose, lactate and amino acids from the bloodstream by the interscapular brown adipose tissue of control, cold-exposed and cold-acclimated rats was estimated by measurement of arteriovenous differences in their concentrations. In the control animals amino acids contributed little to the overall energetic needs of the tissue; glucose uptake was more than compensated by lactate efflux. Cold-exposure resulted in an enhancement of amino acid utilization and of glucose uptake, with high lactate efflux. There was a net glycine and proline efflux that partly compensated the positive nitrogen balance of the tissue; amino acids accounted for about one-third of the energy supplied by glucose to the tissue. Cold-acclimation resulted in a very high increase in glucose uptake, with a parallel decrease in lactate efflux and amino acid consumption. Branched-chain amino acids, however, were more actively utilized. This was related with a much higher alanine efflux, in addition to that of glycine and proline. It is suggested that most of the glucose used during cold-exposure is returned to the bloodstream as lactate under conditions of active lipid utilization, amino acids contributing their skeletons largely in anaplerotic pathways. On the other hand, cold-acclimation resulted in an important enhancement of glucose utilization, with lowered amino acid oxidation. Amino acids are thus used as metabolic substrates by the brown adipose tissue of rats under conditions of relatively scarce substrate availability, but mainly as anaplerotic substrates, in parallel to glucose. Cold-acclimation results in a shift of the main substrates used in thermogenesis from lipid to glucose, with a much lower need for amino acids. PMID:3421924

  19. Stimulation of glucose uptake by Musa sp. (cv. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem extracts in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Nandini, Chilkunda D

    2011-06-01

    Glucose uptake study plays a major role in diabetes research. Impaired glucose uptake has been implicated in the development of hyperglycemia during diabetes. Banana plant is known for its anti-diabetic properties and our earlier report revealed that banana flower and pseudostem of Musa sp. cv. elakki bale is beneficial during diabetes in rat models. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential effect of banana flower and pseudostem extracts on glucose uptake in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells using 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analogue of 2-deoxyglucose. Methanol and aqueous extracts of banana flower and pseudostem were more potent in promoting glucose uptake in EAT cells, in comparison to acetone and ethanol extracts. At 20 µg dosage, highest net glucose uptake was observed in aqueous extracts of banana flower (18.17 ± 0.43 nmol L⁻¹) and pseudostem (19.69 ± 0.41 nmol L⁻¹). Total polyphenol content was higher in methanol (9.031 ± 0.036 g kg⁻¹) and aqueous (6.862 ± 0.024 g kg⁻¹) extracts of banana flower compared to pseudostem, which were 0.442 ± 0.006 and 0.811 ± 0.011 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Banana flower and pseudostem extracts are able to promote glucose uptake into the cells, presumably through glucose transporters 1 and 3, which could be beneficial in diabetes. Glucose uptake is likely promoted by phenolic acids besides other bioactives. It can be hypothesized that consumption of nutraceutical-rich extract of banana flower and pseudostem could replace some amount of insulin being taken for diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Hepatitis C virus induces a prediabetic state by directly impairing hepatic glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Lerat, Hervé; Imache, Mohamed Rabah; Polyte, Jacqueline; Gaudin, Aurore; Mercey, Marion; Donati, Flora; Baudesson, Camille; Higgs, Martin R; Picard, Alexandre; Magnan, Christophe; Foufelle, Fabienne; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-08-04

    Virus-related type 2 diabetes is commonly observed in individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Our aim was to unravel these mechanisms using FL-N/35 transgenic mice expressing the full HCV ORF. We observed that these mice displayed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. We also found that Glut-2 membrane expression was reduced in FL-N/35 mice and that hepatocyte glucose uptake was perturbed, partly accounting for the HCV-induced glucose intolerance in these mice. Early steps of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, from IRS2 to PDK1 phosphorylation, were constitutively impaired in FL-N/35 primary hepatocytes via deregulation of TNFα/SOCS3. Higher hepatic glucose production was observed in the HCV mice, despite higher fasting insulinemia, concomitant with decreased expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Akt kinase activity was higher in HCV mice than in WT mice, but Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 at serine 256, which triggers its nuclear exclusion, was lower in HCV mouse livers. These findings indicate an uncoupling of the canonical Akt/FoxO1 pathway in HCV protein-expressing hepatocytes. Thus, the expression of HCV proteins in the liver is sufficient to induce insulin resistance by impairing insulin signaling and glucose uptake. In conclusion, we observed a complete set of events leading to a prediabetic state in HCV-transgenic mice, providing a valuable mechanistic explanation for HCV-induced diabetes in humans. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Fasting hyperglycaemia blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance after exercise training in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Malin, S K; Kirwan, J P

    2012-09-01

    Lifestyle modification, consisting of exercise and weight loss, delays the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, no study has determined the efficacy of exercise training on glucose metabolism in the different prediabetes subtypes. Seventy-six older (65.1 ± 0.6 years) obese adults with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 9) and combined glucose intolerance (IFG + IGT = CGI; n = 22) were compared with normal glucose tolerant (NGT; n = 15) and T2D (n = 18) groups after 12 weeks of exercise training (60 min/day for 5 days/week at ~85% HR(max)). An oral glucose tolerance test was used to assess glucose levels. Insulin sensitivity (IS; euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp at 40 mU/m(2)/min), β-cell function (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion corrected for IS), body composition (hydrostatic weighing/computed tomography scan) and cardiovascular fitness (treadmill VO(2) max) were also assessed. Exercise training reduced weight and increased cardiovascular fitness (p < 0.05). Exercise training lowered fasting glucose levels in IFG, CGI and T2D (p < 0.05) and 2-h glucose levels in IGT, CGI and T2D (p < 0.05). However, 2-h glucose levels were not normalized in adults with CGI compared with IGT (p < 0.05). β-Cell function improved similarly across groups (p < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, IS increased approximately 40% in IFG and IGT, but only 17% in CGI. The magnitude of improvement in glucose metabolism after 12 weeks of exercise training is not uniform across the prediabetes subtypes. Given the high risk of progressing to T2D, adults with CGI may require more aggressive therapies to prevent diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  3. Lack of skeletal muscle IL-6 influences hepatic glucose metabolism in mice during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla L; Knudsen, Jakob G; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-04-01

    The liver is essential in maintaining and regulating glucose homeostasis during prolonged exercise. IL-6 has been shown to be secreted from skeletal muscle during exercise and has been suggested to signal to the liver. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle IL-6 on hepatic glucose regulation and substrate choice during prolonged exercise. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice (age, 12-14 wk) and littermate lox/lox (Control) mice were either rested (Rest) or completed a single bout of exercise for 10, 60, or 120 min, and the liver was quickly obtained. Hepatic IL-6 mRNA was higher at 60 min of exercise, and hepatic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was higher at 120 min of exercise than at rest in both genotypes. Hepatic glycogen was higher in IL-6 MKO mice than control mice at rest, but decreased similarly during exercise in the two genotypes, and hepatic glucose content was lower in IL-6 MKO than control mice at 120 min of exercise. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA and protein increased in both genotypes at 120 min of exercise, whereas hepatic glucose 6 phosphatase protein remained unchanged. Furthermore, IL-6 MKO mice had higher hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) Ser232 and PDH Ser300 phosphorylation than control mice at rest. In conclusion, hepatic gluconeogenic capacity in mice is increased during prolonged exercise independent of muscle IL-6. Furthermore, Skeletal muscle IL-6 influences hepatic substrate regulation at rest and hepatic glucose metabolism during prolonged exercise, seemingly independent of IL-6 signaling in the liver. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Fructose utilization during exercise in men: rapid conversion of ingested fructose to circulating glucose.

    PubMed

    Jandrain, B J; Pallikarakis, N; Normand, S; Pirnay, F; Lacroix, M; Mosora, F; Pachiaudi, C; Gautier, J F; Scheen, A J; Riou, J P

    1993-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the metabolic fate of repeated doses of fructose or glucose ingested every 30 min during long-duration moderate-intensity exercise in men. Healthy volunteers exercised for 3 h on a treadmill at 45% of their maximal oxygen consumption rate. "Naturally labeled" [13C]glucose or [13C]fructose was given orally at 25-g doses every 30 min (total feeding: 150 g; n = 6 in each group). Substrate utilization was evaluated by indirect calorimetry, and exogenous sugar oxidation was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on expired CO2. Results were corrected for baseline drift in 13C/12C ratio in expired air due to exercise alone. Fructose conversion to plasma glucose was measured combining gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Most of the ingested glucose was oxidized: 81 +/- 4 vs. 57 +/- 2 g/3 h for fructose (2P < 0.005). Exogenous glucose covered 20.8 +/- 1.4% of the total energy need (+/- 6.7 MJ) compared with 14.0 +/- 0.6% for fructose (2P < 0.005). The contribution of total carbohydrates was significantly higher and that of lipids significantly lower with glucose than with fructose. The blood glucose response was similar in both protocols. From 90 to 180 min, 55-60% of circulating glucose was derived from ingested fructose. In conclusion, when ingested repeatedly during moderate-intensity prolonged exercise, fructose is metabolically less available than glucose, despite a high rate of conversion to circulating glucose.

  5. Effects of glucose on the uptake and metabolism of glycine in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) exposed to various nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Xie, Yinan; Xiao, Han; Tan, Xiaoli; Wu, Lianghuan

    2017-03-02

    Plants can absorb amino acids as a nitrogen (N) source, and glucose is an important part of root rhizodeposition and the soil sugar pool, which participates in the regulation of plant growth and uptake. In pakchoi, the effect of glucose concentration on the glycine N uptake from a nutrient mixture composed of glycine, ammonium, and nitrate, or from a single N solution of glycine alone was studied using specific substrate 15 N-labeling and 15 N-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimal glucose concentration for plant growth was 4.5 μM or 25 μM when supplied with glycine alone or the N mixture, respectively, and resulted in a >25% increase in seedling biomass. The addition of glucose affected the relative contribution from organic or inorganic sources to overall N uptake. When glucose was added at optimal concentrations, glycine was preferentially used as an N source, while the relative contribution from nitrate was reduced. The limiting step for glycine N contribution was active uptake in the roots in high glucose and single-N-source conditions; however, root metabolism of glycine to serine was limiting in high-glucose and mixed-N-source conditions. The addition of low concentrations of glucose increased the relative uptake of organic nitrogen and reduced the uptake of nitrate, suggesting a feasible way to decrease nitrate content and increase the edible quality of vegetables.

  6. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Improvement in Glucose Disposal and Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Jiang, Boyi; Breton, Marc; Patrie, James; Barrett, Eugene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults. Methods: Subjects (n = 18; age 49 ± 14 y; fasting glucose 105 ± 11 mg/dL; 2 h glucose 170 ± 32 mg/dL) completed a peak O2 consumption/lactate threshold (LT) protocol plus three randomly assigned conditions: 1) control, 1 hour of seated rest, 2) MIE (at LT), and 3) HIE (75% of difference between LT and peak O2 consumption). One hour after exercise, subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were sampled at 5- to 10-minute intervals at baseline, during exercise, after exercise, and for 3 hours after glucose ingestion. Total, early-phase, and late-phase area under the glucose and insulin response curves were compared between conditions. Indices of insulin sensitivity (SI) were derived from OGTT data using the oral minimal model. Results: Compared with control, SI improved by 51% (P = .02) and 85% (P < .001) on the MIE and HIE days, respectively. No differences in SI were observed between the exercise conditions (P = .62). Improvements in SI corresponded to significant reductions in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide area under the curve values during the late phase of the OGTT after HIE (P < .05), with only a trend for reductions after MIE. Conclusion: These results suggest that in prediabetic adults, acute exercise has an immediate and intensity-dependent effect on improving postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24243632

  7. Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramadhar; Balaji, S; Uma, T S; Sehgal, P K

    2009-12-10

    Momordica charantia fruit is a widely used traditional medicinal herb as, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor. The present study is undertaken to investigate the possible mode of action of fruit extracts derived from Momordica charantia (MC) and study its pharmacological effects for controlling diabetic mellitus. Effects of aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit on glucose uptake and up-regulation of glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), were investigated to show its efficacy as a hypoglycaemic agent. Dose dependent glucose uptake assay was performed on L6 myotubes using 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H] glucose. Up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the mRNA expression level of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K have been studied. The association of Momordica charantia with the aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit at 6 microg/ml has shown significant up-regulatory effect, respectively, by 3.6-, 2.8- and 3.8-fold on the battery of targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K involved in glucose transport. The up-regulation of glucose uptake was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone which was approximately 2-fold over the control. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the cyclohexamide on Momordica charantia fruit extract mediated glucose uptake suggested the requirement of new protein synthesis for the enhanced glucose uptake. This study demonstrated the significance of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K up-regulation by Momordica charantia in augmenting the glucose uptake and homeostasis.

  8. Uptake of a fluorescent L-glucose derivative 2-NBDLG into three-dimensionally accumulating insulinoma cells in a phloretin-sensitive manner.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ayako; Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Ono, Koki; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Otsuka, Yuji; Teshima, Tadashi; Yamada, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Of two stereoisomers of glucose, only D- and not L-glucose is abundantly found in nature, being utilized as an essential fuel by most organisms. The uptake of D-glucose into mammalian cells occurs through glucose transporters such as GLUTs, and this process has been effectively monitored by a fluorescent D-glucose derivative 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) at the single cell level. However, since fluorescence is an arbitrary measure, we have developed a fluorescent analog of L-glucose 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-L-glucose (2-NBDLG), as a negative control substrate for more accurately identifying the stereoselectivity of the uptake. Interestingly, a small portion of mouse insulinoma cells MIN6 abundantly took up 2-NBDLG at a late culture stage (≳ 10 days in vitro, DIV) when multi-cellular spheroids exhibiting heterogeneous nuclei were formed, whereas no such uptake was detected at an early culture stage (≲ 6 DIV). The 2-NBDLG uptake was persistently observed in the presence of a GLUT inhibitor cytochalasin B. Neither D- nor L-glucose in 50 mM abolished the uptake. No significant inhibition was detected by inactivating sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) with Na(+)-free condition. To our surprise, the 2-NBDLG uptake was totally inhibited by phloretin, a broad spectrum inhibitor against transporters/channels including GLUTs and aquaporins. From these, a question might be raised if non-GLUT/non-SGLT pathways participate in the 2-NBDLG uptake into spheroid-forming MIN6 insulinoma. It might also be worthwhile investigating whether 2-NBDLG can be used as a functional probe for detecting cancer, since the nuclear heterogeneity is among critical features of malignancy.

  9. Effects of exercise training alone vs a combined exercise and nutritional lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in prediabetic individuals: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Slentz, Cris A; Bateman, Lori A; Willis, Leslie H; Granville, Esther O; Piner, Lucy W; Samsa, Gregory P; Setji, Tracy L; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Huffman, Kim M; Bales, Connie W; Kraus, William E

    2016-10-01

    Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) established lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight loss) as the 'gold standard' preventive therapy for diabetes, the relative contribution of exercise alone to the overall utility of the combined diet and exercise effect of DPP is unknown; furthermore, the optimal intensity of exercise for preventing progression to diabetes remains very controversial. To establish clinical efficacy, we undertook a study (2009 to 2013) to determine: how much of the effect on measures of glucose homeostasis of a 6 month programme modelled after the first 6 months of the DPP is due to exercise alone; whether moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise is better for improving glucose homeostasis; and to what extent amount of exercise is a contributor to improving glucose control. The primary outcome was improvement in fasting plasma glucose, with improvement in plasma glucose AUC response to an OGTT as the major secondary outcome. The trial was a parallel clinical trial. Sedentary, non-smokers who were 45-75 year old adults (n = 237) with elevated fasting glucose (5.28-6.94 mmol/l) but without cardiovascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, or diabetes, from the Durham area, were studied at Duke University. They were randomised into one of four 6 month interventions: (1) low amount (42 kJ kg body weight(-1) week(-1) [KKW])/moderate intensity: equivalent of expending 42 KKW (e.g. walking ∼16 km [8.6 miles] per week) with moderate-intensity (50% [Formula: see text]) exercise; (2) high amount (67 KKW)/moderate intensity: equivalent of expending 67 KKW (∼22.3 km [13.8 miles] per week) with moderate-intensity exercise; (3) high amount (67 KKW)/vigorous intensity: equivalent to group 2, but with vigorous-intensity exercise (75% [Formula: see text]); and (4) diet + 42 KKW moderate intensity: same as group 1 but with diet and weight loss (7%) to mimic the first 6 months of the DPP. Computer-generated randomisation lists

  10. The amine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine limits lipogenesis in adipocytes without inhibiting insulin action on glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Carpéné, Christian; Grès, Sandra; Rascalou, Simon

    2013-06-01

    The antidepressant phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor known to inhibit various other enzymes, among them semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (currently named primary amine oxidase: SSAO/PrAO), absent from neurones but abundant in adipocytes. It has been reported that phenelzine inhibits adipocyte differentiation of cultured preadipocytes. To further explore the involved mechanisms, our aim was to study in vitro the acute effects of phenelzine on de novo lipogenesis in mature fat cells. Therefore, glucose uptake and incorporation into lipid were measured in mouse adipocytes in response to phenelzine, other hydrazine-based SSAO/PrAO-inhibitors, and reference agents. None of the inhibitors was able to impair the sevenfold activation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake induced by insulin. Phenelzine did not hamper the effect of lower doses of insulin. However, insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids was dose-dependently inhibited by phenelzine and pentamidine, but not by semicarbazide or BTT2052. In contrast, all these SSAO/PrAO inhibitors abolished the transport and lipogenesis stimulation induced by benzylamine. These data indicate that phenelzine does not inhibit glucose transport, the first step of lipogenesis, but inhibits at 100 μM the intracellular triacylglycerol assembly, consistently with its long-term anti-adipogenic effect and such rapid action was not found with all the hydrazine derivatives tested. Therefore, the alterations of body weight control consecutive to the use of this antidepressant drug might be not only related to central effects on food intake/energy expenditure, but could also depend on its direct action in adipocytes. Nonetheless, phenelzine antilipogenic action is not merely dependent on SSAO/PrAO inhibition.

