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  1. Thumb sucking.

    PubMed

    Leung, A K; Robson, W L

    1991-11-01

    Malocclusion of the developing dentition, the major complication of thumb sucking, usually corrects spontaneously if thumb sucking ceases by six years of age. Thumb sucking in a child less than two years of age requires no treatment. In a three- to four-year-old child, thumb sucking may be secondary to changes in the child's emotional environment, and treatment should be directed at correcting the underlying problem. Thumb sucking that persists beyond the age of six years should be treated. Behavioral conditioning techniques, positive reinforcement and dental appliances are important aspects of treatment.

  2. Thumb sucking

    MedlinePlus

    ... and-Thumb-Sucking.aspx . Accessed August 17, 2015. Review Date 7/10/2015 Updated by: Neil K. ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  3. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation.

  4. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks. PMID:27243577

  5. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks.

  6. Thienoquinolins exert diuresis by strongly inhibiting UT-A urea transporters.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huiwen; Wang, Yanhua; Xing, Yongning; Ran, Jianhua; Liu, Ming; Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Hong; Li, Runtao; Sands, Jeff M; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-12-15

    Urea transporters (UT) play an important role in the urine concentration mechanism by mediating intrarenal urea recycling, suggesting that UT inhibitors could have therapeutic use as a novel class of diuretic. Recently, we found a thienoquinolin UT inhibitor, PU-14, that exhibited diuretic activity. The purpose of this study was to identify more potent UT inhibitors that strongly inhibit UT-A isoforms in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Efficient thienoquinolin UT inhibitors were identified by structure-activity relationship analysis. Urea transport inhibition activity was assayed in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. Diuretic activity of the compound was determined in rats and mice using metabolic cages. The results show that the compound PU-48 exhibited potent UT-A inhibition activity. The inhibition was 69.5% with an IC50 of 0.32 μM. PU-48 significantly inhibited urea transport in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. PU-48 caused significant diuresis in UT-B null mice, which indicates that UT-A is the target of PU-48. The diuresis caused by PU-48 did not change blood Na(+), K(+), or Cl(-) levels or nonurea solute excretion in rats and mice. No toxicity was detected in cells or animals treated with PU-48. The results indicate that thienoquinolin UT inhibitors induce a diuresis by inhibiting UT-A in the IMCD. This suggests that they may have the potential to be developed as a novel class of diuretics with fewer side effects than classical diuretics.

  7. Chemically engineered sulfated glucans from rice bran exert strong antiviral activity at the stage of viral entry.

    PubMed

    Ray, Bimalendu; Hutterer, Corina; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Kanika; Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Sayani; Zeitträger, Isabel; Wagner, Sabrina; Marschall, Manfred

    2013-12-27

    Attachment and entry of many viruses are mediated by their affinity for polysaccharides present on the surface of target cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that sulfated glucans isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) can be utilized as experimental drugs exerting strong antiviral activity. In particular, oleum-DMF-based extraction is described as a procedure for the generation of chemically engineered glucans from commercially available rice bran. The one-step procedure has the potential to provide a spectrum of related glucans with varying molecular masses and modifications, including sulfation. The sulfated glucans P444, P445, and P446 possess increased antiviral activity compared to a previously described glucan (S1G). P444, P445, and P446 were highly active against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), moderately active against other members of the family Herpesviridae, while not active against unrelated viruses. Specific experimentation with HCMV-infected cells provided evidence that antiviral activity was based on inhibition of viral entry and that inhibition occurred in the absence of drug-induced cytotoxicity. These findings underline the high potential of sulfated glucans for antiviral research and drug development. In addition, the procedure described for the efficient transformation of glucan hydroxy groups to sulfate groups may be similarly beneficial for the chemical alteration of other natural products.

  8. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  9. Thumb- and pacifier-sucking habits.

    PubMed

    Zadik, D; Stern, N; Litner, M

    1977-02-01

    The prevalence of thumb- and pacifier-sucking children was studied in two "kibbutz" settlements and city nurseries. The variables considered were age, sex, duration of breast feeding, and family size. Data on 333 children were collected by interviewing the parents, and nurses (in kindegartens and nurseries). Differences in prevalence were found between the three groups. Among the city children, 95 per cent sucked and 89 per cent and 69 per cent of the kibbutz children had sucking habits. In Group A, from whom pacifiers were withheld, most children sucked their fingers. With the increase in age, the prevalence was lower in all groups. No difference was found between the sexes. A reverse association was found between finger and pacifier sucking. No association was found between the habit and the duration of breast feeding. The prevalence was highest in single children. It is suggested that the pacifier may be a substitute of choice for thumb sucking.

  10. Nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits: a review.

    PubMed

    Turgeon-O'Brien, H; Lachapelle, D; Gagnon, P F; Larocque, I; Maheu-Robert, L F

    1996-01-01

    The habit of sucking is the first coordinated muscular activity of the infant. There are essentially two forms of sucking: the nutritive form which provides essential nutrients, while non-nutritive sucking insures a feeling of warmth and a sense of security. This review gives a description of the anatomy and physiology of sucking together with the influence of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding (conventional or orthodontic nipples) on the dentofacial structures of the infant. Factors involved in the choice of feeding are also discussed. Children who do not have access to unrestricted breastfeeding or bottle-fed children may satisfy their instinctive sucking urge with a pacifier. This paper presents the different types of pacifiers (conventional or orthodontic) along with the beneficial effects provided by pacifiers. Detrimental effects caused by incorrect use of pacifiers or digit-sucking habits are also summarized. Health professionals should inform expectant mothers about the dentofacial advantages of breastfeeding.

  11. An unusual sucking habit in a child.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Gaffur, Hazra; Sandeep; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    Presence of oral habit in 3-6 year old children is an important finding in the clinical examination. An oral habit is no longer considered as normal for children near the end of this age group. In pre-school children, digit and dummy sucking is a predominant habit, and girls are found to have a higher level of sucking habit then boys do. Here is a case report of a unique sucking habit, which if not stopped, will lead to dental problem in the child.

  12. Thumb Sucking: Help Your Child Break the Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... in his or her mouth. However, aggressive thumb sucking can cause problems in baby teeth. The American Academy of Pediatrics says treatment is usually limited to children who continue thumb sucking after turning 5. Talk to your child about ...

  13. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes.

  14. Assessing infant suck dysfunction: case management.

    PubMed

    Marmet, C; Shell, E; Aldana, S

    2000-11-01

    to help the mother and baby acheive a breastfeeding relationship, preferably without the use of any devices. We usually suggest that the mother avoid all rubber nipples and pacifiers during this learning period. Babies have a strong need to suck. Correct sucking helps the baby organize and be soothed. Whenever possible, we prefer infants to use their mother's breasts for pacification, warmth, love, smell, and food rather than artificial nipples and devices. Mothers almost always want to know how much work and time is involved before committing to following suggested treatment plans. As a general rule, we have found that it will take approximately the same number of weeks as the baby's age to solve the problems completely. In this case, it will probably take about 6 weeks until mother and baby graduate from "breastfeeding school." The first 2 weeks would most likely be very intense for the whole family, with the mother getting very little sleep. VJ is likely to cry when talking to the lactation consultant during this period of intense change. It is helpful during these times to listen to the mother, reinforce that you know how hard she is working and that what she is feeling is normal. Giving the mother a hug and complimenting her mothering efforts go a long way toward encouraging her to continue. It is not a time to give up. The second 2 weeks typically are easier, as everybody is used to the workload and required skills. The focus becomes refining skills. The last 2 weeks is usually a time to reduce and then wean off the equipment and exercises. This timing is just a guideline and must always be individualized. Although it is a tremendous amount of work for the mother, baby, family, and lactation consultant to correct well-established but incorrect breastfeeding behaviors, we have never met a mother who was sorry that she chose to tackle the problem. Even if she tries and then gives up or achieves only a partial milk supply or partial breastfeeding relationship, she

  15. Genetic parameters for abnormal sucking traits in Austrian Fleckvieh heifers.

    PubMed

    Fuerst-Waltl, B; Rinnhofer, B; Fuerst, C; Winckler, C

    2010-04-01

    Cross-sucking and intersucking are considered abnormal behaviours in cattle and constitute a common problem in dairy farming. Cross-sucking in calves is defined as sucking any body parts of another calf whereas intersucking in heifers and cows is defined as sucking the udder or udder area. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability for abnormal sucking behaviour by estimating genetic parameters and examining individual differences between sires with large progeny groups. By means of a questionnaire, cattle breeders in the federal state Lower Austria were requested to identify all currently kept animals which are known of either inter- or cross-sucking (both defined as the same binary trait 'sucking' with 0 and 1 referring to the absence and presence of this abnormal behaviour) or allowing sucking (also treated as a binary trait, scored as 1 if an animal was known of allowing herd mates to suck and 0 otherwise). Records of 1222 farms and 13,332 dual purpose Simmental females aged between 21 and 700 days were investigated applying a linear animal model with fixed herd x year x season and random genetic animal effect and a threshold sire model with the herd x year x season effect being treated as random. In total, 8.6% and 4.1% of all calves/heifers were observed sucking and allowing sucking, respectively. Heritabilities of 0.040 +/- 0.014 and 0.007 +/- 0.006 (linear animal model) and 0.116 +/- 0.041 and 0.026 +/- 0.024 (threshold model) were found for the traits sucking and allowing sucking, respectively. Breeding values were estimated applying the same models for the trait sucking. Taking all 254 sires into account, the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between breeding values estimated by linear animal and sire threshold model were 0.86 and 0.80. Thus, little difference was observed between the two methods.

  16. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  17. Multi-sensory intervention for preterm infants improves sucking organization

    PubMed Central

    Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Rankin, Kristin; Li, Zhuoying; Liu, Li; White-Traut, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this RCT was to evaluate sucking organization in premature infants following a preterm infant multi-sensory intervention, the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular (ATVV). Study Design A convenience sample of 183 healthy premature infants born 29 - 34 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) enrolled. Sucking organization was measured at baseline, then weekly assessments, during the infant's hospital stay. Results A quadratic trend was observed for number of sucks, sucks per burst, and maturity index, with the intervention group increasing significantly faster by day 7 (Model estimates for group*day: β = 13.69, p < 0.01; β = 1.16, p < 0.01; and β = 0.12, p < 0.05, respectively). Sucking pressure increased linearly over time, with significant between-group differences at day 14 (β = 45.66, p < 0.01). Conclusion ATVV infants exhibited improved sucking organization during hospitalization, suggestive that ATVV intervention improves oral feeding. PMID:25822519

  18. A rare location of sucking blister in newborn: the lips.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mustafa; Hakan, Nilay; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Demirol, Hatice Altug

    2013-10-01

    A male baby was presented with sucking blisters on the upper and lower lips developed immediately after the birth. Although sucking blister which develops on the lips during the postnatal period is known, its prenatal form has not been described previously. We reported a case of sucking blister on the lips which developed during the intrauterine life. In the present case, these lesions resolved spontaneously after 1 day.

  19. Pernicious Effects of Toe Sucking Habit in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Abhay T.; Bhaskar, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Digit sucking is common nonnutritive sucking habit in childhood. However it is unusual to find toe sucking habit in children. We report a case of a seven-year-old child sucking great toe of the left foot. The child was referred by her paediatrician for dental evaluation due to her complaint of recurrent episodes of pyrexia. A dental evaluation was warranted as no particular system contributed to such recurrent episodes of fever in this child. Although dental examination did not reveal any cause for recurrent episodes of pyrexia, as a part of routine history taking we discovered that this child indulges frequently in sucking the great toe of her left foot since infancy. Any nonnutritive sucking habit is considered deleterious; this habit also caused significant effect on the child's dentofacial structures, sucked toe, and her general health. Hence the treatment plan was formulated for immediate cessation of habit. Appropriate interception of habit and timely orthodontic intervention led to not only early interception of cross-bite but also decrease in pyrexial episodes. This case report describes the pernicious effects of toe sucking habit and its relevance to recurrent pyrexia in children. PMID:28025625

  20. The comparative effectiveness of two digit-sucking deterrent methods.

    PubMed

    Bourne, C O

    2005-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of the crib and positive reinforcement in eliminating anterior open bites and increased overjets caused by digit-sucking. The overjet and overbite were measured using an overjet ruler at the start and end of the seventeen-week observation period. Forty patients consented to participate but measurements were only obtained for 11 subjects. The trend in this study is that the crib is more effective than positive reinforcement in preventing digit-sucking.

  1. Vaccines against blood-sucking arthropods.

    PubMed

    Opdebeeck, J P

    1994-08-01

    This paper provides selected personal insights on the development of vaccines against blood-sucking arthropods, with particular emphasis on vaccines against ticks. The emergence of novel or concealed antigens of haematophagous ectoparasites as candidate vaccine antigens is reviewed and the effect of feeding by the parasite on the expression of protective antigens is considered. The distribution of protective antigens through life cycle stages, the stage of the life cycle targeted by protective responses, and the nature of these responses, are commented on briefly. Concealed antigens of the gut, including the peritrophic membrane, and other internal organs, are evaluated for the role they play in induction of immunity artificially. Some of the work carried out to purify and characterise protective antigens of tick guts is described. A commentary is developed on vaccines that combine both "concealed" and "exposed" antigens. Some of the problems associated with the infestation and challenge of vaccinated hosts in the field are identified and the delivery of parasite antigens as vaccines that are both protective and "user-friendly" is emphasised as a major problem to be solved.

  2. Nonnutritive sucking: one of the major determinants of filial love.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, David; Nowak, Raymond; Giraud, Sandra; Tallet, Céline; Boivin, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    The present study investigated the rewarding effects of nonnutritive sucking on the development of a filial preference. Two experiments were conducted to test whether nonnutritive visceral and oral stimuli have reinforcing properties independent from each other or act in synergy. Lambs could interact freely with their dam but were deprived of suckling by covering the udder for the first 12 hr. In Experiment 1, suckling was prevented and replaced by human giving, in the presence of the mother, either a bottle of water (B5 and B2.5: 5% or 2.5% birth weight, BW, divided into seven portions over 12 hr) or water via tube-feeding (I5 and I2.5: 5% or 2.5% BW, also divided into seven portions over 12 hr). During a two-choice test performed at 12 hr after birth, only B5 and I5 lambs preferred their mother to an alien ewe however, B5 were faster at choosing their mother at the beginning of the test. B2.5 and I2.5 lambs made a random choice. In Experiment 2, suckling was prevented and replaced by human giving, in the presence of the mother, either a bottle of water (B2.5: 2.5% BW, divided into seven portions over 12 hr) or water via tube-feeding (I10 and I2.5: 10% or 2.5% BW, also divided into seven portions over 12 hr). During a two-choice test at 12 hr, tube-fed lambs (I10 and I2.5) preferred their mother to a human. B2.5 lambs were equally attracted to both partners and spent more time near the human than lambs from the other groups. In a test of reactivity to a human performed on neonates isolated from their mother, B2.5 lambs explored the human much more than the other lambs. The presence of the human had soothing properties in B2.5 lambs and once the human left, they were the only lambs displaying enhanced vocal and locomotor activity. In these experiments, nonnutritive gastrointestinal stimuli induced a preference for the mother whereas nonnutritive sucking led to a strong positive relationship with the human. These results suggest that when lambs suckle their dam, the

  3. Endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    Sword, Gregory A; Tessnow, Ashley; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa

    2017-03-22

    All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the US cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by one of two candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana. Both insect species exhibited strong negative responses to flower buds (L. hesperus) and fruits (N. viridula) from plants that had been colonized by candidate endophytic fungi relative to control plants under both no-choice and choice conditions. Behavioral responses of both species indicated that the insects were deterred prior to contact with plant tissues from endophyte-colonized plants, suggesting a putative role for volatile compounds in mediating the negative response. Our results highlight the role of fungal endophytes as plant mutualists that can have positive effects on plant resistance to pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of intraoral pressures during nutritive sucking: methods with normal infants.

    PubMed

    Lang, William Christopher; Buist, Neil R M; Geary, Annmarie; Buckley, Scott; Adams, Elizabeth; Jones, Albyn C; Gorsek, Stephen; Winter, Susan C; Tran, Hanh; Rogers, Brian R

    2011-09-01

    We report quantitative measurements of ten parameters of nutritive sucking behavior in 91 normal full-term infants obtained using a novel device (an Orometer) and a data collection/analytical system (Suck Editor). The sucking parameters assessed include the number of sucks, mean pressure amplitude of sucks, mean frequency of sucks per second, mean suck interval in seconds, sucking amplitude variability, suck interval variability, number of suck bursts, mean number of sucks per suck burst, mean suck burst duration, and mean interburst gap duration. For analyses, test sessions were divided into 4 × 2-min segments. In single-study tests, 36 of 60 possible comparisons of ten parameters over six pairs of 2-min time intervals showed a p value of 0.05 or less. In 15 paired tests in the same infants at different ages, 33 of 50 possible comparisons of ten parameters over five time intervals showed p values of 0.05 or less. Quantification of nutritive sucking is feasible, showing statistically valid results for ten parameters that change during a feed and with age. These findings suggest that further research, based on our approach, may show clinical value in feeding assessment, diagnosis, and clinical management.

  5. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the effects of living conditions on sucking habits in 3-year-old Finnish children and the association between these habits and dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-02-01

    Sucking habits and their connection with family background was investigated in 3-year-old Finnish children. The association between sucking habits and malocclusion was also studied. The study was based on a survey with stratified randomized cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires, and clinical dental examinations. Dummy (pacifier) use was often associated with a negligent attitude towards the child's toothbrushing. This may imply that these parents need more support, encouragement, and counseling from the well-baby clinic than others. Sucking habits were strongly associated with malocclusion.

  6. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  7. Prevalence of thumb sucking in children of Calcutta.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Chowdhury, K S; Mukherjee, M M

    1992-03-01

    The prevalence study of thumb digital sucking carried out on 3-12-year- old 2517 children, 1293 boys & 1224 girls, with different socio-economic status, belonging to villages, suburbs and city areas of Calcutta revealed that non-nutritional sucking habit was predominantly seen in cities, and bottle feeding was found to be the main cause of this habit; in 3-6-year-old children the prevalence of the habit was more in boys than girls but it persisted more in boys with increase in age.

  8. Breaking the Thumb Sucking Habit: When Compliance Is Essential

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Orlando; Oliveira, Wagner; Galarza, Melissa; Aoki, Vanessa; Bertaiolli, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The anterior open bite (AOB) and posterior cross bite are the most frequent malocclusions associated with prolonged sucking habits. This clinical case illustrates and discusses the use of a Haas-type palatal expander for stopping a thumb sucking habit. The improvement in closing the open bite with discontinuation of the habit was observed. But with the return of the habit and lack of cooperation, the relapse of anterior open bite occurred. Therefore, different approaches are necessary. The need of a multidisciplinary approach, consent, and cooperation are keys to a good prognosis. PMID:26904311

  9. Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits among Iranian girls.

    PubMed

    Jahanbin, A; Mokhber, N; Jabbarimani, A

    2010-11-01

    Prolonged duration of finger- and pacifier-sucking may be a risk factor for maldevelopment of orofacial structures and dental occlusion. This study assessed the prevalence of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and their association with some contributing factors among 7-year-old girls in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Based on a questionnaire to the parents of 436 schoolgirls, the rate of current or previous pacifier-sucking was 26.6% and of finger-sucking was 10.6%. Child's birth rank and number of siblings and parents' educational level were significantly related to ever pacifier-sucking but not to finger-sucking. The highest prevalence of ever pacifier-sucking was among children who had been breast- and bottle-fed but finger-sucking was more common among exclusively breastfed children.

  10. Bridging the gap between chewing and sucking in the hemipteroid insects:
    new insights from Cretaceous amber.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles

    2016-02-11

    The diversity of feeding apparatuses in insects far exceeds that observed in any other animal group. Consequently, tracking mouthpart innovation in insects is one of the keys toward understanding their diversification. In hemipteroid insects (clade Paraneoptera or Acercaria: lice, thrips, aphids, cicadas, bugs, etc.), the transition from chewing to piercing-and-sucking mouthparts is widely regarded as the turning point that enabled hyperdiversification of the Hemiptera, the fifth largest insect order. However, the transitional process from chewing to piercing-and-sucking in the Paraneoptera was hitherto completely unknown. In this paper, we report a well preserved mid Cretaceous amber fossil of the paraneopteran insect family Archipsyllidae and describe it as Mydiognathus eviohlhoffae gen. et sp. n. This species has elongate mandibles and styliform laciniae similar to Hemiptera but retains functional chewing mouthparts. A number of morphological characters place the Archipsyllidae as the sister group of the thrips plus hemipterans, which strongly suggests that the mouthparts of M. eviohlhoffae represent a transitional condition from primitive chewing to derived piercing-and-sucking mouthparts. The clade composed of Archipsyllidae, thrips, and hemipterans is here named Pancondylognatha, a new supra-ordinal taxon. Based on newly obtained information, we also assess the monophyly of the Paraneoptera, which was called into question by recent phylogenomic analyses. A phylogenetic analysis that includes Mydiognathus strongly supports the monophyly of the Paraneoptera.

  11. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Youjin; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24–48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered. PMID:27900075

  12. Impacts of self- and cross-sucking on cattle health and performance

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Mahmoud, Fatma Ali; Ahmed, Adel Elsayed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improvement of dairy farms economics requires intensification, automatic milking, and artificial rearing methods. The ability to express normal behavior is one of the five freedoms to achieve animal welfare, whereas the display of abnormal behaviors is considered as an indicator of poor welfare. Cross-sucking is defined as sucking any body parts of pen-mate calves, whereas inter-sucking in cows is defined as sucking the udder or udder area. Previous studies showed that self- and cross-sucking during the calf-hood period could be a causal factor of milk sucking in adulthood. Aim: To investigate the effects of cross-sucking among calves and inter-sucking in cows on animal health status and performance. Materials and Methods: Gathering information from customized questionnaires, the study of the breeding records, recording of self- and cross-sucking behaviors, and health status of calves till weaning, and dairy cows before milking were performed in two governmental farms under the same managemental conditions in Sohag and Qena governorates. Results: Cross-sucking appeared in calves at the 2nd week of age followed by abscesses at ears and navels that were observed within cross-sucker calves. Milk sucking was higher in primiparous than multiparous cows during the second lactation period, as primiparous cows start to suck mostly around the 4th month of milking. Mastitis and elongation of the front teats were observed in sucker cows. Suffered animals had body condition scoring 3.5 or less. Interestingly, most of the cows displaying self-sucking were sucking another cow and were experienced self- or cross-sucking in their calf-hood. The use of pronged nose-rings was ineffective in preventing milk sucking and all cows were ultimately culled at the end of the season. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the health problems of abnormal oral behaviors in terms of developed ears and navels abscesses in cross-sucker calves, and mastitis and teat

  13. Development of Suck and Swallow Mechanisms in Infants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants' hospital discharge is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. No evidence-based supported guidelines are currently available for health-care professionals caring for these infants. Available interventions advocating benefits are not readily acknowledged for lack of rigorous documentation inasmuch as any improvements may ensue from infants' normal maturation. Through research, a growing understanding of the development of nutritive sucking skills has emerged, shedding light on how and why infants may encounter oral feeding difficulties due to the immaturity of specific physiologic functions. Unfortunately, this knowledge has yet to be translated to the clinical practice to improve the diagnoses of oral feeding problems through the development of relevant assessment tools and to enhance infants' oral feeding skills through the development of efficacious preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the maturation of the various physiologic functions implicated in the transport of a bolus from the oral cavity to the stomach. Although infants' readiness for oral feeding is deemed attained when suck, swallow, and respiration are coordinated, we do not have a clear definition of what coordination implies. We have learned that each of these functions encompasses a number of elements that mature at different times and rates. Consequently, it would appear that the proper functioning of sucking, the swallow processing, and respiration need to occur at two levels: first, the elements within each function must reach an appropriate functional maturation that can work in synchrony with each other to generate an appropriate suck, swallow process, and respiration; and second, the elements of all these distinct functions, in turn, must be able to do the same at an integrative level to ensure the safe and efficient transport of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach.

  14. Non-nutritive sucking recorded in utero via fetal magnetography.

    PubMed

    Popescu, E A; Popescu, M; Wang, J; Barlow, S M; Gustafson, K M

    2008-01-01

    Several studies in term and pre-term infants have investigated the rhythmic pattern of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) indicating correlations between the quantitative measures derived from sucking pressure variation and/or electromyographic (EMG) recordings and a range of factors that include age, perinatal stress and sequelae. In the human fetus, NNS has been reported from 13 weeks of gestation and has been studied using real-time Doppler ultrasonography exclusively. The present study indicates that NNS in fetus can be reliably recorded and quantified using non-invasive biomagnetic measurements that have been recently introduced as an investigational tool for the assessment of fetal neurophysiologic development. We show that source separation techniques, such as independent component analysis, applied to the high-resolution multichannel recordings allow the segregation of an explicit waveform that represents the biomagnetic equivalent of the ororhythmic sucking pressure variation or EMG signal recorded in infants. This enables the morphological study of NNS patterning over different temporal scales, from the global quantitative measures to the within burst fine structure characterization, in correlation with the fetal cardiac rhythm.

  15. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour.

  16. An unusual type of sucking habit in a patient with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Satyaprasad, Savitha

    2009-01-01

    Digit sucking, a form of non-nutritive sucking, is a habit of concern to specialist in various fields such as psychiatrist, psychologist, pediatricians, pediatric dentists, orthodontist, speech pathologist and plastic surgeon. The habits have harmful unbalanced pressures to be born by the immature highly malleable alveolar ridges. Sucking behaviors have long been recognized to affect occlusion and dental arch characteristics. As early as 1870s, Campbell and Chandler recognized that prolonged finger or thumb sucking habits had deleterious effects on certain occlusal traits including anterior open bite, increased over jet and class II canine and molar relationships. However, little is known about digit sucking habit and its effect in a cleft lip and palate child as there is no literature till now reported on the digit sucking in a cleft lip patient.

  17. Incoordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing as an etiology for breastfeeding difficulty.

    PubMed

    Glass, R P; Wolf, L S

    1994-09-01

    This case report describes an infant who presented with coughing and choking during breastfeeding. Comprehensive clinical evaluation of these difficulties included assessment of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. Stridor and difficulty interspersing breaths during sucking bursts were observed, although sucking mechanics were normal. Further evaluation of airway structure revealed asymmetric laryngomalacia. This structural problem, exacerbated by the breastfeeding position, impeded respiration and resulted in poor coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. This case underscores the need to include respiratory function and coordination in the evaluation of breastfeeding difficulties.

  18. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of the type of feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity on occlusion in deciduous dentition. Methods: Retrospective study of 1130 preschool children (3–5 years of age) who had detailed infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity history collected by a structured questionnaire. They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Results: Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked. The type of feeding did not have an effect on open bite, which was associated (89% of children with open bite) with non-nutritive sucking. Posterior cross-bite was more frequent in bottle fed children and in those with non-nutritive sucking activity. The percentage of cross-bite was lower in breast fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (5%) than in bottle fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (13%). Conclusions: Data show that non-nutritive sucking activity rather than the type of feeding in the first months of life is the main risk factor for development of altered occlusion and open bite in deciduous dentition. Children with non-nutritive sucking activity and being bottle fed had more than double the risk of posterior cross-bite. Breast feeding seems to have a protective effect on development of posterior cross-bite in deciduous dentition. PMID:15557045

  19. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Bondemark, Lars; Söderfeldt, Björn; Lennartsson, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children. A sample of 457 3-year-old children (234 girls and 223 boys) was obtained from three Public Dental Health clinics in Orebro County Council, Sweden. Data from clinical examination and a questionnaire were used to determine malocclusion traits, sucking habits, snoring and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances. The results showed that 70% had one or more malocclusion traits at 3 years of age. The most common malocclusion traits were anterior open bite (50%), Class II occlusion (26%), increased overjet (23%) and posterior crossbite (19%). The prevalence of sucking habit was 66% and dummy sucking was dominating and in connection with more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking. A significant association was found between the sucking habits and the most prevalent malocclusions, anterior open bite, Class II occlusion, increased overjet and posterior crossbite. In conclusion, the prevalence of malocclusion traits in 3-year-old children was high. Sucking habits was highly prevalent and dummy sucking resulted in more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking did.

  20. Pre-orbital gland opening: part of sucking behavior in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves.

    PubMed

    Bartošová, J; Ceacero, F; Bartoš, L

    2012-09-01

    Opening of the pre-orbital gland in red deer (Cervus elaphus) was previously found to be associated with feeding and negatively associated with achieving satiety in bottle-reared red deer calves. We speculated that this acted as a signal from a calf to the mother that it was hungry. Thus, we focused on a possible association between the pre-orbital gland opening and the sucking behavior in red deer calves. We recorded 63 sucking attempts and 150 sucking bouts within a stable social group of 24 farmed red deer females with 19 calves ages 16 to 90 d. The probability of the pre-orbital gland opening or remaining open during a sucking bout rapidly decreased with the on-going sucking phase (P < 0.001), and it was less after than during a sucking attempt (P < 0.03). The proportion of open pre-orbital glands at the end of sucking depended on whether the nursing female (27.85%) or the calf (0%, P < 0.01) terminated the sucking bout. The open pre-orbital gland of the calf after the sucking bout significantly predicted a subsequent sucking attempt (P < 0.001). The probability of open pre-orbital gland was not significantly affected by the age of the calf, sex or birth weight, or age of the nursing female. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that the opening of the pre-orbital gland is one of the general patterns of calf sucking behavior, specifically that it reflects the level of satisfying calf needs.

  1. Augmenting Stimulus Intensity with an Awareness Enhancement Device in the Treatment of Finger Sucking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Jason M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Garlinghouse, Matthew; Tulloch, Heather E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes use of the Awareness Enhancement Device with a typically developing 6-year-old child to reduce finger sucking despite the child's lack of motivation. This device delivers a tone contingent on occurrence of the target behavior. Substantial reductions in finger sucking resulted only with the addition of a more intense tone (90…

  2. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Manoj; Shetty, N Shridhar; Deoghare, Anushka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thumb and digit-sucking habits or non-nutritive sucking are considered to be the most prevalent among oral habits. Most children stop thumb sucking on their own. If the habit continues beyond 3 to 4 years of age, it not only affects the dental occlusion, but the shape of the thumb/digit may be altered as well. This article presents the management of thumb sucking by modified RURS, elbow guard incorporated with revised ‘three-alarm’ system. How to cite this article: Shetty RM, Shetty M, Shetty NS, Deoghare A. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):82-86. PMID:26124588

  3. [The influence of feeding methods in the development of nonnutritive sucking habits in childhood].

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Sabrina Sales Lins; Duarte, Ricardo Cavalcanti; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Beltrão, Erika de Morais

    2010-03-01

    This study verified the relationship between nonnutritive sucking habits and feeding methods in children from 12 to 36 months of age, attending public nursery schools in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State. The sample consisted of 292 children of both gender and the data were collected by interviewing the children's mothers or minders. The information of the forms consisted on the description of the frequency and duration of the nonnutritive sucking habits, as well as on the feeding methods. The data were analyzed through the statistical program SPSS, taking place distributions of frequencies and qui-square test and Fisher Exact. In relation to the presence of nonnutritive sucking habits, 69.2% of the children had some type of habit, being 61.6% the pacifier sucking and 8.2% the digital sucking. From the entire sample, 10.2% presented exclusive breastfeeding, 4.9% were just bottle-fed and 84.9% were breast-fed and bottle-fed. Considering the methods of feeding, 83.8% of the children presented exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. The feeding methods presented significant association with the presence of nonnutritive sucking habits. As larger the duration of the exclusive breastfeeding, smaller the prevalence of sucking habits.

  4. Profile of non-nutritive sucking habits in relation to nursing behavior in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Vadiakas, G; Oulis, C; Berdouses, E

    1998-01-01

    Although a number of investigators have studied the prevalence and etiology of non-nutritive sucking habits in children, no consensus exists among dental and medical experts in respect to the contributing factors and preventing behaviors. Furthermore, changes in the rearing practices of children make management of such habits even more complicated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate finger and pacifier sucking habits among pre-school children, and its possible relationship to nursing behavior. Parental attitudes towards sucking habits were also registered. Questionnaires were sent to parents of 600 children, three to five years old, following an oral examination in a private office. Children attended kindergartens that were randomly selected from the area of Athens, Greece. Questions regarding the nursing patterns-breast or bottle feeding-characteristics of finger and pacifier sucking habits, parental attitudes towards sucking habits, as well as recommendations of the pediatricians were included. Three hundred and sixteen questionnaires were returned by parents. Results indicated that pre-school children discontinued a pacifier sucking habit earlier compared to a finger habit. Pacifiers showed a preventive effect against finger sucking, since only 2% of the sample examined practiced both habits. Breast feeding was not clearly associated with sucking habits; however, long bottle feeding periods were related with decreased finger sucking and high figures of pacifier sucking. The majority of pediatricians were not in favor of an intervention in breaking a finger sucking habit of the child.

  5. Variability of breast sucking, associated milk transfer and the duration of lactational amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C R; Cardenas, H; Croxatto, H B

    1999-03-01

    Quantitative relationships between physical parameters of sucking, milk transfer and the duration of amenorrhoea were examined in normal mother-baby pairs under exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking pressures were recorded twice on the second and once on the fifth month after birth, during complete breastfeeding episodes, by means of a catheter attached to the nipple and connected to a pressure transducer, the signals of which were analysed by computer. Babies were weighed before and after each sucking episode to estimate milk transfer. In the first nursing episode after noon, 2-month-old babies sucked from 140 to > 800 times during 4-15 min from the first breast, obtaining from 20 to > 100 g milk. The physical parameters of sucking and milk transfer exhibited high inter-individual but low intra-individual variabilities. There were significant differences in the physical parameters of sucking and milk transfer efficiency between first and second breast and between the second and fifth months after birth. Milk transfer efficiency was inversely correlated with time occupied by non-sucking pauses > or = 1.5 s, and was directly correlated with mean intersuck intervals in the first breast and with duration of the sucking episode, number of sucks, mean pressure and area under the pressure curve in the second breast. There was no correlation between the physical parameters of sucking and duration of lactational amenorrhoea (n = 62). However, significantly more mothers had amenorrhoea lasting > 180 days among those whose babies spent a longer proportion of the nursing episode in non-sucking pauses > or = 1.5 s. This finding indicates that sensory stimulation of the nipple produced during a nursing episode by stimuli other than sucking itself may have an important role in sustaining lactational amenorrhoea. It is concluded that nursing episodes have a complex structure that allows the development of a breastfeeding phenotype in each mother-baby pair, exhibiting important inter

  6. An Analysis of Behavioral Mechanisms Involved in Control Over Infant Feeding Behavior; The Effect of Interfeeding Interval on Nutritive Sucking in the Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kron, Reuben E.; And Others

    To determine the antecedents of sucking in infants, the behavior of 24 infants from 48- to 60-hours-old was observed in relation to a sucking device. The device measured pressure and rate of sucking and delivered a controlled flow of nutrient. The interfeeding interval was varied among the experimental and control groups. Little sucking behavior…

  7. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  8. New insights into sucking, swallowing and breathing central generators: A complexity analysis of rhythmic motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Quenet, Brigitte; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2017-01-18

    Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding. Sucking pressure and the integrated EMG of the thyroartenoid muscle, as an index of swallowing, were recorded during bottle-feeding. Nonlinear complexity of the whole signals was assessed through the calculation of the noise limit value (NL). Breathing and swallowing always exhibited chaos-like dynamics. The NL of breathing did not change significantly before, during or after bottle-feeding. On the other hand, sucking inconsistently and significantly less frequently than breathing exhibited a chaos-like dynamics. Therefore, the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives sucking may be functionally different from the breathing CPG. Furthermore, the analogy between buccal/gill ventilation and sucking suggests that the latter may take its phylogenetic origin in the gill ventilation CPG of the common ancestor of extant amphibians and mammals.

  9. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, David C.; Borchers, James

    2014-01-01

    Context: Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a relatively uncommon but potentially fatal condition affecting athletes that requires prompt recognition and appropriate management. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the PubMed database from 2003 to 2013 using the term exertional rhabdomyolysis was performed. Further evaluation of the bibliographies of articles expanded the evidence. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a relatively uncommon condition with an incidence of approximately 29.9 per 100,000 patient years but can have very serious consequences of muscle ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia, and death. The athlete will have pain, weakness, and swelling in the muscles affected as well as significantly elevated levels of creatine kinase (CK). Hydration is the foundation for any athlete with ER; management can also include dialysis or surgery. Stratifying the athlete into high- or low-risk categories can determine if further workup is warranted. Conclusion: Exertional rhabdomyolysis evaluation requires a history, physical examination, and serology for definitive diagnosis. Treatment modalities should include rest and hydration. Return to play and future workup should be determined by the risk stratification of the athlete. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:24982707

  10. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Clarita; Vasquez, Sandra; Parada, Mary A; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Velez; Jackson, Chanaye; Yanez, N David; Gelaye, Bizu; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that children's nonnutritive sucking habits may lead to delayed development of their oral anatomy and functioning. However, these findings were inconsistent. We investigated associations between use of bottles, pacifiers, and other sucking behaviors with speech disorders in children attending three preschools in Punta Arenas (Patagonia), Chile. Methods Information on infant feeding and sucking behaviors, age starting and stopping breast- and bottle-feeding, pacifier use, and other sucking behaviors, was collected from self-administered questionnaires completed by parents. Evaluation of speech problems was conducted at preschools with subsequent scoring by a licensed speech pathologist using age-normative standards. Results A total of 128 three- to five-year olds were assessed, 46% girls and 54% boys. Children were breastfed for an average of 25.2 (SD 9.6) months and used a bottle 24.4 (SD 15.2) months. Fifty-three children (41.7%) had or currently used a pacifier for an average of 11.4 (SD 17.3) months; 23 children (18.3%) were reported to have sucked their fingers. Delayed use of a bottle until after 9 months appeared to be protective for subsequent speech disorders. There was less than a one-third lower relative odds of subsequent speech disorders for children with a delayed use of a bottle compared to children without a delayed use of a bottle (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10-0.98). A three-fold increase in relative odds of speech disorder was found for finger-sucking behavior (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.10-8.00) and for use of a pacifier for 3 or more years (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.08-10.81). Conclusion The results suggest extended use of sucking outside of breastfeeding may have detrimental effects on speech development in young children. PMID:19845936

  11. Participation of opioid peptides in sucking-induced oxytocin and prolactin secretions in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bruna, F A; de Di Nasso, E G; Soaje, M; Deis, R P; Carón, R W

    2010-10-01

    The role of opioid peptides in the secretion of oxytocin (OT) and prolactin (PRL) induced by sucking was studied in goats. Seven goats were isolated with their kids (four singletons and three twins) in individual corrals 3-4 weeks after parturition. On day 1 of the experiment, the kids were separated from the does for 7 h and were weighed before and 15 min after being reunited with their mothers to assess the amount of milk obtained by sucking. The does were blood-sampled 10 min before and at the end of the sucking period. On day 2, a similar protocol was followed, but naloxone was given immediately after the first blood sample. On day 3, the protocol was repeated but saline vehicle was injected instead of naloxone. On day 5, the naloxone experiment was repeated as on day 2. Milk ejection was evaluated as the difference in the weight of the kids before and after sucking for 15 min, and the maternal serum levels of OT and PRL were measured by radioimmunoassay. A significant decrease in the weight gain of the kids was obtained when the mothers were treated with naloxone on day 2. Consistently, serum levels of OT and PRL induced by sucking were significantly reduced; indicating that sucking-induced OT secretion for milk ejection in lactating goats is facilitated by opioid peptides. In a second experiment performed in the same animals 10 days later, the administration of OT, immediately after naloxone administration, prevented the decrease in the weight gain induced by naloxone, suggesting that the effect of the opioid antagonist on milk ejection in goats is a result of a reduced OT secretion. The results of this study confirm the importance of sucking-induced OT secretion for milk ejection in lactating goats, and indicate that OT and PRL secretion are regulated by opioid peptides in this species.

  12. Digit-sucking: a review of the literature, clinical observations and treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Van Norman, R A

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged digit-sucking habits can have a negative impact on dental, speech, physical and emotional development. Children can be helped to eliminate their sucking habits quickly, without coercion, and in a positive way. Admittedly, most of my data is based purely on clinical observation. However, clinical observation is the basis for classical scientific investigation. I welcome this investigation; it is long overdue. Much of the literature available to parents appears to take a rather cavalier attitude with regard to the dental consequences of sucking habits. Parents are frequently left with the impression that no harm is done to the teeth. This perspective is based on the assumption that most children stop the sucking behavior before permanent teeth erupt into the mouth. Therefore, any dental malocclusion in the primary teeth will often be transitional or will spontaneously self-correct. However, as demonstrated by Kelly, et al (1973), millions of children do not discontinue their sucking habits before permanent teeth erupt. In addition, stress levels in today's world are probably significantly greater than when this study was done. Because stress is a powerful stimulus for the sucking activity, it is highly probable that if a similar study were done today, it would produce a substantially greater number of individuals with prolonged sucking habits. The active pursuit of insurance benefits for the Certified Orofacial Myologist providing therapy for the elimination of these habits will be germane to prevention. Research is needed to accomplish this goal including: investigation of the incidence of prolonged digit-sucking habits; the impact of these habits on the entire stomatognathic system, speech development and emotional health; efficacy of treatment (including psychological response) both through the utilization of habit appliances and motivational therapy. The Certified Orofacial Myologist provides many valuable therapeutic programs to enhance dental and

  13. The effect of contingent music to increase non-nutritive sucking of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Standley, J M

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed music as reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking of 12 premature infants born at an average gestation of 29.3 weeks and an average birthweight of 1111.9 g. At the time of the study, the infants' average post conception age was 35.5 weeks, and their average weight was 1747.3 g. A pacifier was fitted with a pressure transducer so that a sufficient suck activated frequency and duration signals as well as 10 seconds of recorded music consisting of lullabies sung by female vocalists. A 14-minute ABAB study design included a silence baseline for 2 minutes, 5 minutes of contingent music, 2 minutes of silence, and 5 minutes of contingent music. Frequency data were recorded for each 5-second interval in which the duration light was activated for at least 3 seconds. Results demonstrated that sucking rates during the periods of contingent music were 2.43 times greater than baseline (silence) sucking rates. In this study, music contributed significantly to the development of non-nutritive sucking of premature infants.

  14. Reduction in cross-sucking in calves by the use of a modified automatic teat feeder.

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Wechsler, B

    2001-05-02

    Cross-sucking may be a problem in group-housed calves fed by automatic teat feeders. In the present study, the behaviour of calves fed by a conventional feeder with an open feeding stall (n=15 calves) was compared with the behaviour of calves fed by a modified feeder, closing in the rear after the calf has entered (n=14 calves). It was found that the calves fed by the feeder with the closed stall stayed longer in the feeding stall following milk ingestion (P<0.001), showed longer bouts of non-nutritive sucking directed to the teat after milk ingestion (P<0.005) and performed less cross-sucking in the first 15min after milk ingestion (P<0.001) than calves fed by the feeder with the open stall. The design of the feeder had, however, no significant influence on the incidence of cross-sucking performed without close temporal association with milk ingestion. As the modification in the feeding stall reduces cross-sucking and is not costly, it should be feasible to introduce it in practice.

  15. Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2014-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture.

  16. The Class II/1 anomaly of hereditary etiology vs. Thumb-sucking etiology

    PubMed Central

    Pădure, H; Negru, AR; Stanciu, D

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The etiology of class II division 1 Angle anomaly comprises many entities, including heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger. A close connection between the etiology and the clinical features needs to be outlined, in order to have a more appropriate treatment approach. Aim: This study aims to find common clinical features for two groups of Class II division 1 etiological factors (heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger), outlining a characteristic dento-facial pattern for each etiological factor. Materials and methods: 160 orthodontic cases were studied, taken randomly from the Department of Orthodontics in "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, between 2005 and 2011. From a total of 46 diagnosed with Class II/1, the following data were noted for each subject in a table: age, sex, etiology, facial symmetry, profile, size of the lower face, stage lip, labiomentonier ditch, menton, form of arches, palate, occlusion in the three plans, Spee curve, other dental anomalies. Discussions: The facial asymmetry was found in a greater proportion within the finger-sucking group. Subjects in the finger sucking group have 100% pronounced convex profile, with pronounced lip stage and sharp curve of Spee, being known that the thumb-sucking stops the mandible growth and stimulates the upper jaw protrusion. Conclusions: The predominant etiological factor is heredity and the clinical features obvious for II/1 Angle anomaly are present in the highest proportion in the thumb-sucking group, but no significant differences were observed between the groups studied according to etiology. PMID:22802900

  17. Relationship between facial morphology, anterior open bite and non-nutritive sucking habits during the primary dentition stage

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Melissa Proença Nogueira; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Nogueira, Rodrigo Proença; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) can cause occlusal alterations, including anterior open bite (AOB). However, not all patients develop this malocclusion. Therefore, the emergence of AOB does not depend on deleterious habits, only. Objective Investigate a potential association between non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs), anterior open bite (AOB) and facial morphology (FM). Methods 176 children in the primary dentition stage were selected. Intra and extraoral clinical examinations were performed and the children's legal guardians were asked to respond to a questionnaire comprising issues related to non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs). Results A statistically significant relationship was found between non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) and anterior open bite (AOB). However, no association was found between these factors and children's facial morphology (FM). Conclusions Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) during the primary dentition stage play a key role in determining anterior open bite (AOB) malocclusion regardless of patient's morphological facial pattern (FM). PMID:25162574

  18. Do sucking habits in preschool children influence the position of the primary incisors?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Gisele Moraes; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Miguel, José Augusto; Quintão, Catia; de Oliveira, Branca Heloísa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether sucking habits influence the position of the primary incisors. The sample comprised 34 preschool children (mean age 44 months ± 9 months). They were divided into three groups: group B (n=9) with a baby bottle habit; group BP (n=13) with baby bottle and pacifier habits; and a control group C (n=12) with no sucking habit. Data were derived from face-to-face interviews with the parents/guardians, oral examinations, study casts, facial photographs (frontal/lateral views), and cephalograms. The cephalograms were scanned and subsequently analyzed by one trained and calibrated operator. The cephalometric parameters recorded were: interincisal angle (U1/L1), U1/NA (angle/distance), and L1/NB (angle/distance). The data were analyzed using Stata 7.0. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare the cephalometric measurements in the children with and without sucking habits. The level of significance was set at P≤.05. This study found a significant relationship between existing sucking habits and a protrusion of the maxillary and mandibular primary incisors.

  19. Breastfeeding and sucking habits in children enrolled in a mother-child health program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early weaning can cause changes in posture and strength of the phonoarticulatory organs, favoring the installation of undesirable oral habits. The objective of the research was to evaluate the relationship between the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and its influence on the development of deleterious oral habits in children. This was a cross sectional observational study with 252 children of both sexes, between 30 and 48 months of age, attending a program of dental care for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection was a questionnaire semistructured mothers of children with questions about the form and duration of breastfeeding and non-nutritive oral habits in children. Results In this sample, 48.4% of the children were exclusively breastfed for six months; 20.2% exhibited sucking habits involving the use of a pacifier, which was more frequent among the girls. As factors associated with the decreasing of the occurrence of non-nutritive sucking habits, are a longer exclusive breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding and breastfeeding. Children who were breastfed for six months until twelve months in an exclusive way decreased by 69.0% chances of coming to have non-nutritive sucking habits when compared with those who were breastfed up to one month. Conclusion The longer the duration of breastfeeding, that is, exclusive, predominant or breastfeeding, the lower are the chances of children develop non-nutritive sucking habits. PMID:24927634

  20. Substantial variation in the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation among blood-sucking lice of mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3-4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice.

  1. Pacifier-sucking habit duration and frequency on occlusal and myofunctional alterations in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Nihi, Valdeane Simone Cenci; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Jarrus, Marta Essuane; Nihi, Fábio Mitugui; Salles, Carlos Luiz Fernando de; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Fujimaki, Mitsue

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of pacifier-sucking habit with occlusal and oral myofunctional alterations in preschool children. Eighty-four 2- to 5-year-old children participated in the study. Data on duration and frequency of pacifier use were collected from parents or guardians. Occlusal and oral myofunctional characteristics were examined by a dentist and a speech therapist, respectively. Chi-square tests and Poisson regression were used to analyze the data. The occlusal characteristics that were significantly associated with a pacifier-sucking habit were anterior open bite, altered canine relation, posterior crossbite, increased overjet, and malocclusion. The oral myofunctional characteristics that were significantly associated with a pacifier-sucking habit were resting lip position, resting tongue position, shape of the hard palate, and swallowing pattern. The strongest associations were for anterior open bite (prevalence ratio [PR] = 11.33), malocclusion ( PR = 2 .33), altered shape of the hard palate ( PR = 1.29), and altered swallowing pattern (PR = 1.27). Both duration and frequency of pacifier-sucking habit were associated with occlusal and oral myofunctional alterations. These results emphasize the need for pediatric dentists to advise parents and caregivers about the risks of prolonged pacifier use and refer children to professionals for multidisciplinary assistance to minimize these risks whenever necessary.

  2. Technological Solutions and Main Indices for the Assessment of Newborns' Nutritive Sucking: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Schena, Emiliano; Keller, Flavio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Nutritive Sucking (NS) is a highly organized process that is essential for infants' feeding during the first six months of their life. It requires the complex coordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing. The infant's inability to perform a safe and successful oral feeding can be an early detector of immaturity of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Even though the importance of early sucking measures has been confirmed over the years, the need for standardized instrumental assessment tools still exists. Clinicians would benefit from specifically designed devices to assess oral feeding ability in their routine clinical monitoring and decision-making process. This work is a review of the main instrumental solutions developed to assess an infant's NS behavior, with a detailed survey of the main quantities and indices measured and/or estimated to characterize sucking behavior skills and their development. The adopted sensing measuring systems will be described, and their main advantages and weaknesses will be discussed, taking into account their application to clinical practice, or to at-home monitoring as post-discharge assessment tools. Finally, the study will highlight the most suitable sensing solutions and give some prompts for further research. PMID:24451459

  3. Alternative oxidase in resistance to biotic stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX contributes to resistance to a pathogen and a piercing-sucking insect but not Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta.

  4. The effect of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking on feeding rate of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Standley, Jayne M

    2003-06-01

    Premature infants are fed by gavage tube before 34 weeks adjusted gestational age and when nipple feeding results in detrimental changes in respiration and heart rate. Nipple feeding skill must be developed and correlates with length of hospitalization and neurobehavioral development. This study provided music reinforcement for nonnutritive sucking and assessed nipple feeding rates pre- and posttreatment for 32 infants referred as poor feeders. A pacifier fitted with a pressure transducer activated 10 seconds of recorded music in a one-trial, 15-minute intervention given to experimental infants (n = 16) 30 to 60 minutes before the late afternoon bottle feeding. Feeding rates were collected for bottle feedings pre- and postintervention and for a similar interval for a no-contact control group (n = 16). Results showed that the intervention significantly increased feeding rates. Music functioned as reinforcement and the sucking behavior transferred from a nonnutritive to a nutritive event.

  5. [Is there the possibility of transmission of AIDS by blood-sucking insects?].

    PubMed

    Kloft, W J

    1989-04-01

    The question whether the possibility exists of transmission of HIV by hematophagous insects from infected to uninfected persons is a point of very intensive discussion. The solution of this problem could help to explain the spreading of the disease in human populations and could contribute to an understanding of the evolution of AIDS and the possible transfer from wild primates into human populations. The classical routes of pathogen transmission by blood-sucking arthropods are either "mechanical" or "biological". Both ways are rejected, the latter since no replication of the retro-virus in the vector exists and its survival in the arthropod is very limited. Based on long experimental experience with biting flies as well as with plant-sucking insects a third hitherto neglected way of transmission by regurgitation of gut content can be introduced. Since regurgitation is neither "mechanical" nor "biological", "regurgitative transmission" must be introduced as an additional term.

  6. Molecular evidence for polyphyletic origin of the primary symbionts of sucking lice (phthiraptera, anoplura).

    PubMed

    Hypsa, Václav; Krízek, Jaroslav

    2007-08-01

    Based on 16S rDNA analyses, the primary symbionts of sucking lice were found to form a polyphyletic assemblage of several distant lineages that have arisen several times within Enterobacteriaceae and at least once within Legionellaceae. Another independent lineage of endosymbiotic enterobacteria inhabits a sister group of the sucking lice, Rhynchophthirina. The inspection of 16S rDNA supports the symbiotic nature of the investigated bacteria; they display a typical trait of degenerative processes, an increased AT content (Adenine-Thymine content) in comparison with free-living bacteria. The calculation of divergence time between the closest anopluran and rhynchophthirine symbionts further support their independent origin. The results shown here, together with evidence from other groups, indicate that the significance of primary symbionts for blood-feeding insects should be reconsidered.

  7. Non-nutritive sucking evaluation in preterm newborns and the start of oral feeding: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Neiva, Flávia C. B.; Leone, Cléa R.; Leone, Claudio; Siqueira, Lisiane L.; Uema, Kátia Akiko; Evangelista, Daiana; Delgado, Susana; Rocha, Adriana; Buhler, Karina Bernardis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of early sucking by preterm infants provides information on the ability of these infants to efficiently and safely receive nutrients via an oral route (oral feeding). To analyze the application and reliability of an instrument in assessing non-nutritive sucking that indicates a capacity for oral feeding in the routine care of different neonatal units. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in seven neonatal units. A non-nutritive sucking assessment with a formulary validated by Neiva et al (2008) (variables evaluated: rooting reaction; easy initiation of sucking; labial sealing; tongue central groove; peristaltic tongue movements; jaw raising and lowering movements; labial, tongue and jaw coordination; sucking strength; sucking rhythm; bites; excessive jaw excursion; stress signals) was applied to 199 pre-term newborns, who had a chronological age ≥ 2 days and were clinically stable. These infants were divided into two groups based on their corrected gestational age at the first assessment, as follows: Group I-infants with a gestational age ≤ 33 weeks and Group II-infants with a gestational age between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks. RESULTS: The mean gestational age was 31.66±2 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1494 ± 373 g. The mean scores on the non-nutritive sucking assessment were 46 ± 25 in Group I and 49 ± 24 in Group II. The beginning of oral feeding was successful in 43 (67.2%) infants in Group I and 64 (81%) infants in Group II (p = 0.089). CONCLUSION: The method identified preterm infants who were able to feed orally based on 33 points in the non-nutritive sucking assessment and a corrected gestational age of 32 weeks or more. The corrected gestational age was the most important factor in predicting the success of oral feeding. PMID:24964303

  8. A new species and an annotated world list of the sucking louse genus Neohaematopinus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae).

    PubMed

    Durden, L A

    1991-09-01

    A new species of sucking louse, Neohaematopinus sundasciuri, collected from the tree squirrel, Sundasciurus juvencus, is described from Palawan Island, Philippines. An updated world list of the genus Neohaematopinus is presented; this documents descriptive citations, known hosts, and geographical distributions with interpretive annotations for each of the 32 species now included in the genus. The geographical distributions of Neohaematopinus sciuri and N. sciurinus are discussed.