  11. Role of reactive oxygen species in contraction-mediated glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, Marie E; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Bruton, Joseph; Silva, José P; Reid, Michael B; Westerblad, Håkan; Katz, Abram

    2006-01-01

    Exercise increases glucose transport into skeletal muscle via a pathway that is poorly understood. We investigated the role of endogenously produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in contraction-mediated glucose transport. Repeated contractions increased 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake roughly threefold in isolated, mouse extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch) muscle. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a non-specific antioxidant, inhibited contraction-mediated 2-DG uptake by ∼50% (P < 0.05 versus control values), but did not significantly affect basal 2-DG uptake or the uptake induced by insulin, hypoxia or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR, which mimics AMP-mediated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK). Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimetic, also inhibited contraction-mediated 2-DG uptake (by almost 60%, P < 0.001 versus control values). Muscles from mice overexpressing Mn2+-dependent superoxide dismutase, which catalyses H2O2 production from superoxide anions, exhibited a ∼25% higher rate of contraction-mediated 2-DG uptake versus muscles from wild-type control mice (P < 0.05). Exogenous H2O2 induced oxidative stress, as judged by an increase in the [GSSG]/[GSH + GSSG] (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) ratio to 2.5 times control values, and this increase was substantially blocked by NAC. Similarly, NAC significantly attenuated contraction-mediated oxidative stress as judged by measurements of glutathione status and the intracellular ROS level with the fluorescent indicator 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (P < 0.05). Finally, contraction increased AMPK activity and phosphorylation ∼10-fold, and NAC blocked ∼50% of these changes. These data indicate that endogenously produced ROS, possibly H2O2 or its derivatives, play an important role in contraction-mediated activation of glucose transport in fast-twitch muscle. PMID:16777943

  12. Stimulation of brain glucose uptake by cannabinoid CB2 receptors and its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Köfalvi, Attila; Lemos, Cristina; Martín-Moreno, Ana M; Pinheiro, Bárbara S; García-García, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A; Valério-Fernandes, Ângela; Beleza, Rui O; Agostinho, Paula; Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Pasquaré, Susana J; Cunha, Rodrigo A; de Ceballos, María L

    2016-11-01

    Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) are emerging as important therapeutic targets in brain disorders that typically involve neurometabolic alterations. We here addressed the possible role of CB2Rs in the regulation of glucose uptake in the mouse brain. To that aim, we have undertaken 1) measurement of (3)H-deoxyglucose uptake in cultured cortical astrocytes and neurons and in acute hippocampal slices; 2) real-time visualization of fluorescently labeled deoxyglucose uptake in superfused hippocampal slices; and 3) in vivo PET imaging of cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. We now show that both selective (JWH133 and GP1a) as well as non-selective (WIN55212-2) CB2R agonists, but not the CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA, stimulate glucose uptake, in a manner that is sensitive to the CB2R-selective antagonist, AM630. Glucose uptake is stimulated in astrocytes and neurons in culture, in acute hippocampal slices, in different brain areas of young adult male C57Bl/6j and CD-1 mice, as well as in middle-aged C57Bl/6j mice. Among the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, the selective inhibition of COX-2, rather than that of FAAH, MAGL or α,βDH6/12, also stimulates the uptake of glucose in hippocampal slices of middle-aged mice, an effect that was again prevented by AM630. However, we found the levels of the endocannabinoid, anandamide reduced in the hippocampus of TgAPP-2576 mice (a model of β-amyloidosis), and likely as a consequence, COX-2 inhibition failed to stimulate glucose uptake in these mice. Together, these results reveal a novel general glucoregulatory role for CB2Rs in the brain, raising therapeutic interest in CB2R agonists as nootropic agents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucose Uptake in the Human Pathogen Schistosoma mansoni Is Regulated Through Akt/Protein Kinase B Signaling.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Maxine; Kirk, Ruth S; Walker, Anthony J

    2018-06-05

    In Schistosoma mansoni, the facilitated glucose transporter SGTP4, which is expressed uniquely in the apical surface tegumental membranes of the parasite, imports glucose from host blood to support its growth, development, and reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin glucose uptake in this blood fluke are not understood. In this study we employed techniques including Western blotting, immunolocalization, confocal laser scanning microscopy, pharmacological assays, and RNA interference to functionally characterize and map activated Akt in S mansoni. We find that Akt, which could be activated by host insulin and l-arginine, was active in the tegument layer of both schistosomules and adult worms. Blockade of Akt attenuated the expression and evolution of SGTP4 at the surface of the host-invading larval parasite life-stage, and suppressed SGTP4 expression at the tegument in adults; concomitant glucose uptake by the parasite was also attenuated in both scenarios. These findings shed light on crucial mechanistic signaling processes that underpin the energetics of glucose uptake in schistosomes, which may open up novel avenues for antischistosome drug development.

  14. Herbivory-induced glucose transporter gene expression in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shingo; Nakamura, Yuki; Hattori, Makoto; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Noda, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) feeds on rice phloem sap, containing high amounts of sucrose as a carbon source. Nutrients such as sugars in the digestive tract are incorporated into the body cavity via transporters with substrate selectivity. Eighteen sugar transporter genes of BPH (Nlst) were reported and three transporters have been functionally characterized. However, individual characteristics of NlST members associated with sugar transport remain poorly understood. Comparative gene expression analyses using oligo-microarray and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the sugar transporter gene Nlst16 was markedly up-regulated during BPH feeding. Expression of Nlst16 was induced 2 h after BPH feeding on rice plants. Nlst16, mainly expressed in the midgut, appears to be involved in carbohydrate incorporation from the gut cavity into the hemolymph. Nlst1 (NlHT1), the most highly expressed sugar transporter gene in the midgut was not up-regulated during BPH feeding. The biochemical function of NlST16 was shown as facilitative glucose transport along gradients. Glucose uptake activity by NlST16 was higher than that of NlST1 in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. At least two NlST members are responsible for glucose uptake in the BPH midgut, suggesting that the midgut of BPH is equipped with various types of transporters having diversified manner for sugar uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are glucose levels, glucose variability and autonomic control influenced by inspiratory muscle exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schein, Aso; Correa, Aps; Casali, Karina Rabello; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-20

    Physical exercise reduces glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acute inspiratory muscle exercise has been shown to reduce these parameters in a small group of patients with type 2 diabetes, but these results have yet to be confirmed in a well-designed study. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute inspiratory muscle exercise on glucose levels, glucose variability, and cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study will use a randomized clinical trial crossover design. A total of 14 subjects will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups to perform acute inspiratory muscle loading at 2 % of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, placebo load) or 60 % of PImax (experimental load). Inspiratory muscle training could be a novel exercise modality to be used to decrease glucose levels and glucose variability. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02292810 .

  16. Maltitol inhibits small intestinal glucose absorption and increases insulin mediated muscle glucose uptake ex vivo but not in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of maltitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake using ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The ex vivo experiment was conducted in isolated jejunum and psoas muscle from normal rats. The in vivo study investigated the effects of a single bolus dose of maltitol on gastric emptying, intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Maltitol inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejunum and increased glucose uptake in isolated rat psoas muscle in the presence of insulin but not in the absence of insulin. In contrast, maltitol did not significantly (p > 0.05) alter small intestinal glucose absorption or blood glucose levels as well as gastric emptying and digesta transit in normal or type 2 diabetic rats. The results suggest that maltitol may not be a suitable dietary supplement for anti-diabetic food and food products to improve glycemic control.

  17. Influence of muscle mass and work on post-exercise glucose and insulin responses in young untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Brambrink, J K; Fluckey, J D; Hickey, M S; Craig, B W

    1997-11-01

    The 18 h post-exercise glucose and insulin responses of six male and six female subjects were measured following one- or two-leg cycling to determine the influence of muscle mass involvement and work. Each subject performed three exercise trials on a Cybex Met 100 cycle ergometer: (1) two-leg exercise for 30 min at 60% of the two-leg VO2 max; (2) one-leg exercise for 30 min at 60% of one-leg VO2 max; and (3) one-leg exercise (one-leg TW) at 60% of the one-leg VO2 max with the total work performed equal to that of the two-leg trial (duration approximately 50 min). These trials were preceded by 2 days of inactivity and followed by an 18 h post-exercise 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The glucose response during the baseline OGTT demonstrated that the subjects had normal glucose tolerance with fasting serum glucose levels of 5.1 mM, and 1 and 2 h serum glucose less than 7.8 mM, respectively. The 18 h post-exercise glucose responses were significantly lower following the two-leg trial (P < 0.05), with the area under the curve values being 129.9 mM h-1 less than the resting control level. The 18 h post-exercise insulin AUC response of the two-leg trial was significantly lower than either of the one-leg responses (14.7 pM below the one-leg and 5.0 pM below the one-leg TW) but was not associated with a change in C-peptide. The 18 h post-exercise insulin levels of the one-leg and one-leg TW trials were above or near the resting control values, but were not accompanied by a significant change in C-peptide. In conclusion, the data presented here show that the amount of muscle tissue utilized during an exercise bout can influence both the glucose and insulin responses, whereas the amount of total work employed during the exercise had no effect on either of these parameters.

  18. Honokiol and magnolol stimulate glucose uptake by activating PI3K-dependent Akt in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Young-Sil; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Honokiol and magnolol, ingredients of Magnolia officinalis, which is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines, have been reported to have antioxidant, anticancer, and antiangiogenic effects. Effects of these compounds on glucose metabolism in adipocytes have also been reported. However, their effects on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the direct effects and signaling pathways activated by honokiol and magnolol in skeletal muscle cells using L6 myotubes. We found that honokiol and magnolol dose-dependently acutely stimulated glucose uptake without synergistic effects of combined administration in L6 myotubes. Treatment with honokiol and magnolol also stimulated glucose transporter-4 translocation to the cell surface. Honokiol- and magnolol-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. Both honokiol and magnolol stimulated Akt phosphorylation, a key element in the insulin signaling pathway, which was completely inhibited by wortmannin. These results suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism by activating the insulin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine protects against exercise induced myocardial ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Castro, R R T; Porphirio, G; Serra, S M; Nóbrega, A C L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the acute effects of pyridostigmine bromide, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Design: Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study. Setting: Outpatients evaluated in an exercise test laboratory. Patients: 15 patients with exercise induced myocardial ischaemia. Interventions: Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill according to an individualised ramp protocol on three days. The first day was used for adaptation to the equipment and to determine exercise tolerance and the presence of exercise induced ischaemia. On the other two days, the cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed two hours after oral administration of pyridostigmine (45 mg) or placebo. All patients were taking their usual medication during the experiments. Main outcome measures: Rate–pressure product and oxygen uptake during exercise. Results: Pyridostigmine inhibited the submaximum chronotropic response (p  =  0.001), delaying the onset of myocardial ischaemia, which occurred at a similar rate–pressure product (mean (SE) placebo 20.55 (1.08) mm Hg × beats/min 103; pyridostigmine 19.75 (1.28) mm Hg × beats/min 103; p  =  0.27) but at a higher exercise intensity (oxygen consumption: placebo 18.6 (1.7) ml/kg/min; pyridostigmine 19.6 (1.8) ml/kg/min; p  =  0.03). Also, pyridostigmine increased peak oxygen consumption (placebo 23.6 (2) ml/kg/min; pyridostigmine 24.8 (2) ml/kg/min; p  =  0.01) and peak oxygen pulse (placebo 12.9 (1) ml/beat; pyridostigmine 13.6 (1) ml/beat; p  =  0.02). Conclusions: Pyridostigmine improved peak exercise tolerance and inhibited the chronotropic response to submaximum exercise, increasing the intensity at which myocardial ischaemia occurred. These results suggest that pyridostigmine can protect against exercise induced myocardial ischaemia. PMID:15367503

  20. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth by simultaneous uptake of glucose and maltose.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Haruyo; Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars. Mal21p was found to be the most resistant transporter to glucose-induced degradation, and strain (HD17) expressing MAL21 grew on a medium containing glucose or maltose, but not on a medium containing both sugars (YPDM). This unexpected growth defect was observed on a medium containing glucose and >0.1% maltose but was not exhibited by a strain that constitutively expressed maltase. The defect depended on intracellular maltose concentration. Although maltose accumulation caused a surge in turgor pressure, addition of sorbitol to YPDM did not increase growth. When strain HD17 was cultivated in a medium containing only maltose, protein synthesis was inhibited at early times but subsequently resumed with reduction in accumulated maltose, but not if the medium was exchanged for YPDM. We conclude that protein synthesis was terminated under the accumulation of maltose, regardless of extracellular osmolarity, and HD17 could not resume growth, because the intracellular concentration of maltose did not decrease due to insufficient synthesis of maltase. Yeast should incorporate maltose after expressing adequate maltase in beer brewing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p < 0.05), however, post hoc statistical tests did not reveal any differences (p > 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  2. Bis-Indole-Derived NR4A1 Ligands and Metformin Exhibit NR4A1-Dependent Glucose Metabolism and Uptake in C2C12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Lee, Jehoon; Wu, Chia Shan; Sun, Yuxiang; Safe, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with metformin or the NR4A1 ligand 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) induced NR4A1 and Glut4 messenger RNA and protein expression. Similar results were observed with buttressed (3- or 3,5-substituted) analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH, including 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH-3-Cl-5-OCH3), and the buttressed analogs were more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH NR4A1 agonists. Metformin and the bis-indole substituted analogs also induced expression of several glycolytic genes and Rab4, which has previously been linked to enhancing cell membrane accumulation of Glut4 and overall glucose uptake in C2C12 cells, and these responses were also observed after treatment with metformin and the NR4A1 ligands. The role of NR4A1 in mediating the responses induced by the bis-indoles and metformin was determined by knockdown of NR4A1, and this resulted in attenuating the gene and protein expression and enhanced glucose uptake responses induced by these compounds. Our results demonstrate that the bis-indole-derived NR4A1 ligands represent a class of drugs that enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells, and we also show that the effects of metformin in this cell line are NR4A1-dependent.

  3. The Role of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown for Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jørgen; Rustad, Per Inge; Kolnes, Anders Jensen; Lai, Yu-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrates in mammals. In humans the majority of glycogen is stored in skeletal muscles (∼500 g) and the liver (∼100 g). Food is supplied in larger meals, but the blood glucose concentration has to be kept within narrow limits to survive and stay healthy. Therefore, the body has to cope with periods of excess carbohydrates and periods without supplementation. Healthy persons remove blood glucose rapidly when glucose is in excess, but insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is reduced in insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic subjects. During a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, 70–90% of glucose disposal will be stored as muscle glycogen in healthy subjects. The glycogen stores in skeletal muscles are limited because an efficient feedback-mediated inhibition of glycogen synthase prevents accumulation. De novo lipid synthesis can contribute to glucose disposal when glycogen stores are filled. Exercise physiologists normally consider glycogen’s main function as energy substrate. Glycogen is the main energy substrate during exercise intensity above 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max⁡) and fatigue develops when the glycogen stores are depleted in the active muscles. After exercise, the rate of glycogen synthesis is increased to replete glycogen stores, and blood glucose is the substrate. Indeed insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is elevated after exercise, which, from an evolutional point of view, will favor glycogen repletion and preparation for new “fight or flight” events. In the modern society, the reduced glycogen stores in skeletal muscles after exercise allows carbohydrates to be stored as muscle glycogen and prevents that glucose is channeled to de novo lipid synthesis, which over time will causes ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. The reduction of skeletal muscle glycogen after exercise allows a healthy storage of carbohydrates after meals and prevents development of type 2

  4. The role of skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown for regulation of insulin sensitivity by exercise.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen; Rustad, Per Inge; Kolnes, Anders Jensen; Lai, Yu-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrates in mammals. In humans the majority of glycogen is stored in skeletal muscles (∼500 g) and the liver (∼100 g). Food is supplied in larger meals, but the blood glucose concentration has to be kept within narrow limits to survive and stay healthy. Therefore, the body has to cope with periods of excess carbohydrates and periods without supplementation. Healthy persons remove blood glucose rapidly when glucose is in excess, but insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is reduced in insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic subjects. During a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, 70-90% of glucose disposal will be stored as muscle glycogen in healthy subjects. The glycogen stores in skeletal muscles are limited because an efficient feedback-mediated inhibition of glycogen synthase prevents accumulation. De novo lipid synthesis can contribute to glucose disposal when glycogen stores are filled. Exercise physiologists normally consider glycogen's main function as energy substrate. Glycogen is the main energy substrate during exercise intensity above 70% of maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and fatigue develops when the glycogen stores are depleted in the active muscles. After exercise, the rate of glycogen synthesis is increased to replete glycogen stores, and blood glucose is the substrate. Indeed insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is elevated after exercise, which, from an evolutional point of view, will favor glycogen repletion and preparation for new "fight or flight" events. In the modern society, the reduced glycogen stores in skeletal muscles after exercise allows carbohydrates to be stored as muscle glycogen and prevents that glucose is channeled to de novo lipid synthesis, which over time will causes ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. The reduction of skeletal muscle glycogen after exercise allows a healthy storage of carbohydrates after meals and prevents development of type 2

  5. Eccentric exercise decreases glucose transporter GLUT4 protein in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Asp, S; Daugaard, J R; Richter, E A

    1995-01-01

    1. Eccentric exercise causes impaired postexercise glycogen resynthesis. To study whether changes in muscle concentration of the glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein might be involved, seven healthy young men performed one-legged eccentric exercise by resisting knee flexion enforced by a motor-driven device. 2. The GLUT4 protein concentration in the exercised and in the control thigh was unchanged immediately after exercise. On days 1 and 2 after exercise, the GLUT4 protein concentration in the exercised muscle was 68 +/- 10 and 64 +/- 10% (means +/- S.E.M.; P < 0.05), respectively, of the concentration in the control muscle, and had returned to control values on days 4 and 7. 3. The muscle glycogen concentration decreased from 404 +/- 44 to 336 +/- 44 mmol (kg dry wt)-1 (P < 0.05) during exercise. The glycogen concentration remained significantly lower than in the control thigh on days 1 and 2 after exercise but on days 4 and 7 no differences were found. 4. Although no cause-effect relationship was established, these findings may suggest that decreased muscle concentrations of GLUT4 protein, and, hence, a decreased rate of glucose transport into muscle cells, may be involved in the sustained low glycogen concentration seen after eccentric exercise. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7738859

  6. [Increased glucose uptake by seborrheic keratosis on PET scan].

    PubMed

    Merklen-Djafri, C; Truntzer, P; Hassler, S; Cribier, B

    2017-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an examination based upon the uptake of a radioactive tracer by hypermetabolic cells. It is primarily used in tandem with tomodensitometry (PET-TDM) for cancer staging because of its high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of metastases. However, unusually high uptake may occur with benign tumours, including skin tumours. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of pathological uptake levels resulting from seborrhoeic keratosis. A 55-year-old male patient with oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma was referred to us following the discovery of an area of high marker uptake following PET-TDM and corresponding to a pigmented skin lesion. No other areas of suspect high uptake were seen. The lesion was surgically excised and histological examination indicated seborrhoeic keratosis. The histological appearance was that of standard seborrhoeic keratosis without any notable mitotic activity. PET-TDM is an examination that enables diagnosis of malignancy. However, rare cases have been described of increased marker uptake by benign cutaneous tumours such as histiocytofibroma, pilomatricoma and condyloma. To date, there have only been only very few cases of increased uptake due to seborrhoeic keratosis. This extremely unusual case of increased glucose uptake in PET-TDM due to seborrhoeic keratosis confirms that the hypermetabolic activity detected by this examination is not necessarily synonymous with malignancy and that confirmation by clinical and histological findings is essential. The reasons for increased metabolic activity within such benign tumours are not known. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre augments glucose uptake and ameliorates insulin resistance by upregulating glucose transporter-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and leptin levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLGS) on glucose transport (GLUT) and insulin resistance in vitro. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and GLUT-4 expression were assessed in L6 myotubes for concluding the GLUT activity, and adiponectin and leptin expression was studied in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line to determine the effect of MLGS (250-750 μg/ml) on insulin resistance. The findings of the experiments have demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake in all the tested concentrations of MLGS, further the glucose uptake activity of MLGS (750 μg/ml) was at par with rosiglitazone (50 μg/ml). Concomitantly, MLGS has shown enhanced GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, cycloheximide (CHX) had completely abolished the glucose uptake activity of MLGS when co-incubated, which further confirmed that glucose uptake activity of MLGS was linked to enhanced expression of GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ. In addition, in another experimental set, MLGS showed enhanced expression of adiponectin and leptin, thus confirms the ameliorative effect of MLGS on insulin resistance. These findings suggest that MLGS has an enhanced glucose uptake activity in L6 myotubes, and ameliorate the insulin resistance in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line in vitro.