  9. The digit sucking habit and related factors: observations from a child dental health clinic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    daCosta, O O; Orenuga, O O

    2003-06-01

    An increased prevalence of the digit sucking habit among Nigerian children has been reported. Certain factors are believed to influence its occurrence. This study was carried out to assess these factors and determine possible correlation with the onset and persistence of the habit. The sample population consisted of 81 children--52 females and 29 males aged 3-16 years who were still actively digit sucking. Findings in this group were compared with a control group made up of 80 children aged 2-16 years who were not digit suckers and had no history of the habit. Results showed no correlation between mode of infant feeding and the digit sucking habit. The duration of breast-feeding was found to have a significant effect on the habit. About 79% of non-suckers had been breast-fed for more than 6 months while only 43.2% of digit suckers were breast-fed for the same duration. The digit sucking habit was observed more frequently in children with mothers in high cadre occupations (53.1%) compared to non-suckers (23.8%). More digit suckers (22.2%) than non-suckers (12.5%) were reported to have a history of pacifier use. Neither family size nor position of the child in the family had a significant effect on the occurrence of the habit. In addition, 48.1% of the sample population had siblings with the same habit compared to 16.2% of the controls. The identification of significant factors may be useful in targeting interventions in order to prevent consequences of the prolonged habit.

  10. Spatial Distribution and Site-Specific Spraying of Main Sucking Pests of Elm Trees.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, R; Iranipour, S

    2016-11-09

    Elm trees are important landscape trees and sucking insects weaken the elm trees and produce large amounts of honeydew. The main objectives of this study were to identify main honeydew-producing pests of elm trees and do site-specific spraying against these pests. To map the spatial distribution of the sucking pests in the large scale, the study area was divided into 40 × 40 m grids and one tree was chosen randomly from each grid (a total of 55 trees). These trees were sampled twice a year in 2011 and 2012. Each sample was a 30-cm branch terminal. Eight samples were taken from each tree in four cardinal directions and two canopy levels. The number of sucking insects and leaves of each sample were counted and recorded. Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using geostatistics. Kriging was used for producing prediction maps. Insecticide application was restricted to the regions with populations higher than threshold. To identify within-tree distribution of the honeydew-producing pests, six and four elm trees were chosen in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and sampled weekly. These trees were sampled as described previously. European elm scale (EES), Gossyparia spuria (Modeer) and two species of aphids were the dominant honeydew-producing pests. The results revealed that the effects of direction, canopy level and their interactions on insect populations were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Site-specific spraying decreased the amount of insecticides used by ca. 20%, while satisfactory control of the sucking pests and honeydew excretion was obtained. Considering the environmental and economic benefits of site-specific spraying, it is worth doing more complementary works in this area.

  11. Suckling and non-nutritive sucking habit: what should we know?

    PubMed Central

    FEŞTILĂ, DANA; GHERGIE, MIRCEA; MUNTEAN, ALEXANDRINA; MATIZ, DAIANA; ŞERBǍNESCU, ALIN

    2014-01-01

    Correct breast feeding can be considered a tool for the post-natal prophylaxis of craniofacial abnormalities, or at least a way of reducing their extent. Inadequate bottle feeding forces the tongue and cheek muscles to develop a compensating and atypical function, in order to obtain the milk. As a result, there can be an adaptation change of the dental and bone structures, leading to malocclusions. Finger-sucking is normal in the first two-three years of life. It gives the child a feeling of relaxation; that is why it is usually practiced before sleeping. The effects of non-nutritive sucking on the developing dentition are minor in the child under 3 years of age and are usually limited to changes in the incisor position. Some upper or lower incisors (depend on how the finger has been sucked) become spontaneously tipped toward the lips, and/or others are prevented from erupting. Normally children abandon this habit between 2 and 4 years of age. If it persists after this age, it will be the cause for some dental-maxillary anomalies: open-bite, narrow maxilla with upper protrusion, cross-bite; all these could be accompanied by retrognathic mandible. PMID:26527989

  12. Oral habits--part 2: beyond nutritive and non-nutritive sucking.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mihiri; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    In addition to sucking habits, a range of other habits have been associated with short- and long-term dental and orthodontic problems. These habits include tongue thrusting and atypical swallowing, lip sucking, oral self-mutilation, mouth breathing, and bruxism. Although the association between form and function continues to be controversial, if habits are of sufficient duration they may lead to dental malocclusion and impede successful management. Oral self-injury and bruxism can lead to significant problems, such as soft tissue trauma and infection. Accurate history taking and examination are essential steps in formulating a diagnosis and management plan. Although a range of treatment options are often available, clear guidelines for treatment are difficult to develop due to a lack of high quality clinical trials. Optimal management is likely to be dictated by patient and severity variability. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the management of tongue thrust and atypical swallowing, lip sucking, oral self-mutilation, mouth breathing and bruxism.

  13. Reflections on the Design of Exertion Games.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Florian Floyd; Altimira, David; Khot, Rohit Ashot

    2015-02-01

    The design of exertion games (i.e., digital games that require physical effort from players) is a difficult intertwined challenge of combining digital games and physical effort. To aid designers in facing this challenge, we describe our experiences of designing exertion games. We outline personal reflections on our design processes and articulate analyses of players' experiences. These reflections and analyses serve to highlight the unique opportunities of combining digital games and physical effort. The insights we seek aim to enhance the understanding of exertion game design, contributing to the advancement of the field, and ultimately resulting in better games and associated player experiences.

  14. Non-nutritive sucking habits, anterior open bite and associated factors in Brazilian children aged 30-59 months.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Flávia Maria Nassar de; Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Heimer, Mônica Vilela; Ferreira, Angela Maria Brito; Katz, Cíntia Regina Tornisiello; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite as well as their main causes (associated factors) in Brazilian children aged 30-59 months. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Day for polio in the city of Recife in the northeastern region of Brazil. The sample was made up of 1,308 children. Data were collected from interviews with mothers or guardians as well as from clinical examinations carried out by previously trained dental students. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis at 5% significance level. The prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits was 40%, and the habits were associated with gender (p=0.001), age (p=0.003) and feeding type (p<0.001). Anterior open bite was detected in 30.4% of children, and it was significantly associated with feeding type (p<0.001) and non-nutritive sucking habits (p<0.001). The variables found to be associated factors in the present study for the occurrence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite emphasize the need to establish strategies that include orientation regarding health promotion based on the “common determining factors” approach. Public health policies should be adopted to encourage a longer duration of breastfeeding, thereby contributing towards reducing the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite.

  15. Measurement of tongue-artificial nipple contact force in infants with sucking difficulties.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Eri; Wakamatsu, Yuki; Nagamatsu, Yuiko; Kuroyanagi, Yuichi; Niikawa, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Infants are known to suckle and ingest breast milk by wrapping the tongue around a nipple, writhing the tongue, and pressing the nipple. However, the dynamic mechanisms of tongue movement are still obscure, and factors related to sucking difficulties of infants are not well understood. We developed an artificial nipple installed with small cantilever-type sensors and directly measured the force applied on the nipple by the tongue. Small force sensors were arranged within the artificial nipple in a two-dimensional matrix of 3 × 2 to measure the force at 6 points. Subjects were 20 healthy infants (Group A) and 5 infants who had difficulty sucking (Group B). The latter could not breastfeed well and were fed from bottles or tubes. Informed consent was provided by the parents or guardians. The measured maximum force at the tip of the nipple was 1.4 ± 0.4 N and 1.2 ± 0.3 N (mean ± SD) in Groups A and B, respectively. At the base of the nipple, the maximum force recorded was 0.8 ± 0.5 N and 0.3 ± 0.3 N (mean ± SD), respectively, showing a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The sucking period was 0.6 ± 0.1 s (mean ± SD) in both groups. The difference in time necessary to reach the maximum forces between the sensors at the tip and base was 39.7 ± 28.8 ms (mean ± SD) and 37.2 ± 75.9 ms in Groups A and B, respectively.

  16. Maximal bite force, facial morphology and sucking habits in young children with functional posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    CASTELO, Paula Midori; GAVIÃO, Maria Beatriz Duarte; PEREIRA, Luciano José; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2010-01-01

    Objective The maintenance of normal conditions of the masticatory function is determinant for the correct growth and development of its structures. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of sucking habits on the presence of crossbite and its relationship with maximal bite force, facial morphology and body variables in 67 children of both genders (3.5-7 years) with primary or early mixed dentition. Material and methods The children were divided in four groups: primary-normocclusion (PN, n=19), primary-crossbite (PC, n=19), mixed-normocclusion (MN, n=13), and mixed-crossbite (MC, n=16). Bite force was measured with a pressurized tube, and facial morphology was determined by standardized frontal photographs: AFH (anterior face height) and BFW (bizygomatic facial width). Results It was observed that MC group showed lower bite force than MN, and AFH/ BFW was significantly smaller in PN than PC (t-test). Weight and height were only significantly correlated with bite force in PC group (Pearson’s correlation test). In the primary dentition, AFH/BFW and breast-feeding (at least six months) were positive and negatively associated with crossbite, respectively (multiple logistic regression). In the mixed dentition, breastfeeding and bite force showed negative associations with crossbite (univariate regression), while nonnutritive sucking (up to 3 years) associated significantly with crossbite in all groups (multiple logistic regression). Conclusions In the studied sample, sucking habits played an important role in the etiology of crossbite, which was associated with lower bite force and long-face tendency. PMID:20485925

  17. Occurrence and distribution of n-alkanes in sucking-calf tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, A; Lintas, C; Filos, M; Bernardini, M P

    1984-06-01

    Samples of subcutaneous and perirenal fat, muscle, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen from eleven 4-month-old sucking calves were analyzed for their hydrocarbon composition. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were carried out by gas chromatography. Ranges of total hydrocarbons and odd-even hydrocarbon distribution for each tissues are reported. In general, a predominance of odd-numbered hydrocarbons in the high carbon number range was observed. As compared to adult bovines, calf tissues, with the exception of adipose tissues, show higher amounts of total hydrocarbons.

  18. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  19. [Prevalence and factors associated with non-nutritive sucking behavior. Cross sectional study among 5- to 6-year-old Senegalese children].

    PubMed

    Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Diagne, Falou; Samba Diouf, Joseph; Ndiaye, Allé; Hennequin, Martine

    2008-06-01

    Sucking behaviours have been described in the literature under two facets i.e. nutritive and non nutritive. Nutritive sucking refers to breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both. Non nutritive sucking habits are mentioned when children suck their thumb or another finger(s), a pacifier or any other object. Non nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) are suspected to potentially induce dentoalveolar anomalies and thus may constitute a public dental health problem. Anthropological and historical data suggest that non nutritive sucking habits are associated with modern pattern of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with NNSH in Senegalese children 5/6 years old. Data of this study were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by the investigators to mothers or caregivers of 443 children (231 boys and 212 girls) aged 5/6 years. Three types of data were collected: data on the social background of the children including place of residence (urban, suburban and rural) and the mother's occupation (workers, employee, executive, housewife), data regarding former and present sucking habits and information on the feeding pattern of the children when they were infants (breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both). The results indicated a prevalence rate of 16.50% and 17.20% respectively for digit and pacifier sucking in this population. Also, a significant association was found between children's non nutritive sucking habits in one hand and the mothers' occupation and feeding pattern on the other hand. Breast fed children are less prone to develop a non nutritive sucking habit than bottle fed children. Longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the nature of these associations. The identification of factors associated with non nutritive sucking habits would permit to develop and target recommendations for the prevention of such habits.

  20. Situation-response (S-R) questions for identifying the function of problem behaviour: the example of thumb sucking.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, W

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate the prototype of a structured interview or questionnaire for use in the functional assessment of problem behaviour. A set of situation-response (S-R) questions was used to test hypotheses concerning discriminative stimuli SD, inhibitive stimuli (SI) and the function of a problem behaviour (R). The situations in S-R questions include stimuli which are expected (a) to set the occasion for, or (b) to inhibit the problem behaviour. The response part includes the problem behaviour as well as behaviour patterns with known functions. The problem behaviour is correlated with those behaviour patterns whose functions it shares. For the study of 26 children suffering from orthodontal problems due to excessive thumb sucking, a structured interview was developed and validated for identifying (a) stimuli (SD) that trigger excessive thumb sucking (problem behaviour), (b) stimuli (SI) that inhibit this response, and (c) the function of thumb sucking.

  1. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Barker, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2–5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other sucking lice. The guanaco louse, however, is more closely related phylogenetically to human lice, chimpanzee lice, pig lice, and horse lice than to rodent lice. By parsimony analysis of shared features in mt karyotype, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of sucking lice, which lived ∼75 Ma, had 11 minichromosomes; each minichromosome had 1–6 genes and a non-coding region. As sucking lice diverged, split of mt minichromosomes occurred many times in the lineages leading to the lice of humans, chimpanzees, and rodents whereas merger of minichromosomes occurred in the lineage leading to the lice of pigs and horses. Together, splits and mergers of minichromosomes created a very complex and dynamic mt genome organization in the sucking lice. PMID:28164215

  2. Duration of nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and their effects on the dental arches in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Warren, John J; Bishara, Samir E

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the duration of nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and various occlusal characteristics in the primary dentition. Sucking behavior data were collected on 372 children followed longitudinally from birth by using periodic questionnaires completed by parents. Study models were obtained from the children at 4 to 5 years of age and assessed for posterior crossbite, anterior open bite, and overjet. Dental arch parameters including arch widths, arch lengths, and arch depths were measured directly from the models. The subjects were grouped according to type of habit (pacifier or digit) and duration of nonnutritive sucking behaviors (less than 12, 12 to 24, 24 to 36, 36 to 48, and more than 48 months). Children with nonnutritive sucking of less than 12 months were further grouped according to the duration of breast-feeding. The dental arch and the occlusal characteristics were then compared among these groups. The results indicated no relationship between duration of breast-feeding during the first year of life and any dental arch or occlusal parameters. The study found that prolonged pacifier habits resulted in changes to the dental arches and the occlusal parameters that were different from the effects of digit sucking. In addition, some changes in the dental arch parameters and occlusal characteristics (eg, prevalence of posterior crossbite and increased amount of overjet) persisted well beyond the cessation of the pacifier or digit habit. Although further study is needed to determine the effects of nonnutritive sucking behavior in the mixed dentition, the results suggest that current recommendations for discontinuing these habits may not be optimal in preventing habit-related malocclusions.

  3. "Learning Sucks."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Although British government initiatives are focusing on education and training for young adults, many have become disaffected and need to be persuaded that investment of time and money will pay off. A variety of motivational incentives designed to bring some stability to their lives is necessary to make them lifelong learners. (SK)

  4. Influence of nail biting and finger sucking habits on the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Firoz G.; Bernard, Reginald Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral habits like thumb sucking and nail biting are pernicious habits that act as an adaptive function in obtaining pleasure and subduing anxiety. These habits may also act as carriers of numerous microorganisms into the oral cavity, of which, Enterobacteriaceae members are transient pathogens, which might result in debilitating systemic conditions. Aim: To study the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in children having habit of nail biting and thumb sucking. And to study the association of the organism with the individual's respective plaque indices. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 40 chronic nail biters, 40 chronic thumb suckers, and 20 controls (no habit) (8-15 years old) were enrolled in the study. Appropriate history and their plaque indices recorded. Sterile containers were used to collect the salivary samples and later cultured on Agar plates. Biochemical tests categorized the organisms into subspecies. Statistical Analysis Used: ANNOVA, Student's t-test. Results: Presence of a nail biting habit indicated a higher plaque index, which in turn showed a higher carriage of Enterobacteria spps, predominantly Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Oral surgical intervention in individuals with pernicious oral habits need to be counseled and educated on the possible complications, which might otherwise provide an environment that disseminates these microorganisms resulting in a broad range of local and systemic infections. PMID:26097357

  5. Nonnutritive sucking habits in Brazilian children: effects on deciduous dentition and relationship with facial morphology.

    PubMed

    Katz, Cintia Regina Tornisiello; Rosenblatt, Aronita; Gondim, Pedro Paulo Costa

    2004-07-01

    This study assessed the relationship between nonnutritive sucking habits, facial morphology, and malocclusion in 3 planes of space (transverse, vertical, and anteroposterior) in 330 Brazilian children (4 years of age) attending state schools in the city of Recife, Brazil. The data were collected by interviews with the children's mothers or minders and by clinical examinations carried out by a calibrated examiner (kappa = 1). The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of malocclusion in the sample was 49.7%, according to occlusal classification, and 28.5% of the children had 2 or 3 factors contributing to their malocclusion. Posterior crossbite was detected in 12.1%, anterior open bite in 36.4%, and increased overjet in 29.7%. A significant association was found between malocclusion and sucking habits (P <.001). Most of the children had a high facial skeletal pattern, although no association was found between facial morphology and malocclusion. The results draw attention to the magnitude of the problem in childhood and emphasize the need for longitudinal studies to support clinical practice guidelines for the target population.

  6. Electrical signals during nectar sucking in the carpenter ant Camponotus mus.

    PubMed

    Josens, Roxana; Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo

    2006-01-01

    Ants of the same size can vary their intake rate of a given sucrose solution depending on the colony's needs for carbohydrates. As this capacity has not yet been described for another insect, the question of how they can do that was the focus of our work. When viscosity and ant-morphometry remain constant, changes in intake rate can only be attributed to the sucking forces. The aim of this study was to analyze the nectar sucking activity in the ant Camponotus mus. Feeding behavior seems to be under motivational control; therefore, we developed a non-invasive experimental device. We recorded the electrical signal generated during nectar feeding by offering ants sucrose solutions of different concentrations (from 10%w/w to 70%w/w). The signal frequency was between 2 and 12 peaks/s. We could distinguish two different patterns of electrical signal during feeding depending on the solution concentration. Only the more concentrated solutions reached frequencies higher than 7 peaks/s and the signal performance was quite irregular. For the other concentrations (10%, 30% and 50%), signal frequencies were lower than 6 peaks/s and the signal pattern was sinusoidal, regular and decreased with intake in all cases. We discuss the possible implications of these two signal patterns.

  7. Experimental study on the fluid mechanics of blood sucking in the proboscis of a female mosquito.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Jung Yeop

    2009-05-11

    Female mosquitoes are known to have a magnificent micro-scale pumping system that can transport small quantities of blood very effectively. To understand the dynamic characteristics of blood flow inside female mosquitoes, the measurement technique that is capable of measuring instantaneous flow fields of a biological sample at micrometer scales is required. In this study, the blood-sucking flow inside a female mosquito's food canal was measured in vivo using a micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) velocity field measurement technique with high-temporal resolution. The volumetric flow rate (Q) and the time-averaged feeding speed (V) based on the diameter of the food canal (D) was found to be 5.751 x 10(-3) mm3/s and 0.416 cm/s, respectively. Spectral analysis on the velocity waveform shows a clear peak at 6.1 Hz, indicating distinct pulsatile blood-sucking characteristics. The Womersley number (alpha) was about 0.117 and the velocity profile of the blood flow inside the proboscis has a parabolic Hagen-Poiseuille flow pattern when alpha is much smaller than 1.

  8. Codivergence in heteromyid rodents (Rodentia: heteromyidae) and their sucking lice of the genus Fahrenholzia (Phthiraptera: anoplura).

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Hafner, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    Although most studies of codivergence rely primarily on topological comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies, temporal assessments are necessary to determine if divergence events in host and parasite trees occurred contemporaneously. A combination of cophylogenetic analyses and comparisons of branch lengths are used in this study to understand the host-parasite association between heteromyid rodents (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) and their sucking lice of the genus Fahrenholzia (Phthiraptera: Anoplura). Cophylogenetic comparisons based on nucleotide substitutions in the mitochondrial COI gene reveal a significant, but not perfect, pattern of cophylogeny between heteromyids and their sucking lice. Regression analyses show a significant functional relationship between the lengths of analogous branches in the host and parasite trees, indicating that divergence events in hosts and parasites were approximately contemporaneous. Thus, the topological similarity observed between heteromyids and their lice is the result of codivergence. These analyses also show that the COI gene in lice is evolving two to three times faster than the same gene in their hosts (similar to the results of studies of other lice and their vertebrate hosts) and that divergence events in lice occurred shortly after host divergence. We recommend that future studies of codivergence include temporal comparisons and, when possible, use the same molecular marker(s) in hosts and parasites to achieve the greatest insight into the history of the host-parasite relationship.

  9. An innovative approach to cessation of thumb-sucking in a child with epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Nidhi; Chhabra, Anuj; Bansal, Samriti

    2012-01-01

    The thumb-sucking habit is acquired in infancy, but if it persists beyond preschool age, it can have deleterious effects on facial growth, oral function, occlusal relationship, and aesthetics, leading to dental and skeletal deformities. This paper presents a clinical case history of using nonpunitive reminder therapy to intercept the thumb-sucking habits of an 8-year-old child with epilepsy. A modified Bluegrass appliance was used along with the positive reinforcement. The modified Bluegrass appliance utilized an acrylic roller and was very comfortable for the patient; it was also successful in eliminating the habit within a short period of time.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for 2 h and 24 h. Results A total of 100935 contigs were produced with an average length of 529 bp after an assembly in all five selected conditions. The Blastn of the non-redundant (nr) cotton EST database resulted in the identification of 580 novel contigs in the cotton plant. It should be noted that in spite of minimal physical damage caused by the sap-sucking insects, they can change the gene expression of plants in 2 h of infestation; further change in gene expression due to whiteflies is quicker than due to aphids. The impact of the whitefly 24 h after infestation was more or less similar to that of the aphid 2 h after infestation. Aphids and whiteflies affect many genes that are regulated by various phytohormones and in response to microbial infection, indicating the involvement of complex crosstalk between these pathways. The KOBAS analysis of differentially regulated transcripts in response to aphids and whiteflies indicated that both the insects induce the metabolism of amino acids biosynthesis specially in case of whiteflies infestation at later phase. Further we also observed that expression of transcript related to photosynthesis specially carbon fixation were significantly influenced by infestation of Aphids and Whiteflies. Conclusions A comparison of different transcriptomes leads to the identification of differentially and temporally regulated transcripts in response to infestation by aphids and whiteflies. Most of these differentially expressed contigs were

  11. Simplified Habit Reversal Plus Adjunct Contingencies in the Treatment of Thumb Sucking and Hair Pulling in a Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ethan S.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Rapp, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Using simplified reversal treatment consisting of awareness training, competing response training, and social support procedures, minimal results were initially obtained in thumb sucking and hair pulling behaviors. Additional treatment phases involving differential reinforcement and response cost resulted in near zero levels of the behavior when…

  12. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins such as rabbit IgG and chicken IgY are markers that are easy to apply and analyze on insects for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective in research for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators used in biocontrol. To address t...

  13. In vitro study of anti-suck-back ability by themselves on new high-speed air turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshiko; Nakano, Masako; Arai, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    The anti-suck-back ability of five new high-speed air turbine handpiece models was evaluated in this study. First, suck-back pressure with water displacement within a glass tube was measured. Next, under three different conditions, how many on-off times it takes before fluorescent stains became visible on a piece of gauze at the exhaust vent was counted and the presence of fluorescent stains on the exhaust vents itself was examined. As a result, the water height for each part of one handpiece, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, was below 0 mm. Except for under full emersion, this model, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, did not have any visible fluorescence penetration to the exhaust vent even after 500 on-off switches under fume/mist conditions. Conversely, the other handpieces (Ti-Max X700L, T1 CONTROL, SYNEA TA-98CLED, GENTLE silence LUX 8000B) showed suck-back. In conclusion, the first mentioned new turbine handpiece, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, had a possibility of no suck-back by itself. However, full immersion of the whole head of the handpiece which is not completely sealed must be avoided to prevent liquid intake.

  14. The effect of music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking on nipple feeding of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Standley, Jayne M; Cassidy, Jane; Grant, Roy; Cevasco, Andrea; Szuch, Catherine; Nguyen, Judy; Walworth, Darcy; Procelli, Danielle; Jarred, Jennifer; Adams, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    In this randomized, controlled multi-site study, the pacifier-activated-lullaby system (PAL) was used with 68 premature infants. Dependent variables were (a) total number of days prior to nipple feeding, (b) days of nipple feeding, (c) discharge weight, and (d) overall weight gain. Independent variables included contingent music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking for PAL intervention at 32 vs. 34 vs. 36 weeks adjusted gestational age (AGA), with each age group subdivided into three trial conditions: control consisting of no PAL used vs. one 15-minute PAL trial vs. three 15-minute PAL trials. At 34 weeks, PAL trials significantly shortened gavage feeding length, and three trials were significantly better than one trial. At 32 weeks, PAL trials lengthened gavage feeding. Female infants learned to nipple feed significantly faster than male infants. It was noted that PAL babies went home sooner after beginning to nipple feed, a trend that was not statistically significant.

  15. Case history: improved maxillary growth and development following digit sucking elimination and orofacial myofunctional therapy.

    PubMed

    Green, Shari

    2013-11-01

    Orofacial myologists are frequently called upon to address retained oral habit concerns. During this process, current I.A.O.M. recommended treatment includes addressing tongue, lip, and jaw rest posture concerns. Following digit sucking remediation, we may also be called upon to address these rest posture issues, and tongue thrust more aggressively together. In this process, facial growth and development and jaw structure may coincidentally improve as a result of 'nature taking its course' by addressing both swallow AND rest posture. In a select subset of clients, dramatic improvements may occur if the timing is right. This article discusses one such case that appears to have yielded a significant improvement in oral postures influencing improved facial and oral growth and development.

  16. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys.

  17. Alternative Oxidase in Resistance to Biotic Stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX Contributes to Resistance to a Pathogen and a Piercing-Sucking Insect But Not Manduca sexta Larvae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta. PMID:22961128

  18. Ectoparasites (sucking lice, fleas and ticks) of small mammals in southeastern Kenya

    PubMed Central

    OGUGE, N. O.; DURDEN, L. A.; KEIRANS, J. E.; BALAMI, H. D.; SCHWAN, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    During 1998–2000, at least 14 species (n = 309) of small mammals were live-trapped and examined for ectoparasites in moist forests of the Taita and Shimba Hills and drier savannah habitats of Nguruman, southeastern Kenya. Ectoparasites were recorded from 11 species of mammals. Five species of sucking lice [Hoplopleura inexpectans Johnson, H. intermedia Kellogg & Ferris, Polyplax reclinata (Nitzsch), P. waterstoni Bedford and Schizophthirus graphiuri Ferris], six species of fleas (Ctenophthalmus leptodactylous Hubbard, Dinopsyllus grypurus Jordan & Rothschild, D. lypusus Jordan & Rothschild, Hypsophthalmus campestris Jordan & Rothschild, Listropsylla basilewskyi Smit and Xiphiopsylla lippa Jordan) and at least six species of ticks (Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Ixodes sp., I. alluaudi Neumann, I. cumulatimpunctatus Schulze, I. muniensis Arthur & Burrow and Rhipicephalus sp.) were recorded from these hosts. Four of the five species of sucking lice were host specific whereas P. reclinata was recorded from two different species of white-toothed shrews, Crocidura spp. Although fleas and ticks were less host specific, C. leptodactylous, D. grypurus and I. cumulatimpunctatus were only recorded from the murid rodent Praomys delectorum (Thomas), Amblyomma sp. was only recorded from the nesomyid rodent Beamys hindei Thomas, Rhipicephalus sp. was only recorded from the murid Lemniscomys striatus (L.) and I. muniensis was only recorded from the dormouse Graphiurus microtis (Noack). More species of ectoparasites and significantly greater infestation prevalences were recorded from small mammals in moist habitats compared with those from the savannah habitat. At least one of the fleas recorded, D. lypusus, is a known vector of Yersinia pestis Lehmann & Neumann, the causative agent of plague, which is present in the region. PMID:19941604

  19. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-04-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels.

  20. The force exerted by a fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.

    2014-02-15

    The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

  1. Exertional leg pain: teasing out arterial entrapments.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thomas T; Kapur, Rahul; Harwood, Marc I

    2007-12-01

    Vascular causes of exertional lower extremity pain are relatively rare, but may be the answer in athletes refractory to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes of the lower extremities. It is important to differentiate these vascular causes from chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and stress fractures in order to develop appropriate treatment plans, avoid complications, and return athletes to play expeditiously. Important vascular etiologies to be considered are popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), endofibrotic disease, popliteal artery aneurysm, cystic adventitial disease, and peripheral arterial dissections. The diagnostic workup involves angiography or noninvasive vascular studies such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance angiography in both the neutral and provocative positions. Treatment of these vascular abnormalities typically involves surgical correction of the vascular anomaly.