  8. The effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on carbohydrate metabolism and performance during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Chou, Chieh J; Grathwohl, Dominik; Ross, Alastair B; Cooper, Karen A; Williamson, Gary; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of cocoa-enriched dark chocolate (DC) has been shown to alter glucose and insulin concentration during rest and exercise compared with cocoa-depleted control (CON). However, the impact of DC consumption on exercise metabolism and performance is uncertain. Therefore, we investigated carbohydrate metabolism via stable isotope tracer techniques during exercise after subjects ingested either DC or CON. Sixteen overnight-fasted male cyclists performed a single-blinded, randomized, crossover design trial, after consuming either DC or CON at 2 h prior to 2.5 h of steady-state (SS) exercise (∼45% peak oxygen uptake). This was followed by an ∼15-min time-trial (TT) and 60 min of recovery. [6,6-(2)H2]Glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose were infused during SS to assess glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd). After DC consumption, plasma (-)-glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) elevated throughout vs. CON. During SS, there was no difference in [6,6-(2)H2]glucose Ra between treatments, but towards the end of SS (last 60 min) there was a ∼16% decrease in Rd in DC vs. CON (p < 0.05). Accordingly, after DC there was an ∼18% significant decrease in plasma glucose oxidation (trial effect; p = 0.032), and an ∼15% increase in tracer-derived muscle glycogen utilization (p = 0.045) late during SS exercise. The higher blood glucose concentrations during exercise and recovery after DC consumption coincided with high concentrations of epicatechin and (or) theobromine. In summary, DC consumption altered muscle carbohydrate partitioning, between muscle glucose uptake and glycogen oxidation, but did not effect cycling TT performance.

  9. Involvement of functional groups on the surface of carboxyl group-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers bearing arbutin in inhibition of Na⁺/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated D-glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Shinji; Kanamitsu, Shun; Teraoka, Yumi; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Tamai, Ikumi; Muraoka, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Yohji; Kida, Toshiyuki; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2012-04-02

    A carboxyl group-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer (generation: 3.0) bearing arbutin, which is a substrate of Na⁺/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), via a nonbiodegradable ω-amino triethylene glycol linker (PAMAM-ARB), inhibits SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake, as does phloridzin, which is a typical SGLT1 inhibitor. Here, since our previous research revealed that the activity of arbutin was dramatically improved through conjugation with the dendrimer, we examined the involvement of functional groups on the dendrimer surface in inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake. PAMAM-ARB, with a 6.25% arbutin content, inhibited in vitro D-glucose uptake most strongly; the inhibitory effect decreased as the arbutin content increased. In vitro experiments using arbutin-free original dendrimers indicated that dendrimer-derived carboxyl groups actively participated in SGLT1 inhibition. However, the inhibitory effect was much less than that of PAMAM-ARB and was equal to that of glucose moiety-free PAMAM-ARB. Data supported that the glucose moiety of arbutin was essential for the high activity of PAMAM-ARB in SGLT1 inhibition. Analysis of the balance of each domain further suggested that carboxyl groups anchored PAMAM-ARB to SGLT1, and the subsequent binding of arbutin-derived glucose moieties to the target sites on SGLT1 resulted in strong inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake.

  10. The biphasic effect of extracellular glucose concentration on carbachol-induced fluid secretion from mouse submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Terachi, Momomi; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Sugita, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Cholinergic agonists evoke elevations of the cytoplasmic free-calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) to stimulate fluid secretion in salivary glands. Salivary flow rates are significantly reduced in diabetic patients. However, it remains elusive how salivary secretion is impaired in diabetes. Here, we used an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique to characterize the dependency of salivary flow rates on extracellular glucose concentration and activities of glucose transporters expressed in the glands. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced sustained fluid secretion, the rates of which were modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration in a biphasic manner. Both lowering the extracellular glucose concentration to less than 2.5 mM and elevating it to higher than 5 mM resulted in decreased CCh-induced fluid secretion. The CCh-induced salivary flow was suppressed by phlorizin, an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) located basolaterally in submandibular acinar cells, which is altered at the protein expression level in diabetic animal models. Our data suggest that SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake in acinar cells is required to maintain the fluid secretion by sustaining Cl - secretion in real-time. High extracellular glucose levels may suppress the CCh-induced secretion of salivary fluid by altering the activities of ion channels and transporters downstream of [Ca 2+ ] i signals. © 2018 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Binding Protein-2, Independently of IGF-1, Induces GLUT-4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Biruhalem; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Spranger, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is the predominant IGF binding protein produced during adipogenesis and is known to increase the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in myotubes. We investigated the IGFBP-2-induced changes in basal and insulin-stimulated GU in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. We further determined the role of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in mediating the IGFBP-2 and the impact of IGFBP-2 on the IGF-1-induced GU. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with IGFBP-2 in the presence and absence of insulin and IGF-1. Insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-2 induced a dose-dependent increase in GU. IGFBP-2 increased the insulin-induced GU after long-term incubation. The IGFBP-2-induced impact on GU was neither affected by insulin or IGF-1 receptor blockage nor by insulin receptor knockdown. IGFBP-2 significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, AMPK, TBC1D1, and PKCζ/λ and induced GLUT-4 translocation. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and AMPK significantly reduced IGFBP-2-stimulated GU. In conclusion, IGFBP-2 stimulates GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of PI3K/Akt, AMPK/TBC1D1, and PI3K/PKCζ/λ/GLUT-4 signaling. The stimulatory effect of IGFBP-2 on GU is independent of its binding to IGF-1 and is possibly not mediated through the insulin or IGF-1 receptor. This study highlights the potential role of IGFBP-2 in glucose metabolism. PMID:29422987

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Binding Protein-2, Independently of IGF-1, Induces GLUT-4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Biruhalem; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Spranger, Joachim; Arafat, Ayman M

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is the predominant IGF binding protein produced during adipogenesis and is known to increase the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in myotubes. We investigated the IGFBP-2-induced changes in basal and insulin-stimulated GU in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. We further determined the role of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in mediating the IGFBP-2 and the impact of IGFBP-2 on the IGF-1-induced GU. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with IGFBP-2 in the presence and absence of insulin and IGF-1. Insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-2 induced a dose-dependent increase in GU. IGFBP-2 increased the insulin-induced GU after long-term incubation. The IGFBP-2-induced impact on GU was neither affected by insulin or IGF-1 receptor blockage nor by insulin receptor knockdown. IGFBP-2 significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, AMPK, TBC1D1, and PKC ζ / λ and induced GLUT-4 translocation. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and AMPK significantly reduced IGFBP-2-stimulated GU. In conclusion, IGFBP-2 stimulates GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of PI3K/Akt, AMPK/TBC1D1, and PI3K/PKC ζ / λ /GLUT-4 signaling. The stimulatory effect of IGFBP-2 on GU is independent of its binding to IGF-1 and is possibly not mediated through the insulin or IGF-1 receptor. This study highlights the potential role of IGFBP-2 in glucose metabolism.

  13. Myricetin, quercetin and catechin-gallate inhibit glucose uptake in isolated rat adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4, mediates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and muscles, and the participation of GLUT4 in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions associated with obesity, visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance has been proposed. Glucose uptake by some members of the GLUT family, mainly GLUT1, is inhibited by flavonoids, the natural polyphenols present in fruits, vegetables and wine. Therefore it is of interest to establish if these polyphenolic compounds present in the diet, known to be effective antioxidants but also endowed with several other biological activities such as protein-tyrosine kinase inhibition, interfere with GLUT4 function. In the present study, we show that three flavonoids, quercetin, myricetin and catechin-gallate, inhibit the uptake of methylglucose by adipocytes over the concentration range of 10–100 μM. These three flavonoids show a competitive pattern of inhibition, with Ki=16, 33.5 and 90 μM respectively. In contrast, neither catechin nor gallic acid inhibit methylglucose uptake. To obtain a better understanding of the interaction among GLUT4 and flavonoids, we have derived a GLUT4 three-dimensional molecular comparative model, using structural co-ordinates from a GLUT3 comparative model and a mechanosensitive ion channel [PDB (Protein Data Bank) code 1MSL] solved by X-ray diffraction. On the whole, the experimental evidence and computer simulation data favour a transport inhibition mechanism in which flavonoids and GLUT4 interact directly, rather than by a mechanism related to protein-tyrosine kinase and insulin signalling inhibition. Furthermore, the results suggest that GLUT transporters are involved in flavonoid incorporation into cells. PMID:15469417

  14. Insulin mimetic impact of Catechin isolated from Cassia fistula on the glucose oxidation and molecular mechanisms of glucose uptake on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Daisy, P; Balasubramanian, K; Rajalakshmi, M; Eliza, J; Selvaraj, J

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common and serious metabolic disorder among people all over the world. Many plants have successfully been used to overcome this problem. Cassia fistula, an ethnomedicnal plant, is widely used in Indian medicine to treat diabetes. Methanol extract of stem of plant, reduced the blood glucose levels in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bioassay guided fractionation was followed to isolate Catechin from methanol extract. Catechin was administered to Streptozotocin (60mg/kg b.w.)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (5, 10, 20mg/kg b.w.) for 6 weeks to assess its effect on fasting plasma glucose. The plasma glucose was significantly (p<0.05) reduced when compared to the control. Oral administration of Catechin (20mg/kg b.w.) markedly increased tissue glycogen, and (14)C-glucose oxidation without any change in plasma insulin and C-peptide. Catechin restored the altered Glucokinase, glucose-6 Phosphatase, Glycogen Synthase and Glycogen Phosphorylase levels to near normal. GLUT4 mRNA and protein expression were enhanced after Catechin treatment. The results of this experimental study indicated that Catechin possesses hypo-glycemic, Glucose oxidizing and insulin mimetic activities and hence it could be used as a drug for treating diabetes.

  15. Prognostic value of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope and other exercise variables in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Buys, Roselien; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Vanhees, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Peak exercise capacity is an independent predictor for mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, sometimes cardiopulmonary exercise tests are stopped prematurely. Therefore, submaximal exercise measures such as the oxygen uptake efficiency slope have been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope and other exercise parameters, in patients with coronary artery disease. Between 2000 and 2011, 1409 patients with coronary artery disease (age 60.7 ± 9.9 years; 1205 males) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests. A maximal effort was not reached in 161 (11.5%) patients. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope was calculated and information on mortality was obtained. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the relation of oxygen uptake efficiency slope and other gas exchange variables with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses was performed to define optimal cut-off values. During an average follow-up of 7.45 ± 3.20 years (range 0.16-13.95 years), 158 patients died, among which 68 patients for cardiovascular reasons. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope was related to all-cause (hazard ratio: 0.568, p < 0.001) and cardiovascular (hazard ratio: 0.461, p < 0.001) mortality. When significant covariates were entered in the analysis, oxygen uptake efficiency slope remained related to mortality (p < 0.05). When other submaximal exercise parameters were added to the model, oxygen uptake efficiency slope and minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope also remained significantly related to mortality. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope is an independent predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, irrespective of a truly maximal effort during cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Furthermore, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope provides prognostic information

  16. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) during Continuous and High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moser, Othmar; Mader, Julia K; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Messerschmidt, Janin; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-08-10

    Continuous exercise (CON) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can be safely performed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Additionally, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems may serve as a tool to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. It is unclear if CGM is accurate during CON and HIIE at different mean workloads. Seven T1DM patients performed CON and HIIE at 5% below (L) and above (M) the first lactate turn point (LTP₁), and 5% below the second lactate turn point (LTP₂) (H) on a cycle ergometer. Glucose was measured via CGM and in capillary blood (BG). Differences were found in comparison of CGM vs. BG in three out of the six tests (p < 0.05). In CON, bias and levels of agreement for L, M, and H were found at: 0.85 (-3.44, 5.15) mmol·L(-1), -0.45 (-3.95, 3.05) mmol·L(-1), -0.31 (-8.83, 8.20) mmol·L(-1) and at 1.17 (-2.06, 4.40) mmol·L(-1), 0.11 (-5.79, 6.01) mmol·L(-1), 1.48 (-2.60, 5.57) mmol·L(-1) in HIIE for the same intensities. Clinically-acceptable results (except for CON H) were found. CGM estimated BG to be clinically acceptable, except for CON H. Additionally, using CGM may increase avoidance of exercise-induced hypoglycemia, but usual BG control should be performed during intense exercise.

  17. Effects of a brief high-fat diet and acute exercise on the mTORC1 and IKK/NF-κB pathways in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Castorena, Carlos M.; Arias, Edward B.; Sharma, Naveen; Cartee, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    One exercise session can improve subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle in healthy and insulin-resistant individuals. Our first aim was to determine whether a brief (2 weeks) high-fat diet (HFD) that caused muscle insulin resistance would activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and/or inhibitor of κB kinase/nuclear factor κB (IKK/NF-κB) pathways, which are potentially linked to induction of insulin resistance. Our second aim was to determine whether acute exercise that improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscles would attenuate activation of these pathways. We compared HFD-fed rats with rats fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Some animals from each diet group were sedentary and others were studied 3 h postexercise, when insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased. The results did not provide evidence that brief HFD activated either the mTORC1 (including phosphorylation of mTORSer2448, TSC2Ser939, p70S6KThr412, and RPS6Ser235/236) or the IKK/NF-κB (including abundance of IκBα or phosphorylation of NF-κBSer536, IKKα/βSer177/181, and IκBSer32) pathway in insulin-resistant muscles. Exercise did not oppose the activation of either pathway, as evidenced by no attenuation of phosphorylation of key proteins in the IKK/NF-κB pathway (NF-κBSer536, IKKα/βSer177/181, and IκBSer32), unaltered IκBα abundance, and no attenuation of phosphorylation of key proteins in the mTORC1 pathway (mTORSer2448, TSC2Ser939, and RPS6Ser235/236). Instead, exercise induced greater phosphorylation of 2 proteins of the mTORC1 pathway (PRAS40Thr246 and p70S6KThr412) in insulin-stimulated muscles, regardless of diet. Insulin resistance induced by a brief HFD was not attributable to greater activation of the mTORC1 or the IKK/NF-κB pathway in muscle, and exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity was not attributable to attenuated activation of these pathways in muscle. PMID:25706655

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at <0.05. The mean age of respondents was 51.9±9.8 years. A majority, 245(81.9%) were married individuals and more than half, 195(65.3%) were in the low SES. One hundred and forty-eight (49.5%) had good knowledge of exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Channel specificity and secondary structure of the glucose-inducible porins of Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, L O; Tschetter, L; O'Neil, J; Worobec, E A

    1998-06-01

    The OprB porin-mediated glucose transport system was investigated in Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Kinetic studies of [U-14C]glucose uptake revealed an inducible system of low Km values (0.3-5 microM) and high specificity for glucose. OprB homologs were purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. The porin function and channel preference for glucose were demonstrated by liposome swelling assays. Examination of the periplasmic glucose-binding protein (GBP) components by Western immunoblotting using P. aeruginosa GBP-specific antiserum revealed some homology between P. aeruginosa GBP and periplasmic proteins from P. fluorescens and P. chlororaphis but not B. cepacia. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry of purified OprB-like porins from the three species revealed beta sheet contents of 31-50% in agreement with 40% beta sheet content for the P. aeruginosa OprB porin. These findings suggest that the high-affinity glucose transport system is primarily specific for glucose and well conserved in the genus Pseudomonas although its outer membrane component may differ in channel architecture and specificity for other carbohydrates.

  20. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  1. Methanolic extract of Momordica cymbalaria enhances glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in vitro by up-regulating PPAR-γ and GLUT-4.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the methanolic fruit extract of Momordica cymbalaria (MFMC) on PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma) and GLUT-4 (Glucose transporter-4) with respect to glucose transport. Various concentrations of MFMC ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg·mL(-1) were evaluated for glucose uptake activity in vitro using L6 myotubes, rosiglitazone was used as a reference standard. The MFMC showed significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake at the tested concentrations, further, the glucose uptake activity of MFMC (500 μg·mL(-1)) was comparable with rosigilitazone. Furthermore, MFMC has shown up-regulation of GLUT-4 and PPARγ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. In addition, the MFMC when incubated along with cycloheximide (CHX), which is a protein synthesis inhibitor, has shown complete blockade of glucose uptake. This indicates that new protein synthesis is required for increased GLUT-4 translocation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MFMC is enhancing the glucose uptake significantly and dose dependently through the enhanced expression of PPARγ and GLUT-4 in vitro. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of exercise training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E

    1991-06-01

    Exercise training has potential benefits for patients with hyperlipidemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic, nonobese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, exercise training alone increased insulin sensitivity, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These improvements did not occur when exercise training alone was given to similar patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In severely obese (X = 125 kg) subjects without diabetes melitus, a 600 calorie diet alone decreased glucose and insulin concentrations and improved glucose tolerance but did not increase insulin sensitivity. The addition of exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. Obese, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects on sulfonylurea therapy alone increased insulin levels but failed to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose levels. In contrast, the addition of exercise training to this medication resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and lowered glucose levels. We conclude that exercise training has major effects on lowering triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic subjects and can potentiate the effect of diet or drug therapy on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  3. Methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre augments glucose uptake and ameliorates insulin resistance by upregulating glucose transporter-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and leptin levels in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V.; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L.; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLGS) on glucose transport (GLUT) and insulin resistance in vitro. Materials and Methods: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and GLUT-4 expression were assessed in L6 myotubes for concluding the GLUT activity, and adiponectin and leptin expression was studied in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line to determine the effect of MLGS (250-750 μg/ml) on insulin resistance. Results: The findings of the experiments have demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake in all the tested concentrations of MLGS, further the glucose uptake activity of MLGS (750 μg/ml) was at par with rosiglitazone (50 μg/ml). Concomitantly, MLGS has shown enhanced GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, cycloheximide (CHX) had completely abolished the glucose uptake activity of MLGS when co-incubated, which further confirmed that glucose uptake activity of MLGS was linked to enhanced expression of GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ. In addition, in another experimental set, MLGS showed enhanced expression of adiponectin and leptin, thus confirms the ameliorative effect of MLGS on insulin resistance. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MLGS has an enhanced glucose uptake activity in L6 myotubes, and ameliorate the insulin resistance in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line in vitro. PMID:27104035

  4. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in a general adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Oxygen uptake kinetics of constant-load work - Upright vs. supine exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Supine and upright positions were used in a comparitive study of the effects of constant load exercise on oxygen uptake (VO2), O2 deficit, steady-state VO2 and VO2 following recovery from constant load work. Ten male subjects (36-40 yr.) performed one submaximal exercise test in the supine and one test in the upright position consisting of 5 min rest and 5 min cycle ergometer exercise at 700 kg/min followed by ten minutes of recovery. It is found that the significant difference in VO2 kinetics during exercise in the upright compared to supine position resulted from changes in oxygen transport and utilization mechanisms rather than changes in mechanical efficiency. To the extent that data measured in the supine position can be used to estimate physiological responses to zero gravity, it is suggested that limitation of systemic O2 consumption may be the result of slow rates of oxygen uptake during transient periods of muscular work. Significant reductions in the rate of steady-state VO2 attainment at submaximal work intensities may produce an onset of muscle fatigue and exhaustion.

  6. Enhancement of Glucose Uptake by Meso-Dihydroguaiaretic Acid through GLUT4 Up-Regulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anna; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Jung, Won-Beom; Jeong, Heejin; Kim, Ga-Yeong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Roh, Yoon-Seok; Sung, Sang-Hyun; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2017-08-28

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, which leads to increased blood glucose levels. Adipocytes are involved in the development of insulin resistance, resulting from the dysfunction of the insulin signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated whether meso -dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA) may modulate glucose uptake in adipocytes, and examined its mechanism of action. MDGA enhanced adipogenesis through up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α in 3T3-L1 adipocytes partially differentiated with sub-optimal concentrations of insulin. MDGA also increased glucose uptake by stimulating expression and translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in adipocytes. These results suggest that MDGA may increase GLUT4 expression and its translocation by promoting insulin sensitivity, leading to enhanced glucose uptake.

  7. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, F Kent; Smith, Bethany T; Russ, Misty; Patel, Yashomati M

    2008-10-15

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.

  8. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty

    2008-10-15

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform viamore » MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.« less

  9. Impact of exercise on diurnal and nocturnal markers of glycaemic variability and oxidative stress in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta

    2015-09-01

    We measured the effects of a single bout of exercise on diurnal and nocturnal oxidative stress and glycaemic variability in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance versus obese healthy controls. Subjects (in random order) performed either a single 30-min bout of moderate-intensity exercise or remained sedentary for 30 min at two separate visits. To quantify glycaemic variability, standard deviation of glucose (measured by continuous glucose monitoring system) and continuous overlapping net glycaemic action of 1-h intervals (CONGA-1) were calculated for three 12-h intervals during each visit. Oxidative stress was measured by 15-isoprostane F(2t) levels in urine collections for matching 12-h intervals. Exercise reduced daytime glycaemic variability (ΔCONGA-1 = -12.62 ± 5.31 mg/dL, p = 0.04) and urinary isoprostanes (ΔCONGA-1 = -0.26 ± 0.12 ng/mg, p = 0.04) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance group. Daytime exercise-induced change in urinary 15-isoprostane F(2t) was significantly correlated with both daytime standard deviation (r = 0.68, p = 0.03) and with subsequent overnight standard deviation (r = 0.73, p = 0.027) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance group. Exercise significantly impacts the relationship between diurnal oxidative stress and nocturnal glycaemic variability in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Effects of Lipoic Acid on High-Fat Diet-Induced Alteration of Synaptic Plasticity and Brain Glucose Metabolism: A PET/CT and 13C-NMR Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Patil, Ishan; Sancheti, Harsh; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2017-07-14

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is accompanied by insulin resistance and compromised brain synaptic plasticity through the impairment of insulin-sensitive pathways regulating neuronal survival, learning, and memory. Lipoic acid is known to modulate the redox status of the cell and has insulin mimetic effects. This study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary administration of lipoic acid on a HFD-induced obesity model in terms of (a) insulin signaling, (b) brain glucose uptake and neuronal- and astrocytic metabolism, and (c) synaptic plasticity. 3-Month old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups exposed to their respective treatments for 9 weeks: (1) normal diet, (2) normal diet plus lipoic acid, (3) HFD, and (4) HFD plus lipoic acid. HFD resulted in higher body weight, development of insulin resistance, lower brain glucose uptake and glucose transporters, alterations in glycolytic and acetate metabolism in neurons and astrocytes, and ultimately synaptic plasticity loss evident by a decreased long-term potentiation (LTP). Lipoic acid treatment in mice on HFD prevented several HFD-induced metabolic changes and preserved synaptic plasticity. The metabolic and physiological changes in HFD-fed mice, including insulin resistance, brain glucose uptake and metabolism, and synaptic function, could be preserved by the insulin-like effect of lipoic acid.

  11. Silk protein hydrolysate increases glucose uptake through up-regulation of GLUT 4 and reduces the expression of leptin in 3T3-L1 fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of our research was to test the hypothesis that silk protein hydrolysate increases glucose uptake in cultured murine embryonic fibroblasts. Insulin sensitizing activity was observed in a cell-based glucose uptake assay using 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts. The treatment of 1 mg/mL of silk peptide E5K6 plus 0.2 nM insulin was associated with a significant increase in glucose uptake (124.0% ± 2.5%) compared to treatment with 0.2 nM insulin alone. When the 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate into fibroblasts, fat droplets formed inside the cells. Silk peptide E5K6 reduced the formation of fat droplets at the 1-mg/mL dosage (86.1% ± 2.5%) when compared to the control (100.0% ± 5.8%). A 1 mg/mL dose of silk peptide E5K6 significantly increased GLUT 4 expression (131.5% ± 4.0%). The treatment of 1 mg/mL of silk peptide E5K6 did not present any changes for adipogenic expressed genes, but leptin expression was significantly increased by silk peptide E5K6 supplementation (175.9% ± 11.1%). From these results, silk peptide E5K6 increased glucose uptake via up-regulation of GLUT 4 and decreased fat accumulation via the up-regulation of leptin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe; Gonzalez, Teresa; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS-Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma mRNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were colocalized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Glut 4 translocation without alterations in proximal insulin signaling. This inhibitory effect was prevented with the deletion of the LIM domains of Enigma. Using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-actin, we demonstrated that the overexpression of Enigma altered insulin-induced actin rearrangements, whereas the expression of Enigma without its LIM domains was without effect. A physiological link between increased expression of Enigma and an alteration in insulin-induced glucose uptake was suggested by the increase in Enigma mRNA expression in adipose tissue of diabetic obese patients. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the interaction between APS and Enigma is involved in insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation by regulating cortical actin remodeling and raise the possibility that modification of APS/Enigma ratio could participate in the alteration of insulin-induced glucose uptake in adipose tissue.

  13. High intensity interval exercise is an effective alternative to moderate intensity exercise for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Tomlinson, Owen W; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) may offer a time efficient means to improve health outcomes compared to moderate-intensity exercise (MIE). This study examined the acute effect of HIIE compared to a work-matched bout of MIE on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (IS), resting fat oxidation and exercise enjoyment in adolescent boys. Within-measures design with counterbalanced experimental conditions. Nine boys (14.2 ± 0.4 years) completed three conditions on separate days in a counterbalanced order: (1) HIIE; (2) work matched MIE, both on a cycle ergometer; and (3) rest (CON). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after exercise or rest and the area under curve (AUC) responses for plasma [glucose] and [insulin] were calculated, and IS estimated (Cederholm index). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation were measured following the OGTT using indirect calorimetry. Exercise enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for plasma [glucose] was reduced following both MIE (-23.9%, P = 0.013, effect size [ES] = -0.64) and HIIE (-28.9%, P=0.008, ES = -0.84) compared to CON. The iAUC for plasma [insulin] was lower for HIIE (-24.2%, P = 0.021, ES = -0.71) and MIE (-29.1%, P = 0.012, ES = -0.79) compared to CON. IS increased by 11.2% after HIIE (P = 0.03, ES = 0.76) and 8.4% after MIE (P = 0.10, ES = 0.58). There was a trend for an increase in fat oxidation following HIIE (P = 0.097, ES = 0.70). Both HIIE and MIE were rated as equally enjoyable (P > 0.05, ES < 0.01). A single bout of time efficient HIIE is an effective alternative to MIE for improving glucose tolerance and IS in adolescent boys immediately after exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (P<0.05), TCT + WPI did not further improve exercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (P<0.05 vs. Control) but not in the plantaris. Citrate synthase activity was not different between groups. Neither supplement had any effect on weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Ten weeks of both TCTs and WPIs increased exercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  15. The role of resistance and aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity measures in STZ-induced Type 1 diabetic rodents.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katharine E; McDonald, Matthew W; Grisé, Kenneth N; Campos, Oscar A; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) can develop insulin resistance. Regular exercise may improve insulin resistance partially through increased expression of skeletal muscle GLUT4 content. To examine if different exercise training modalities can alter glucose tolerance through changes in skeletal muscle GLUT4 content in T1DM rats. Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups; control, diabetic control, diabetic resistance exercised, and diabetic high and low intensity treadmill exercised. Diabetes was induced using multiple low dose Streptozotocin (20 mg/kg/day) injections and blood glucose concentrations were maintained moderately hyperglycemic through subcutaneous insulin pellets. Resistance trained rats climbed a ladder with incremental loads, while treadmill trained rats ran on a treadmill at 27 or 15 m/min, respectively, all for 6 weeks. At weeks 3 and 6, area under the curve measurements following an intravenous glucose tolerance test (AUC-IVGTT) in all diabetic groups were higher than control rats (p<0.05). At 6 weeks, all exercise groups had significantly lower AUC-IVGTT values than diabetic control animals (p<0.05). Treadmill trained rats had the lowest insulin dose requirement of the T1DM rats and the greatest reduction in insulin dosage was evident in high intensity treadmill exercise. Concomitant with improvements in glucose handling improvements, tissue-specific elevations in GLUT4 content were demonstrated in both red and white portions of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles, suggesting that glucose handling capacity was altered in the skeletal muscle of exercised T1DM rats. These results suggest that, while all exercise modalities can improve glucose tolerance, each mode leads to differential improvements in insulin requirements and protein content alterations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise metabolism in human skeletal muscle exposed to prior eccentric exercise

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Sven; Daugaard, Jens R; Kristiansen, Søren; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A

    1998-01-01

    The effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on exercise metabolism during a subsequent bout of graded concentric exercise were investigated in seven healthy male subjects. Arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheters were inserted 2 days after eccentric exercise of one thigh (eccentric thigh) and blood samples were taken before and during graded two-legged concentric knee-extensor exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the eccentric and control vastus lateralis before (rest) and after (post) the concentric exercise bout. Maximal knee-extensor concentric exercise capacity was decreased by an average of 23 % (P < 0.05) in the eccentric compared with the control thigh. The resting muscle glycogen content was lower in the eccentric thigh than in the control thigh (402 ± 30 mmol (kg dry wt)−1vs. 515 ± 26 mmol (kg dry wt)−1, means ± s.e.m., P < 0.05), and following the two-legged concentric exercise this difference substantially increased (190 ± 46 mmol (kg dry wt)−1vs. 379 ± 58 mmol (kg dry wt)−1, P < 0.05) despite identical power and duration of exercise with the two thighs. There was no measurable difference in glucose uptake between the eccentric and control thigh before or during the graded two-legged concentric exercise. Lactate release was higher from the eccentric thigh at rest and, just before termination of the exercise bout, release of lactate decreased from this thigh (suggesting decreased glycogenolysis), whereas no decrease was found from the contralateral control thigh. Lower glycerol release from the eccentric thigh during the first, lighter part of the exercise (P < 0.05) suggested impaired triacylglycerol breakdown. At rest, sarcolemmal GLUT4 glucose transporter content and glucose transport were similar in the two thighs, and concentric exercise increased sarcolemmal GLUT4 content and glucose transport capacity similarly in the two thighs. It is concluded that in muscle exposed to prior eccentric contractions, exercise at a

  17. Metabolic Effects of Glucose-Fructose Co-Ingestion Compared to Glucose Alone during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bally, Lia; Kempf, Patrick; Zueger, Thomas; Speck, Christian; Pasi, Nicola; Ciller, Carlos; Feller, Katrin; Loher, Hannah; Rosset, Robin; Wilhelm, Matthias; Boesch, Chris; Buehler, Tania; Dokumaci, Ayse S; Tappy, Luc; Stettler, Christoph

    2017-02-21

    This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO 2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU) or glucose alone (GLU) to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with 13 C-fructose and 13 C-glucose, respectively. Metabolic assessments included measurements of hormones and metabolites, substrate oxidation, and stable isotopes. Exogenous carbohydrate requirements to maintain stable glycaemia were comparable between GLUFRU and GLU ( p = 0.46). Fat oxidation was significantly higher (5.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.2 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 , p < 0.001) and carbohydrate oxidation lower (18.1 ± 0.8 vs. 24.5 ± 0.8 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 p < 0.001) in GLUFRU compared to GLU, with decreased muscle glycogen oxidation in GLUFRU (10.2 ± 0.9 vs. 17.5 ± 1.0 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 , p < 0.001). Lactate levels were higher (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L, p = 0.012) in GLUFRU, with comparable counter-regulatory hormones between GLUFRU and GLU ( p > 0.05 for all). Glucose and insulin levels, and total glucose appearance and disappearance were comparable between interventions. Glucose-fructose co-ingestion may have a beneficial impact on fuel metabolism in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes without insulin adjustment, by increasing fat oxidation whilst sparing glycogen.

  18. Fatty acid-inducible ANGPTL4 governs lipid metabolic response to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Catoire, Milène; Alex, Sheril; Paraskevopulos, Nicolas; Mattijssen, Frits; Evers-van Gogh, Inkie; Schaart, Gert; Jeppesen, Jacob; Kneppers, Anita; Mensink, Marco; Voshol, Peter J.; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Tan, Nguan Soon; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Berbée, Jimmy F.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity increases energy metabolism in exercising muscle. Whether acute exercise elicits metabolic changes in nonexercising muscles remains unclear. We show that one of the few genes that is more highly induced in nonexercising muscle than in exercising human muscle during acute exercise encodes angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase-mediated plasma triglyceride clearance. Using a combination of human, animal, and in vitro data, we show that induction of ANGPTL4 in nonexercising muscle is mediated by elevated plasma free fatty acids via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ, presumably leading to reduced local uptake of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids and their sparing for use by exercising muscle. In contrast, the induction of ANGPTL4 in exercising muscle likely is counteracted via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated down-regulation, promoting the use of plasma triglycerides as fuel for active muscles. Our data suggest that nonexercising muscle and the local regulation of ANGPTL4 via AMPK and free fatty acids have key roles in governing lipid homeostasis during exercise. PMID:24591600

  19. The effect of tunicamycin on the glucose uptake, growth, and cellular adhesion in the protozoan parasite Crithidia fasciculata.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Robert; Segovia, Christopher; Trombert, Annette Nicole; Santander, Javier; Manque, Patricio

    2014-10-01

    Crithidia fasciculata represents a very interesting model organism to study biochemical, cellular, and genetic processes unique to members of the family of the Trypanosomatidae. Thus, C. fasciculata parasitizes several species of insects and has been widely used to test new therapeutic strategies against parasitic infections. By using tunicamycin, a potent inhibitor of glycosylation in asparaginyl residues of glycoproteins (N-glycosylation), we demonstrate that N-glycosylation in C. fasciculata cells is involved in modulating glucose uptake, dramatically impacting growth, and cell adhesion. C. fasciculata treated with tunicamycin was severely affected in their ability to replicate and to adhere to polystyrene substrates and losing their ability to aggregate into small and large groups. Moreover, under tunicamycin treatment, the parasites were considerably shorter and rounder and displayed alterations in cytoplasmic vesicles formation. Furthermore, glucose uptake was significantly impaired in a tunicamycin dose-dependent manner; however, no cytotoxic effect was observed. Interestingly, this effect was reversible. Thus, when tunicamycin was removed from the culture media, the parasites recovered its growth rate, cell adhesion properties, and glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in the tunicamycin-dependent glycosylation levels can influence glucose uptake, cell growth, and adhesion in the protozoan parasite C. fasciculata.

  20. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) during Continuous and High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Othmar; Mader, Julia K.; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R.; Koehler, Gerd; Messerschmidt, Janin; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Continuous exercise (CON) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can be safely performed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Additionally, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems may serve as a tool to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. It is unclear if CGM is accurate during CON and HIIE at different mean workloads. Seven T1DM patients performed CON and HIIE at 5% below (L) and above (M) the first lactate turn point (LTP1), and 5% below the second lactate turn point (LTP2) (H) on a cycle ergometer. Glucose was measured via CGM and in capillary blood (BG). Differences were found in comparison of CGM vs. BG in three out of the six tests (p < 0.05). In CON, bias and levels of agreement for L, M, and H were found at: 0.85 (−3.44, 5.15) mmol·L−1, −0.45 (−3.95, 3.05) mmol·L−1, −0.31 (−8.83, 8.20) mmol·L−1 and at 1.17 (−2.06, 4.40) mmol·L−1, 0.11 (−5.79, 6.01) mmol·L−1, 1.48 (−2.60, 5.57) mmol·L−1 in HIIE for the same intensities. Clinically-acceptable results (except for CON H) were found. CGM estimated BG to be clinically acceptable, except for CON H. Additionally, using CGM may increase avoidance of exercise-induced hypoglycemia, but usual BG control should be performed during intense exercise. PMID:27517956

  1. Erythritol reduces small intestinal glucose absorption, increases muscle glucose uptake, improves glucose metabolic enzymes activities and increases expression of Glut-4 and IRS-1 in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Mopuri, Ramgopal; Nagiah, Savania; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-08-02

    Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of a single oral dose of erythritol (1 g/kg bw) on intestinal glucose absorption, gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose increase, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, liver and muscle glycogen contents and mRNA and protein expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in normal and type 2 diabetic animals. Experiment 1 revealed that erythritol dose dependently enhanced muscle glucose ex vivo. Experiment 2 demonstrated that erythritol feeding delayed gastric emptying and reduced small intestinal glucose absorption as well as postprandial blood glucose rise, especially in diabetic animals. Experiment 3 showed that erythritol feeding improved glucose tolerance, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, glycogen storage and also modulated expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in diabetic animals. Data suggest that erythritol may exert anti-hyperglycemic effects not only via reducing small intestinal glucose absorption, but also by increasing muscle glucose uptake, improving glucose metabolic enzymes activity and modulating muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hence, erythritol may be a useful dietary supplement for managing hyperglycemia, particularly for T2D.

  2. Piperine Promotes Glucose Uptake through ROS-Dependent Activation of the CAMKK/AMPK Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Ayumi; Shirao, Takeshi; Shirasaya, Daishi; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Yamashita, Yoko; Akagawa, Mitsugu; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing yearly worldwide. Glycemic control is the basis for the treatment of T2DM, as it can prevent the progress of associated complications. Spices possess various health beneficial effects on humans. The aim of this study is to search for spices that can promote glucose uptake and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Among 24 spice extracts, the extracts from black pepper and white pepper significantly increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Piperine is found to be the active compound in these extracts. Treatment of myotubes with piperine induces the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane by phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Piperine increases the intracellular Ca 2+ level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1), followed by activation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKβ) as the upstream events for AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, oral administration of piperine to Wistar rats at 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg -1 body weight decreases postprandial hyperglycemia accompanied by GLUT4 translocation and AMPK phosphorylation. Piperine in pepper prevents hyperglycemia by GLUT4 translocation through CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling via TRPV1-dependent increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level and ROS generation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sortilin 1 knockout alters basal adipose glucose metabolism but not diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibiao; Matye, David J; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Tiangang

    2017-04-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is a trafficking receptor that has been implicated in the regulation of plasma cholesterol in humans and mice. Here, we use metabolomics and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp approaches to obtain further understanding of the in vivo effects of Sort1 deletion on diet-induced obesity as well as on adipose lipid and glucose metabolism. Results show that Sort1 knockout (KO) does not affect Western diet-induced obesity nor adipose fatty acid and ceramide concentrations. Under the basal fasting state, chow-fed Sort1 KO mice have decreased adipose glycolytic metabolites, but Sort1 deletion does not affect insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake during the insulin clamp. These results suggest that Sort1 loss-of-function in vivo does not affect obesity development, but differentially modulates adipose glucose metabolism under fasting and insulin-stimulated states. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. VO2 kinetics of constant-load exercise following bed-rest-induced deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise and recovery may be changed by alterations in work intensity, prior exercise, muscle group involvement, ambient conditions, posture, disease state, and level of physical conditioning. However, the effects of detraining on oxygen uptake kinetics have not been determined. The present investigation has the objective to determine the effects of deconditioning following seven days of continuous head-down bed rest on changes in steady-state oxygen uptake, O2 deficit, and recovery oxygen uptake during the performance of constant-load exercise. The obtained results may provide support for previous proposals that submaximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced following bed rest. The major finding was that bed-rest deconditioning resulted in a reduction of total O2 transport/utilization capacity during the transient phase of upright but not supine exercise.