  2. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  3. Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Camila Campos; SCAVONE-JUNIOR, Helio; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; COTRIM-FERREIRA, Flávio Augusto; FERREIRA, Rívea Inês

    2011-01-01

    Objective Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. Material and Methods Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 – non-breastfed, G2 – shorter than 6 months, G3 – interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 – longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classified overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05) with odds ratio (OR) calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1), 26.1% (G2), 22.1% (G3), and 6.2% (G4). G1 would have significantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1) and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3). Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. Conclusion Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented significantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months

  4. Development of the color scale of perceived exertion: preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Thais H S; Tognato, Andrea C; Nakamura, Priscila M; Queiroga, Marcos R; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Gleber; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    This study developed a Color Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE-color scale) and assessed its concurrent and construct validity in adult women. One hundred participants (18-77 years), who were habitual exercisers, associated colors with verbal anchors of the Borg RPE scale (RPE-Borg scale) for RPE-color scale development. For RPE-color scale validation, 12 Young (M = 21.7 yr., SD = 1.5) and 10 Older (M = 60.3 yr., SD = 3.5) adult women performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill and reported perceived exertion in both RPE-color and RPE-Borg scales. In the Young group, the RPE-color scale was significantly associated with heart rate and oxygen consumption, having strong correlations with the RPE-Borg scale. In the Older group, the RPE-color scale was significantly associated with heart rate, having moderate to high correlations with the RPE-Borg scale. The RPE-color scale demonstrated concurrent and construct validity in the Young women, as well as construct validity in Older adults.

  5. Factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits in two cohorts of Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) are very common during childhood. However, if these habits were maintained for 36 months of age or more, they are considered to be prolonged (PNNSH) and can cause occlusal, physiological and esthetic changes. There is controversy about their prevalence and whether perinatal, social, demographic and health characteristics influence their onset and duration. So, the objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of PNNSH and to evaluate perinatal, early life and school age factors associated with their occurrence in children. Methods A sample of 1,463 children aged 7–11 years born in Ribeirão Preto (RP-1994) and São Luís (SL-1997/98), Brazil, was reevaluated at school age in 2004/05. Birth weight, gestational age and perinatal variables were obtained at birth. Type of feeding, occurrence and duration of finger and pacifier sucking were recorded retrospectively at school age. PNNSH were defined when persisted for 36 months of age or more. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by Poisson regression (alpha = 5%). Results Prevalence of PNNSH was higher in RP (47.6%) than in SL (20.2%) – (p < 0.001). Perinatal variables were not associated to PNNSH, whilst female sex (PR = 1.27 in RP; PR = 1.47 in SL) and bottle feeding for 24 months or more (PR = 2.24 in RP; PR = 2.49 in SL) were risk factors in both locations. Breast feeding for 12 months or more (PR = 0.53 in RP; PR = 0.31 in SL) was associated with lower prevalence of PNNSH in both places. In SL, children whose mothers lived in consensual union (PR = 1.62) and worked outside the home (PR = 1.51) showed higher prevalence of PNNSH compared to their counterparts. Conclusions Prevalence of PNNSH was high especially in RP and was not associated with perinatal variables. In both cities there was an association between female sex, shorter breast-feeding duration, longer bottle feeding duration and higher prevalence of PNNSH. PMID:25053157

  6. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria.

  7. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  8. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, J. Gordon; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  9. Cold thermoregulatory responses following exertional fatigue.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N; DeGroot, David W; Young, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Participants in prolonged, physically demanding cold-weather activities are at risk for a condition called "thermoregulatory fatigue". During cold exposure, the increased gradient favoring body heat loss to the environment is opposed by physiological responses and clothing and behavioral strategies that conserve body heat stores to defend body temperature. The primary human physiological responses elicited by cold exposure are shivering and peripheral vasoconstriction. Shivering increases thermogenesis and replaces body heat losses, while peripheral vasoconstriction improves thermal insulation of the body and retards the rate of heat loss. A body of scientific literature supports the concept that prolonged and/or repeated cold exposure, fatigue induced by sustained physical exertion, or both together, can impair the shivering and vasoconstrictor responses to cold ("thermoregulatory fatigue"). The mechanisms accounting for this thermoregulatory impairment are not clear, but there is evidence to suggest that changes in central thermoregulatory control or peripheral sympathetic responsiveness to cold lead to thermoregulatory fatigue and increased susceptibility to hypothermia.

  10. Neuroanatomy of the sucking pump of the moth, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Davis, Norman T; Hildebrand, John G

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the neuroanatomy of the sucking pump of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) is valuable for studies of olfactory learning, pattern generators, and postembryonic modification of motor circuitry. The pump comprises a cibarial valve, a buccal pump, and an esophageal sphincter valve. Cibarial opener and closer muscles control the cibarial valve. Six pairs of dilator muscles and a compressor muscle operate the buccal pump. The cibarial opener and one pair of buccal dilator muscles are innervated by paired neurons in the tritocerebrum, and the cibarial opener has double, bilateral innervation. Their tritocerebral innervation indicates that these muscles evolved from labro-clypeal muscles. The remaining paired buccal dilator muscles each are innervated by an unpaired motor neuron in the frontal ganglion. These motor neurons project bilaterally through the frontal connectives to dendritic arborizations in the tritocerebrum. These projections also have a series of dendritic-like arborizations in the connectives. The cibarial closer and buccal compressor muscles are also innervated by motor neurons in the frontal ganglion, but only the closer muscle neuron projects bilaterally to the tritocerebrum. The innervation of the pump muscles indicates that they are associated with the stomodaeum, and, therefore, the buccal pump evolved from the anterior stomodaeum rather than from the cibarium.

  11. Exploring the diversity of blood-sucking Diptera in caves of Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Rahola, Nil; Ayala, Diego; Yangari, Patrick; Jiolle, Davy; Allene, Xavier; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Maganga, Gael Darren; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-03-21

    Caves house pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In Africa, previous studies identified mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges as the main potential vectors of cave-dwelling pathogens. However, to understand their involvement in pathogen spillover, it is crucial to characterize their diversity, community composition and dynamics. Using CDC light traps, we collected hematophagous Diptera in six caves of Gabon during one-shot or longitudinal sampling, and investigated their species diversity and dynamics in relation with external rainfall. Overall, we identified 68 species of mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges, including 45 new records for Gabon. The dominant species were: Uranotaenia nigromaculata, Anopheles smithii s.l., Culex. rima group and Culex quasiguiarti for mosquitoes, Spelaeophlebotomus gigas and Spelaeomyia emilii for sand flies and the Culicoides trifasciellus group and Culicoides fulvithorax for biting midges. The survey revealed that species assemblages were cave-specific and included mainly troglophilous and trogloxenous species. Both diversity and abundance varied according to the cave and sampling time, and were significantly associated with rainfall. These associations were modulated by the cave specific environmental conditions. Moreover, the presence of trogloxenous and troglophilous species could be of high significance for pathogen transfers between cave and epigeous hosts, including humans.

  12. The control of necrotic enteritis in sucking piglets by means of a Clostridium perfringens toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Springer, S; Selbitz, H J

    1999-07-01

    Necrotic enteritis in sucking piglets constitutes a serious problem in piglet rearing units because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. The primary causal agent is Clostridium perfringens type C. The beta-toxin plays a decisive role in the pathogenesis of this disease. A toxoid vaccine for use in sows has been developed and studied in field trials. The European Pharmacopoeia Monograph on vaccines for use in animals lays down a method of the efficacy testing based on the immunization of rabbits, the collection of pooled sera and the subsequent assay of anti-toxin antibodies in mice using an appropriate test toxin. The vaccine is regarded as effective if it induces a minimum of 10 IU of beta-anti-toxin per ml of rabbit serum. We have established a range of 17.14-98.23 IU beta-anti-toxin per ml rabbit serum induced by a sample of C. perfringens toxoid vaccine. The vaccine has been used under field conditions in different rearing units at the same time, mostly in the form of emergency vaccinations following the outbreak of disease. The outcome of vaccination was evaluated by recording the total numbers of piglets born alive and the piglet losses. Use of the vaccine, coupled with other measures, resulted in an approximately 30% reduction in the number of losses.

  13. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  14. Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture

    PubMed Central

    VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and – with a focus on sap-sucking insects – discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

  15. Spectral sensitivity of the photonegative reaction of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Lazzari, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    We studied the spectral sensitivity of the visual system of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans, one of the main vectors of Chagas Disease in South America. We quantified the photonegative reaction of this insect in a rectangular arena, half of which was kept dark and the other half illuminated with various intensities of different monochromatic lights (or broadband stimuli for lambda>665 nm). As a behavioral parameter of the photonegative response, we measured the time each insect spent in the dark half of the arena. We found that low intensity levels (under 0.06 microW/cm(2)) of monochromatic lights of 397, 458, 499, and 555 nm evoked a statistically significant (i.e., different from that of control groups) photonegative reaction. Insects were less sensitive to monochromatic lights of 357 nm (UV) and 621 nm (dark orange), and to broadband stimuli in the red part of the spectrum (665-695 nm). These findings indicate that the visual system of T. infestans is sensitive to broader regions of the spectrum than those previously reported.

  16. Differentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Physical Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE VOl 14, No 5. Pp 397-405. 1982 -1982 Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion during physical ...that PANDOLF, KENT B. Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion utilizes differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during physical exercise ...in the eval- Specific instructions and procedures for the utilization uation of effort sensations during physical exercise . Ekblom and Goldbarg (17

  17. Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus called the resistive exercise device (RED) has been proposed to satisfy a requirement for exercise equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that could passively exert a selectable constant load on both the outward and return strokes. The RED could be used alone; alternatively, the RED could be used in combination with another apparatus called the treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization (TVIS), in which case the combination would be called the subject load device (SLD). The basic RED would be a passive device, but it could incorporate an electric motor to provide eccentric augmentation (augmentation to make the load during inward movement greater than the load during outward movement). The RED concept represents a unique approach to providing a constant but selectable resistive load for exercise for the maintenance and development of muscles. Going beyond the original ISS application, the RED could be used on Earth as resistive weight training equipment. The advantage of the RED over conventional weight-lifting equipment is that it could be made portable and lightweight.

  18. Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Forgacs, Peter; Lukacs, Arpad; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is pulled towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the {phi}{sup 4} model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the {phi}{sup 4} model. In the sine-Gordon (SG) model the time-averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the SG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a SG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton's law.

  19. Multigene analysis of phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of primate sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura).

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2009-02-01

    Cospeciation between hosts and parasites offers a unique opportunity to use information from parasites to infer events in host evolutionary history. Although lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are known to cospeciate with their hosts and have frequently served as important markers to infer host evolutionary history, most molecular studies are based on only one or two markers. Resulting phylogenies may, therefore, represent gene histories (rather than species histories), and analyses of multiple molecular markers are needed to increase confidence in the results of phylogenetic analyses. Herein, we phylogenetically examine nine molecular markers in primate sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) and we use these markers to estimate divergence times among louse lineages. Individual and combined analyses of these nine markers are, for the most part, congruent, supporting relationships hypothesized in previous studies. Only one marker, the nuclear protein-coding gene Histone 3, has a significantly different tree topology compared to the other markers. The disparate evolutionary history of this marker, however, has no significant effect on topology or nodal support in the combined phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, phylogenetic results from the combined data set likely represent a solid hypothesis of species relationships. Additionally, we find that simultaneous use of multiple markers and calibration points provides the most reliable estimates of louse divergence times, in agreement with previous studies estimating divergences among species. Estimates of phylogenies and divergence times also allow us to verify the results of [Reed, D.L., Light, J.E., Allen, J.M., Kirchman, J.J., 2007. Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice. BMC Biol. 5, 7.]; there was probable contact between gorilla and archaic hominids roughly 3 Ma resulting in a host switch of Pthirus lice from gorillas to archaic hominids. Thus, these results provide

  20. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Øgaard, Bjørn; Larsson, Erik; Lindsten, Rune

    1994-08-01

    The upper and lower intercanine arch widths and the prevalence of posterior crossbite were registered for 445 3-year-old children with and without a continuing or previous dummy-sucking or finger-sucking habit in different areas in Sweden and Norway. Sami children from northern Norway also took part in the study, as well as 15 medieval skulls with intact deciduous dentitions. Compared with the nonsuckers, an increased prevalence of posterior crossbite was observed for the finger suckers, especially the Swedish girls. Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite could be predicted with upper intercanine arch width alone. The finger sucking variable would not improve prediction; neither did other entities such as cohort (residental area), sex, lower intercanine arch width, nor the difference between upper and lower intercanine arch width. High prevalences of posterior crossbite were registered for dummy suckers (pacifiers) especially the Swedish girls (26%). Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite in dummy suckers could be predicted with upper and lower intercanine arch width. Stepwise linear regression showed that both arches tended to be narrower in Swedes and girls, and that dummy sucking decreased the upper and increased the lower intercanine arch width. Analyses of covariance revealed that at least 2 years of dummy sucking is necessary to produce a significant effect in the upper jaw and 3 years in the lower jaw. (AM J ORTHOD DENTOFAC ORTHOP 1994;106:161-6.).

  1. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ogaard, B; Larsson, E; Lindsten, R

    1994-08-01

    The upper and lower intercanine arch widths and the prevalence of posterior crossbite were registered for 445 3-year-old children with and without a continuing or previous dummy-sucking or finger-sucking habit in different areas in Sweden and Norway. Sami children from northern Norway also took part in the study, as well as 15 medieval skulls with intact deciduous dentitions. Compared with the nonsuckers, an increased prevalence of posterior crossbite was observed for the finger suckers, especially the Swedish girls. Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite could be predicted with upper intercanine arch width alone. The finger sucking variable would not improve prediction; neither did other entities such as cohort (residential area), sex, lower intercanine arch width, nor the difference between upper and lower intercanine arch width. High prevalences of posterior crossbite were registered for dummy suckers (pacifiers) especially the Swedish girls (26%). Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite in dummy suckers could be predicted with upper and lower intercanine arch width. Stepwise linear regression showed that both arches tended to be narrower in Swedes and girls, and that dummy sucking decreased the upper and increased the lower intercanine arch width. Analyses of covariance revealed that at least 2 years of dummy sucking is necessary to produce a significant effect in the upper jaw and 3 years in the lower jaw.

  2. The effect of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking on state of preterm, low birthweight infants experiencing heelstick.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the physiologic and behavioral effects of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking (NNS) for preterm, low birthweight (LBW) infants experiencing heelstick. Subjects were 60 infants, age 32 to 37 weeks post conceptional age in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: pacifier-activated lullaby (PAL), pacifier-only, and no-contact. Experimental infants were provided the Sondrex PAL System, which plays music contingent on infant sucking. Pacifier-only infants did not receive music reinforcement for sucking, and no-contact infants were not provided a pacifier or music at any point during the procedure. Stress level and behavior state were assessed continuously and heart, respiratory, and oxygen saturation rates were recorded at 15-second intervals for all infants. Most physiologic data results were inconclusive. However, analysis of behavior state and stress level revealed the following significant differences for the PAL and pacifier-only groups compared to the no-contact group, all of which were greatest between the PAL and no-contact groups: lower during-heelstick behavior state means, less time in undesirable behavior states, lower during- and post-heelstick stress level means, and smaller behavior state and stress level differences between intervals. In addition, the PAL group had a significantly lower pre-heelstick stress level mean than the no-contact group. Behavior state and stress level were also more stable across time for the PAL group than the other groups, and patterns of changes in oxygen saturation, behavior state, and stress level indicate that music-reinforced NNS may facilitate return to homeostasis.

  3. Spring-loaded bite-blocks for early correction of skeletal open bite associated with thumb sucking.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Umal H; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-07-01

    Skeletal open-bite malocclusion is frequently discussed in orthodontics. Diagnosis, treatment, and retention can be difficult because this malocclusion has numerous correlated etiologic factors. The earlier this malocclusion is corrected, the better the prognosis will be, especially when the problem is skeletal. This article presents a patient with a skeletal open bite and a thumb-sucking habit who was treated in the mixed dentition with an orthodontic appliance that included an acrylic occlusal splint along with spring-loaded blocks to guide the vertical force against the posterior teeth and the alveolar process. The usefulness of the appliance as a habit-breaking therapy is also highlighted.

  4. The Effect of Exertion on Heart Rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Acutely Concussed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea; Leddy, John; Freitas, Michael; Czuczman, Natalie; Willer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population. Methods We compared changes in heart rate and perceived effort during graded treadmill exertion in recently concussed patients to elucidate the effect of brain injury on cardiovascular response to exercise. Resting HR, HR on exercise initiation, and changes in HR and RPE during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) were compared on two test visits: When patients were symptomatic (acute) and after recovery. Results were compared with the test-retest results obtained from a control group consisting of healthy, non-concussed individuals. Results Patients had a significantly lower HR at onset of exercise when acutely concussed as compared to when recovered and reported greater perceived exertion at every exercise intensity level when symptomatic, despite exercising at lower workloads, than when recovered. Sympathetic response to increased exertion was not affected by concussion - HR increased in response to exercise at a comparable rate in both tests. These differences observed in response to exercise between the first BCTT and follow-up evaluation in initially concussed patients were not present in non-concussed individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest that during the acute phase after concussion, acutely concussed patients demonstrated an impaired ability to shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic control over heart rate at the onset of exercise. Changes in the autonomic nervous system after concussion may be more complex than previously reported. Continued evaluation of

  5. Functional analysis and treatment of chronic hair pulling in a child with cri du chat syndrome: effects on co-occurring thumb sucking.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Christina M; Pace, Gary M; Luiselli, James K; Flaherty, Jennifer; Christian, Lauren; Kleinmann, Ava

    2008-01-01

    The relation between hair pulling and thumb sucking in a child with Cri du Chat syndrome was evaluated during the assessment and treatment of hair pulling. A functional analysis suggested that both behaviors were maintained by automatic reinforcement and possibly by attention. Treatment combining differential reinforcement (praise), response interruption, and access to toys decreased hair pulling. A corresponding decrease in thumb sucking was observed even though it was not directly treated. After an initial evaluation in a controlled setting, the treatment was extended to the participant's classroom setting. A 1-year follow up revealed that hair pulling, but not thumb sucking, remained at near-zero frequency. Clinical and research-to-practice implications are discussed.

  6. Ground-water data for the Suck Creek area of Walden Ridge, southern Cumberland Plateau, Marion County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanchar, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was made of the ground-water resources of the Suck Creek area, Marion County, Tennessee, 1990-91. Suck Creek is located on the Walden Ridge section of the Cumberland Plateau, and is about 16 miles northwest of Chattanooga. Eight wells were drilled into bedrock of Pennsylvania age. Drilling sites were chosen at or near fracture traces. Yields of the eight wells ranged from less than 1 to as much as 80 gallons of water per minute. Three wells had yields of 50 gallons per minute or more; two of these had estimated yields of 75 to 80 gallons per minute. These three wells produced water from a well- developed fracture within the Sewanee Conglomerate. Specific capacities for these three wells were 1.1, 1.3, 2.2 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Samples of water from six test wells and three domestic wells were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nurients, major metals, trace elements, and bacteria. In addition, water samples from two of the test wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and scanned for the presence of semi-volatile organic compounds. Iron exceeded 300 micrograms per liter in five of the nine samples, and manganese exceeded 50 micrograms per liter in seven of the nine water samples. Toluene, a volatile organic compound, was detected in a concentration slightly above the reporting level; no other volatile organic compounds were detected.

  7. Sucking, chewing, and feeding habits and the development of crossbite: a longitudinal study of girls from birth to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of posterior crossbite among pacifier-sucking girls in Falköping, Sweden, was previously found to be 26%. The aim of this investigation was to follow the development of crossbites in pacifier suckers and to determinate the possibility of reducing the prevalence of crossbite by informing and instructing the parents about sucking habits and reducing the time the child has the pacifier in the mouth. Parents of 60 consecutively born girls belonging to St Olof's health district, Falköping, Sweden, were invited to take part in the study. All parents agreed to participate. Five interviews or examinations of each girl took place from birth until 3 years of age. Fifty-four (90%) of the 60 girls were breast-fed. The mean duration of breast-feeding was 8 months, and 67% of the girls were breast-fed for half a year or more. Forty-three children (72%) developed a pacifier-sucking habit, 6 (10%), a digit-sucking habit, and 11 (18%), no sucking habits. The mean duration of breast-feeding was longer for the nonsuckers (11 months) than for the pacifier- and digit-sucking children (5 months). Of the 39 girls who still had the pacifier habit at 3 years of age, 2 had developed a posterior crossbite. Another girl stopped the habit when a crossbite was registered at the 2 1/2-year examination. At the next appointment, the crossbite had corrected itself spontaneously. One of the 2 girls with crossbite at 3 years of age developed a prenormal occlusion with both anterior and posterior crossbites. For 12 more pacifier suckers, an interfering contact was noted with a forced guidance of the mandible and a midline shift. In all 12 cases, the interfering teeth were primary canines. We conclude that parents should be instructed to reduce the "in the mouth time" of the pacifier. The transverse occlusal relationship in pacifier-sucking children should be evaluated between 2 and 3 years of age. If interfering contacts of the primary canines exist, the parents should be instructed

  8. Using Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagally, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion have been shown to be a valid method of monitoring physical activity intensity for both adults and children. As such, this subjective method may serve as an alternative to objective measurements for assessing students' performance on national standards 2 and 4. The OMNI-Child perceived exertion scales were…

  9. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: What Is It and Why Should We Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David Q.; Carlson, Kelli A.; Marzano, Amy; Garrahy, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis gained increased attention recently when 13 football players from the University of Iowa developed this condition after an especially demanding practice session and were hospitalized. Exertional rhabdomyolysis may lead to severe kidney stress, kidney failure, and even sudden death. Anyone who does physical exercise at a…

  10. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  11. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  12. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  13. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  14. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  15. Influence of management and biological factors on the parasitic invasions in the wild-spread of blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in European bison (Bison bonasus).

    PubMed

    Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Lachowicz, Jacek; Borowik, Tomasz; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2016-12-01

    The full course of new parasite introductions in wild animals is difficult to accurately trace. We documented and analysed the invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi (Trichostrongylidae) introduction and spread in European bison (Bison bonasus) from the initial phase of its progression. In the Polish part of the Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF) the parasite was first found in 2000. From 2002 to 2015, 165 culled bison were investigated. The prevalence and intensity of A. sidemi Schulz, 1933 infection increased over the following years, reaching 100% of investigated bison four years after introduction and a maximal median intensity of 8200 nematodes per animal in the winter of 2008/2009. Afterwards, a significant decline of median infection intensity was observed to the minimum value of 410 nematodes per animal. Between 2011 and 2014 prevalence varied from 89 to 100%. Among the factors analysed, the number of years since introduction, herd size, age and sex proved to significantly influence infection intensity. A higher infection intensity was recorded in sub-adults compared to juveniles and adults. Males had significantly lower infection intensity than females, but this was the case for adults only. The highest infection intensities were recorded in the biggest bison herds, where the winter supplementary feeding of bison is intense. Moreover, the longer the parasite was present in the host population, the more important herd size became as a factor. Our study indicates that it is not solely biological factors that determine the spread of a newly detected parasite in wildlife, but that management practices can also have a strong influence. This is especially important in endangered species under intensive human care as the management practices may pose a threat to the species.

  16. Exertional myopathy in whooping cranes (Grus americana) with prognostic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Thomas, Nancy J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hartup, Barry K

    2005-09-01

    Exertional myopathy developed in three whooping cranes (Grus americana) secondary to routine capture, handling, and trauma. Presumptive diagnosis of exertional myopathy was based on history of recent capture or trauma, clinical signs, and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum potassium. Treatments were attempted in each case, but ultimately were not successful. Gross and microscopic lesions at necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in each case, with the leg musculature most severely affected. Guidelines for determining prognosis of exertional myopathy in cranes have been included based on the analysis of these cases and others in the literature. As treatment is largely unrewarding, prevention remains the key in controlling exertional myopathy. Identification of predisposing factors and proper handling, immobilization, and transportation techniques can help prevent development of exertional myopathy in cranes.

  17. Exertional myopathy in whooping cranes (Grus americana) with prognostic guidlelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanley, C.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Paul-Murphy, P.; Hartup, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    Exertional myopathy developed in three whooping cranes (Grus americana) secondary to routine capture, handling, and trauma. Presumptive diagnosis of exertional myopathy was based on history of recent capture or trauma, clinical signs, and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum potassium. Treatments were attempted in each case, but ultimately were not successful. Gross and microscopic lesions at necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in each case, with the leg musculature most severely affected. Guidelines for determining prognosis of exertional myopathy in cranes have been included based on the analysis of these cases and others in the literature. As treatment is largely unrewarding, prevention remains the key in controlling exertional myopathy. Identification of predisposing factors and proper handling, immobilization, and transportation techniques can help prevent development of exertional myopathy in cranes.

  18. Acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L

    1995-01-01

    Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.

  19. Concurrent validity and interobserver reliability of the EPInfant pediatric perceived exertion rating scale among healthy Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Manterola, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the EPInfant pediatric perceived exertion rating scale among Chilean children. Children aged 8-12 years old were selected; their heart rate, perceived exertion and workload were recorded during two consecutive Chester tests performed with a one week interval. Pearson's r coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient were estimated. Thirty-one children (17 boys) were included in the study. A strong correlation was observed between perceived exertion and reference criteria, in addition to a high intraclass correlation coefficient. The average difference between the perceived exertion in each test was 1.4 (95% CI: -1.4 to 4.1) and 0.2 (95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2) for boys and girls, respectively. The EPInfant scale showed an acceptable criterion validity and interobserver reliability among children during an incremental step test.

  20. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes e; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. Methods: The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: “mental exertion”, “mental fatigue”, “mental fatigue and performance”, “mental exertion and sports” “mental exertion and exercise”. Results: We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Conclusion: Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates. PMID:27867415

  1. New, Universal AC-DC Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) monitor allows recording of detailed R- and emf-component waveforms for any piercing-sucking insect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) monitoring is the most rigorous means of observing and quantifying the feeding of any piercing-sucking arthropod. However, until now, most studies have emphasized a relatively small number of insects, mostly small-bodied aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and leafhopp...

  2. A non-invasive technique to bleed incubating birds without trapping: A blood-sucking bug in a hollow egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, P.H.; Voigt, C.C.; Arnold, J.M.; Nagel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a non-invasive technique to obtain blood samples from incubating birds without trapping and handling. A larval instar of the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus (Heteroptera) was put in a hollowed artificial egg which was placed in a common tern Sterna hirundo) nest. A gauze-covered hole in the egg allowed the bug to draw blood from the brood patch of breeding adults. We successfully collected 68 blood samples of sufficient amount (median=187 ??l). The daily success rate was highest during the early breeding season and averaged 34% for all trials. We could not detect any visible response by the incubating bird to the sting of the bug. This technique allows for non-invasive blood collection from bird species of various sizes without disturbance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  3. A Smart Measurement and Stimulation System to Analyze and Promote Non-Nutritive Sucking of Premature Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Miguel Dias; Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a complete system that can be used to measure and to stimulate sucking abilities of premature babies. The system integrates measurement and stimulation capabilities that can be used separately or together. The sensing unit includes mainly a pressure sensor, a conditioning circuit and a microcontroller device. The stimulation unit includes a miniature and low-cost pneumatic pump, an electro-valve, and a conditioning circuit. The microcontroller is shared by both units. The system's software includes a routine that is used to define the waveform parameters of the synthesized pressure signals, a wavelet based routine that is used to process measurement data and a software component to perform fault detection and diagnosis. The system capabilities include self-calibration and self-testing. Throughout the paper several implementation details and experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  4. The use of a neoprene "thumb-sock" to prevent trauma in a thumb-sucking child with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dennison, P J; Walton-Jones, A

    1999-01-01

    A nine-year-old girl with spastic quadriplegia, mental retardation, poor vision, a gastrostomy, and intractable epilepsy was referred by her pediatrician for a dental assessment with a view to extracting her anterior teeth as a means of preventing repeated damage to the skin over the proximal phalanx of her left thumb, which she sucked at night. This was the time of day when the frequency of her epileptic seizures was highest. A simple solution to the problem was developed by a dentist and an occupational therapist in which nylon-coated 3-mm neoprene sheeting (wet-suit material) was formed into a "thumb-sock" with a simple Velcro fastening around the wrist. No trauma to the thumb from epileptic seizures has occurred since the "thumb-sock" was fitted 24 months ago.