  5. Glucose Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis Are Increased in Barth Syndrome Lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Edgard M; Zinko, James C; Hauff, Kristin D; Xu, Fred Y; Ravandi, Amir; Hatch, Grant M

    2017-02-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked genetic disease resulting in loss of cardiolipin (Ptd 2 Gro). Patients may be predisposed to hypoglycemia and exhibit increases in whole-body glucose disposal rates and a higher fat mass percentage. We examined the reasons for this in BTHS lymphoblasts. BTHS lymphoblasts exhibited a 60% increase (p < 0.004) in 2-[1,2- 3 H(N)]deoxy-D-glucose uptake, a 40% increase (p < 0.01) in glucose transporter-3 protein expression, an increase in phosphorylated-adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and a 58% increase (p < 0.001) in the phosphorylated-AMPK/AMPK ratio compared to controls. In addition, BTHS lymphoblasts exhibited a 90% (p < 0.001) increase in D-[U- 14 C]glucose incorporated into 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerol (TAG) and a 29% increase (p < 0.025) in 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol acyltransferase-2 activity compared to controls. Thus, BTHS lymphoblasts exhibit increased glucose transport and increased glucose utilization for TAG synthesis. These results may, in part, explain why BTHS patients exhibit an increase in whole-body glucose disposal rates, may be predisposed to hypoglycemia and exhibit a higher fat mass percentage.

  6. Effects of prior aerobic exercise on sitting-induced vascular dysfunction in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Duguid, Robert M; Berry, Craig W; Dey, Priyankar; Bruno, Richard S; Ward, Rose Marie; Timmerman, Kyle L

    2017-12-01

    Acute aerobic exercise prevents sitting-induced impairment of flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Further, evidence suggests that sitting-induced impairment of FMD occurs via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism that disrupts endothelial function. We hypothesized that acute aerobic exercise would prevent impairment of femoral artery FMD by limiting oxidative stress responses that increase endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and disrupt nitric oxide (NO) status. In a randomized, cross-over study, healthy men (n = 11; 21.2 ± 1.9 years) completed two 3 h sitting trials that were preceded by 45 min of either quiet rest (REST) or a single bout of continuous treadmill exercise (65% maximal oxygen consumption) (EX). Superficial femoral artery FMD, plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), ET-1, arginine (ARG) and its related metabolites [homoarginine (HA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)] were assessed at baseline, 1 h following EX (or REST) (0 h), and at 1 h intervals during 3 h of uninterrupted sitting. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. During REST, femoral artery FMD declined from baseline (2.6 ± 1.8%) at 1, 2, and 3 h of sitting and resting shear rate decreased at 3 h. In contrast, when sitting was preceded by EX, femoral artery FMD (2.7 ± 2.0%) and resting shear rate responses were unaffected. No between trial differences were detected for plasma glucose, MDA, ET-1, ARG, HA, ADMA, or SDMA. Prior aerobic exercise prevented the decline in femoral artery FMD that is otherwise induced by prolonged sitting independent of changes in oxidative stress, ET-1, and NO status.

  7. Glucose Metabolism and AMPK Signaling Regulate Dopaminergic Cell Death Induced by Gene (α-Synuclein)-Environment (Paraquat) Interactions.

    PubMed

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Lei, Shulei; Levytskyy, Roman; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Cerny, Ronald L; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    While environmental exposures are not the single cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), their interaction with genetic alterations is thought to contribute to neuronal dopaminergic degeneration. However, the mechanisms involved in dopaminergic cell death induced by gene-environment interactions remain unclear. In this work, we have revealed for the first time the role of central carbon metabolism and metabolic dysfunction in dopaminergic cell death induced by the paraquat (PQ)-α-synuclein interaction. The toxicity of PQ in dopaminergic N27 cells was significantly reduced by glucose deprivation, inhibition of hexokinase with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), or equimolar substitution of glucose with galactose, which evidenced the contribution of glucose metabolism to PQ-induced cell death. PQ also stimulated an increase in glucose uptake, and in the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and Na + -glucose transporters isoform 1 (SGLT1) proteins, but only inhibition of GLUT-like transport with STF-31 or ascorbic acid reduced PQ-induced cell death. Importantly, while autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1)-dependent autophagy protected against PQ toxicity, the inhibitory effect of glucose deprivation on cell death progression was largely independent of autophagy or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. PQ selectively induced metabolomic alterations and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the midbrain and striatum of mice chronically treated with PQ. Inhibition of AMPK signaling led to metabolic dysfunction and an enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic cells to PQ. In addition, activation of AMPK by PQ was prevented by inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide syntase (iNOS) with 1400W, but PQ had no effect on iNOS levels. Overexpression of wild type or A53T mutant α-synuclein stimulated glucose accumulation and PQ toxicity, and this toxic synergism was reduced by inhibition of glucose metabolism

  8. Elevated central venous pressure: a consequence of exercise training-induced hypervolemia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    Resting blood volumes and arterial and central venous pressures (CVP) were measured in 14 men before and after exercise training to determine whether training-induced hypervolemia is accompanied by a change in total vascular capacitance. In addition, resting levels of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (Ald), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. The same measurements were conducted in seven subjects who did not undergo exercise and acted as controls. Exercise training consisted of 10 wk of controlled cycle exercise for 30 min/day, 4 days/wk at 75-80% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). A training effect was verified by a 20% increase in VO2max, a resting bradycardia, and a 9% increase in blood volume. Mean arterial blood pressure was unaltered by exercise training, but resting CVP increased by 16% (P less than 0.05). The percent change in blood volume from before to after training was linearly related to the percent change in CVP (r = 0.903, P less than 0.05). As a consequence of elevations in both blood volume and CVP, the volume-to-pressure ratio was unchanged after exercise training. Plasma AVP, ANP, Ald, and NE were unaltered. Our results indicate that elevated CVP is a consequence of training-induced hypervolemia without alteration in total effective venous capacitance.

  9. Fitting a single-phase model to the post-exercise changes in heart rate and oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Stupnicki, R; Gabryś, T; Szmatlan-Gabryś, U; Tomaszewski, P

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of post-exercise heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (EPOC) was studied in 10 elite cyclists subjected to four laboratory cycle ergometer maximal exercises lasting 30, 90, 180 or 360 s. Heart rate and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded over a period of 6 min after the exercise. By applying the logit transformation to the recorded variables and relating them to the decimal logarithm of the recovery time, uniform single-phase courses of changes were shown for both variables in all subjects and exercises. This enabled computing half-recovery times (t(1/2)) for both variables. Half-time for VO2 negatively correlated with square root of exercise duration (within-subject r = -0.629, p < 0.001), the total post-exercise oxygen uptake till t(1/2) was thus constant irrespectively of exercise intensity. The method is simple and enables reliable comparisons of various modes of exercise with respect to the rate of recovery.

  10. Pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate exercise are slowed by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lisa M K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis (Hypo) on the adjustment of pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2p) and leg femoral conduit artery ("bulk") blood flow (LBF) during moderate-intensity exercise (Mod) was examined in eight young male adults. Subjects completed four to six repetitions of alternate-leg knee-extension exercise during normal breathing [Con; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) approximately 40 mmHg] and sustained hyperventilation (Hypo; PetCO2 approximately 20 mmHg). Increases in work rate were made instantaneously from baseline (3 W) to Mod (80% estimated lactate threshold). VO2p was measured breath by breath by mass spectrometry and volume turbine, and LBF (calculated from mean femoral artery blood velocity and femoral artery diameter) was measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. Concentration changes of deoxy (Delta[HHb])-, oxy (Delta[O2Hb])-, and total hemoglobin-myoglobin (Delta[HbTot]) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The kinetics of VO2p, LBF, and Delta[HHb] were modeled using a monoexponential equation by nonlinear regression. The time constants for the phase 2 VO2p (Hypo, 49+/-26 s; Con, 28+/-8 s) and LBF (Hypo, 46+/-16 s; Con, 23+/-6 s) were greater (P<0.05) in Hypo compared with Con. However, the mean response time for the overall Delta[HHb] response was not different between conditions (Hypo, 23+/-5 s; Con, 24+/-3 s), whereas the Delta[HHb] amplitude was greater (P<0.05) in Hypo (8.05+/-7.47 a.u.) compared with Con (6.69+/-6.31 a.u.). Combined, these results suggest that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis is associated with slower convective (i.e., slowed femoral artery and microvascular blood flow) and diffusive (i.e., greater fractional O2 extraction for a given DeltaVO2p) O2 delivery, which may contribute to the hyperventilation-induced slowing of VO2p (and muscle O2 utilization) kinetics.

  11. Heterotypic endosomal fusion as an initial trigger for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-08-15

    Comprehensive imaging analyses of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) behaviour in mouse skeletal muscle was conducted. Quantum dot-based single molecule nanometry revealed that GLUT4 molecules in skeletal myofibres are governed by regulatory systems involving 'static retention' and 'stimulus-dependent liberation'. Vital imaging analyses and super-resolution microscopy-based morphometry demonstrated that insulin liberates the GLUT4 molecule from its static state by triggering acute heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from the very small GLUT4-containing vesicles in skeletal myofibres. Prior exposure to exercise-mimetic stimuli potentiated this insulin-responsive endomembrane fusion event involving GLUT4-containing vesicles, suggesting that this endomembranous regulation process is a potential site related to the effects of exercise. Skeletal muscle is the major systemic glucose disposal site. Both insulin and exercise facilitate translocation of the glucose transporter glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) via distinct signalling pathways and exercise also enhances insulin sensitivity. However, the trafficking mechanisms controlling GLUT4 mobilization in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood as a resuly of technical limitations. In the present study, which employs various imaging techniques on isolated skeletal myofibres, we show that one of the initial triggers of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation is heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from very small static GLUT4-containing vesicles with a subset of transferrin receptor-containing endosomes. Importantly, pretreatment with exercise-mimetic stimuli potentiated the susceptibility to insulin responsiveness, as indicated by these acute endomembranous activities. We also found that AS160 exhibited stripe-like localization close to sarcomeric α-actinin and that insulin induced a reduction of the stripe-like localization accompanying changes in its detergent solubility. The results of the present study thus provide a

  12. Do diabetes and obesity affect the metabolic response to exercise?

    PubMed

    Plomgaard, Peter; Weigert, Cora

    2017-07-01

    Exercise is recommended as therapeutic intervention for people at risk to develop type 2 diabetes to prevent or treat the disease. Recent studies on the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the outcome of exercise programs are discussed. Poor glycemic control before an intervention can be a risk factor of reduced therapeutic benefit from exercise. But the acute metabolic response to exercise and the transcriptional profile of the working muscle is similar in healthy controls and type 2 diabetic patients, including but not limited to intact activation of skeletal muscle AMP-activated kinase signaling, glucose uptake and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α. The increase in plasma acylcarnitines during exercise is not influenced by type 2 diabetes or obesity. The hepatic response to exercise is dependent on the glucagon/insulin ratio and the exercise-induced increase in hepatokines such as fibroblast growth factor 21 and follistatin is impaired in type 2 diabetes and obesity, but consequences for the benefit from exercise are unknown yet. Severe metabolic dysregulation can reduce the benefit from exercise, but the intact response of key metabolic regulators in exercising skeletal muscle of diabetic patients demonstrates the effectiveness of exercise programs to treat the disease.

  13. Active metabolite of GLP-1 mediates myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros A; Elahi, Dariush; Shen, You-Tang; Shannon, Richard P

    2005-12-01

    We have shown previously that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) amide increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular (LV) and systemic hemodynamics in both conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and humans with LV systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. However, GLP-1-(7-36) is rapidly degraded in the plasma to GLP-1-(9-36) by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), raising the issue of which peptide is the active moiety. By way of methodology, we compared the efficacy of a 48-h continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) (1.5 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) to GLP-1-(9-36) (1.5 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) in 28 conscious, chronically instrumented dogs with pacing-induced DCM by measuring LV function and transmyocardial substrate uptake under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. As a result, dogs with DCM demonstrated myocardial insulin resistance under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Both GLP-1-(7-36) and GLP-1-(9-36) significantly reduced (P < 0.01) LV end-diastolic pressure [GLP-1-(7-36), 28 +/- 1 to 15 +/- 2 mmHg; GLP-1-(9-36), 29 +/- 2 to 16 +/- 1 mmHg] and significantly increased (P < 0.01) the first derivative of LV pressure [GLP-1-(7-36), 1,315 +/- 81 to 2,195 +/- 102 mmHg/s; GLP-1-(9-36), 1,336 +/- 77 to 2,208 +/- 68 mmHg] and cardiac output [GLP-1-(7-36), 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 1.9 +/- 0.1 l/min; GLP-1-(9-36), 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 2.4 +/- 0.05 l/min], whereas an equivolume infusion of saline had no effect. Both peptides increased myocardial glucose uptake but without a significant increase in plasma insulin. During the GLP-1-(9-36) infusion, negligible active (NH2-terminal) peptide was measured in the plasma. In conclusion, in DCM, GLP-1-(9-36) mimics the effects of GLP-1-(7-36) in stimulating myocardial glucose uptake and improving LV and systemic hemodynamics through insulinomimetic as opposed to insulinotropic effects. These data suggest that GLP-1-(9-36) amide is

  14. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Aya; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige; Ebi, Kumiko; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery. Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session. EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment. The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Uridine protects cortical neurons from glucose deprivation-induced death: possible role of uridine phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Woong; Shin, Chan Young; Choi, Min Sik; Yoon, Seo Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Won-Ki; El Kouni, Mahmoud H; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2008-06-01

    We previously reported that uridine blocked glucose deprivation-induced death of immunostimulated astrocytes by preserving ATP levels. Uridine phosphorylase (UPase), an enzyme catalyzing the reversible phosphorylation of uridine, was involved in this effect. Here, we tried to expand our previous findings by investigating the uridine effect on the brain and neurons using in vivo and in vitro ischemic injury models. Orally administrated uridine (50-200 mg/kg) reduced middle cerebral artery occlusion (1.5 h)/reperfusion (22 h)-induced infarct in mouse brain. Additionally, in the rat brain subjected to the same ischemic condition, UPase mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated. Next, we employed glucose deprivation-induced hypoglycemia in mixed cortical cultures of neurons and astrocytes as an in vitro model. Cells were deprived of glucose and, two hours later, supplemented with 20 mM glucose. Under this condition, a significant ATP loss followed by death was observed in neurons but not in astrocytes, which were blocked by treatment with uridine in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of cellular uptake of uridine by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine blocked the uridine effect. Similar to our in vivo data, UPase expression was up-regulated by glucose deprivation in mRNA as well as protein levels. Additionally, 5-(phenylthio)acyclouridine, a specific inhibitor of UPase, prevented the uridine effect. Finally, the uridine effect was shown only in the presence of astrocytes. Taken together, the present study provides the first evidence that uridine protects neurons against ischemic insult-induced neuronal death, possibly through the action of UPase.

  16. An Outer Membrane Protein Involved in the Uptake of Glucose Is Essential for Cytophaga hutchinsonii Cellulose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xia; Yang, Tengteng; Zhang, Weixin; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-01-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii specializes in cellulose digestion by employing a collection of novel cell-associated proteins. Here, we identified a novel gene locus, CHU_1276, that is essential for C. hutchinsonii cellulose utilization. Disruption of CHU_1276 in C. hutchinsonii resulted in complete deficiency in cellulose degradation, as well as compromised assimilation of cellobiose or glucose at a low concentration. Further analysis showed that CHU_1276 was an outer membrane protein that could be induced by cellulose and low concentrations of glucose. Transcriptional profiling revealed that CHU_1276 exerted a profound effect on the genome-wide response to both glucose and Avicel and that the mutant lacking CHU_1276 displayed expression profiles very different from those of the wild-type strain under different culture conditions. Specifically, comparison of their transcriptional responses to cellulose led to the identification of a gene set potentially regulated by CHU_1276. These results suggest that CHU_1276 plays an essential role in cellulose utilization, probably by coordinating the extracellular hydrolysis of cellulose substrate with the intracellular uptake of the hydrolysis product in C. hutchinsonii. PMID:26773084

  17. Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Yosria E; Abdou, Azza S; Rashad, Mona M; Nassef, Menatallah M

    2016-09-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of swimming exercise on serum vitamin D level and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sixty adult male rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Each was further subdivided into sedentary and exercised subgroups. Diabetes Mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) dissolved in cold 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The exercised subgroups underwent swimming for 60 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, vitamin D and tissue Vitamin D receptors (VDR) were evaluated. Significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in sedentary diabetic rats was detected. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein (HDL), free fatty acids, serum vitamin D and pancreatic, adipose, and muscular VDR showed a significant decrease in the same group. It is evident that all these parameters were reversed by swimming exercise indicating its beneficial role in type 2 Diabetes. In diabetic groups; serum vitamin D was found to be correlated negatively with serum glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and positively correlated with HDL and tissue VDR. In conclusion, Disturbed vitamin D is associated with metabolic impairments in sedentary diabetic rats. Moderate swimming exercise is beneficial in improving these consequences through modulation of vitamin D status. Future studies could be designed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin D intake with exercise in diabetic patients.

  18. Prior Exercise Does Not Reduce Postprandial Lipemia Following a Mixed Glucose Meal When Compared with a Mixed Fructose Meal.

    PubMed

    Rowe, James R; Biggerstaff, Kyle D; Ben-Ezra, Vic; Nichols, David L; DiMarco, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia (PPL) concentration following a mixed meal (MM) made with either glucose or fructose. Sedentary women completed four trials in random order: 1) Rest-Fructose: RF, 2) Rest-Glucose: RG, 3) Exercise-Fructose: EF, 4) Exercise-Glucose: EG. Exercise expended 500 kcal while walking at 70%VO 2max . Rest was 60 min of sitting. The morning after each trial, a fasting (12 hr) blood sample was collected followed by consumption of the MM. The MM was blended with whole milk and ice cream plus a glucose or fructose powder. Glucose and fructose powder accounted for 30% of the total kcal within the MM. Blood was collected periodically for 6 hr post-MM and analyzed for PPL. Magnitude of PPL over the 6 hr postmeal was quantified using the triglyceride incremental area under the curve (TG AUC I ). Significant differences (p < .05) between trials were determined using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. There was no significant difference in the TG AUC I between the four trials (p > .05). A significant trial by time interaction for TG concentration was reported (p < .05). Despite lack of change in the AUC I with prior exercise, the lower TG concentration at multiple time points in the EG trial does indicate that prior exercise has some desirable effect on PPL. This study suggests that replacing fructose with glucose sugars and incorporating exercise may minimize PPL following a mixed meal but exercise will need to elicit greater energy expenditure.

  19. Acute impairment of regional myocardial glucose uptake in the apical ballooning (takotsubo) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Murphy, Joseph; Prasad, Abhiram; Wright, R Scott; Lerman, Amir; Rihal, Charanjit S; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya

    2006-01-01

    Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS) is a poorly understood clinical entity characterized by acute, transient systolic dysfunction of the left ventricular (LV) apex in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease and commonly associated with acute emotional stress. We report abnormal regional myocardial perfusion and glucose uptake in 4 consecutive ABS patients studied using positron emission tomography with 13N-ammonia and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose within 72 hours of presentation with ABS. All patients were postmenopausal females, 3 of whom had a major recent life stress event. Coronary angiography revealed no or minimal obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. All patients exhibited reduced glucose uptake in the mid-LV and apical myocardial segments, which was out of proportion to perfusion abnormalities in half of the cases. In all 4 patients, affected regions subsequently recovered regional LV systolic function within 6 weeks.

  20. Down-regulation of lipoprotein lipase increases glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lopez, Veronica; Saraff, Kumuda; Medh, Jheem D., E-mail: jheem.medh@csun.edu

    2009-11-06

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic hypoglycemic agents used to treat type 2 diabetes. TZDs target the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) and improve systemic insulin sensitivity. The contributions of specific tissues to TZD action, or the downstream effects of PPAR-{gamma} activation, are not very clear. We have used a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells) to demonstrate that TZDs directly target PPAR-{gamma} in muscle cells. TZD treatment resulted in a significant repression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression in L6 cells. This repression correlated with an increase in glucose uptake. Down-regulation of LPL message and protein levels using siRNA resulted inmore » a similar increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Thus, LPL down-regulation improved insulin sensitivity independent of TZDs. This finding provides a novel method for the management of insulin resistance.« less

  1. Effect of alkyl glycerophosphate on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose uptake in C2C12 cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu

    Highlights: •Alkyl-LPA specifically interacts with PPARγ. •Alkyl-LPA treatments induces lipid accumulation in C2C12 cells. •Alkyl-LPA enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 cells. •Alkyl-LPA-treated C2C12 cells express increased amounts of GLUT4 mRNA. •Alkyl-LPA is a novel therapeutic agent that can be used for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. -- Abstract: Studies on the effects of lipids on skeletal muscle cells rarely examine the effects of lysophospholipids. Through our recent studies, we identified select forms of phospholipids, such as alkyl-LPA, as ligands for the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor implicated in many human diseases,more » including diabetes and obesity. We previously showed that alkyl-LPA is a specific agonist of PPARγ. However, the mechanism by which the alkyl-LPA–PPARγ axis affects skeletal muscle cells is poorly defined. Our objective in the present study was to determine whether alkyl-LPA and PPARγ activation promotes glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Our findings indicate that PPARγ1 mRNA is more abundant than PPARγ2 mRNA in C2C12 cells. We showed that alkyl-LPA (3 μM) significantly activated PPARγ and increased intracellular glucose levels in skeletal muscle cells. We also showed that incubation of C2C12 cells with alkyl-LPA led to lipid accumulation in the cells. These findings suggest that alkyl-LPA activates PPARγ and stimulates glucose uptake in the absence of insulin in C2C12 cells. This may contribute to the plasma glucose-lowering effect in the treatment of insulin resistance.« less

  2. Glucose Transporter Type 4 Redistribution on the Membrane Induced by Insulin through Akt in Hydrocortisone Treatment in Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min; Chiu, Lian; Chen, Hung-Chi; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chou, Chii-Wen; Lu, Cheng-You; Lin, Chung-Tien

    2015-10-31

    Hydrocortisone is a growth hormone frequently used in the treatment of low back pain. Hydrocortisone treatment has an anti-inflammation effect, which also inactivates glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition. Translocation of GLUT4 regulates body glucose homeostasis and muscle repair and is induced by insulin. In this study, 56 SD rats were divided into seven groups, and were treated with insulin or hydrocortisone in sedentary or exercise training groups. The muscle proteins and biochemical blood parameters were analyzed after 7 days of treatments. The results showed that the serum glucose increased in hydrocortisone treatment accompanied by GLUT4 inactivation in both the sedentary and exercise training rats. In the exercise training groups, GLUT4 was redistributed on the plasma membrane on co-treatment with insulin and hydrocortisone through Akt phosphorylation. Insulin treatment exerted a compensatory feedback effect on the GLUT4 translocation on hydrocortisone co-treatment, which was the cause of GLUT4 inactivation.

  3. Aldose reductase is implicated in high glucose-induced oxidative stress in mouse embryonic neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Tay, S S W; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2007-11-01

    Oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia is one of the key factors responsible for maternal diabetes-induced congenital malformations, including neural tube defects in embryos. However, mechanisms by which maternal diabetes induces oxidative stress during neurulation are not clear. The present study was aimed to investigate whether high glucose induces oxidative stress in neural stem cells (NSCs), which compose the neural tube during development. We also investigated the mechanism by which high glucose disturbs the growth and survival of NSCs in vitro. NSCs were exposed to physiological d-glucose concentration (PG, 5 mmol/L), PG with l-glucose (25 mmol/L), or high d-glucose concentration (HG, 30 or 45 mmol/l). HG induced reactive oxygen species production and mRNA expression of aldose reductase (AR), which catalyzes the glucose reduction through polyol pathway, in NSCs. Expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) mRNA and protein which regulates glucose uptake in NSCs was increased at early stage (24 h) and became down-regulated at late stage (72 h) of exposure to HG. Inhibition of AR by fidarestat, an AR inhibitor, decreased the oxidative stress, restored the cell viability and proliferation, and reduced apoptotic cell death in NSCs exposed to HG. Moreover, inhibition of AR attenuated the down-regulation of Glut1 expression in NSCs exposed to HG for 72 h. These results suggest that the activation of polyol pathway plays a role in the induction of oxidative stress which alters Glut1 expression and cell cycle in NSCs exposed to HG, thereby resulting in abnormal patterning of the neural tube in embryos of diabetic pregnancy.

  4. Acute exposure of primary rat soleus muscle to zilpaterol HCl (β2 adrenergic agonist), TNFα, or IL-6 in culture increases glucose oxidation rates independent of the impact on insulin signaling or glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Cadaret, Caitlin N; Beede, Kristin A; Riley, Hannah E; Yates, Dustin T

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies show that adrenergic agonists and inflammatory cytokines can stimulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but it is unclear if glucose oxidation is similarly increased. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of ractopamine HCl (β1 agonist), zilpaterol HCl (β2 agonist), TNFα, and IL-6 on glucose uptake and oxidation rates in unstimulated and insulin-stimulated soleus muscle strips from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Effects on phosphorylation of Akt (phospho-Akt), p38 MAPK (phospho-p38), and p44/42 MAPK (phospho-p44/42) was also determined. Incubation with insulin increased (P<0.05) glucose uptake by ∼47%, glucose oxidation by ∼32%, and phospho-Akt by ∼238%. Insulin also increased (P<0.05) phospho-p38, but only after 2h in incubation. Muscle incubated with β2 agonist alone exhibited ∼20% less (P<0.05) glucose uptake but ∼32% greater (P<0.05) glucose oxidation than unstimulated muscle. Moreover, co-incubation with insulin+β2 agonist increased (P<0.05) glucose oxidation and phospho-Akt compared to insulin alone. Conversely, β1 agonist did not appear to affect basal or insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, and neither β agonist affected phospho-p44/42. TNFα and IL-6 increased (P<0.05) glucose oxidation by ∼23% and ∼33%, respectively, in the absence of insulin. This coincided with increased (P<0.05) phospho-p38 and phospho-p44/42 but not phospho-Akt. Furthermore, co-incubation of muscle with insulin+either cytokine yielded glucose oxidation rates that were similar to insulin alone, despite lower (P<0.05) phospho-Akt. Importantly, cytokine-mediated increases in glucose oxidation rates were not concomitant with greater glucose uptake. These results show that acute β2 adrenergic stimulation, but not β1 stimulation, directly increases fractional glucose oxidation in the absence of insulin and synergistically increases glucose oxidation when combined with insulin. The cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, likewise directly

  5. SDF7, a group of Scoparia dulcis Linn. derived flavonoid compounds, stimulates glucose uptake and regulates adipocytokines in 3T3-F442a adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Beh, Joo Ee; Khoo, Li Teng; Latip, Jalifah; Abdullah, Mohd Paud; Alitheen, Noorjahan Baru Mohamed; Adam, Zainah; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Muhajir

    2013-10-28

    Adipocytes are major tissues involved in glucose uptake second to skeletal muscle and act as the main adipocytokines mediator that regulates glucose uptake mechanism and cellular differentiation. The objective of this study were to examine the effect of the SDF7, which is a fraction consists of four flavonoid compounds (quercetin: p-coumaric acid: luteolin: apigenin=8: 26: 1: 3) from Scoparia dulcis Linn., on stimulating the downstream components of insulin signalling and the adipocytokines expression on different cellular fractions of 3T3-F442a adipocytes. Morphology and lipid accumulation of differentiated 3T3-F442a adipocytes by 100 nM insulin treated with different concentrations of SDF7 and rosiglitazone were examined followed by the evaluation of glucose uptake activity expressions of insulin signalling downstream components (IRS-1, PI3-kinase, PKB, PKC, TC10 and GLUT4) from four cellular fractions (plasma membrane, cytosol, high density microsome and low density microsome). Next, the expression level of adipocytokines (TNF-α, adiponectin and leptin) and immunoblotting of treated 3T3-F442 adipocytes was determined at 30 min and 480 min. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation of 3T3-F442a adipocytes membrane was also determined. Lastly, mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ of 3T3-F442a adipocytes were induced and compared with basal concentration. It was found that SDF7 was able to induce adipocytes differentiation with great extends of morphological changes, lipid synthesis and lipid stimulation in vitro. SDF7 stimulation of glucose transport on 3T3-F442a adipocytes are found to be dose independent, time-dependent and plasma membrane GLUT4 expression-dependent. Moreover, SDF7 are observed to be able to suppress TNF-α and leptin expressions that were mediated by 3T3-F442a adipocytes, while stimulated adiponectin secretion on the cells. There was a significant expression (p<0.01) of protein kinase C and small G protein TC10 on 3T3-F442a adipocytes

  6. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone exerts antiglucocorticoid action on human preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    McNelis, Joanne C.; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Gathercole, Laura L.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Stewart, Paul M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids increase adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, a process underpinned by the local reactivation of inactive cortisone to active cortisol within adipocytes catalyzed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). The adrenal sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been shown to inhibit 11β-HSD1 in murine adipocytes; however, rodent adrenals do not produce DHEA physiologically. Here, we aimed to determine the effects and underlying mechanisms of the potential antiglucocorticoid action of DHEA and its sulfate ester DHEAS in human preadipocytes. Utilizing a human subcutaneous preadipocyte cell line, Chub-S7, we examined the metabolism and effects of DHEA in human adipocytes, including adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, 11β-HSD1 expression, and activity and glucose uptake. DHEA, but not DHEAS, significantly inhibited preadipocyte proliferation via cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase independent of sex steroid and glucocorticoid receptor activation. 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity in differentiated adipocytes was inhibited by DHEA. DHEA coincubated with cortisone significantly inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, which was assessed by the expression of markers of early (LPL) and terminal (G3PDH) adipocyte differentiation. Coincubation with cortisol, negating the requirement for 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity, diminished the inhibitory effect of DHEA. Further consistent with glucocorticoid-opposing effects of DHEA, insulin-independent glucose uptake was significantly enhanced by DHEA treatment. DHEA increases basal glucose uptake and inhibits human preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, thereby exerting an antiglucocorticoid action. DHEA inhibition of the amplification of glucocorticoid action mediated by 11β-HSD1 contributes to the inhibitory effect of DHEA on human preadipocyte differentiation. PMID:24022868

  8. The novel antihyperglycaemic action of Hunteria umbellata seed fractions mediated via intestinal glucose uptake inhibition.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, A A; Adeyemi, O O; Agbaje, E O; Sofidiya, M O

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antihyperglycaemic effect and mechanism of action of fractions of the aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. (HU) in normal and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. HU was partitioned in chloroform, acetyl acetate and butan-1-ol to give chloroform fraction (HU c), ethyl acetate fraction (HU e), butanol fraction (HU b) and the "residue" (HU m), respectively. 200 mg/kg of each of these fraction dissolved in 5% Tween 20 in distilled water was investigated for its acute oral hypoglycaemic effects in normal rats over 6 hours while its repeated dose antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats over 5 days. In addition, 50 mg/kg of the crude alkaloid fraction (HU Af) extracted from HU was evaluated for its possible antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxaninduced hyperglycaemic rats using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) over 6 hours. Using the solvent system, distilled water-butanol-ammonium hydroxide (2:15:1, v/v/v), HU b was chromatographed and stained with Dragendorff's reagent for confirmatory qualitative analysis for alkaloids. Results showed that oral pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg of HU e, HU b and HU m resulted in a significant (p<0.05, p<0.001) time dependent hypoglycaemic effect, with the butan-1-ol fraction HU causing the most significant (p<0.001) hypoglycaemic effect. In the alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats, repeated oral treatment with 200 mg/kg of same HU fractions for 5 days resulted in significant (p<0.05) decreases in the fasting blood glucose concentrations with the most significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycaemic effect also recorded for HU b. Similarly, oral pretreatment with 50 mg/kg of HU Af significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001) attenuated an increase in the post-absorptive glucose concentration at 1(st) - 6(th) h in the alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic OGTT model. In addition, alkaloid was present in most of the separated spots on the TLC plate. In

  9. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M; Rochat, T; Egger, D; de Haller, R; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers breathing cold air during exercise. In four of the patients the effect of an infusion of naloxone on FEV1 was also measured during exercise induced asthma. Exercise produced acute bronchoconstriction in all asthmatics, characterised by a fall in FEV1; whereas no change occurred in normal subjects. There was no difference in plasma met-enkephalin, beta endorphin, and ACTH concentration between the two groups. Infusion of naloxone neither prevented nor worsened exercise induced asthma. These data suggest that endogenous opioids probably do not play a part in the development of exercise induced asthma. PMID:2944240

  10. Glucose Plus Fructose Ingestion for Post-Exercise Recovery-Greater than the Sum of Its Parts?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Betts, James A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-03-30

    Carbohydrate availability in the form of muscle and liver glycogen is an important determinant of performance during prolonged bouts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, when effective endurance performance is an objective on multiple occasions within a 24-h period, the restoration of endogenous glycogen stores is the principal factor determining recovery. This review considers the role of glucose-fructose co-ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen repletion following prolonged exercise. Glucose and fructose are primarily absorbed by different intestinal transport proteins; by combining the ingestion of glucose with fructose, both transport pathways are utilised, which increases the total capacity for carbohydrate absorption. Moreover, the addition of glucose to fructose ingestion facilitates intestinal fructose absorption via a currently unidentified mechanism. The co-ingestion of glucose and fructose therefore provides faster rates of carbohydrate absorption than the sum of glucose and fructose absorption rates alone. Similar metabolic effects can be achieved via the ingestion of sucrose (a disaccharide of glucose and fructose) because intestinal absorption is unlikely to be limited by sucrose hydrolysis. Carbohydrate ingestion at a rate of ≥1.2 g carbohydrate per kg body mass per hour appears to maximise post-exercise muscle glycogen repletion rates. Providing these carbohydrates in the form of glucose-fructose (sucrose) mixtures does not further enhance muscle glycogen repletion rates over glucose (polymer) ingestion alone. In contrast, liver glycogen repletion rates are approximately doubled with ingestion of glucose-fructose (sucrose) mixtures over isocaloric ingestion of glucose (polymers) alone. Furthermore, glucose plus fructose (sucrose) ingestion alleviates gastrointestinal distress when the ingestion rate approaches or exceeds the capacity for intestinal glucose absorption (~1.2 g/min). Accordingly, when rapid recovery of endogenous

  11. Exercise-induced ST-segment elevation during treadmill exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-09-03

    The exercise electrocardiogram is a commonly used non-invasive and inexpensive method for detection of electrocardiogram (ECG) changes secondary to myocardial ischemia. It has been reported that in patients with a first myocardial infarction and without residual ischemia, exercise-induced ST-segment elevation in Q leads is related to a more damaged coronary microcirculation and to less viable myocardium. Exercise-induced ST-segment elevation is a rare phenomenon in patients without prior myocardial infarction. When occurring purely during exercise, coronary lesions are frequent and often severe, and on the other hand ST-segment elevation of the recovery phase is frequently associated with normal arteries or less severe lesions. We present a case of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation in a 51-year-old Italian man. Coronary angiography revealed a significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, a significant circumflex coronary artery stenosis, a significant first obtuse marginal coronary artery stenosis and a significant second obtuse marginal coronary artery stenosis. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with implantation of stents was successfully performed. Also this case is illustrative of the rare phenomenon of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glycogen supercompensation masks the effect of a traininginduced increase in GLUT-4 on muscle glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Host, H H; Hansen, P A; Nolte, L A; Chen, M M; Holloszy, J O

    1998-07-01

    Endurance exercise training induces a rapid increase in the GLUT-4 isoform of the glucose transporter in muscle. In fasted rats, insulin-stimulated muscle glucose transport is increased in proportion to the increase in GLUT-4. There is evidence that high muscle glycogen may decrease insulin-stimulated glucose transport. This study was undertaken to determine whether glycogen supercompensation interferes with the increase in glucose transport associated with an exercise-induced increase in GLUT-4. Rats were trained by means of swimming for 6 h/day for 2 days. Rats fasted overnight after the last exercise bout had an approximately twofold increase in epitrochlearis muscle GLUT-4 and an associated approximately twofold increase in maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity. Epitrochlearis muscles of rats fed rodent chow after exercise were glycogen supercompensated (86.4 +/- 4.8 micromol/g wet wt) and showed no significant increase in maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport above the sedentary control value despite an approximately twofold increase in GLUT-4. Fasting resulted in higher basal muscle glucose transport rates in both sedentary and trained rats but did not significantly increase maximally insulin-stimulated transport in the sedentary group. We conclude that carbohydrate feeding that results in muscle glycogen supercompensation prevents the increase in maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport associated with an exercise training-induced increase in muscle GLUT-4.

  13. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Tomoaki; Kumagai, Chiaki; Fujihara, Takashi; Takemasa, Thoru; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Numata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF) combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  14. Effects of fat adaptation on glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Pagan, J D; Geor, R J; Harris, P A; Hoekstra, K; Gardner, S; Hudson, C; Prince, A

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of fat adaptation on carbohydrate and fat oxidation in conditioned horses during low-intensity exercise. Five mature Arabians were studied. The study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 dietary periods, each of 10 week's duration: a) a control (CON) diet, and b) a fat-supplemented (FAT) diet. The total amount of digestible energy (DE) supplied by the fat in the CON and FAT diets was 7% and 29%, respectively. During each period, the horses completed exercise tests at the beginning of the period (Week 0) and after 5 and 10 weeks on the diet. Tests consisted of 90 min of exercise at a speed calculated to elicit 35% VO2max on a treadmill inclined to 3 degrees. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured at 15-min intervals. For determination of glucose kinetics, a stable isotope ([6-6-d2] glucose) technique was used. Compared to the CON diet, FAT diet consumption for 5-10 weeks was associated with an altered metabolic response to low-intensity exercise, as evidenced by a more than 30% reduction in the production and utilisation of glucose; a decrease in RER; a decrease in the estimated rate of whole-body carbohydrate utilisation; and an increase in the whole-body rate of lipid oxidation during exercise.