  5. Occlusal and orofacial myofunctional evaluation in children with anterior open bite before and after removal of pacifier sucking habit.

    PubMed

    Verrastro, Anna Paula; Stefani, Fabiane Miron; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate occlusal and orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children with primary dentition and anterior open bite, before and after removal of pacifier sucking habit. A dentist checked anterior open bite, overjet and upper intercanine distance and a speech therapist evaluated posture and tonus of lips and tongue, cheek tonus, swallowing, breathing and speech of twenty-seven 3-5 year-old children at baseline and 3 months later. Habit removal propitiated a mean reduction of 1.97 mm on anterior open bite (P < .001), promoted improvement of lip posture (P = .03), favored nasal breathing (P =. 008) and reduced the occurrence of tongue interposition during swallowing (P = .008). Lack of proper tongue rest posture was capable of preventing spontaneous correction of anterior open bite (odds ratio 17.50).

  6. Longitudinal study on influence of prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits on dental caries in Japanese children from 1.5 to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between infant sucking habits and the prevalence of caries in Japanese preschool children.The study was designed as a prospective, longitudinal study starting with 592 children aged 18 months. Information on sucking habits and patterns of feeding was collected from parents in the form of a questionnaire. Children who continued breastor bottle-feeding at 18 months of age were eliminated prior to the evaluations. The children were divided into 3 groups according to their sucking habits at 18 months of age: Group 1: children with a finger-sucking habit (n=151); Group 2: children who used a pacifier (n=45) and Group 3: children with no oral habit (n=205). Clinical examinations were carried out by one of the authors.Mean dft and prevalence of caries were not statistically significant among the 3 groups at 18 months of age. However, only 10.6% of the children in Group 1 exhibited caries at 36 months of age, compared with 17.1% in Group 3 and 24.4% in Group 2. Group 1 children showed the smallest mean dft at 0.30 among the 3 groups at 36 months of age, and those in Group 2 showed 1.18; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01).The results suggest that children with a finger-sucking habit are more likely to be free of caries by the age of 3. However, use of pacifier at 18 months of age is a potential risk factor for the development of dental caries in children.

  7. Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests

    PubMed Central

    Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  8. Molecular characterization of a novel vegetative insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis effective against sap-sucking insect pest.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Sampurna; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-09-01

    Several isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) effective against sap-sucking insect pests. Screening results were based on LC(50) values against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), one of the dangerous pests of various crop plants including cotton. Among the isolates, the Bt#BREF24 showed promising results, and upon purification the aphidicidal protein was recognized as a binary toxin. One of the components of this binary toxin was identified by peptide sequencing to be a homolog of Vip2A that has been reported previously in other Bacillus spp. Vip2 belongs to the binary toxin group Vip1-Vip2, and is responsible for the enzymatic activity; and Vip1 is the translocation and receptor binding protein. The two genes encoding the corresponding proteins of the binary toxin, designated as vip2Ae and vip1Ae, were cloned from the Bt#BREF24, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Aphid feeding assay with the recombinant proteins confirmed that these proteins are indeed the two components of the binary toxins, and the presence of both partners is essential for the activity. Aphid specificity of the binary toxin was further verified by ligand blotting experiment, which identified an ~50 kDa receptor in the brush border membrane vesicles of the cotton aphids only, but not in the lepidopteran insects. Our finding holds a promise of its use in future as a candidate gene for developing transgenic crop plants tolerant against sap-sucking insect pests.

  9. Blood-sucking bugs as a gentle method for blood-collection in water budget studies using doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Michener, Robert; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kunz, Thomas H; von Helversen, Otto

    2005-11-01

    During doubly-labelled water (DLW) experiments, blood collection by venous puncture may traumatize animals and consequently affect the animals' behaviour and energy budget. Recent studies have shown that blood-sucking bugs (Triatominae; Heteroptera) can be used instead of conventional needles to obtain blood from animals. In this paper, we validate the bug method in captive nectar-feeding bats, Glossophaga soricina, for water budget analysis by comparing the daily water flux estimated with the DLW method with values measured by an energy balance method. As the mean daily water flux of the DLW method was not significantly deviating from the expected value, blood-sucking bugs may substitute more invasive methods of blood collection in DLW experiments. Based on the DLW estimates, daily energy and water intake rates were calculated and compared to values measured with the energy balance method. The DLW method and the energy balance method yielded on average similar results regarding the daily energy intake (DLW method: 48.8+/-14.2 kJ d(-1) versus energy balance method: 48.1+/-9.9 kJ d(-1)) and daily water intake (DLW method: 13.7+/-2.4 mL d(-1) versus energy balance method: 14.7+/-3.0 mL d(-1)). Based on the calculated water and sugar intake per day, we estimated the sugar concentration of ingested nectar to equal on average 16.2+/-2.4% (mass/mass), which fell close to the measured sugar concentration of 17% (mass/mass) bats fed on during the experiment. We conclude that it is possible to extrapolate mean daily energy and water intake for animal groups, populations and species based on DLW estimates, but due to the large variance of results (low accuracy), it seems inadequate to calculate values for single individuals.

  10. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.

  11. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  12. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:27900193

  13. A case of mitochondrial cytopathy with exertion induced dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonias are a group of relatively benign hyperkinetic childhood movement disorders of varied etiology. Mitochondrial diseases are well known to produce persistent dystonias as sequelae, but paroxysmal exertion induced dystonia has been reported in only one case to the best of our knowledge. Two siblings born to consanguineous parents presented with early-onset exertion induced dystonia, which was unresponsive to diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine. A trial with valproate in one of the siblings turned fatal within 24 h. Based on this clue, the second child was investigated and found to suffer from complex I deficiency with a paternally inherited dominant nuclear DNA mutation, which is responsive to the mitochondrial cocktail. Exertion induced dystonia can be a rare manifestation of complex I deficiency. PMID:26557169

  14. A Technique for Establishing True Levels of Muscle Strength Exertion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    performed -"aximal or submaximal isometric strength exertions. The exertions tested were elbow flexion, finger flexion, knee flexion and knee...190.1 167.11 17.3350 Buttock-Knee Length (cm) 54.1 66.7 59.29 3.2106 Knee Height, sitting (cm) 46.5 58.7 52.91 2.8737 Shoulder- Elbow Length (cm) 29.3...propped the elbow of the right arm on the arm rest, extended the fore- arm directly forward so that the cuff was exactly above the load cell, with

  15. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. Methods We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. Results We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Conclusions Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter

  16. A checklist of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) associated with Mexican wild mammals, including geographical records and a host-parasite list.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.

  17. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 404.1569a Section 404.1569a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 404.1569a Section 404.1569a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  3. Perceived Exertion: An Old Exercise Tool Finds New Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Terry

    1988-01-01

    Perceived exertion scales, based on subjective perception of energy output, are gaining respect as prescribing and monitoring tools for individual exercise programs. A review of recent literature indicates growing research interest in applications for individuals who are elderly, inactive, or subject to medical conditions such as angina. (IAH)

  4. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  6. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  8. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  10. Are the Measurements of Attention Allocation and Perceived Exertion Trustworthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Gily; Hutchinson, Jasmin C.; Habeeb, Christine M.; Boiangin, Nataniel M.; Shaffer, Cory; Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined the trustworthiness of commonly used measurement scales for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and state attentional focus (SAF) during exercise. In Study 1, participants (N = 24, 14 female) performed a treadmill graded-exercise test. The order of scale presentation during the task was manipulated (i.e., RPE followed by SAF…

  11. Perception of Forces Exerted by Objects in Collision Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Impressions of force are commonplace in the visual perception of objects interacting. It is proposed that these impressions have their source in haptically mediated experiences of exertion of force in actions on objects. Visual impressions of force in interactions between objects occur by a kind of generalization of the proprioceptive impression…

  12. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops.

  13. Effects of oral Enterococcus faecium strain DSM 10663 NCIMB 10415 on diarrhoea patterns and performance of sucking piglets.

    PubMed

    Büsing, K; Zeyner, A

    2015-03-01

    Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium DMS 10663 NCIMB 10415 on diarrhoea and performance of sucking piglets were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Piglets from treatment group (TG, n=56) and placebo group (PG, n=53) sows were included in the study. Immediately after birth and at day 2 and 3 post natum, each of the TG piglets received 2.8×10(9) colony forming units (cfu) per os. From day 4 until weaning (day 26), 1.26×10(9) cfu E. faecium/piglet were given twice a day via a liquid additive. Piglets already suffering from diarrhoea additionally got a glucose-electrolyte solution enriched with 2.9×10(8) (week 1) and 5.8×10(8) (week 2) cfu E. faecium/day. PG piglets received corresponding placebo preparations. A score was defined to characterise the severity of diarrhoea, including accompanying symptoms. The counts of viable born, stillborn and weaned piglets were similar in TG and PG litters (P>0.05). The probiotic treatment mitigated incidence and severity of diarrhoea (P<0.05) with no impact on diarrhoea length (P>0.05). Probiotic treatment improved daily weight gain (P<0.05) yet with no provable effect on body weight at weaning (P>0.05). The additional supply of E. faecium in piglets suffering from diarrhoea had no further beneficial effect.

  14. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation.

  15. Microarray analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) bark following challenge by the sucking insect Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M. Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V.; Davy, Marcus W.; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D.; Rikkerink, Erik H.

    2016-01-01

    Both commercial and experimental genotypes of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) exhibit large differences in response to insect pests. An understanding of the vine's physiological response to insect feeding and its genetic basis will be important in assisting the development of varieties with acceptable levels of pest resistance. This experiment describes transcriptome changes observed in the bark of kiwifruit 2 and 7 days after the commencement of feeding by the armored scale insect pest, Hemiberlesia lataniae. Using a cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes, we measured transcriptome changes and analyzed these into functional ontology categories using MapMan. Results are available in the GEO database GSE73922 and are described fully in Ref. Hill et al. (2015) [1]. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis were down-regulated and secondary metabolism was up-regulated. Differential expression of transcripts associated with stress response was consistent with a defense response involving both effector and herbivore-triggered immunities, with predominant involvement of the salicylic acid phytohormonal pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the results of two laboratory experiments. The methods described here could be further adapted and applied to the study of plant responses to a wide range of sessile sucking pests. PMID:26981426

  16. How does a newly born mouse get to the nipple? Odor substrates eliciting first nipple grasping and sucking responses.

    PubMed

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Schaal, Benoist; Patris, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    It is a mammalian female strategy to emit odor cues and signals that direct their inexperienced newborns to the nipple, and optimize their initial sucking success and, hence, viability. Here, natural odorous substrates that contribute to nipple grasping were investigated in mice, a species that has not been much scrutinized on this topic. The response of pups toward the nipples of lactating females (LF) versus nonlactating females (NLF) were first assessed right after watched birth, before and after the first suckling experience, and at 1 day old, after more extended suckling experience. It appeared that only nipples of LF induced grasping at these early ages, leading to take NLF as the baseline setting to present various odor substrates sampled from LF, viz. amniotic fluid, murine milk, LF saliva, pup saliva, LF urine, and an odorless control stimulus (water). Results indicate that: (1) only amniotic fluid and fresh milk induced nipple grasping before the first suckling experience; (2) LF saliva started inducing grasping after the first suckling experience; (3) pup saliva released grasping after 24-36 hr of suckling experience; finally (4) neither LF urine, nor water induced any nipple grasping. In conclusion, the activity of amniotic fluid and murine milk on neonatal pup behavior before any postnatal suckling experience suggests that either prenatal learning and/or predisposed olfactory mechanisms do operate, while the behavioral activation due to maternal and infantile salivas clearly depends on postnatal exposure.

  17. Occlusal and orofacial myofunctional evaluation in children with primary dentition, anterior open bite and pacifier sucking habit.

    PubMed

    Verrastro, Anna Paula; Stefani, Fabiane Miron; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate occlusal and orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children three to five years of age with anterior open bite related to a pacifier sucking habit. Sixty-nine children participated in this study: 35 with anterior open bite (Anterior Open Bite Group - AOBG) and 34 with normal occlusion (Control Group - CG). In AOBG, the mean anterior open bite was 2.96 mm, the mean overjet was 4.1 mm and the mean upper intercanine distance was 28.7 mm. In the CG, the mean overjet was 2.6 mm and the upper intercanine distance was 30.3 mm. The mean overjet was greater (p=0.001) in AOBG than in CG, and the mean upper intercanine distance was smaller (p<0.001) in AOBG. The number of children with a canine Class II relationship was greater in AOBG than in CG (p<0.001). Simple logistic regression analysis showed that greater overjet, smaller upper intercanine distance and Class II canine relationship coexisted with anterior open bite. In AOBG, the number of children with incompetent lips, inadequate lip tonus, lack of proper tongue rest position, inadequate cheek tonus, anterior tongue interposition during swallowing and speech was greater (p<0.05) than in CG. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified anterior tongue interposition during swallow and speech, as well as incompetent lips, as the main orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children with anterior open bite.

  18. Microarray analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) bark following challenge by the sucking insect Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Hill, M Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V; Davy, Marcus W; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D; Rikkerink, Erik H

    2016-03-01

    Both commercial and experimental genotypes of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) exhibit large differences in response to insect pests. An understanding of the vine's physiological response to insect feeding and its genetic basis will be important in assisting the development of varieties with acceptable levels of pest resistance. This experiment describes transcriptome changes observed in the bark of kiwifruit 2 and 7 days after the commencement of feeding by the armored scale insect pest, Hemiberlesia lataniae. Using a cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes, we measured transcriptome changes and analyzed these into functional ontology categories using MapMan. Results are available in the GEO database GSE73922 and are described fully in Ref. Hill et al. (2015) [1]. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis were down-regulated and secondary metabolism was up-regulated. Differential expression of transcripts associated with stress response was consistent with a defense response involving both effector and herbivore-triggered immunities, with predominant involvement of the salicylic acid phytohormonal pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the results of two laboratory experiments. The methods described here could be further adapted and applied to the study of plant responses to a wide range of sessile sucking pests.

  19. Nectar intake rate is modulated by changes in sucking pump activity according to colony starvation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2008-05-01

    Dynamics of fluid feeding has been deeply studied in insects. However, the ability to vary the nectar-intake rate depending only on the carbohydrate deprivation has been clearly demonstrated only in Camponotus mus ants. When insect morphometry and fluid properties remain constant, changes in intake rate could only be attributed to variations in sucking pump activity. Previous records of the electrical activity generated during feeding in C. mus have revealed two different signal patterns: the regular (RP, frequencies: 2-5 Hz) and the irregular (IP, frequencies: 7-12 Hz). This work studies the mechanism underlying food intake-rate modulation in ants by analysing whether these patterns are involved. Behaviour and electrical activity generated by ants at different starvation levels were analysed during feeding on sucrose solutions. Ants were able to modulate the intake rate for a variety of sucrose concentrations (10, 40 and 60%w/w). The IP only occurred for 60% of solutions and its presence did not affect the intake rate. However, during the RP generated under the starved state, we found frequencies up to 7.5 Hz. RP frequencies positively correlated with the intake-rate for all sucrose concentrations. Hence, intake-rate modulation according to sugar deprivation is mainly achieved by the ant's ability to vary the pumping frequency.

  20. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2001-11-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock plays an important role in the production of medicine since low serum Se levels influence disease resistance in ruminants. It has been proved that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum level has been widely used to evaluate the Se short-term status in animals since there is a good association between serum Se level and the dietary intake of the element over a wide range. The purpose of this work was to determine the Se serum concentration in a population of 78 sucking 2-month-old calves, in order to corroborate a clinical diagnosis of severe deficiency status. The samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) at the ITAL STRUCTURES Research Laboratory. The results obtained from the serum samples presented Se concentrations varying from 10 to 66 ng/ml. The comparison between the obtained values and the expected serum selenium values (60-80 ng/ml), confirmed a mild to severe deficiency status in the investigated population.

  1. The soul-sucking wasp by popular acclaim--museum visitor participation in biodiversity discovery and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Michael; Lohrmann, Volker; Breitkreuz, Laura; Kirschey, Lukas; Krause, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy, the science of describing and naming of the living world, is recognized as an important and relevant field in modern biological science. While there is wide agreement on the importance of a complete inventory of all organisms on Earth, the public is partly unaware of the amount of known and unknown biodiversity. Out of the enormous number of undescribed (but already recognized) species in natural history museum collections, we selected an attractive example of a wasp, which was presented to museum visitors at a special museum event. We asked 300 visitors to vote on a name for the new species and out of four preselected options, Ampulex dementor Ohl n. sp. was selected. The name, derived from the 'soul sucking' dementors from the popular Harry Potter books is an allusion to the wasps' behavior to selectively paralyze its cockroach prey. In this example, public voting on a scientific name has been shown to be an appropriate way to link museum visitors emotionally to biodiversity and its discovery.

  2. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  3. Exertional dyspnea as a symptom of infrarenal aortic occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Schott, Stacey L; Carreiro, Fernanda Porto; Harkness, James R; Malas, Mahmoud B; Sozio, Stephen M; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-06-01

    Advanced atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause severe ischemia in the kidneys, refractory hypertension, and claudication. However, no previous reports have clearly associated infrarenal aortic stenosis with shortness of breath. A 77-year-old woman with hypertension and hyperlipidemia presented with exertional dyspnea. Despite extensive testing and observation, no apparent cause for this patient's dyspnea was found. Images revealed severe infrarenal aortic stenosis. After the patient underwent stenting of the aortic occlusion, she had immediate symptomatic improvement and complete resolution of her dyspnea within one month. Twelve months after vascular intervention, the patient remained asymptomatic. In view of the distinct and lasting elimination of dyspnea after angioplasty and stenting of a nearly occluded infrarenal aortic lesion, we hypothesize that infrarenal aortic stenosis might be a treatable cause of exertional dyspnea. Clinicians should consider infrarenal aortic stenosis as a possible cause of dyspnea. Treatment of the stenosis might relieve symptoms.

  4. Wall pressure exerted by hydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Yon E.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Zimmerman, Mark D.

    2009-06-01

    Wall pressure exerted by the bulk expansion of a sodium aluminum hydride bed was measured as a function of hydrogen content. A custom apparatus was designed and loaded with sodium alanates at densities of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.16 g/cc. Four complete cycles were performed to identify variations in measured pressure. Results indicated poor correlation between exerted pressure and hydrogen capacity of the sodium alanate beds. Mechanical pressure due to the hydrogenation of sodium alanates does not influence full-scale system designs as it falls within common design factors of safety. Gas pressure gradients within the porous solid were identified and may limit reaction rates, especially for high aspect ratio beds.

  5. A Virtual Rat for Simulating Environmental and Exertional Heat Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    A virtual rat for simulating environmental and exertional heat stress Vineet Rakesh,1 X Jonathan D. Stallings,2 and Jaques Reifman1 1Department of...Health Research, Fort Detrick, Maryland Submitted 8 July 2014; accepted in final form 18 September 2014 Rakesh V, Stallings JD, Reifman J. A virtual rat ...different heat-stress conditions. To this end, we used our previously published virtual rat , which is capable of computing the spatiotemporal

  6. Failing phrenics: an obscure cause of exertional dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Arsalan; Ijaz, Mohsin; Tariq, Hassan; Vakde, Trupti; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Idiopathic phrenic nerve palsy is a rare cause of exertional dyspnea. We present a case of a patient presenting with worsening dyspnea of an unknown etiology found to be related to bilateral phrenic nerve palsy. Discussion: Forty-two-year-old man presented to our emergency department with exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, and a left lower lobe consolidation treated initially as bronchitis by his primary physician as an outpatient, then subsequently as pneumonia at another institution, with no improvement in symptomatology. After admission to our hospital, CT chest demonstrated only supradiaphragmatic atelectatic changes. Echocardiography was normal. Bronchoscopy was contemplated however the patient could not lie flat. A fluoroscopic sniff test demonstrated diaphragmatic dysfunction and pulmonary function tests revealed restrictive pulmonary disease with evidence of neuromuscular etiology. Nerve conduction studies confirmed bilateral phrenic neuropathy. He was referred to a specialized neuromuscular disease center where subsequent workup did not demonstrate any specific etiology. A sleep study confirmed sleep disordered breathing suggestive of diaphragmatic paralysis and he was discharged on bi-level positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion: This is a unique case of exertional dyspnea and orthopnea from diaphragmatic paresis caused by bilateral phrenic nerve palsy where the initial workup for pulmonary and cardiovascular etiologies was essentially unremarkable. Shortness of breath and orthopnea caused by phrenic neuropathy is a rare condition, yet has a variety of etiologies. Our case suggests a template to the diagnostic approach, management, and follow up of bilateral phrenic nerve palsy. PMID:27442657

  7. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  8. Partially strong WW scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Chiang Chengwei; Yuan Tzuchiang

    2008-09-01

    What if only a light Higgs boson is discovered at the CERN LHC? Conventional wisdom tells us that the scattering of longitudinal weak gauge bosons would not grow strong at high energies. However, this is generally not true. In some composite models or general two-Higgs-doublet models, the presence of a light Higgs boson does not guarantee complete unitarization of the WW scattering. After partial unitarization by the light Higgs boson, the WW scattering becomes strongly interacting until it hits one or more heavier Higgs bosons or other strong dynamics. We analyze how LHC experiments can reveal this interesting possibility of partially strong WW scattering.

  9. Strong Navajo Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

  10. A virtual rat for simulating environmental and exertional heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Vineet; Stallings, Jonathan D; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-12-01

    Severe cases of environmental or exertional heat stress can lead to varying degrees of organ dysfunction. To understand heat-injury progression and develop efficient management and mitigation strategies, it is critical to determine the thermal response in susceptible organs under different heat-stress conditions. To this end, we used our previously published virtual rat, which is capable of computing the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in the animal, and extended it to simulate various heat-stress scenarios, including 1) different environmental conditions, 2) exertional heat stress, 3) circadian rhythm effect on the thermal response, and 4) whole body cooling. Our predictions were consistent with published in vivo temperature measurements for all cases, validating our simulations. We observed a differential thermal response in the organs, with the liver experiencing the highest temperatures for all environmental and exertional heat-stress cases. For every 3°C rise in the external temperature from 40 to 46°C, core and organ temperatures increased by ∼0.8°C. Core temperatures increased by 2.6 and 4.1°C for increases in exercise intensity from rest to 75 and 100% of maximal O2 consumption, respectively. We also found differences as large as 0.8°C in organ temperatures for the same heat stress induced at different times during the day. Even after whole body cooling at a relatively low external temperature (1°C for 20 min), average organ temperatures were still elevated by 2.3 to 2.5°C compared with normothermia. These results can be used to optimize experimental protocol designs, reduce the amount of animal experimentation, and design and test improved heat-stress prevention and management strategies.

  11. Pressure garment design tool to monitor exerted pressures.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Lisa; Ferguson, Rhona

    2013-09-01

    Pressure garments are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scarring following serious burns. The use of pressure garments is believed to hasten the maturation process, reduce pruritus associated with immature hypertrophic scars and prevent the formation of contractures over flexor joints. Pressure garments are normally made to measure for individual patients from elastic fabrics and are worn continuously for up to 2 years or until scar maturation. There are 2 methods of constructing pressure garments. The most common method, called the Reduction Factor method, involves reducing the patient's circumferential measurements by a certain percentage. The second method uses the Laplace Law to calculate the dimensions of pressure garments based on the circumferential measurements of the patient and the tension profile of the fabric. The Laplace Law method is complicated to utilise manually and no design tool is currently available to aid this process. This paper presents the development and suggested use of 2 new pressure garment design tools that will aid pressure garment design using the Reduction Factor and Laplace Law methods. Both tools calculate the pressure garment dimensions and the mean pressure that will be exerted around the body at each measurement point. Monitoring the pressures exerted by pressure garments and noting the clinical outcome would enable clinicians to build an understanding of the implications of particular pressures on scar outcome, maturation times and patient compliance rates. Once the optimum pressure for particular treatments is known, the Laplace Law method described in this paper can be used to deliver those average pressures to all patients. This paper also presents the results of a small scale audit of measurements taken for the fabrication of pressure garments in two UK hospitals. This audit highlights the wide range of pressures that are exerted using the Reduction Factor method and that manual pattern 'smoothing' can dramatically

  12. Total salivary gland proteins of female Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) and their fractionation during adult development and after blood sucking.

    PubMed

    Soliman, M A; Abdel-Hamid, M E; Mansour, M M; Seif, A I; Kamel, K I; el Hamshary, E M

    1999-08-01

    Salivary glands of Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius were analyzed to determine total protein content and its fractionation during adult female development and after blood sucking. In both species, the molecular weight of proteins ranged between 26.000 and 84.000 Daltons. These proteins were not identical in the two species. In Cx. pipiens, the total protein level increased during the first 3 days of adult development from 4.94 +/- 0.84 to 6.6 +/- 0.37 micrograms/gland. During this period, the salivary gland proteins were separated into 35, 34 and 37 fractions respectively. Cx. pipiens released in the human host 64% of the total proteins while taking a blood meal compared to unfed females. This decrease in protein level was proportional to protein fractions. Over the next 6 days, the protein level increased again to attain values comparable to those obtained prior to blood sucking. In Ae. caspius, the total protein level of the salivary glands did not change during the first 4 days of adult development (range between 3.13 +/- 0.27 and 3.91 +/- 0.36 micrograms gland), but on the fifth day, 2-fold increase was observed. The total salivary gland protein increased during the next 3 days after blood sucking to reach 15.5 +/- 0.98 micrograms/gland. During this period, a tremendous change in protein patterns was observed. After oviposition, on the fourth day, a significant reduction in the total protein level was observed (4.13 +/- 0.56 micrograms/gland), but over the next 3 days the level increased again (range between 4.13 +/- 0.66 and 7.13 +/- 0.66 micrograms/gland).

  13. [Exertion syncope disclosing supravalvular mitral stenosis in an infant].

    PubMed

    Buyse, G; Kuchler, H; Crittin, J; Sekarski, N; Hurni, M; Cotting, J; Payot, M

    1993-05-01

    An infant with frequent upper airways infections presented syncopes during meals and weeping since the age of eleven months. Cardiac examination was always normal. At 14 months of age, an echocardiogram with colour Doppler demonstrated a severely stenotic isolated supramitral membrane with severe pulmonary hypertension. The membrane was immediately excised curing the malformation and suppressing definitively the syncopes, probably due to decreased cerebral blood flow during exertion. An echocardiogram should always be performed when syncopes remain unexplained in small children. It allows early diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects which do not have auscultatory findings especially those resulting in severe pulmonary venous obstruction.

  14. [The systemic effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on Xenopsylla cheopis fleas (Siphonaptera) and blood-sucking Ornithonyssus bacoti gamasid mites (Gamasina: Macronyssidae)].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    The systemic effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on Xenopsylla cheopis fleas and blood-sucking Ornithonyssus bacoti gamasid mites were studied under laboratory conditions. Albino rats were forcibly administered insectoacaricides per os in doses of 1, 10, 30 mg/kg or fed with dietary bait (the doses of fipronil and imidacloprid were 10-33 and 18-70 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 3 or more days. Fipronil had a pronounced systemic effect on both X. cheopis and O. baconi. Imidacloprid was markedly active against the fleas and, on the contrary, inactive against the mites.

  15. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  16. The Strong Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-05-24

    Scientists are aware of four fundamental forces- gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Most people have at least some familiarity with gravity and electromagnetism, but not the other two. How is it that scientists are so certain that two additional forces exist? In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why scientists are so certain that the strong force exists.

  17. The Strong Nuclear Force

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Scientists are aware of four fundamental forces- gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Most people have at least some familiarity with gravity and electromagnetism, but not the other two. How is it that scientists are so certain that two additional forces exist? In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why scientists are so certain that the strong force exists.

  18. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  19. Caffeine ingestion, affect and perceived exertion during prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Susan H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Bishop, Nicolette C; Williams, Clyde

    2011-08-01

    Caffeine's metabolic and performance effects have been widely reported. However, caffeine's effects on affective states during prolonged exercise are unknown. Therefore, this was examined in the present study. Following an overnight fast and in a randomised, double-blind, counterbalanced design, twelve endurance trained male cyclists performed 90 min of exercise at 70% VO(₂ max) 1h after ingesting 6 mg kg⁻¹ BM of caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Dimensions of affect and perceived exertion were assessed at regular intervals. During exercise, pleasure ratings were better maintained (F(₃,₃₈)=4.99, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial with significantly higher ratings at 15, 30 and 75 min (all P < 0.05). Perceived exertion increased (F(₃,₃₈) = 19.86, P < 0.01) throughout exercise and values, overall, were significantly lower (F(₁,₁₁) = 9.26, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial. Perceived arousal was elevated during exercise but did not differ between trials. Overall, the results suggest that a moderate dose of CAF ingested 1h prior to exercise maintains a more positive subjective experience during prolonged cycling. This observation may partially explain caffeine's ergogenic effects.

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  1. Designing pressure garments capable of exerting specific pressures on limbs.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Pressure garments have been used prophylactically and to treat hypertrophic scars, resulting from serious burns, since the early 1970s. They are custom-made from elastic fabrics by commercial producers and hospital staff. However, no clear scientifically established method has ever been published for their design and manufacture. Previous work [2] identified the most commonly used fabrics and construction methods for the production of pressure garments by hospital staff in UK burn units. These methods were evaluated by measuring pressures delivered to both cylinder models and to human limbs using I-scan pressure sensors. A new calibration method was developed for the I-scan system to enable measurement of low interface pressures to an accuracy of +/-2.5 mmHg. The effects of cylinder/limb circumference and pressure garment design on the pressures exerted were established. These measurements confirm the limitations of current pressure garment construction methods used in UK hospitals. A new method for designing pressure garments that will exert specific known pressures is proposed and evaluated for human thighs. Evaluation of the proposed design method is ongoing for other body parts.

  2. Effects of combined oral sucrose and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) on procedural pain of NICU newborns, 2001 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Xinchun; Luo, Biru; Peng, Wentao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Both oral sucrose (OS) and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) are effective nonpharmacological methods to alleviate procedures pain in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) newborns when they were used alone, but the combined effect of OS+NNS remains controversial. So, we conducted this study to evaluate the efficiency of NNS combined with oral sucrose on pain relief in NICU newborns undergoing painful procedures. Methods: We searched PubMed, Ovid (Medline), Embase (Medline), Cochrane Central Library, and other resources such as Google Scholar, bibliographies of included literatures for all available articles. Two reviewers screened literatures and extracted data independently. The fixed effects model was used to pool the results using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3. As each study included in our meta-analysis had been approved by Ethics Committee or institutional review board, thus our study did not need ethical approval. Results: Seven randomized controlled trials, including 599 participants, were contained in our meta-analysis. The combination of oral sucrose and NNS is associated with reduced pain scores (mean difference [MD], −0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.68 to −0.36); shortened crying time (MD,−0.92; 95% CI, −1.39 to −0.44); but the 2 groups did not differ significantly in reducing bradycardia (MD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.32–1.68), tachycardia (MD, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.38–1.10), or desaturations (MD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.32–1.68). Conclusion: The pooled evidence indicates that the combination measures may serve as an evidence-based guideline for pain relief among patients having minor pain. Besides, it also indicates that OS combined with NNS can be an alternative for better prevention and management of procedure pain in NICU newborns. Nevertheless, the results may be limited due to incomplete data, and thus, more randomized controlled trials or well-designed studies are required to determine the effects of OS+NNS in the future. PMID

  3. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    VALBERG, S. J.; McKENZIE, E. C.; EYRICH, L. V.; SHIVERS, J.; BARNES, N. E.; FINNO, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. Objectives To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Study design Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Methods Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann–Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Results Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (P<0.05) pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (21/25) horses than controls (4/14). Degenerating myofibres were not evident in any biopsies. Retro-ER horses had amylase-resistant polysaccharide (6/25, P<0.05) and higher scores for cytoplasmic glycogen, rimmed vacuoles and rod-like bodies. A few control horses (3/14) and significantly (P<0.05) more pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (18/25) horses had disrupted myofibrillar alignment and large desmin and αβ-crystallin positive cytoplasmic aggregates. Prominent Z-disc degeneration and focal myofibrillar disruption with regional accumulation of β-glycogen particles were identified on electron microscopy of the 2 pro-ER samples. Conclusions In a subset of Arabian horses with intermittent episodes of exertional

  4. On Strong Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”. PMID:20191086

  5. Yugoslav strong motion network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailov, Vladimir

    1985-04-01

    Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response data used by the structural engineering community in developing earthquake resistant design. Instruments, accelerographs SMA-1 and seismoscopes WM-1, were installed in free-field stations and on structures (high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, etc.). A total number of 176 accelerographs and 137 seismoscopes have been installed and are operating in Yugoslavia. The strong-motion programme in Yugoslavia consists of five subactivities: network design, network operation, data processing, network management and research as well as application. All these activities are under the responsibility of IZIIS in cooperation with the Yugoslav Association of Seismology. By 1975 in the realisation of this project participated the CALTECH as cooperative institution in the joint American-Yugoslav cooperative project. The results obtained which are presented in this paper, and their application in the aseismic design justify the necessity for the existence of such a network in Yugoslavia.

  6. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  7. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Methods Using Williams and Folland’s model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1) vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1). Results At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01) and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01) than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02). Conclusion Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise. PMID:28257486

  8. Suck It up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansik, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarks for cleanliness can be subjective. Now that LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards are gaining a foothold among facilities management and building professionals, there is a benchmark to strive for and a high-quality vacuum is a key part of the equation. LEED is a nationally accepted benchmark and blueprint for…

  9. Strongly correlated Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2016-10-01

    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  10. Analysis of ectoparasites (chigger mites, gamasid mites, fleas and sucking lice) of the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) sampled throughout its range in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, P-Y; Guo, X-G; Song, W-Y; Hou, P; Zou, Y-J; Fan, R; He, X-S

    2015-12-01

    The Yunnan red-backed vole Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an endemic rodent species and reservoir host of zoonoses in southwest China. Based on a large host sample (2463 voles collected from 39 localities between 2001 and 2013), a general analysis of four categories of ectoparasite (fleas, sucking lice, chigger mites and gamasid mites) on E. miletus across its entire range of distribution was made. This analysis identified a total of 71 895 ectoparasites belonging to 320 species (30 species of flea, 9 of sucking louse, 106 of gamasid mite and 175 of chigger mite) with a high prevalence (87%), mean abundance (29.19) and mean intensity (33.69). Of the 18 vector species of zoonoses found on E. miletus, the flea Ctenophthalmus quadratus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and chigger mite Leptotrombidium scutellare (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) were the dominant species; these are the main vectors of zoonoses in China. All of the dominant parasite species showed an aggregated distribution pattern. Male voles harboured more species of parasite than females. Chigger mites represented the most abundant species group on voles and their prevalence was positively correlated with mean abundance (r = 0.73; P < 0.05). As a single rodent species, E. miletus has a high potential to harbour abundant ectoparasites with high species diversity and high rates of infestation. The sex of the vole affects ectoparasite infestation.

  11. Neurohormones implicated in the control of Malpighian tubule secretion in plant sucking heteropterans: The stink bugs Acrosternum hilare and Nezara viridula.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M; TeBrugge, Victoria A; Nachman, Ronald J; Lopez, Juan; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Lange, Angela; Orchard, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Plant sucking heteropteran bugs feed regularly on small amounts of K(+)-rich plant material, in contrast to their hematophagous relatives which imbibe large volumes of Na(+)-rich blood. It was anticipated that this would be reflected in the endocrine control of Malpighian tubule (MT) secretion. To explore this, neuroendocrine factors known to influence MT secretion were tested on MT of the pentatomid plant sucking stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare and Nezara viridula, and the results compared with previously published data from Rhodnius prolixus. Serotonin had no effect on N. viridula MT, although it stimulates secretion by R. prolixus MT >1000-fold, and initiates a rapid diuresis to remove excess salt and water from the blood meal. Kinins had no effect on stink bug MT, but secretion was increased by Zoone-DH, a CRF-like peptide, although the response was a modest 2-3-fold acceleration compared with 1000-fold in R. prolixus. Native CAPA peptides, which have diuretic activity in dipteran flies, had antidiuretic activity in MT of the stink bug (Acrhi/Nezvi-CAPA-1 and -2), as previously shown with Rhopr-CAPA-2 in R. prolixus. The antidiuretic activity of Rhopr-CAPA-2 has been linked with terminating the rapid diuresis, but results with stink bugs suggest it is a general feature of heteropteran MT.

  12. Exertional rhabdomyolysis and heat stroke: Beware of volatile anesthetic sedation

    PubMed Central

    Heytens, Karel; De Bleecker, Jan; Verbrugghe, Walter; Baets, Jonathan; Heytens, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In view of the enormous popularity of mass sporting events such as half-marathons, the number of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis or exercise-induced heat stroke admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) has increased over the last decade. Because these patients have been reported to be at risk for malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia, the intensive care community should bear in mind that the same risk of life-threatening rhabdomyolysis is present when these patients are admitted to an ICU, and volatile anesthetic sedation is chosen as the sedative technique. As illustrated by the three case studies we elaborate upon, a thorough diagnostic work-up is needed to clarify the subsequent risk of strenuous exercise, and the anesthetic exposure to volatile agents in these patients and their families. Other contraindications for the use of volatile intensive care sedation consist of known malignant hyperthermia susceptibility, congenital myopathies, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and intracranial hypertension. PMID:28224104

  13. Reflections on the Institute of Medicine's systemic exertion intolerance disease.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Furst, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States has recently proposed that the term systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) replace chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, the IOM proposed a new case definition for SEID, which includes substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre‑illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, postexertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Unfortunately, these recommendations for a name change were not vetted with patient and professional audiences, and the new criteria were not evaluated with data sets of patients and controls. A recent poll suggests that the majority of patients reject this new name. In addition, studies have found that prevalence rates will dramatically increase with the new criteria, particularly due to the ambiguity revolving around exclusionary illnesses. Findings suggest that the new criteria select more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than several other criteria. The implications of these findings are discussed in the current review.

  14. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered.

  15. The use of subjective rating of exertion in Ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, P

    2002-01-01

    In Ergonomics, the use of psychophysical methods for subjectively evaluating work tasks and determining acceptable loads has become more common. Daily activities at the work site are studied not only with physiological methods but also with perceptual estimation and production methods. The psychophysical methods are of special interest in field studies of short-term work tasks for which valid physiological measurements are difficult to obtain. The perceived exertion, difficulty and fatigue that a person experiences in a certain work situation is an important sign of a real or objective load. Measurement of the physical load with physiological parameters is not sufficient since it does not take into consideration the particular difficulty of the performance or the capacity of the individual. It is often difficult from technical and biomechanical analyses to understand the seriousness of a difficulty that a person experiences. Physiological determinations give important information, but they may be insufficient due to the technical problems in obtaining relevant but simple measurements for short-term activities or activities involving special movement patterns. Perceptual estimations using Borg's scales give important information because the severity of a task's difficulty depends on the individual doing the work. Observation is the most simple and used means to assess job demands. Other evaluations integrating observation are the followings: indirect estimation of energy expenditure based on prediction equations or direct measurement of oxygen consumption; measurements of forces, angles and biomechanical parameters; measurements of physiological and neurophysiological parameters during tasks. It is recommended that determinations of performances of occupational activities assess rating of perceived exertion and integrate these measurements of intensity levels with those of activity's type, duration and frequency. A better estimate of the degree of physical activity

  16. Partners: Forging Strong Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Ellen, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This newsletter issue asserts that sound, effective relationships in which diverse groups of people and organizations work together toward a common goal are the basis of the collaborative efforts in education that can accomplish change. The first article, "Partners: Forging Strong Relationships" (Sarah E. Torian), briefly describes the…

  17. Strong Little Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  18. Simultaneous Multiple Control Force Exertion Capabilities of Males and Females versus Helicopter Control Force Design Limits,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    percent) than for collective inputs ( typically 20-35 percent). Substantial proportions of the subjects (approximately 50 percent of the males and more ...nearly 86 percent of the females performed one or more exertions below the design limit. The exertions of 28.6 percent of the females were below the pedal...design limit for more than one-half of the 16 exertions they performed; 75 percent of the exertions by 6 of the 63 females were below design-limit

  19. Strongly Regular Graphs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    The theory of strongly regular graphs was introduced by Bose r7 1 in 1963, in connection with partial geometries and 2 class association schemes. One...non adjacent vertices is constant and equal to ~. We shall denote by ~(p) (reap.r(p)) the set of vertices adjacent (resp.non adjacent) to a vertex p...is the complement of .2’ if the set of vertices of ~ is the set of vertices of .2’ and if two vertices in .2’ are adjacent if and only if they were

  20. Electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, A.; Jenet, F. A.; Robinson, P. A.

    2007-02-15

    The first large-scale simulations of continuously driven, two-dimensional electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are performed, for electron thermal speeds 0.01c{<=}v{<=}0.57c, by integrating the Zakharov equations for coupled Langmuir and transverse (T) waves near the plasma frequency. Turbulence scalings and wave number spectra are calculated, a transition is found from a mix of trapped and free T eigenstates for v{>=}0.1c to just free eigenstates for v{<=}0.1c, and wave energy densities are observed to undergo slow quasiperiodic oscillations.

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:12937591

  2. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX. PMID:26184238

  3. Respiratory and leg muscles perceived exertion during exercise at altitude.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G

    2011-07-31

    We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.

  4. Resveratrol exerts pharmacological preconditioning by activating PGC-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2008-11-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol phytoalexin abundantly found in grape skins and in wines, is currently the focus of intense research as a pharmacological preconditioning agent in kidney, heart, and brain from ischemic injury. However, the exact molecular mechanism of RSV preconditioning remains obscure. The data from current studies indicate that pharmacological preconditioning with RSV were attributed to its role as intracellular antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent, its ability to induce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, its ability to induce angiogenesis, and its ability to increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that owns mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidation, growth factor signaling regulation, and angiogenesis activities. And, almost all the signaling pathways activated by RVS involve in PGC-1alpha activity. Moreover, it has been proofed that RVS could mediate an increase PGC-1alpha activity. These significant conditions support the hypothesis that RSV exerts pharmacological preconditioning by activating PGC-1alpha. Attempts to confirm this hypothesis will provide new directions in the study of pharmaceutical preconditioning and the development of new treatment approaches for reducing the extent of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  5. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Attila; Tóth, Balázs I.; Borbíró, István; Sugawara, Koji; Szöllõsi, Attila G.; Czifra, Gabriella; Pál, Balázs; Ambrus, Lídia; Kloepper, Jennifer; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Picardo, Mauro; Voets, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Paus, Ralf; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels. Activation of TRPV4 interfered with the prolipogenic ERK1/2 MAPK pathway and resulted in the downregulation of nuclear receptor interacting protein-1 (NRIP1), which influences glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby inhibiting sebocyte lipogenesis. CBD also exerted complex antiinflammatory actions that were coupled to A2a adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) and inhibition of the NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25061872

  6. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Attila; Tóth, Balázs I; Borbíró, István; Sugawara, Koji; Szöllõsi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Pál, Balázs; Ambrus, Lídia; Kloepper, Jennifer; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Picardo, Mauro; Voets, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C; Paus, Ralf; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels. Activation of TRPV4 interfered with the prolipogenic ERK1/2 MAPK pathway and resulted in the downregulation of nuclear receptor interacting protein-1 (NRIP1), which influences glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby inhibiting sebocyte lipogenesis. CBD also exerted complex antiinflammatory actions that were coupled to A2a adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) and inhibition of the NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward; Geraghty, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9’s role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR. PMID:26284919

  8. Strongly correlated materials.

    PubMed

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

    2012-09-18

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO₂ and Fe₃O₄, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials.

  9. Environmental Conditions and the Occurrence of Exertional Heat Illnesses and Exertional Heat Stroke at the Falmouth Road Race

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Julie K.; Casa, Douglas J.; Belval, Luke N.; Crago, Arthur; Davis, Rob J.; Jardine, John J.; Stearns, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Falmouth Road Race is unique because of the environmental conditions and relatively short distance, which allow runners to maintain a high intensity for the duration of the event. Therefore, the occurrence of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs), especially exertional heat stroke (EHS), is 10 times higher than in other races. Objective: To summarize the occurrence and relationship of EHI and environmental conditions at the Falmouth Road Race. Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Setting: An 11.3-km (7-mile) road race in Falmouth, Massachusetts. Patients or Other Participants: Runners who sustained an EHI while participating in the Falmouth Road Race. Main Outcome Measure(s): We obtained 18 years of medical records and environmental conditions from the Falmouth Road Race and documented the incidence of EHI, specifically EHS, as related to ambient temperature (Tamb), relative humidity, and heat index (HI). Results: Average Tamb, relative humidity, and HI were 23.3 ± 2.5°C, 70 ± 16%, and 24 ± 3.5°C, respectively. Of the 393 total EHI cases observed, EHS accounted for 274 (70%). An average of 15.2 ± 13.0 EHS cases occurred each year; the incidence was 2.13 ± 1.62 cases per 1000 runners. Regression analysis revealed a relationship between the occurrence of both EHI and EHS and Tamb (R2 = 0.71, P = .001, and R2 = 0.65, P = .001, respectively) and HI (R2 = 0.76, P < .001, and R2 = 0.74, P < .001, respectively). Occurrences of EHS (24.2 ± 15.5 cases versus 9.3 ± 4.3 cases) and EHI (32.3 ± 16.3 versus 13.0 ± 4.9 cases) were higher when Tamb and HI were high compared with when Tamb and HI were low. Conclusions: Because of the environmental conditions and race duration, the Falmouth Road Race provides a unique setting for a high incidence of EHS. A clear relationship exists between environmental stress, especially as measured by Tamb and HI, and the occurrence of EHS or other EHI. Proper prevention and treatment strategies should be used during periods

  10. Auxin and physical constraint exerted by the perianth promote androgynophore bending in Passiflora mucronata L. (Passifloraceae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, D I; Monte Bello, C C; Sobol, S; Samach, A; Dornelas, M C

    2015-05-01

    The androgynophore column, a distinctive floral feature in passion flowers, is strongly crooked or bent in many Passiflora species pollinated by bats. This is a floral feature that facilitates the adaptation to bat pollination. Crooking or bending of plant organs are generally caused by environmental stimulus (e.g. mechanical barriers) and might involve the differential distribution of auxin. Our aim was to study the role of the perianth organs and the effect of auxin in bending of the androgynophore of the bat-pollinated species Passiflora mucronata. Morpho-anatomical characterisation of the androgynophore, including measurements of curvature angles and cell sizes both at the dorsal (convex) and ventral (concave) sides of the androgynophore, was performed on control flowers, flowers from which perianth organs were partially removed and flowers treated either with auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D) or with an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (naphthylphthalamic acid; NPA). Asymmetric growth of the androgynophore column, leading to bending, occurs at a late stage of flower development. Removing the physical constraint exerted by perianth organs or treatment with NPA significantly reduced androgynophore bending. Additionally, the androgynophores of plants treated with 2,4-D were more curved when compared to controls. There was a larger cellular expansion at the dorsal side of the androgynophores of plants treated with 2,4-D and in both sides of the androgynophores of plants treated with NPA. This study suggests that the physical constraint exerted by perianth and auxin redistribution promotes androgynophore bending in P. mucronata and might be related to the evolution of chiropterophily in the genus Passiflora.

  11. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect "fades out" the levamisole/aminorex effect "kicks in".

  12. Different Selective Effects on Rhizosphere Bacteria Exerted by Genetically Modified versus Conventional Potato Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Silja Emilia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cássia; Salles, Joana Falcão; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study, we assessed the actively metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of potato using two potato cultivars, i.e. the genetically-modified (GM) cultivar Modena (having tubers with altered starch content) and the near-isogenic non-GM cultivar Karnico. To achieve our aims, we pulse-labelled plants at EC90 stage with 13C-CO2 and analysed their rhizosphere microbial communities 24 h, 5 and 12 days following the pulse. In the analyses, phospholipid fatty acid/stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) as well as RNA-SIP followed by reverse transcription and PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis, were used to determine the bacterial groups that actively respond to the root-released 13C labelled carbonaceous compounds. Methodology/Principal findings The PLFA-SIP data revealed major roles of bacteria in the uptake of root-released 13C carbon, which grossly increased with time. Gram-negative bacteria, including members of the genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, were strong accumulators of the 13C-labeled compounds at the two cultivars, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were lesser responders. PCR-DGGE analysis of cDNA produced from the two cultivar types showed that these had selected different bacterial, alpha- and betaproteobacterial communities at all time points. Moreover, an effect of time was observed, indicating dynamism in the structure of the active bacterial communities. PCR-DGGE as well as clone library analyses revealed that the main bacterial responders at cultivar Karnico were taxonomically affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, next to Gluconacetobacter and Paracoccus. Cultivar Modena mainly attracted Burkholderia, next to Moraxella-like (Moraxellaceae family) and Sphingomonas types. Conclusions/Significance Based on the use of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia as proxies for differentially-selected bacterial genera, we conclude that the selective forces exerted by potato cultivar Modena on the active bacterial populations differed from those exerted by

  13. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    el-Mofty, M.M.; Sakr, S.A.; Younis, M.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin.

  14. Sex differences in piercing-sucking sites on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) infested by the Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela (Chavannes) (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, J J; Wang, Z L; Chen, X M; Chen, Y

    2013-04-01

    The type of host tissues and cells ingested by piercing and sucking insects greatly affects their nutrient intake, which may subsequently affect insect fitness. This study describes the sex differences in feeding site selection between male and female nymphs of the Chinese white wax scale insect (CWWS), Ericerus pela (Chavannes), feeding on leaves of the Chinese privet, Ligustrum lucidum. Our data showed that the stylet tips of female nymphs terminated in the phloem sieve elements of main or lateral veins, while those of male nymphs terminated in the palisade parenchyma. We concluded that female nymphs fed from sieve elements and males fed from parenchyma cells. The potential impact of these feeding patterns was discussed in relation to the selection of a site for attachment, nutrient acquisition, and mouthpart stretching mechanism. Among these factors, selection of a site for attachment and mouthpart stretching mechanism may be the main cause of sex differences in feeding sites between female and male nymphs of CWWS.

  15. The combined use of sucrose and nonnutritive sucking for procedural pain in both term and preterm neonates: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Kelli Ann

    2013-02-01

    Many agents, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, have been studied to alleviate neonatal pain, and the research is extensive. The 2 most commonly studied nonpharmacologic agents studied have been sucrose and nonnutritive sucking (NNS). There is increasing evidence that the synergistic effect of sucrose and NNS is more effective than the effect of sucrose or NNS alone. The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to determine whether there is a relationship between the synergistic effect of combining sucrose and NNS administered before and during painful procedures, and reducing procedural pain in both preterm and term neonates. This integrative review indicates that the combination of sucrose and NNS is a safe, effective, and clinically significant means of providing procedural pain relief in neonates, both term and preterm.

  16. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible.

  17. Honeydew analysis for detecting phloem transport of plant natural products : Implications for host-plant resistance to sap-sucking insects.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, R J; Campbell, B C; Dreyer, D L

    1990-06-01

    Analysis of honeydew excreted by various sap-sucking insects indicated the presence of certain plant secondary constituents in the phloem of their host plants. Honeydew excreted by mealybugs (Pseudococcus longispinus), living onCastanospermum australe, contained the indolizidine alkaloid castanospermine, a potent β-glucosidase inhibitor. Similarly, honeydew from green peach aphids (Myzus persicae), feeding onSenecio vulgaris flower buds, contained the pyrrolizidine alkaloid senecionine, itsN-oxide, and hydrolytic products including retronecine. Cardenolides were detected in the honeydew of oleander aphids (Aphis nerii) feeding on oleander (Nerium oleander), indicating that these compounds are translocated in the phloem. On the other hand, honeydew from greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum), feeding on barley, lacked gramine or related indole metabolites. Similarly MBOA, the breakdown product of DIMBOA, was not detected in the honeydew of greenbugs living on DIMBOA-containing wheat.

  18. Quine's 'needlessly strong' holism.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, Sander

    2017-02-01

    Quine is routinely perceived as having changed his mind about the scope of the Duhem-Quine thesis, shifting from what has been called an 'extreme holism' to a more moderate view. Where the Quine of 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism' argues that "the unit of empirical significance is the whole of science" (1951, 42), the later Quine seems to back away from this "needlessly strong statement of holism" (1991, 393). In this paper, I show that the received view is incorrect. I distinguish three ways in which Quine's early holism can be said to be wide-scoped and show that he has never changed his mind about any one of these aspects of his early view. Instead, I argue that Quine's apparent change of mind can be explained away as a mere shift of emphasis.

  19. Strong, Lightweight, Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, James C.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Ilhan, Ulvi

    2007-01-01

    A new class of strong, lightweight, porous materials has been invented as an outgrowth of an effort to develop reinforced silica aerogels. The new material, called X-Aerogel is less hygroscopic, but no less porous and of similar density to the corresponding unmodified aerogels. However, the property that sets X-Aerogels apart is their mechanical strength, which can be as much as two and a half orders of magnitude stronger that the unmodified aerogels. X-Aerogels are envisioned to be useful for making extremely lightweight, thermally insulating, structural components, but they may also have applications as electrical insulators, components of laminates, catalyst supports, templates for electrode materials, fuel-cell components, and filter membranes.

  20. The genetic properties of the primary endosymbionts of mealybugs differ from those of other endosymbionts of plant sap-sucking insects.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Linda; Thao, MyLo Ly; Hess, Justin M; Johnson, Marshall W; Baumann, Paul

    2002-07-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae), like aphids and psyllids, are plant sap-sucking insects that have an obligate association with prokaryotic endosymbionts that are acquired through vertical, maternal transmission. We sequenced two fragments of the genome of Tremblaya princeps, the endosymbiont of mealybugs, which is a member of the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Each of the fragments (35 and 30 kb) contains a copy of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes. A total of 37 open reading frames were detected, which corresponded to putative rRNA proteins, chaperones, and enzymes of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA replication, protein translation, and RNA synthesis. The genome of T. princeps has a number of properties that distinguish it from the genomes of Buchnera aphidicola and Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbionts of aphids and psyllids, respectively. Among these properties are a high G+C content (57.1 mol%), the same G+C content in intergenic spaces and structural genes, and similar G+C contents of the genes encoding highly and poorly conserved proteins. The high G+C content has a substantial effect on protein composition; about one-third of the residues consist of four amino acids with high-G+C-content codons. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments containing the rRNA operon and adjacent regions from endosymbionts of several mealybug species suggested that there was a single duplication of the rRNA operon and the adjacent genes in an ancestor of the present T. princeps. Subsequently, in one mealybug lineage rpS15, one of the duplicated genes, was retained, while in another lineage it decayed. These results extend the diversity of the types of endosymbiotic associations found in plant sap-sucking insects.