  15. Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Hudson, Robert; Stotz, Paula J; Lam, Miu

    2015-03-03

    Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00955071). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 300 abdominally obese adults. Control (no exercise) (n = 75) or 5 weekly sessions of low-amount, low-intensity exercise (LALI) (180 and 300 kcal/session for women and men, respectively, at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption [V̇o2peak]) (n = 73); high-amount, low-intensity exercise (HALI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 50% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76); or high-amount, high-intensity exercise (HAHI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 75% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76). Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Waist circumference and 2-hour glucose level (primary outcomes) and cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of insulin action (secondary measurements). 217 participants (72.3%) completed the intervention. Mean exercise time in minutes per session was 31 (SD, 4.4) for LALI, 58 (SD, 7.6) for HALI, and 40 (SD, 6.2) for HAHI. Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time did not change in any exercise group versus control (P > 0.33). After adjustment for age and sex in a linear mixed model, reductions in waist circumference were greater in the LALI (-3.9 cm [95% CI, -5.6 to -2.3 cm]; P < 0.001), HALI (-4.6 cm [CI, -6.2 to -3.0 cm]; P < 0.001), and HAHI (-4.6 cm [CI, -6.3 to -2.9 cm]; P < 0.001) groups than the control group but did not differ among the exercise groups (P > 0.43). After adjustment for covariates, reductions in 2-hour glucose level were greater in the HAHI group (-0.7 mmol/L [-12.5 mg/dL] [CI, -1.3 to -0.1 mmol/L {-23.5 to -1.5 mg/dL}]; P = 0.027) than the control group but did not differ for the

  16. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose. PMID:26078708

  17. Extracellular Vesicles from Hypoxic Adipocytes and Obese Subjects Reduce Insulin‐Stimulated Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Mleczko, Justyna; Ortega, Francisco J.; Falcon‐Perez, Juan Manuel; Wabitsch, Martin; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Scope We investigate the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from in vitro adipocyte cell models and from obese subjects on glucose transport and insulin responsiveness. Methods and results EVs are isolated from the culture supernatant of adipocytes cultured under normoxia, hypoxia (1% oxygen), or exposed to macrophage conditioned media (15% v/v). EVs are isolated from the plasma of lean individuals and subjects with obesity. Cultured adipocytes are incubated with EVs and activation of insulin signalling cascades and insulin‐stimulated glucose transport are measured. EVs released from hypoxic adipocytes impair insulin‐stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake and reduce insulin mediated phosphorylation of AKT. Insulin‐mediated phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is not affected. EVs from individuals with obesity decrease insulin stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes (p = 0.0159). Conclusion EVs released by stressed adipocytes impair insulin action in neighboring adipocytes. PMID:29292863

  18. Cucurbitane Triterpenoids from the Fruits of Momordica Charantia Improve Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Joo-Hui; Tuan, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Min-Ho; Quan, Khong Trong; Oh, Joonseok; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Na, MinKyun; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2018-04-01

    Momordica charantia (M. charantia) has antidiabetic effects, and cucurbitane-type triterpenoid is one of the compounds of M. charantia. This study aims to investigate whether the new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids affect insulin sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying mechanisms. Four compounds (C1-C4) isolated from the ethanol extract of M. charantia enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes via insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) rather than via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. The most potent, compound 2 (C2), significantly increases the activation of IRS-1 and downstream signaling pathways, resulting in glucose transporter 4 translocation. Furthermore, these C2-induced in vitro effects are blocked by specific signal inhibitors. We further evaluate the antidiabetic effect of C2 using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model. Consistent with in vitro data, treatment with C2 (1.68 mg kg -1 ) significantly decreases blood glucose level and enhances glycogen storage in STZ-injected mice. These effects appear to be mediated by the IRS-1 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, not in adipose and liver tissues, suggesting that C2 improves hyperglycemia by increasing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Our findings demonstrate that the new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids have potential for prevention and management of diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison between pre-exercise casein peptide and intact casein supplementation on glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yutaka; Tamura, Yuki; Sakata, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Yudai; Saito, Noriko; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Shimizu, Takashi; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Terada, Shin; Hatta, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    We hypothesized that along with exercise, casein peptide supplementation would have a higher impact on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein. Male 6-week-old ICR mice were provided a high-fat diet to induce obesity and glucose intolerance. The mice were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: control (Con), endurance training (Tr), endurance training with intact casein supplementation (Cas+Tr), and endurance training with casein peptide supplementation (CP+Tr). The mice in each group were orally administrated water, intact casein, or casein peptide (1.0 mg/g body weight, every day), and then subjected to endurance training (15-25 m/min, 60 min, 5 times/week for 4 weeks) on a motor-driven treadmill 30 min after ingestion. Our results revealed that total intra-abdominal fat was significantly lower in CP+Tr than in Con (p < 0.05). Following an oral glucose tolerance test, the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was found to be significantly smaller for CP+Tr than for Con (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the soleus muscle, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein levels were significantly higher in CP+Tr than in Con (p < 0.01). However, intra-abdominal fat, blood glucose AUC, and GLUT4 protein content in the soleus muscle did not alter in Tr and Cas+Tr when compared with Con. These observations suggest that pre-exercise casein peptide supplementation has a higher effect on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein does in mice fed a high-fat diet.

  20. Elevated central venous pressure: A consequence of exercise training-induced hypervolemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mack, Gary W.; Nadel, Ethan R.

    1990-01-01

    Resting plasma volumes, and arterial and central venous pressures (CVP) were measured in 16 men before and after exercise training to determine if training-induced hypervolemia could be explained by a change in total vascular capacitance. In addition, resting levels of plasma vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (ALD), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured before and after training. The same measurements of vacular volume, pressures, and plasma hormones were measured in 8 subjects who did not undergo exercise and acted as controls. The exercise training program consisted of 10 weeks of controlled cycle exercise for 30 min/d, 4 d/wk at 75 to 80 percent of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A training effect was verified by a 20 percent increase in VO2max, a resting bradycardia, and a 370 ml (9 percent) increase in blood volume. Mean arterial blood pressure was unaltered by exercise training, but resting CVP increased. The percent change in blood volume from before to after training was linearly related to the percent change in CVP. As a consequence of elevations in both blood volume and CVP, the volume-to-pressure ratio was essentially unchanged following exercise training. Plasma AVP, ANP, ALD, and NE were unaltered. Results indicate that elevated CVP is a consequence of training-induced hypervolemia without alteration in total effective venous capacitance. This may represent a resetting of the pressure-volume stimulus-response relation for regulation of blood volume.

  1. Understanding exercise uptake and adherence for people with chronic conditions: a new model demonstrating the importance of exercise identity, benefits of attending and support.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, C; Taket, A

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the factors influencing uptake and adherence to exercise for people with chronic conditions from different ages, genders and ethnicities is important for planning exercise services. This paper presents evidence supporting a new model of exercise uptake and adherence applicable to people with chronic conditions from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds. The study is based on 130 semi-structured interviews with people with chronic conditions, including both those who did and those who did not attend exercise services, and supporters of those who attended. Analysis followed the guidelines of 'framework analysis'. Results show that three factors were particularly important in influencing adherence behavior: (i) exercise identity, (ii) support and (iii) perceived benefits of attending. Social and cultural identities impacted on willingness to exercise, importance of exercise and perceived appropriateness of exercising. Having at least one supporter providing different types of support was associated with high levels of attendance. Those people who valued the social and psychological benefits of attending were more likely to be high attenders. The new model illustrates interaction between these three factors and discusses how these can be taken into account when planning exercise services for people with chronic conditions drawn from diverse socio-demographic groups.

  2. Effects of melatonin on 2-deoxy-(1-/sup 14/C)glucose uptake within rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cassone, V.M.; Roberts, M.H.; Moore, R.Y.

    Previously, we have demonstrated that metabolic activity, shown by autoradiographic determination of 2-deoxy-(1-/sup 14/C)glucose (2-DG) uptake, within the rat hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was inhibited by subcutaneous injection of 1 mg/kg melatonin. To determine whether this effect was specific to a particular time of day, the effects of melatonin on 2-DG uptake were studied in several hypothalamic areas, including the SCN, supraoptic nuclei (SON), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) every 4 h throughout the circadian day. In a second experiment, the effects of different melatonin doses were studied at the time of day at which melatoninmore » had its maximal effect to determine the dose-response relationship of melatonin-induced inhibition of SCN 2-DG uptake. The data indicate that melatonin inhibited 2-DG uptake in the SCN alone at one time of day, primarily at circadian time (CT) 6 and CT10, 2-6 h before subjective dusk, and secondarily at CT22, just before subjective dawn. This effect was dose dependent with a 50% effective dose of 1.49 +/- 2.30 micrograms/kg. The temporal and dose-response characteristics of these effects are similar to those characterizing the entraining effects of melatonin on circadian patterns of locomotion and drinking.« less

  3. Regulation of myosin IIA and filamentous actin during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Kent Fulcher, F.

    Insulin stimulated glucose uptake requires the colocalization of myosin IIA (MyoIIA) and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) at the plasma membrane for proper GLUT4 fusion. MyoIIA facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) reorganization in various cell types. In adipocytes F-actin reorganization is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. What is not known is whether MyoIIA interacts with F-actin to regulate insulin-induced GLUT4 fusion at the plasma membrane. To elucidate the relationship between MyoIIA and F-actin, we examined the colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation as well as the regulation of this interaction. Our findings demonstrated thatmore » MyoIIA and F-actin colocalized at the site of GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of MyoII with blebbistatin impaired F-actin localization at the plasma membrane. Next we examined the regulatory role of calcium in MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization. Reduced calcium or calmodulin levels decreased colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane. While calcium alone can translocate MyoIIA it did not stimulate F-actin accumulation at the plasma membrane. Taken together, we established that while MyoIIA activity is required for F-actin localization at the plasma membrane, it alone is insufficient to localize F-actin to the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Insulin induces colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the cortex in adipocytes. • MyoIIA is necessary but not sufficient to localize F-actin at the cell cortex. • MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization is regulated by calcium and calmodulin.« less

  4. The inability of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation to stimulate GLUT4 translocation indicates additional signaling pathways are required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Isakoff, S J; Taha, C; Rose, E; Marcusohn, J; Klip, A; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-10-24

    Recent experimental evidence has focused attention to the role of two molecules, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), in linking the insulin receptor to glucose uptake; IRS-1 knockout mice are insulin resistant, and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To investigate the role of PI3-kinase and IRS-1 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake we examined whether stimulation of insulin-sensitive cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or with interleukin 4 (IL-4) stimulates glucose uptake; the activated PDGF receptor (PDGFR) directly binds and activates PI3-kinase, whereas the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) activates PI3-kinase via IRS-1 or the IRS-1-related molecule 4PS. We found that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PDGF resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR and activation of PI3-kinase in these cells. To examine whether IL-4 stimulates glucose uptake, L6 myoblasts were engineered to overexpress GLUT4 as well as both chains of the IL-4R (L6/IL-4R/GLUT4); when these L6/IL-4R/GLUT4 myoblasts were stimulated with IL-4, IRS-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with PI3-kinase. Although PDGF and IL-4 can activate PI3-kinase in the respective cell lines, they do not possess insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that activation of PI3-kinase is not sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We postulate that activation of a second signaling pathway by insulin, distinct from PI3-kinase, is necessary for the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells.

  5. Importance of mitochondrial calcium uniporter in high glucose-induced endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Jie; Chen, Shuhua; Xiang, Hong; Liu, Hengdao; Lin, Dan; Zhao, Shaoli; Peng, Hui; Chen, Pan; Chen, Alex F; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload is implicated in hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial cell dysfunction, but the key molecular events responsible remain unclear. We examined the involvement of mitochondrial calcium uniporter, which mediates mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake, in endothelial cell dysfunction resulting from high-glucose treatment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to various glucose concentrations and to high glucose (30 mM) following mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition or activation with ruthenium red and spermine, respectively. Subsequently, mitochondrial calcium uniporter and mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 messenger RNA and protein expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Ca 2+ concentrations were analysed by laser confocal microscopy, and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oxidative stress was detected using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and MitoSOX Red, respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, and a wound-healing assay was performed using an in vitro model. High glucose markedly upregulated mitochondrial calcium uniporter and mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 messenger RNA expression, as well as protein production, in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a maximum effect demonstrated at 72 h and 30 mM glucose concentration. Moreover, high-glucose treatment significantly raised both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic Ca 2+ and reactive oxygen species levels, increased apoptosis and compromised wound healing (all p < 0.05). These effects were enhanced by spermine and completely negated by ruthenium red, which are known to activate and inhibit mitochondrial calcium uniporter, respectively. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter plays an important role in hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial cell dysfunction and may constitute a therapeutic target to reduce vascular complications in diabetes.

  6. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases glucose uptake and fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Aparecida de França, Suélem; Pavani Dos Santos, Maísa; Nunes Queiroz da Costa, Roger Vinícius; Froelich, Mendalli; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Giordani, Morenna Alana; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Marlise Balbinotti Andrade, Cláudia; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate glucose uptake and the contribution of glucose to fatty acid (FA) synthesis and the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) of triacylglycerol synthesis by interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats. LPHC (6% protein; 74% carbohydrate) or control (17% protein; 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats (∼ 100 g) for 15 d. Total FA and G3P synthesis and the synthesis of FA and G3P from glucose were evaluated in vivo by (3)H2O and (14)C-glucose. Sympathetic neural contribution for FA synthesis was evaluated by comparing the synthesis in denervated (7 d before) IBAT with that of the contralateral innervated side. The insulin signaling and β3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) contents, as well as others, were determined by Western blot (Student's t test or analysis of variance; P ≤ 0.05). Total FA synthesis in IBAT was 133% higher in the LPHC group and was reduced 85% and 70% by denervation for the LPHC and control groups, respectively. Glucose uptake was 3.5-fold higher in the IBAT of LPHC rats than in that of the control rats, and the contribution of glucose to the total FA synthesis increased by 12% in control rats compared with 18% in LPHC rats. The LPHC diet increased the G3P generation from glucose by 270% and the insulin receptor content and the p-AKT insulin stimulation in IBAT by 120% and reduced the β3-AR content by 50%. The LPHC diet stimulated glucose uptake, both the total rates and the rates derived from glucose-dependent FA and G3P synthesis, by increasing the insulin sensitivity and the sympathetic flux, despite a reduction in the β3-AR content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoxia and training-induced adaptation of hormonal responses to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Engfred, K; Kjaer, M; Secher, N H; Friedman, D B; Hanel, B; Nielsen, O J; Bach, F W; Galbo, H; Levine, B D

    1994-01-01

    To establish whether or not hypoxia influences the training-induced adaptation of hormonal responses to exercise, 21 healthy, untrained subjects (2) years, mean (SE)] were studied in three groups before and after 5 weeks' training (cycle ergometer, 45 min.day-1, 5 days.week-1). Group 1 trained at sea level at 70% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), group 2 in a hypobaric chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m at 70% of altitude VO2max, and group 3 at a simulated altitude of 2500 m at the same absolute work rate as group 1. Arterial blood was sampled before, during and at the end of exhaustive cycling at sea level (85% of pretraining VO2max). VO2max increased by 12 (2)% with no significant difference between groups, whereas endurance improved most in group 1 (P < 0.05). Training-induced changes in response to exercise of noradrenaline, adrenaline, growth hormone, beta-endorphin, glucagon, and insulin were similar in the three groups. Concentrations of erythropoietin and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at rest did not change over the training period. In conclusion, within 5 weeks of training, no further adaptation of hormonal exercise responses takes place if intensity is increased above 70% VO2max. Furthermore, hypoxia per se does not add to the training-induced hormonal responses to exercise.

  8. Glucose transporters and maximal transport are increased in endurance-trained rat soleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slentz, C. A.; Gulve, E. A.; Rodnick, K. J.; Henriksen, E. J.; Youn, J. H.; Holloszy, J. O.

    1992-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running induces an increase in the concentration of the regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat plantaris muscle but not in soleus muscle (K. J. Rodnick, J. O. Holloszy, C. E. Mondon, and D. E. James. Diabetes 39: 1425-1429, 1990). Wheel running also causes hypertrophy of the soleus in rats. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether endurance training that induces enzymatic adaptations but no hypertrophy results in an increase in the concentration of GLUT4 protein in rat soleus (slow-twitch red) muscle and, if it does, to determine whether there is a concomitant increase in maximal glucose transport activity. Female rats were trained by treadmill running at 25 m/min up a 15% grade, 90 min/day, 6 days/wk for 3 wk. This training program induced increases of 52% in citrate synthase activity, 66% in hexokinase activity, and 47% in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration in soleus muscles without causing hypertrophy. Glucose transport activity stimulated maximally with insulin plus contractile activity was increased to roughly the same extent (44%) as GLUT4 protein content in soleus muscle by the treadmill exercise training. In a second set of experiments, we examined whether a swim-training program increases glucose transport activity in the soleus in the presence of a maximally effective concentration of insulin. The swimming program induced a 44% increase in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration. Glucose transport activity maximally stimulated with insulin was 62% greater in soleus muscle of the swimmers than in untrained controls. Training did not alter the basal rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Assessing the evidence: Exploring the effects of exercise on diabetic microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Lenasi, Helena; Klonizakis, Markos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications. Impairment of glycemic control induces noxious glycations, an increase in oxydative stress and dearangement of various metabolic pathways. DM leads to dysfunction of micro- and macrovessels, connected to metabolic, endothelial and autonomic nervous system. Thus, assessing vascular reactivity might be one of the clinical tools to evaluate the impact of harmful effects of DM and potential benefit of treatment; skin and skeletal muscle microcirculation have usually been tested. Physical exercise improves vascular dysfunction through various mechanisms, and is regarded as an additional effective treatment strategy of DM as it positively impacts glycemic control, improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in the target tissues, thus affecting glucose and lipid metabolism, and increases the endothelium dependent vasodilation. Yet, not all patients respond in the same way so titrating the exercise type individualy would be desirable. Resistance training has, apart from aerobic one, been shown to positively correlate to glycemic control, and improve vascular reactivity. It has been prescribed in various forms or in combination with aerobic training. This review would assess the impact of different modes of exercise, the mechanisms involved, and its potential positive and negative effects on treating patients with Type I and Type II DM, focusing on the recent literature.

  10. Chronically increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue leads to lactate production and improved insulin sensitivity rather than obesity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S; Franckhauser, S; Elias, I; Ferré, T; Hidalgo, A; Monteys, A M; Molas, M; Cerdán, S; Pujol, A; Ruberte, J; Bosch, F

    2010-11-01

    In adipocytes, triacylglycerol synthesis depends on the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate, which originates either from glucose, through glycolysis, or from lactate, through glyceroneogenesis. However, glucose is traditionally viewed as the main precursor of the glycerol backbone and thus, enhanced glucose uptake would be expected to result in increased triacylglycerol synthesis and contribute to obesity. To further explore this issue, we generated a mouse model with chronically increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue by expressing Gck, which encodes the glucokinase enzyme. Here we show that the production of high levels of glucokinase led to increased adipose tissue glucose uptake and lactate production, improved glucose tolerance and higher whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. There was no parallel increase in glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis in vivo, fat accumulation or obesity. Moreover, at high glucose concentrations, in cultured fat cells overproducing glucokinase, glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis from pyruvate decreased, while glyceroneogenesis increased in fat cells overproducing hexokinase II. These findings indicate that the absence of glucokinase inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate probably led to increased glycolysis and blocked glyceroneogenesis in the mouse model. Furthermore, this study suggests that under physiological conditions, when blood glucose increases, glyceroneogenesis may prevail over glycolysis for triacylglycerol formation because of the inhibition of hexokinase II by glucose 6-phosphate. Together these results point to the indirect pathway (glucose to lactate to glycerol 3-phosphate) being key for fat deposition in adipose tissue.