  1. Interacting effects of aromatic plants and female age on nest-dwelling ectoparasites and blood-sucking flies in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Tomás, G; Merino, S; Martínez-de la Puente, J; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Rivero-de Aguilar, J; Del Cerro, S

    2012-06-01

    Some avian species incorporate aromatic plants to their nests. The "nest protection hypothesis", which posits that volatile secondary compounds contained in these plants may have antiparasite properties, has not received full support. All previous tests of this hypothesis have only considered effects on nest-dwelling ectoparasites, but not on blood-sucking flies. The "drug hypothesis" posits that aromatic plants may stimulate nestling immune system, development, or condition. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in wild blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, a species that adds aromatic plants to their nests. We supplemented aromatic plants to half of a sample of nests, while adding grass to the other half of nests. We quantified abundance of two groups of blood-sucking flies (blackflies and biting midges) at two different stages of the reproductive period, and abundance of three nest-dwelling ectoparasites (fleas, mites, and blowflies). Experimental supplementation of aromatic plants reduced abundance of fleas only in nests of yearling females and not in nests of older females. Blackflies and biting midges were both more numerous in nests of yearling females than in nests of older females. Mass of aromatic plants added by females was negatively related with abundance of fleas in control nests but not in experimental nests supplied with aromatic plants. Mass of plants added by females was also positively related with abundance of blackflies during the nestling stage. Finally, aromatic plants did not affect nestling growth or immune responses. We conclude that several factors such as female experience and their ability to add plants to the nest interact to explain effects of aromatic plants on different parasites.

  2. Effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Killen, L G; Green, J M; O'Neal, E K; McIntosh, J R; Hornsby, J; Coates, T E

    2013-03-01

    This study examined effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following 30 min constant-load cycling. Individuals (n = 15) of varying aerobic fitness completed a [Formula: see text] max trial and two 30 min cycling bouts (double-blind, counterbalanced) following ingestion of 6 mL/kg of caffeine or matched placebo. RPE overall, legs and breathing were estimated every 5 min and session RPE was estimated 30 min post-exercise using the OMNI pictorial scale. Session RPE for caffeine and placebo trails were compared using paired t test. Between-trial comparisons of HR, RPE overall, RPE legs and RPE breathing were analyzed using an independent 2 (trial) × 6 (time point) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each dependent variable. Caffeine resulted in a significantly lower session RPE (p < 0.05) for caffeine (6.1 ± 2.2) versus placebo (6.8 ± 2.1). Acute perceptual responses were significantly lower for caffeine for RPE overall (15, 20, 25, and 30 min), RPE breathing (15, 20, 25, and 30 min) and RPE legs (20 and 30 min). Survey responses post-exercise revealed greater feelings of nervousness, tremors, restlessness and stomach distress following caffeine versus placebo. Blunted acute RPE and survey responses suggest participants responded to caffeine ingestion. Caffeine decreased acute RPE during exercise which could partially account for lower session RPE responses. However, decreased session RPE could also reveal a latent analgesic affect of caffeine extending into recovery. Extending the understanding of session RPE could benefit coaches in avoiding overtraining when adjusting training programs.

  3. Perceived exertion responses to changing resistance training programming variables.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Daniel J; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of intensity (%1 repetition maximum [1RM]), tonnage (sets × repetitions × load), rate of fatigue (percentage decrement in repetitions from set to set), work rate (total tonnage per unit of time), rest interval (time between sets), time under load, and session duration on session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE: Borg's CR-10 scale). Here, participants performed a standardized lifting session of 5 exercises (bench press, leg press, lat pulldown, leg curl, and triceps pushdown) as either: (a) 3 sets × 8 repetitions × 3-minute recovery at 70% 1RM, (b) 3 sets × 14 repetitions × 3-minute recovery at 40% 1RM, (c) 3 sets × MNR (maximum number of repetitions) × 1-minute recovery at 70% 1RM, (d) 3 sets × MNR × 3-minute recovery at 70% 1RM, (e) 3 sets × MNR × 1-minute recovery at 40% 1RM, or (f) 3 sets × MNR × 3-minute recovery at 40% 1RM. The sRPE for session A (4 ± 1) was significantly higher than session B (2.5 ± 1), despite matched tonnage. Protocols involving MNR showed no significant difference in sRPE. Work rate was the only variable to significantly relate with sRPE (r = 0.45). Additionally, sRPE at 15-minute postexercise (5 ± 2) was not different to 30-minute postexercise (5 ± 2). In resistance training with matched tonnage and rest duration between sets, sRPE increases with intensity. In sets to volitional failure, sRPE is likely to be similar, regardless of intensity or rest duration between sets.

  4. Grip forces exerted against stationary held objects during gravity changes.

    PubMed

    Hermsdörfer, J; Marquardt, C; Philipp, J; Zierdt, A; Nowak, D; Glasauer, S; Mai, N

    1999-05-01

    In the present study, grip forces exerted against a stationary held object were recorded during parabolic flights. Such flight maneuvers induce changes of gravity with two periods of hypergravity, associated with a doubling of normal terrestrial gravity, and a 20 s period of microgravity. Accordingly, the object's weight changed from being twice as heavy as normally experienced and weightless. Grip-force recordings demonstrated that force control was seriously disturbed only during the first experience of hyper- and microgravity, with the grip forces being exceedingly high and yielding irregular fluctuations. Thereafter, however, grip force traces were smooth, the force level was scaled to the object's weight under normal and high-G conditions, and the grip force changed in parallel with the weight during the transitions between hyper- and microgravity. In addition, during weightlessness, when virtually no force was necessary to stabilize the object, a low force was established, which obviously represented a reasonable safety margin for preventing possible perturbations. Thus, all relevant aspects of grip-force control observed under normal gravity conditions were preserved during gravity changes induced by parabolic flights. Hence, grip-force control mechanisms were able to cope with hyper- and microgravity, either by incorporating relevant receptor signals, such as those originating from cutaneous mechanoreceptors, or by adequately including perceived gravity signals into control programs. However, the adaptation to the uncommon gravity conditions was not complete following the first experience; finer tuning of the control system to both hyper- and microgravity continued over the measurement interval, presumably with a longer observation period being necessary before a stable performance can be reached.

  5. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  6. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    SciTech Connect

    Volkas, R. R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G. C.

    1989-07-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3)/sub 1//direct product/SU(3)/sub 2//direct product/SU(3)/sub 3/ gauge theory, where quarks of the /ital i/th generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub /ital i// and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements.

  7. Studies on Strong Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coriano, Claudio

    Five studies, four in Quantum field theory and one in fermionic molecular dynamics are presented. In the first study, introduced in chapter one and developed in chapter two of this dissertation, we formulate an extension of QCD sum rules to Compton scattering of the pion at intermediate energy. The chapter is based on the research paper Fixed angle pion Compton scattering and QCD sum rules by Prof. George Sterman and the author, which has been submitted for publication as a regular article. In chapter 3 we discuss the relation between traditional bosonic exchange models of nuclear strong interaction and soliton models, in the particular case of the sine-Gordon model. The chapter is based on the research paper "Scattering in soliton models and bosonic exchange descriptions", by R. R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi, I. Zahed and the author, and is published in Phys. Rev. D 45 (1992), 2542. A preprint of this paper (Preprint 1) has been included as an Appendix to the Chapter. In Chapter 4 we discuss aspects of the propagation of quantized fields in classical backgrounds, using the light-cone expansion of the propagator. The chapter is based on the research papers "Electrodynamics in the presence of an axion", published by the author in Modern Physics Letters A 7 (1992), 1253, and on the paper "Singularity of Green's function and the effective action in massive Yang Mills theories, by Prof. H. Yamagishi and the author. This last paper is published in Physical Review D 41 (1990), 3226 and its reprint appears in the final part of the Chapter (Reprint 1). In chapter 5, entitled "On the time dependent Rayleigh-Ritz equations", we discuss aspects of the variational approach to fermionic molecular dynamics. This investigation by R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi and the author has been published in Nucl. Physics A 522 (1991), 591. A preprint of this research paper has been inserted in the final part of the Chapter (Preprint 2).

  8. Strength capabilities and subjective limits in repetitive manual exertions: task and hand dominance effects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hope E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2003-01-01

    Strength and subjectively determined exertion limits are used widely for ergonomic evaluation. Although compilations of such data for the hand and finger exist, several important limitations include the use of inexperienced participants and constrained postures. In this study both strength and maximum acceptable limits (MAL, 2-hour duration) were obtained from both industrial workers and inexperienced volunteers in 10 simulated hand-intensive automotive assembly tasks. To expand the applicability of the results, the effects of hand-dominance were also determined. Results were compared with existing recommendations (by Kodak and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value for hand-intensive activities), and showed that across the diverse tasks the former yields values slightly below the 1st percentile of MAL, whereas the latter values are slightly higher than the 25th percentile. MALs were found to be approximately 50% of strength, consistent with earlier reports, and suggesting that acceptable limits are strongly influenced by physical capacity. Substantial differences ( approximately 30%) in strength and MALs were found between the two participant groups, emphasizing that participants should resemble the target population. Hand-dominance effects were statistically significant though of moderate size ( approximately 5%). Strength and MAL distributions are provided that can be used for evaluation and design of a variety of hand-intensive occupational tasks.

  9. Seed predation and selection exerted by a seed predator influence subalpine tree densities.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-10-01

    Strongly interacting species often have pronounced direct and indirect effects on other species. Here we focus of the effects of pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus spp.), which are a dominant pre-dispersal seed predator of many conifers including limber pines (Pinus flexilis) and whitebark pines (P. albicaulis). Pine squirrels depress seed abundance by harvesting most limber and whitebark pine cones on their territories. Pine squirrels further reduce seed availability for Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), the primary seed disperser of these pines, because selection exerted by pine squirrels has reduced the number of seeds per cone and causes seeds to be less accessible. We predicted that, if fewer seeds were available for dispersal by nutcrackers, pine recruitment should be suppressed in areas with pine squirrels. In support of this prediction, stand densities were about two times greater in areas where pine squirrels are absent than in areas where they are present. Alternative explanations that we considered do not account for these differences; however, precipitation may limit stand densities in the absence of seed limitation by pine squirrels. In sum, pine squirrels apparently depress limber and whitebark pine stand densities, with the potential for ecosystem impacts because these pines are foundation species within Western subalpine ecosystems.

  10. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  11. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance. PMID:27965592

  12. The sympatric occurrence of two genetically divergent lineages of sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis (Phthiraptera: Anoplura), on the four-striped mouse genus, Rhabdomys (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    du Toit, Nina; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2013-04-01

    Within southern Africa, the widely distributed four-striped mouse genus (Rhabdomys) is parasitized by, amongst others, the specific ectoparasitic sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis. Given the presence of significant geographically structured genetic divergence in Rhabdomys, and the propensity of parasites to harbour cryptic diversity, the molecular systematics of P. arvicanthis was investigated. Representatives of P. arvicanthis were sampled from Rhabdomys at 16 localities throughout southern Africa. Parsimony and Bayesian gene trees were constructed for the mitochondrial COI, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and nuclear CAD genes. Our findings support the existence of 2 genetic groups within P. arvicanthis separated by at least 25% COI sequence divergence, which is comparable to that observed among recognized Polyplax species. We therefore propose that these 2 genetic lineages probably represent distinct species and that the apparent absence of clear morphological differences may point to cryptic speciation. The 2 taxa have sympatric distributions throughout most of the sampled host range and also occasionally occur sympatrically on the same host individual. The co-occurrence of these genetically distinct lineages probably resulted from parasite duplication via host-associated allopatric divergence and subsequent reciprocal range expansions of the 2 parasite taxa throughout southern Africa.

  13. A repertoire of the dominant transcripts from the salivary glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma dimidiata, a vector of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Jochim, Ryan C.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Sakoda, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Triatoma (T.) dimidiata is a hematophagous Hemiptera and a main vector of Chagas disease. The saliva of this and other blood-sucking insects contains potent pharmacologically active components that assist them in counteracting the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems during blood feeding. To describe the repertoire of potential bioactive salivary molecules from this insect, a number of randomly selected transcripts from the salivary gland cDNA library of T. dimidiata were sequenced and analyzed. This analysis showed that 77.5% of the isolated transcripts coded for putative secreted proteins, and 89.9% of these coded for variants of the lipocalin family proteins. The most abundant transcript was a homologue of procalin, the major allergen of T. protracta saliva, and contributed more than 50% of the transcripts coding for putative secreted proteins, suggesting that it may play an important role in the blood-feeding process. Other salivary transcripts encoding lipocalin family proteins had homology to triabin (a thrombin inhibitor), triafestin (an inhibitor of kallikrein–kinin system), pallidipin (an inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation) and others with unknown function. PMID:19900580

  14. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  15. Learning the way to blood: first evidence of dual olfactory conditioning in a blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. I. Appetitive learning.

    PubMed

    Vinauger, Clément; Buratti, Laura; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-09-15

    It has been largely assumed that the individual experience of insects that are disease vectors might not only contribute to animal fitness, but also have an important influence on parasite transmission. Nevertheless, despite the invested efforts in testing the capacity to learn and remember information in blood-sucking insects, only little conclusive information has been obtained to date. Adapting a classical conditioning approach to our haematophagous model, we trained larvae of Rhodnius prolixus to associate L-lactic-acid, an odour perceived by these bugs but behaviourally neutral when presented alone, with food (i.e. positive reinforcement). Naive bugs--those exposed either to a conditioned stimulus (CS, L-lactic acid), unconditioned stimulus (US, heat) and reward (blood) alone or CS, US and reward in the absence of contingency--remained indifferent to the presence of an air stream loaded with L-lactic acid when tested in an olfactometer (random orientation), whereas the groups previously exposed to the contingency CS-US-reward (blood) were significantly attracted by L-lactic-acid. In a companion paper, the opposite, i.e. repellence, was induced in bugs exposed to the contingency of the same odour with a negative reinforcement. This constitutes the first evidence of olfactory conditioning in triatomine bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, and one of the few substantiations available to date of olfactory conditioning in haematophagous insects.

  16. The effects of running in an exerted state on lower extremity kinematics and joint timing.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Tracy A; Davis, Irene S; Hamill, Joseph

    2010-11-16

    Runners rarely run to the point of maximum fatigue or exhaustion. However, no studies have investigated how the level of exertion associated with a typical running session influences running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that running in an exerted state had on the kinematics and joint timing within the lower extremity of uninjured, recreational runners. Twenty runners performed a prolonged treadmill run at a self-selected pace that best represented each runner's typical training run. The run ended based on heart rate or perceived exertion levels that represented a typical training run. Kinematics and joint timing between the foot, knee, and hip were analyzed at the beginning and end of the run. Increases were primarily observed at the end of the run for the peak angles, excursions, and peak velocities of eversion, tibial internal rotation, and knee internal rotation. No differences were observed for knee flexion, hip internal rotation, or any joint timing relationship. Based on these results, runners demonstrated subtle changes in kinematics in the exerted state, most notably for eversion. However, runners were able to maintain joint timing throughout the leg, which may have been a function of the knee. Thus, uninjured runners normally experience small alterations in kinematics when running with typical levels of exertion. It remains unknown how higher levels of exertion influence kinematics with joint timing and the association with running injuries, or how populations with running injuries respond to typical levels of exertion.

  17. COPD Patients with Exertional Desaturation Are at a Higher Risk of Rapid Decline in Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Yong Bum; Park, So Young; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung-Goo; Hyun, In-Gyu; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A recent study demonstrated that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the study was limited by its method used to detect exertional desaturation. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether exertional desaturation assessed using nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) can predict rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 patients with moderate to very severe COPD who underwent the 6MWT. Exertional desaturation was defined as a nadir SpO2 of <90% during the 6MWT. Rapid decline was defined as an annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50 mL. Patients were divided into rapid decliner (n=26) and non-rapid decliner (n=31) groups. Results A statistically significant difference in exertional desaturation was observed between rapid decliners and non-rapid decliners (17 vs. 8, p=0.003). No differences were found between the groups for age, smoking status, BODE index, and FEV1. Multivariate analysis showed that exertional desaturation was a significant independent predictor of rapid decline in patients with COPD (relative risk, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.4; p=0.004). Conclusion This study supports that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid lung function decline in male patients with COPD. PMID:24719141

  18. Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. PMID:26510676

  19. Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity.

  20. The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    8217 AFIT/CI/NR 86- 81D . TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a...34I i. ’’ , ’."k’ ’* The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill by Bruce Jaeger Captain, USAF 1986 NTIS GRA...Carolina State University I I p -. ~~ h~~~A k. .IbJ .~ .2~ ~or The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill by

  1. Vegetation exerts a greater control on litter decomposition than climate warming in peatlands.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nicholas J; Briones, J I; Thomson, Bruce C; Griffiths, Robert I; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Bardget, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Historically, slow decomposition rates have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of carbon in northern peatlands. Both climate warming and vegetation change can alter rates of decomposition, and hence affect rates of atmospheric CO2 exchange, with consequences for climate change feedbacks. Although warming and vegetation change are happening concurrently, little is known about their relative and interactive effects on decomposition processes. To test the effects of warming and vegetation change on decomposition rates, we placed litter of three dominant species (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum vaginatum, Hypnum jutlandicum) into a peatland field experiment that combined warming.with plant functional group removals, and measured mass loss over two years. To identify potential mechanisms behind effects, we also measured nutrient cycling and soil biota. We found that plant functional group removals exerted a stronger control over short-term litter decomposition than did approximately 1 degrees C warming, and that the plant removal effect depended on litter species identity. Specifically, rates of litter decomposition were faster when shrubs were removed from the plant community, and these effects were strongest for graminoid and bryophyte litter. Plant functional group removals also had strong effects on soil biota and nutrient cycling associated with decomposition, whereby shrub removal had cascading effects on soil fungal community composition, increased enchytraeid abundance, and increased rates of N mineralization. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to litter quality, changes in vegetation composition play a significant role in regulating short-term litter decomposition and belowground communities in peatland, and that these impacts can be greater than moderate warming effects. Our findings, albeit from a relatively short-term study, highlight the need to consider both vegetation change and its impacts below ground alongside climatic effects when

  2. Effects Exerted by Transcriptional Regulator PcaU from Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1

    PubMed Central

    Trautwein, Gaby; Gerischer, Ulrike

    2001-01-01

    Protocatechuate degradation is accomplished in a multistep inducible catabolic pathway in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. The induction is brought about by the transcriptional regulator PcaU in concert with the inducer protocatechuate. PcaU, a member of the new IclR family of transcriptional regulators, was shown to play a role in the activation of transcription at the promoter for the structural pca genes, leaving open the participation of additional activators. In this work we show that there is no PcaU-independent transcriptional activation at the pca gene promoter. The minimal inducer concentration leading to an induction response is 10−5 M protocatechuate. The extent of expression of the pca genes was observed to depend on the nature of the inducing carbon source, and this is assumed to be caused by different internal levels of protocatechuate in the cells. The basal level of expression was shown to be comparatively high and to vary depending on the noninducing carbon source independent of PcaU. In addition to the activating function, in vivo results suggest a repressing function for PcaU at the pca gene promoter in the absence of an elevated inducer concentration. Expression at the pcaU gene promoter is independent of the growth condition but is subject to strong negative autoregulation. We propose a model in which PcaU exerts a repressor function both at its own promoter and at the structural gene promoter and in addition functions as an activator of transcription at the structural gene promoter at elevated inducer concentration. PMID:11208784

  3. A longitudinal analysis on the validity and reliability of ratings of perceived exertion for elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Psycharakis, Stelios G

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the reliability and validity of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for monitoring exercise intensity in elite swimmers, with the percentage of maximum heart rate (%HRmax) and the blood lactate concentration (La) being the criterion measures. Moreover, the purpose was to examine whether an adjustment of HRmax, as previously suggested for recreational/university swimmers, is required for subsequent calculations of %HRmax for elite swimmers. Seventeen swimmers competing at international level performed a 7 x 200 m incremental swim test at their specialty stroke 4 times during a period of 6 months. The RPE validity was examined with the use of correlation and with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the z-transformed values. The RPE reliability was examined with a factorial ANOVA, with %HRmax and La being the dependent variables and test (4 levels) and RPE stage (7 levels) the fixed factors. The RPE was found to be a valid method for monitoring exercise intensity, with the correlation coefficients with %HRmax and La being 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. There was a strong correspondence between RPE and %HRmax scores and a weaker correspondence between RPE and La scores, suggesting that that RPE reflects accurately the HR levels of elite swimmers. The longitudinal intertest reliability was high as no significant differences were found in the values of %HRmax or La between the 4 tests. The good validity and reliability of RPE suggest that it can be used in elite swimmers' training for the purpose of monitoring exercise intensity. Contrary to previous recommendations for recreational/university swimmers, when prescribing intensity for elite swimmers, the predicted HRmax value used for subsequent calculations should not be adjusted because such an adjustment would appear to underestimate HRmax.

  4. Chiari-associated exertional, cough, and sneeze headache responsive to medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M Gabriella; Formisano, Rita; Colonnese, Claudio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Benign exertional headache is coded as a separate entity within the International Headache Society's classification system, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this clinical headache subtype are unknown and possibly are similar to those generating migraine. Coexistence of migraine and benign exertional headache in the same patient is not unusual, and antimigraine pharmacologic treatments are often effective in both headache types. Regardless, optimal management mandates that the clinician exclude any intracranial or systemic disease that could mimic "primary" exertional headache. The same holds for primary headaches induced by coughing or sneezing; congenital malformations or neoplasms, particularly within the posterior fossa, are not rare in these patients. The neurologic examination may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect the offending lesion. We describe a patient with migraine without aura and exertional secondary headache due to Chiari malformation type I whose headaches responded to treatment with propranolol and indomethacin.

  5. The Dipeptides Ile-Tyr and Ser-Tyr Exert Distinct Effects on Catecholamine Metabolism in the Mouse Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Moriyasu, Kazuki; Ichinose, Takashi; Nakahata, Akane; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro; Furuya, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Catecholamine synthesis and transmission in the brain are influenced by the availability of Tyr in the body. In this study, we compared the effects of oral administration of Tyr-containing dipeptides Ile-Tyr, Ser-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro with Tyr alone on catecholamine metabolism in the mouse brainstem. Among these dipeptides, Ile-Tyr administration led to increases in dopamine, the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, compared to administration of Ser-Tyr, Tyr-Pro, or Tyr alone. In comparison, administration of Ser-Tyr induced significantly increasing noradrenaline turnover, while Tyr-Pro administration suppressed dopamine turnover. Therefore, oral administration of Ile-Tyr, Ser-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro differentially affected metabolism of dopamine and noradrenaline. These observations strongly suggest that Tyr-containing dipeptides exert distinct effects on catecholamine metabolism in the brainstem when ingested orally. PMID:26981137

  6. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J

    2016-06-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key pointsIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus.In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorptionIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate.

  7. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D.; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key points In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus. In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorption In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate PMID:27274672

  8. Assessment of decision-making performance and in-game physical exertion of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Paul; O'Brien, Brendan; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Harvey, Jack; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in-game physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires. Fifteen Australian football umpires (Mage = 36, s = 13.5 years; Mgames umpired = 235.2, s = 151.3) volunteered to participate in the study. During five competitive Australian football pre-season games, measures of in-game physical exertion (blood lactate levels, global positioning system [GPS]) and decision-making performance (video-based test) were obtained. There were no significant correlations between physical exertion in a particular quarter and decision-making performance in either the same quarter or any other quarter. Video-based decision-making performance was effected by time in game χ(2)(3) = 24.24, P = 0.001, with Quarter 4 performance significantly better than both Quarter 2 and Quarter 3. In-game physical exertion (blood lactate) significantly decreased over the course of the game χ(2)(3) = 11.58, P = 0.009. Results indicate no definable link between in-game physical exertion and decision-making performance. It is, however, presumed that decision-making performance may be affected by the time or context of the game. Future research is warranted to explore the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance to potentially inform Australian football umpire training programmes that replicate in-game physical and decision-making demands.

  9. Cough, exertional, and sexual headaches: an analysis of 72 benign and symptomatic cases.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Iglesias, F; Oterino, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; Berciano, J

    1996-06-01

    We analyzed our experience with cough, exertional, and vascular sexual headaches, evaluated the interrelationships among them, and examined the possible symptomatic cases. Seventy-two patients consulted us because of headaches precipitated by coughing (n = 30), physical exercise (n = 28), or sexual excitement (n = 14). Thirty (42%) were symptomatic. The 17 cases of symptomatic cough headache were secondary to Chiari type I malformation, while the majority of cases of symptomatic exertional headaches and the only case of symptomatic sexual headache were secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the precipitant was the same, benign and symptomatic headaches differed in several clinical aspects, such as age at onset, associated clinical manifestations, or response to pharmacologic treatment. Although sharing some properties, such as male predominance, benign cough headache and benign exertional headache are clinically separate conditions. Benign cough headache began significantly later, 43 years on average, than benign exertional headache. By contrast, our findings suggest that there is a close relationship between benign exertional headache and benign vascular sexual headache. We conclude that benign and symptomatic cough headaches are different from both benign and symptomatic exertional and sexual headaches.

  10. Quadriceps activation and perceived exertion during a high intensity, steady state contraction to failure.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Gear, W S

    2000-04-01

    The ability to sustain a high-intensity, steady-state muscle contraction may have differential effects on neuromuscular activation and perceived exertion. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in neuromuscular activation and perceived exertion at a near-maximal steady-state contraction of the quadriceps in healthy men. Seventeen healthy, college-aged male volunteers were studied during isometric contractions equivalent to 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Perceived exertion was measured with a modified category-ratio scale (CR-10). The CR-10 scale was anchored with one high anchor at 100% MVC and one low anchor at 10% MVC. Subjects then performed an 80% MVC for as long as they could sustain it. Subjects were asked to rate the feelings in their quadriceps every 5 s during the contraction. The results demonstrated significant increases in neuromuscular activation of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles (P < 0.05) during the 80% MVC, but there were no significant muscle by time interactions. The results also demonstrated a significant increase (P < 0.05) in perceived exertion during the 80% MVC. Neuromuscular activation of both muscles, and perceived exertion, were found to increase in linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic (P < 0.05) trends. Alterations in motor unit discharge properties or impairments in muscle fiber membrane excitability may account for nonlinear increases in vastii muscle activation and perceived exertion.

  11. Novel Resistance Training-Specific Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale Measuring Repetitions in Reserve.

    PubMed

    Zourdos, Michael C; Klemp, Alex; Dolan, Chad; Quiles, Justin M; Schau, Kyle A; Jo, Edward; Helms, Eric; Esgro, Ben; Duncan, Scott; Garcia Merino, Sonia; Blanco, Rocky

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR) at particular intensities of 1 repetition maximum (RM) in experienced (ES) and novice squatters (NS). Furthermore, this investigation compared average velocity between ES and NS at the same intensities. Twenty-nine individuals (24.0 ± 3.4 years) performed a 1RM squat followed by a single repetition with loads corresponding to 60, 75, and 90% of 1RM and an 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Average velocity was recorded at 60, 75, and 90% 1RM and on the first and last repetitions of the 8-repetition set. Subjects reported an RPE value that corresponded to an RIR value (RPE-10 = 0-RIR, RPE-9 = 1-RIR, and so forth). Subjects were assigned to one of the 2 groups: (a) ES (n = 15, training age: 5.2 ± 3.5 years) and (b) NS (n = 14, training age: 0.4 ± 0.6 years). The mean of the average velocities for ES was slower (p ≤ 0.05) than NS at 100% and 90% 1RM. However, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between groups at 60, 75%, or for the first and eighth repetitions at 70% 1RM. In addition, ES recorded greater RPE at 1RM than NS (p = 0.023). In ES, there was a strong inverse relationship between average velocity and RPE at all percentages (r = -0.88, p < 0.001), and a strong inverse correlation in NS between average velocity and RPE at all intensities (r = -0.77, p = 0.001). Our findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between average velocity and RPE/RIR. Experienced squatter group exhibited slower average velocity and higher RPE at 1RM than NS, signaling greater efficiency at high intensities. The RIR-based RPE scale is a practical method to regulate daily training load and provide feedback during a 1RM test.