  11. Glucose supplements increase human muscle in vitro Na+-K+-ATPase activity during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Green, H J; Duhamel, T A; Foley, K P; Ouyang, J; Smith, I C; Stewart, R D

    2007-07-01

    Regulation of maximal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in vastus lateralis muscle was investigated in response to prolonged exercise with (G) and without (NG) oral glucose supplements. Fifteen untrained volunteers (14 males and 1 female) with a peak aerobic power (Vo(2)(peak)) of 44.8 +/- 1.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); mean +/- SE cycled at approximately 57% Vo(2)(peak) to fatigue during both NG (artificial sweeteners) and G (6.13 +/- 0.09% glucose) in randomized order. Consumption of beverage began at 30 min and continued every 15 min until fatigue. Time to fatigue was increased (P < 0.05) in G compared with NG (137 +/- 7 vs. 115 +/- 6 min). Maximal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity (V(max)) as measured by the 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase assay (nmol.mg(-1).h(-1)) was not different between conditions prior to exercise (85.2 +/- 3.3 or 86.0 +/- 3.9), at 30 min (91.4 +/- 4.7 vs. 91.9 +/- 4.1) and at fatigue (92.8 +/- 4.3 vs. 100 +/- 5.0) but was higher (P < 0.05) in G at 90 min (86.7 +/- 4.2 vs. 109 +/- 4.1). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase content (beta(max)) measured by the vanadate facilitated [(3)H]ouabain-binding technique (pmol/g wet wt) although elevated (P < 0.05) by exercise (0<30, 90, and fatigue) was not different between NG and G. At 60 and 90 min of exercise, blood glucose was higher (P < 0.05) in G compared with NG. The G condition also resulted in higher (P < 0.05) serum insulin at similar time points to glucose and lower (P < 0.05) plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine at 90 min of exercise and at fatigue. These results suggest that G results in an increase in V(max) by mechanisms that are unclear.

  12. Glucose uptake of the muscle and adipose tissues in diabetes and obesity disease models: evaluation of insulin and β3-adrenergic receptor agonist effects by 18F-FDG.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Seigo; Sugita, Taku; Kondo, Yusuke; Okai, Mika; Tsuchimori, Kazue; Watanabe, Masanori; Mori, Ikuo; Hosoya, Masaki; Horiguchi, Takashi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori

    2017-06-01

    One of the major causes of diabetes and obesity is abnormality in glucose metabolism and glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose tissue based on an insufficient action of insulin. Therefore, many of the drug discovery programs are based on the concept of stimulating glucose uptake in these tissues. Improvement of glucose metabolism has been assessed based on blood parameters, but these merely reflect the systemic reaction to the drug administered. We have conducted basic studies to investigate the usefulness of glucose uptake measurement in various muscle and adipose tissues in pharmacological tests using disease-model animals. A radiotracer for glucose, 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG), was administered to Wistar fatty rats (type 2 diabetes model), DIO mouse (obese model), and the corresponding control animals, and the basal glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose (white and brown) tissues were compared using biodistribution method. Moreover, insulin and a β3 agonist (CL316,243), which are known to stimulate glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose tissues, were administered to assess their effect. 18 F-FDG uptake in each tissue was measured as the radioactivity and the distribution was confirmed by autoradiography. In Wistar fatty rats, all the tissues measured showed a decrease in the basal level of glucose uptake when compared to Wistar lean rats. On the other hand, the same trend was observed only in the white adipose tissue in DIO mice, while brown adipose tissue showed increments in the basal glucose uptake in this model. Insulin administration stimulated glucose uptake in both Wistar lean and fatty rats, although the responses were inhibited in Wistar fatty rats. The same tendency was shown also in control mice, but clear increments in glucose uptake were not observed in the muscle and brown adipose tissue of DIO mice after insulin administration. β3 agonist administration showed the similar trend in Wistar lean and fatty rats as insulin

  13. Are the oxygen uptake and heart rate off-kinetics influenced by the intensity of prior exercise?

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Salvador, Paulo Cesar; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Teixeira, Anderson Santiago; Souza, Kristopher Mendes de; de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prior exercise on the heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) off-kinetics after a subsequent high-intensity running exercise. Thirteen male futsal players (age 22.8±6.1years) performed a series of high-intensity bouts without prior exercise (control), preceded by a prior same intensity continuous exercise (CE+CE) and a prior sprint exercise (SE+CE). The magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCm-4.25±0.19 vs. 3.69±0.20Lmin(-1) in CE+CE and 3.62±0.18Lmin(-1) in control; p<0.05) and the parasympathetic reactivation (HRR60s-33±3 vs. 37±3bpm in CE+CE and 42±3 bpm in control; p<0.05) in the SE+CE were higher and slower, compared with another two conditions. The EPOCτ (time to attain 63% of total response; 53±2s) and the heart rate time-course (HRτ-86±5s) were significantly longer after the SE+CE condition than control transition (48±2s and 69±5s, respectively; p<0.05). The SE+CE induce greater stress on the metabolic function, respiratory system and autonomic nervous system regulation during post-exercise recovery than CE, highlighting that the inclusion of sprint-based exercises can be an effective strategy to increase the total energy expenditure following an exercise session. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Filarial Infection or Antigen Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Berbudi, Afiat; Surendar, Jayagopi; Ajendra, Jesuthas; Gondorf, Fabian; Schmidt, David; Neumann, Anna-Lena; Wardani, Ajeng P F; Layland, Laura E; Hoffmann, Linda S; Pfeifer, Alexander; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2016-01-01

    Helminths induce type 2 immune responses and establish an anti-inflammatory milieu in their hosts. This immunomodulation was previously shown to improve diet-induced insulin resistance which is linked to chronic inflammation. In the current study, we demonstrate that infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis increased the eosinophil number and alternatively activated macrophage abundance within epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and improved glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice in an eosinophil-dependent manner. L. sigmodontis antigen (LsAg) administration neither altered the body weight of animals nor adipose tissue mass or adipocyte size, but it triggered type 2 immune responses, eosinophils, alternatively activated macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in EAT. Improvement in glucose tolerance by LsAg treatment remained even in the absence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, PCR array results revealed that LsAg treatment reduced inflammatory immune responses and increased the expression of genes related to insulin signaling (Glut4, Pde3b, Pik3r1, and Hk2) and fatty acid uptake (Fabp4 and Lpl). Our investigation demonstrates that L. sigmodontis infection and LsAg administration reduce diet-induced EAT inflammation and improve glucose tolerance. Helminth-derived products may, therefore, offer new options to improve insulin sensitivity, while loss of helminth infections in developing and developed countries may contribute to the recent increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Glucose Transport in Cultured Animal Cells: An Exercise for the Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…

  16. Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

  17. β2-Adrenoceptors and non-β-adrenoceptors mediate effects of BRL37344 and clenbuterol on glucose uptake in soleus muscle: studies using knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ngala, Robert A; O'Dowd, Jacqueline; Wang, Steven J; Stocker, Claire; Cawthorne, Michael A; Arch, Jonathan RS

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In previous work, 10 pM BRL37344 and 10 pM clenbuterol stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle. Ten nM BRL37344 also stimulated uptake but 100 nM clenbuterol inhibited uptake. Antagonist studies suggested that the opposite effects of 10 nM BRL37344 and 100 nM clenbuterol are mediated by the β2-adrenoceptor. BRL37344 and clenbuterol have been studied in muscles that lack β3-, β2- or all three β-adrenoceptors. Effects of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on responses to the agonists have been studied further using muscles from wild-type mice. Experimental approach: Soleus muscles of wild-type or β-adrenoceptor knockout mice were incubated with 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose, and β-adrenoceptor ligands. Formation of 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose-6-phosphate was measured. Key results: Concentration–response relationships were similar for BRL37344 and clenbuterol in normal muscle and muscle lacking β3-adrenoceptors. Ten pM BRL37344 and clenbuterol stimulated glucose uptake in muscle lacking β2-adrenoceptors or all three β-adrenoceptors, but 10 nM BRL37344 did not stimulate uptake in either case, and 100 nM clenbuterol stimulated, rather than inhibited, uptake in muscle lacking β2-adrenoceptors. One hundred nM clenbuterol also stimulated glucose uptake in normal muscle when β2-adrenoceptors were blocked with ICI118551, and this was not prevented by antagonism of β1- or β3-adrenoceptors. Conclusions and implications: Ten nM BRL37344 and 100 nM clenbuterol have opposite effects on glucose uptake but both effects are mediated by the β2-adrenoceptor – apparently an example of agonist-directed signalling. Ten pM BRL37344, 10 pM clenbuterol and 100 nM clenbuterol in the presence of ICI118551 stimulate glucose uptake via β-adrenoceptor-independent mechanisms, demonstrating unknown properties for the agonists. PMID:19912225

  18. Changes in cerebral [18F]-FDG uptake induced by acute alcohol administration in a rat model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Gispert, Juan D; Figueiras, Francisca P; Vengeliene, Valentina; Herance, José R; Rojas, Santiago; Spanagel, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Several [ 18 F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) studies in alcoholics have consistently reported decreases in overall brain glucose metabolism at rest and following acute alcohol administration. However, changes in cerebral glucose utilization associated with the transition to addiction are not well understood and require longitudinal translational imaging studies in animal models of alcoholism. Here, we studied brain glucose uptake in alcohol drinking rats in order to provide convergent evidence to what has previously been reported in human studies. Brain glucose metabolism was measured by [ 18 F]-FDG microPET imaging in different male Wistar rat groups: short-term drinking (three months), long-term drinking (twelve months) and alcohol-naïve. Global and regional cerebral glucose uptake was measured at rest and following acute alcohol administration. We showed that alcohol significantly reduced the whole-brain glucose metabolism. This effect was most pronounced in the parietal cortex and cerebellum. Alcohol-induced decreases in brain [ 18 F]-FDG uptake was most apparent in alcohol-naïve rats, less intense in short-term drinkers and absent in long-term drinkers. The latter finding indicates the occurrence of tolerance to the intoxicating effects of alcohol in long-term drinking individuals. In contrast, some regions, like the ventral striatum and entorhinal cortex, showed enhanced metabolic activity, an effect that did not undergo tolerance during long-term alcohol consumption. Our findings are comparable to those described in human studies using the same methodology. We conclude that [ 18 F]-FDG PET studies in rat models of alcoholism provide good translation and can be used for future longitudinal studies investigating alterations in brain function during different stages of the addiction cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  20. Hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis slows the adaptation of pulmonary O2 uptake during the transition to moderate-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lisa M K; Leigh, Ryan J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Rossiter, Harry B; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2007-08-15

    The effect of voluntary hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis (RALK) on pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics and muscle deoxygenation was examined in young male adults (n=8) during moderate-intensity exercise. Subjects performed five repetitions of a step-transition in work rate from 20 W cycling to a work rate corresponding to 90% of the estimated lactate threshold during control (CON; PET,CO2, approximately 40 mmHg) and during hyperventilation (RALK; PET,CO2, approximately 20 mmHg). was measured breath-by-breath and relative concentration changes in muscle deoxy- (DeltaHHb), oxy- (DeltaO2Hb) and total (DeltaHbtot) haemoglobin were measured continuously using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (Hamamatsu, NIRO 300). The time constant for the fundamental, phase 2, VO2 response (tau VO2) was greater (P<0.05) in RALK (48+/-11 s) than CON (31+/-9 s), while tauHHb was similar between conditions (RALK, 12+/-4 s; CON, 11+/-4 s). The DeltaHb(tot) was lower (P<0.05) in RALK than CON, prior to (RALK, -3+/-5 micromol l(-1); CON, -1+/-4 micromol l(-1)) and at the end (RALK, 1+/-6 micromol l(-1); CON, 5+/-5 micromol l(-1)) of moderate-intensity exercise. Although slower adaptation of during RALK may be related to an attenuated activation of PDH (and other enzymes) and provision of oxidizable substrate to the mitochondria (i.e. metabolic inertia), the present findings also suggest a role for a reduction in local muscle perfusion and O2 delivery.

  1. Pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate exercise are slowed by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lisa M. K.; Heigenhauser, George J. F.; Paterson, Donald H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis (Hypo) on the adjustment of pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2p) and leg femoral conduit artery (“bulk”) blood flow (LBF) during moderate-intensity exercise (Mod) was examined in eight young male adults. Subjects completed four to six repetitions of alternate-leg knee-extension exercise during normal breathing [Con; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) ∼40 mmHg] and sustained hyperventilation (Hypo; PetCO2 ∼20 mmHg). Increases in work rate were made instantaneously from baseline (3 W) to Mod (80% estimated lactate threshold). V̇o2p was measured breath by breath by mass spectrometry and volume turbine, and LBF (calculated from mean femoral artery blood velocity and femoral artery diameter) was measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. Concentration changes of deoxy (Δ[HHb])-, oxy (Δ[O2Hb])-, and total hemoglobin-myoglobin (Δ[HbTot]) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The kinetics of V̇o2p, LBF, and Δ[HHb] were modeled using a monoexponential equation by nonlinear regression. The time constants for the phase 2 V̇o2p (Hypo, 49 ± 26 s; Con, 28 ± 8 s) and LBF (Hypo, 46 ± 16 s; Con, 23 ± 6 s) were greater (P < 0.05) in Hypo compared with Con. However, the mean response time for the overall Δ[HHb] response was not different between conditions (Hypo, 23 ± 5 s; Con, 24 ± 3 s), whereas the Δ[HHb] amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in Hypo (8.05 ± 7.47 a.u.) compared with Con (6.69 ± 6.31 a.u.). Combined, these results suggest that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis is associated with slower convective (i.e., slowed femoral artery and microvascular blood flow) and diffusive (i.e., greater fractional O2 extraction for a given ΔV̇o2p) O2 delivery, which may contribute to the hyperventilation-induced slowing of V̇o2p (and muscle O2 utilization) kinetics. PMID:20339012

  2. O2 uptake kinetics during exercise at peak O2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Barry W; Barstow, Thomas J

    2003-11-01

    Compared with moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise, the adjustment of O2 uptake (VO2) to exercise intensities that elicit peak VO2 has received relatively little attention. This study examined the VO2 response of 21 young, healthy subjects (25 +/- 6 yr; mean +/- SD) during cycle ergometer exercise to step transitions in work rate (WR) corresponding to 90, 100, and 110% of the peak WR achieved during a preliminary ramp protocol (15-30 W/min). Gas exchange was measured breath by breath and interpolated to 1-s values. VO2 kinetics were determined by use of a two- or three-component exponential model to isolate the time constant (tau2) as representative of VO2 kinetics and the amplitude (Amp) of the primary fast component independent of the appearance of any VO2 slow component. No difference in VO2 kinetics was observed between WRs (tau90 = 24.7 +/- 9.0; tau100 = 22.8 +/- 6.7; tau110 = 21.5 +/- 9.2 s, where subscripts denote percent of peak WR; P > 0.05); nor in a subgroup of eight subjects was tau2 different from the value for moderate-intensity (exercise (tau2 = 25 +/- 12 s, P > 0.05). As expected, the Amp increased with increasing WRs (Amp90 = 2,089 +/- 548; Amp100 = 2,165 +/- 517; Amp110 = 2,225 +/- 559 ml/min; Amp90 vs. Amp110, P < 0.05). However, the gain (G) of the VO2 response (deltaVO2/deltaWR) decreased with increasing WRs (G90 = 8.5 +/- 0.6; G100 = 7.9 +/- 0.6; G110 = 7.3 +/- 0.6 ml.min-1.W-1; P < 0.05). The Amp of the primary component approximated 85, 88, and 89% of peak Vo2 during 90, 100, and 110% WR transitions, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate that, compared with moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise, the gain of the Vo2 response (as deltaVO2/DeltaWR) is reduced for exercise transitions in the severe-intensity domain, but the approach to this gain is well described by a common time constant that is invariant across work intensities. The lower deltaVO2/deltaWR may be due to an insufficient adjustment of

  3. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    PubMed

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents.

  4. Preventing exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes using real-time continuous glucose monitoring and a new carbohydrate intake algorithm: an observational field study.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Michael C; Milliken, Jill

    2011-08-01

    Real-time (RT) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) offers the possibility to better manage glucose levels during exercise in active individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, studies have yet to determine the appropriate actions to take when glucose levels are trending toward hypoglycemia. The purpose of this observational field study was to test the effectiveness of RT-GCM and a new carbohydrate intake algorithm designed for maintaining euglycemia during sports. During a 2-week sports camp, 25 adolescents (8-17 years old) with T1DM were fitted with a RT-CGM device and instructed to ingest fast-acting carbohydrates (8-20 g, depending on the concentration of glucose at the time of RT-CGM alert and rates of change in glycemia) when glucose levels were trending toward hypoglycemia. Rates of change in glucose were measured before and after algorithm use, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was documented. With RT-CGM and algorithm use, euglycemia was largely maintained with modest amounts of carbohydrate intake, even when glucose levels were initially dropping at an elevated rate (>0.55 mmol/L per 5 min). Mild biochemical hypoglycemia (3.0-3.9 mmol/L) occurred just twice out of 22 uses of the algorithm (9%) when trend arrows alerted the subjects that glucose levels were dropping. When glucose levels were already below target (<5.0 mmol/L), mild hypoglycemia occurred five times out of 13 events (38%), despite 16 g of carbohydrate being ingested. Average glucose levels during sports in the 60 min following algorithm use were 5.8 ± 1.2 mmol/L, 5.3 ± 1.0 mmol/L, and 6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L in the 20-, 16-, and 8-g carbohydrate intake protocols when glucose levels were initially on target but dropping toward hypoglycemia. When coupled with RT-CGM, a new carbohydrate intake algorithm prevents hypoglycemia and maintains euglycemia during exercise, particularly if patients ingest carbohydrate when trend arrows alert them of a drop in glycemia.

  5. Effect of acute inspiratory muscle exercise on blood flow of resting and exercising limbs and glucose levels in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Paula dos Santos; Antunes, Cristiano Fetter; Figueira, Franciele Ramos; de Castro, Marina Axmann; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of inspiratory loading on blood flow of resting and exercising limbs in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Ten diabetic patients without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DM), 10 patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DM-CAN) and 10 healthy controls (C) were randomly assigned to inspiratory muscle load of 60% or 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) for approximately 5 min, while resting calf blood flow (CBF) and exercising forearm blood flow (FBF) were measured. Reactive hyperemia was also evaluated. From the 20 diabetic patients initially allocated, 6 wore a continuous glucose monitoring system to evaluate the glucose levels during these two sessions (2%, placebo or 60%, inspiratory muscle metaboreflex). Mean age was 58 ± 8 years, and mean HbA1c, 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) (DM and DM-CAN). A PImax of 60% caused reduction of CBF in DM-CAN and DM (P<0.001), but not in C, whereas calf vascular resistance (CVR) increased in DM-CAN and DM (P<0.001), but not in C. The increase in FBF during forearm exercise was blunted during 60% of PImax in DM-CAN and DM, and augmented in C (P<0.001). Glucose levels decreased by 40 ± 18.8% (P<0.001) at 60%, but not at 2%, of PImax. A negative correlation was observed between reactive hyperemia and changes in CVR (Beta coefficient = -0.44, P = 0.034). Inspiratory muscle loading caused an exacerbation of the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex in patients with diabetes, regardless of the presence of neuropathy, but influenced by endothelial dysfunction. High-intensity exercise that recruits the diaphragm can abruptly reduce glucose levels.

  6. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  7. Trauma-induced systemic inflammatory response versus exercise-induced immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbach, Elvira; Schneider, Marion E

    2006-01-01

    Accidental trauma and heavy endurance exercise, both induce a kind of systemic inflammatory response, also called systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Exercise-related SIRS is conditioned by hyperthermia and concomitant heat shock responses, whereas trauma-induced SIRS manifests concomitantly with tissue necrosis and immune activation, secondarily followed by fever. Inflammatory cytokines are common denominators in both trauma and exercise, although there are marked quantitative differences. Different anti-inflammatory cytokines may be involved in the con