  12. Recent advances of strong-strong beam-beam simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.; Fischer, Wolfram; Ohmi,Kazuhito

    2004-09-15

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in strong-strong beam-beam simulation. Numerical methods used in the calculation of the beam-beam forces are reviewed. A new computational method to solve the Poisson equation on nonuniform grid is presented. This method reduces the computational cost by a half compared with the standard FFT based method on uniform grid. It is also more accurate than the standard method for a colliding beam with low transverse aspect ratio. In applications, we present the study of coherent modes with multi-bunch, multi-collision beam-beam interactions at RHIC. We also present the strong-strong simulation of the luminosity evolution at KEKB with and without finite crossing angle.

  13. Glucan, Water Dikinase Exerts Little Control over Starch Degradation in Arabidopsis Leaves at Night1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Skeffington, Alastair W.; Graf, Alexander; Duxbury, Zane; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Smith, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    The first step on the pathway of starch degradation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves at night is the phosphorylation of starch polymers, catalyzed by glucan, water dikinase (GWD). It has been suggested that GWD is important for the control of starch degradation, because its transcript levels undergo strong diel fluctuations, its activity is subject to redox regulation in vitro, and starch degradation is strongly decreased in gwd mutant plants. To test this suggestion, we analyzed changes in GWD protein abundance in relation to starch levels in wild-type plants, in transgenic plants in which GWD transcripts were strongly reduced by induction of RNA interference, and in transgenic plants overexpressing GWD. We found that GWD protein levels do not vary over the diel cycle and that the protein has a half-life of 2 d. Overexpression of GWD does not accelerate starch degradation in leaves, and starch degradation is not inhibited until GWD levels are reduced by 70%. Surprisingly, this degree of reduction also inhibits starch synthesis in the light. To discover the importance of redox regulation, we generated transgenic plants expressing constitutively active GWD. These plants retained normal control of degradation. We conclude that GWD exerts only a low level of control over starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves. PMID:24781197

  14. Ethylene Contributes to maize insect resistance1-Mediated Maize Defense against the Phloem Sap-Sucking Corn Leaf Aphid1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Basu, Saumik; Varsani, Suresh; Castano-Duque, Lina; Jiang, Victoria; Williams, W. Paul; Felton, Gary W.; Luthe, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling networks among multiple phytohormones fine-tune plant defense responses to insect herbivore attack. Previously, it was reported that the synergistic combination of ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) was required for accumulation of the maize insect resistance1 (mir1) gene product, a cysteine (Cys) proteinase that is a key defensive protein against chewing insect pests in maize (Zea mays). However, this study suggests that mir1-mediated resistance to corn leaf aphid (CLA; Rhopalosiphum maidis), a phloem sap-sucking insect pest, is independent of JA but regulated by the ET-signaling pathway. Feeding by CLA triggers the rapid accumulation of mir1 transcripts in the resistant maize genotype, Mp708. Furthermore, Mp708 provided elevated levels of antibiosis (limits aphid population)- and antixenosis (deters aphid settling)-mediated resistance to CLA compared with B73 and Tx601 maize susceptible inbred lines. Synthetic diet aphid feeding trial bioassays with recombinant Mir1-Cys Protease demonstrates that Mir1-Cys Protease provides direct toxicity to CLA. Furthermore, foliar feeding by CLA rapidly sends defensive signal(s) to the roots that trigger belowground accumulation of the mir1, signifying a potential role of long-distance signaling in maize defense against the phloem-feeding insects. Collectively, our data indicate that ET-regulated mir1 transcript accumulation, uncoupled from JA, contributed to heightened resistance to CLA in maize. In addition, our results underscore the significance of ET acting as a central node in regulating mir1 expression to different feeding guilds of insect herbivores. PMID:26253737

  15. Comparing de novo and reference-based transcriptome assembly strategies by applying them to the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Marchant, A; Mougel, F; Mendonça, V; Quartier, M; Jacquin-Joly, E; da Rosa, J A; Petit, E; Harry, M

    2016-02-01

    High Throughput Sequencing capabilities have made the process of assembling a transcriptome easier, whether or not there is a reference genome. But the quality of a transcriptome assembly must be good enough to capture the most comprehensive catalog of transcripts and their variations, and to carry out further experiments on transcriptomics. There is currently no consensus on which of the many sequencing technologies and assembly tools are the most effective. Many non-model organisms lack a reference genome to guide the transcriptome assembly. One question, therefore, is whether or not a reference-based genome assembly gives better results than de novo assembly. The blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus-a vector for Chagas disease-has a reference genome. It is therefore a good model on which to compare reference-based and de novo transcriptome assemblies. In this study, we compared de novo and reference-based genome assembly strategies using three datasets (454, Illumina, 454 combined with Illumina) and various assembly software. We developed criteria to compare the resulting assemblies: the size distribution and number of transcripts, the proportion of potentially chimeric transcripts, how complete the assembly was (completeness evaluated both through CEGMA software and R. prolixus proteome fraction retrieved). Moreover, we looked for the presence of two chemosensory gene families (Odorant-Binding Proteins and Chemosensory Proteins) to validate the assembly quality. The reference-based assemblies after genome annotation were clearly better than those generated using de novo strategies alone. Reference-based strategies revealed new transcripts, including new isoforms unpredicted by automatic genome annotation. However, a combination of both de novo and reference-based strategies gave the best result, and allowed us to assemble fragmented transcripts.

  16. Learning the way to blood: first evidence of dual olfactory conditioning in a blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. II. Aversive learning.

    PubMed

    Vinauger, Clément; Buratti, Laura; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-09-15

    After having demonstrated that blood-sucking bugs are able to associate a behaviourally neutral odour (L-lactic acid) with positive reinforcement (i.e. appetitive conditioning) in the first part of this study, we tested whether these insects were also able to associate the same odour with a negative reinforcement (i.e. aversive conditioning). Learned aversion to host odours has been repeatedly suggested as a determinant for the distribution of disease vectors among host populations. Nevertheless, no experimental evidence has been obtained so far. Adapting a classical conditioning approach to our haematophagous model, we trained larvae of Rhodnius prolixus to associate L-lactic acid, an odour perceived by bugs but behaviourally neutral when presented alone, with a mechanical perturbation (i.e. negative reinforcement). Naive bugs and bugs exposed to CS, punishment, or CS and punishment without contingency remained indifferent to the presence of an air stream loaded with L-lactic acid (random orientation on a locomotion compensator), whereas the groups previously exposed to the contingency CS-punishment were significantly repelled by L-lactic acid. In a companion paper, the opposite, i.e. attraction, was induced in bugs exposed to the contingency of the same odour with a positive reinforcement. These constitute the first pieces of evidence of olfactory conditioning in triatomine bugs and the first demonstration that the same host odour can be used by insects that are disease vectors to learn to recognize either a host to feed on or a potentially defensive one. The orientation mechanism during repulsion is also discussed in light of our results.

  17. Effects of strong disorder in strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of strong disorder on a system with strong electronic repulsion. In the absence of disorder, the system has a d-wave superconducting ground state with strong non-BCS features due to its proximity to a Mott insulator. We find that while strong correlations make superconductivity in this system immune to weak disorder, superconductivity is destroyed efficiently when disorder strength is comparable to the effective bandwidth. The suppression of charge motion in regions of strong potential fluctuation leads to the formation of Mott insulating patches, which anchor a larger nonsuperconducting region around them. The system thus breaks into islands of Mott insulating and superconducting regions, with Anderson insulating regions occurring along the boundary of these regions. Thus, electronic correlation and disorder, when both are strong, aid each other in destroying superconductivity, in contrast to their competition at weak disorder. Our results shed light on why zinc impurities are efficient in destroying superconductivity in cuprates, even though it is robust to weaker impurities.

  18. Preliminary investigation of cardiopulmonary function in stroke patients with stable heart failure and exertional dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Yu-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    .01), FEV1 (r = 0.429, P < 0.01), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.482, P < 0.01). FEV1/FVC was negatively associated with the average Brunnstrom stage over the proximal (r = −0.414, P < 0.01) and distal (r = −0.422, P < 0.01) parts of the upper extremities and lower extremities (r = −0.311, P < 0.05) and Barthel index (r = −0.313, P < 0.05). Stroke patients with stable CHF and exertional dyspnea had restrictive lung disorder and respiratory muscle weakness, which were associated with the neurological status of the affected limbs. FVC was more strongly associated with MIP and MEP than predicted FVC%. FEV1/FVC may be used as a reference for the pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:27749577

  19. Preliminary investigation of cardiopulmonary function in stroke patients with stable heart failure and exertional dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Yu-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-10-01

    .429, P < 0.01), and FEV1/FVC (r = -0.482, P < 0.01). FEV1/FVC was negatively associated with the average Brunnstrom stage over the proximal (r = -0.414, P < 0.01) and distal (r = -0.422, P < 0.01) parts of the upper extremities and lower extremities (r = -0.311, P < 0.05) and Barthel index (r = -0.313, P < 0.05).Stroke patients with stable CHF and exertional dyspnea had restrictive lung disorder and respiratory muscle weakness, which were associated with the neurological status of the affected limbs. FVC was more strongly associated with MIP and MEP than predicted FVC%. FEV1/FVC may be used as a reference for the pulmonary dysfunction.

  20. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  1. Creating and Nurturing Strong Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kaye M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to create and sustain strong teaching teams, including matching curriculum goals, complementary professional strengths, and exercise of autonomy. Elaborates the administrator's role in nurturing and supporting teamwork. (JPB)

  2. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: Beyond strong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Kater

    2017-01-01

    When light and matter are strongly coupled, they lose their distinct character and merge into a hybrid state. Three experiments explore this exotic regime using artificial atoms, with promise for quantum technologies.

  3. Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John E.

    2013-05-28

    The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.

  4. Exertional responses to sprint interval training: a comparison of 30-sec. and 60-sec. conditions.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sprint interval training on rating of perceived exertion. 20 healthy participants (11 men, 9 women; M age = 23 yr.) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test and two high-intensity interval training cycling sessions. Each session utilized the same work-to-rest ratio (1:1), work intensity (90% max), recovery intensity (10% work intensity), and session duration (16 min.). Trials differed on duration of the interval segment, with a 30-sec. trial and a 60-sec. trial. Sessions required the same amount of total work over the duration of the trial. Rating of perceived exertion assessed before, during, and after exercise were higher for the 60-sec. trial than the 30-sec. trial despite no difference in total work. High intensity interval training trials utilizing the same total external work but differing in interval length produced different ratings of perceived exertion. Perceived exertion is significantly higher for sessions of exercise that utilize longer work intervals. These findings suggest that shorter intervals may produce more favorable exertional responses that could positively affect future behavior.

  5. Ways of increasing muscular activity by means of isometric muscular exertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalik, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of isometric muscular exertion on the human body was investigated by having subjects perform basic movements in a sitting position in the conventional manner with additional muscle tension at 50% maximum force and at maximum force. The pulse, arterial pressure, skin temperature, respiratory rate, minute respiratory volume and electrical activity of the muscles involved were all measured. Performance of the exercises with maximum muscular exertion for 20 sec and without movement resulted in the greatest shifts in these indices; in the conventional manner substantial changes did not occur; and with isometric muscular exertion with 50% maximum force with and without movement, optimal functional shifts resulted. The latter is recommended for use in industrial exercises for the prevention of hypodynamia. Ten exercises are suggested.

  6. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a collegiate soccer player: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Farr, Derek; Selesnick, Harlan

    2008-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition among running athletes. In those who engage in repetitive activity, it can cause severe, debilitating leg pain. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough workup that includes history and physical examination, radiologic studies (x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan), and compartment pressure monitoring. Most patients do not respond well to nonoperative intervention. Fasciotomy provides satisfactory relief of symptoms and helps patients return to their sports. We present the case of a high-level collegiate soccer player with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

  7. Strong Photoassociation in Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Ebadi, Sepher; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Despite many studies there are still open questions about strong photoassociation in ultracold gases. Photoassociation occurs only at short range and thus can be used as a tool to probe and control the two-body correlation function in an interacting many-body system and to engineer Hamiltonians using dissipation. We propose the possibility to slow down decoherence by photoassociation through the quantum Zeno effect. This can realized by shining strong photoassociation light on the superposition of the lowest two hyperfine states of Lithium 6. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  8. Extravillous trophoblast-associated ADAM12 exerts pro-invasive properties, including induction of integrin beta 1-mediated cellular spreading.

    PubMed

    Biadasiewicz, Katarzyna; Fock, Valerie; Dekan, Sabine; Proestling, Katharina; Velicky, Philipp; Haider, Sandra; Knöfler, Martin; Fröhlich, Camilla; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    ADAM12, consisting of a membrane-bound (ADAM12L) and a secreted (ADAM12S) form, is expressed exclusively in regenerating and developing tissue as well as in certain cancer types. Strong ADAM12 expression levels have been noticed in the human placenta, and deregulated ADAM12S levels were associated with various pregnancy-related disorders including pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. However, the role of ADAM12 in trophoblast motility has not been investigated so far. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the specific function of the protease by using different primary trophoblast cell models. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses of first trimester placental tissue and differentiating primary first trimester cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) indicated strong upregulation of both of the ADAM12 isoforms during extravillous trophoblast differentiation. Functional assays involving short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown studies in primary CTBs and first trimester explant cultures revealed a significant repression of trophoblast motility upon partial loss of ADAM12. Conversely, isoform-specific overexpression in the ADAM12-negative trophoblast cell line SGHPL-5 enhanced the invasive capacity of these cells. We further confirmed proteolytic activity of trophoblast-derived ADAM12S by demonstrating its potential to degrade insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3. Finally, we suggest that ADAM12S exerts its pro-migratory function in trophoblasts by inducing integrin beta 1-mediated cellular spreading.

  9. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  10. Galaxies with Strong Nitrogen Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, T. S.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. From a qualitative spectroscopic survey of southern galaxies made by Pastoriza, a group with different morphological types whose nuclear region showed particular strong emission [N II]A6548-6584 lines when compared to Hn, was selected in order to investigate why [N II] is so strong. This work presents the results of a first analysis of the spectra of some of the galaxies above obtained with the 1-m telescope plus 2DFRUTTI detector of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The spectra are all very similar showing strong stellar continuum and absorption lines, and all the emission spectra show [0111] >[OII], [NIl] > H . None of the spectra show H in emission. Using the relative intensities of the H and K Call lines (Talent 1982, PLtb. A.S.P., 94,36), the obtained integrated spectra for all the observed galaxies is later than GO, which means that the H absorption lines should not be strong. From the relative intensities of the emission lines, we conclude that these galaxies cannot be classified as Starburst or LINERS. They are similar to Seyfert 2 (Osterbrock 1986, Act#va QSO4, preprint), but the FWHM of the lines is less than 300 km s . Also Ol X6300 is not clearly seen, and the absorption spectrum is strong relative to the emission spectrum. The preliminary conclusion is an activity similar but milder than that present in Seyfert 2 galaxies, as sug gested by Rose and Searle (1982, Ap. 5., 253, 556) and Rose and Cecil (1983, Ap. 5., 266, 531) for the nucleus of M51, maybe affected by an anomalous nitrogen abundance. K o : GALAXIES-ACTIVE - SPECTROSCOPY

  11. Perceived exertion, comfort and working technique in professional computer users and associations with the incidence of neck and upper extremity symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether perceived exertion, perceived comfort and working technique is associated with the incidence of neck and upper extremity symptoms among professional computer users. Methods At baseline a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 853 participants from 46 different work sites (382 men and 471 women) who, at baseline, had been free from neck and upper extremity symptoms during the preceding month. Work-related exposures, individual factors, and symptoms from the neck and upper extremities were assessed. Observations of working technique were performed by ergonomists using an ergonomic checklist. Incidence data were collected by means of 10 monthly questionnaires, asking for information on the occurrence of neck, shoulder and arm/hand symptoms. Perceived exertion was rated on a modified Borg RPE scale ranging from 0 (very, very light) to 14 (very, very strenuous). Perceived comfort was rated on a 9-point scale ranging from -4 (very, very poor) to +4 (very, very good) in relation to the chair, computer screen, keyboard, and computer mouse. Results The median follow up time was 10.3 months. The incidence of symptoms from the neck, shoulders and arm/hands were 50, 24 and 34 cases per 100 person years, respectively. Higher perceived exertion in the neck, shoulder or arm/hands was associated with an increased risk of developing symptoms in the corresponding body region. Moreover, a dose-response relationship between the level of exertion and the risk of developing symptoms was recorded for all three regions. There was an association between low comfort and an increased risk for neck symptoms, but not for shoulder and arm/hand symptoms, although a trend towards such an association (not statistically significant) could be seen. Working technique was, in this study, not associated with the risk of developing symptoms in any of the investigated body regions. Conclusion There was a strong association between

  12. Quality control by <strong>HyperS>pectral <strong>I>maging (HSI) in solid waste recycling: logics, algorithms and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    In secondary raw materials and recycling sectors, the products quality represents, more and more, the key issue to pursuit in order to be competitive in a more and more demanding market, where quality standards and products certification play a preheminent role. These goals assume particular importance when recycling actions are applied. Recovered products, resulting from waste materials, and/or dismissed products processing, are, in fact, always seen with a certain suspect. An adequate response of the industry to the market can only be given through the utilization of equipment and procedures ensuring pure, high-quality production, and efficient work and cost. All these goals can be reached adopting not only more efficient equipment and layouts, but also introducing new processing logics able to realize a full control of the handled material flow streams fulfilling, at the same time, i) an easy management of the procedures, ii) an efficient use of the energy, iii) the definition and set up of reliable and robust procedures, iv) the possibility to implement network connectivity capabilities finalized to a remote monitoring and control of the processes and v) a full data storage, analysis and retrieving. Furthermore the ongoing legislation and regulation require the implementation of recycling infrastructure characterised by high resources efficiency and low environmental impacts, both aspects being strongly linked to the waste materials and/or dismissed products original characteristics. For these reasons an optimal recycling infrastructure design primarily requires a full knowledge of the characteristics of the input waste. What previously outlined requires the introduction of a new important concept to apply in solid waste recycling, the recycling-oriented characterization, that is the set of actions addressed to strategically determine selected attributes, in order to get goaloriented data on waste for the development, implementation or improvement of recycling

  13. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  14. Promoting Best Practices regarding Exertional Heat Stroke: A Perspective from the Team Physician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; McDowell, Lindsey; Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Context: Knowing the team physician's perspective regarding the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) for treatment of exertional heat stroke (EHS) may help increase the number of athletic trainers (ATs) implementing best practices and avoiding the use of improper assessment tools and treatment methods. Objective: To ascertain team physicians'…

  15. Usefulness of a Perceived Exertion Scale for Monitoring Exercise Intensity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Aucoin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain physical fitness and health, exercise must be performed at a sufficient level of intensity. Exercise intensity can be monitored with rated perceived exertion (RPE) scales to promote safe and effective programming. The usefulness of the Children's OMNI Scale as a subjective measure of intensity for adults with intellectual…

  16. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively.

  17. A comparison of the impacts of continuous and interval cycle exercise on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J; Ferron, John M

    2016-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were developed to assess exertion during exercise testing. However, assessments of RPE prior to and after exercise have become common and potentially important in understanding exercise behaviour. The purpose of this project was to compare RPE taken before, during and after interval and continuous exercise sessions. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women, body mass index = 24, VO2peak = 41 mL · kg · min(-1)) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test used to prescribe experimental trials: (1) moderate continuous (MC), (2) vigorous continuous (VC), (3) vigorous interval and (4) severe interval. All trials were 20 minutes in length and all intervals utilised 60-second segments and a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Predicted exertion was highest in the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Exertion increased from beginning to end in all trials (p < .05). Session RPE values were highest for the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Findings suggest that interval protocols produce perceptions of effort that are lower than VC exercise but similar to MC exercise. These results help describe the perceptions of effort associated with continuous and interval exercise and suggest that interval exercise can be performed with lower perceived work, which may encourage increased participation.

  18. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  19. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  20. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  1. Risk factors predicting exertional heat illness in male Marine Corps recruits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Kark, J A; Karnei, K; Sanborn, J S; Gastaldo, E; Burr, P; Wenger, C B

    1996-08-01

    A matched population-based case-control study was conducted on exertional heat illness (EHI) in male Marine Corps recruits in basic training at Parris Island, SC. Physical fitness and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 391 of 528 cases of EHI identified in this population during 1988-1992, and 1467 of 1725 controls matched to cases by initial training platoon. The risk for developing EHI increased with increase in body mass index (BMI = weight.height-2) as measured on arrival and with increase in time to complete a 1.5-mile run conducted during the first week. Recruits at highest risk for developing exertional heat illness had a BMI of 22 or more kg.m-2 and a 1.5-mile run-time for 12 of more minutes. These recruits had an eightfold higher risk for developing exertional heat illness during basic training when compared with those with BMI less than 22 kg.m-2 and 1.5-mile run-time under 10 min (P < 10(-6). Only one-fifth (18%) of male recruits met these criteria for high risk, but they accounted for nearly half (47%) of the exertional heat illness cases occurring during the 12-wk basic training course.

  2. Saving the Seneca Outdoor Recreation Program: A Case Study in Exerting Political Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Clare

    1998-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the process of exerting political influence in faculty's systematic efforts to save the outdoor recreation program at Seneca College (Ontario). A chart and explanatory list present a seven-stage plan for influencing political decision-making. (SAS)

  3. Observational assessment of forceful exertion and the perceived force demands of daily activities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and precision with which analysts observe and estimate the force produced as subjects performed exertions on a work simulator. Eight analysts observed 32 subjects and estimated force as a percent of subjects' maximum voluntary contraction (% MVC). Analysts exhibited bias toward the mean, as high force exertions (> 67% MVC) were underestimated (mean: 11.6% MVC) and low force exertions (<34% MVC) were overestimated (mean: 6.7% MVC). Average error for medium force exertions (34-67% MVC) was not statistically different from zero (2.1% MVC). For all force levels, precision of the estimate was very poor (standard deviation range: 16.2-20.7% MVC). Experience of the analyst in performing ergonomic analysis did not affect accuracy. A secondary objective of the study was to conduct a survey in which subjects identified activities of daily living they perceived as equivalent to controlled force levels. A total of 59 different activities ranging from minimal force required to near maximum were listed by at least 5% of the participants. This list may be used to assist health care practitioners and patients convey the force demands required of occupational tasks as well as for evaluating the diminished strength of the patient.

  4. Reliability of Heart Rate Responses at Given Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Cycling and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsanos, Christos S.; Moffatt, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven healthy men (M age = 27 years, SD = 4) completed three cycling and three walking trials in an alternating order. During each trial, participants were allowed, within 3 min, to adjust the work rate to correspond to given rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values according to the following order: RPE 11, 13, and 15. For cycling as well as…

  5. Humans and Monkeys Exert Metacognitive Control Based on Learning Difficulty in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Redford (2010) found that monkeys seemed to exert metacognitive control in a category-learning paradigm. Specifically, they selected more trials to view as the difficulty of the category-learning task increased. However, category-learning difficulty was determined by manipulating the family resemblance across the to-be-learned exemplars.…

  6. Professional Preparation regarding the Recognition and Treatment of Exertional Heat Stroke: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence; Maresh, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Context: Current evidence suggests rectal temperature(T[subscript re] and cold-water immersion (CWI) are the most effective means to diagnose and treat exertional heat stroke (EHS), respectively. Educators, clinicians, and students should be apprised of this evidence to guide their practice. Objective: Investigate what athletic training students…

  7. Cardio-Respiratory and Perceived Exertion Responses to Different Cranking Rates during Maximal Arm Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    This study compared cardio-respiratory and perceived exertion responses for four cranking rates (50, 60, 70 and 80 rpm) during a continuous maximal arm ergometry protocol in order to determine the most efficient cranking rate for maximal testing. Fifteen male volunteers from 18-30 years of age performed a continuous arm ergometry stress test in…

  8. The effect of passive heating and face cooling on perceived exertion during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Armada-da-Silva, P A S; Woods, J; Jones, D A

    2004-05-01

    Increased body temperature is thought to be an important component of the higher perception of exertion that is a feature of fatigue during exercise in the heat but a causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. We have investigated the effect of passive heating on the perception of exertion during a standard bout of exercise and also assessed the effect of cooling the head on compensating for the increased body temperature on the feelings of exertion. Ten male subjects performed a 14-min cycling exercise [average power approximately 63% of maximum power output ( W(max))] at an ambient temperature of 35 degrees C at resting rectal temperature [mean (SD): 37.49 (0.27) degrees C; control (CON) trial] on one occasion, and after sitting in a sauna to raise rectal temperature [mean (SD): 38.95(0.13) degrees C; sauna (SAU) trial]. During the exercise, subjects reported their ratings of overall perceived exertion (RPE), perceived exertion of the legs (RPE(legs)) and thermal comfort (TC). A blood sample was collected by the end of the exercise for determination of plasma glucose, lactate and prolactin and haematocrit. RPE values were significantly elevated after passive heating [mean (SE): 14.5 (0.7) units in CON and 17.2 (0.5) units in SAU, at the end of exercise; P<0.001] as were the RPE(legs) ( P<0.01), while ratings of TC were similar in CON and SAU trials. Passive heating increased blood glucose ( P<0.05) but had no effect on lactate at the end of the exercise. Plasma prolactin was markedly elevated as a result of the sauna exposure [mean (SE): 1598 (152) versus 225 (31) mU l(-1) in SAU and CON trials, respectively; P<0.001]. Six of the subjects repeated the two trials but with the face cooled during exercise (trials CON(FAN) and SAU(FAN)) that was achieved by combining face fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cooled water. Face cooling decreased RPE values after sauna to a point that no differences between the two conditions existed. RPE(legs) scores and

  9. Exertion and body discomfort perceived symptoms associated with carpentry tasks: an on-site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dimov, M; Bhattacharya, A; Lemasters, G; Atterbury, M; Greathouse, L; Ollila-Glenn, N

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how carpenters subjectively perceived the exertion level and body discomfort associated with their daily tasks. Two psychophysical instruments were utilized. The Borg Whole Body Physical Exertion Instrument, a measure of overall physical demand, and the Body Segment instrument (modified Bishop-Corlett Scale), a measure of body discomfort, were given to 73 carpenters at the end of a shift. Carpentry specialties evaluated included ceiling, drywall, formwork, finishing work, pile driving, fixtures, welding, and scaffolding. The mean Borg's exertion score for the subjects combining all specialties was 14.4 (+/-2.51 standard deviation), a score between "somewhat hard" and "hard." The perception of whole body physical exertion appeared to be a consequence of the specific task. There was no significant correlation between whole body physical exertion perception and age or the number of years as a carpenter. The findings from the body discomfort scale for the total group indicated that the three primary discomfort frequencies by body segment were mid-to-lower back (65.8%), knees (45.2%), and the neck (28.8%). The next highest discomfort rating by body segment (back, knee, right wrist, right leg/foot, and right shoulder) for those subjects in the top three job specialties represented (drywall, ceiling, and formwork; n = 38) resulted in significantly higher ratings for back (60.5%) than right leg/foot (34.2%) and right shoulder (31.6%). All other body segment ratings were not significantly different from one another using Tukey's studentized range test.

  10. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A

    2014-01-07

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.

  11. Kinetic mixing at strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Kumar, Piyush; Malekian, Arada; Wecht, Brian

    2017-01-01

    A common feature of many string-motivated particle physics models is additional strongly coupled U (1 )'s. In such sectors, electric and magnetic states have comparable mass, and integrating out modes also charged under U (1 ) hypercharge generically yields C P preserving electric kinetic mixing and C P violating magnetic kinetic mixing terms. Even though these extra sectors are strongly coupled, we show that in the limit where the extra sector has approximate N =2 supersymmetry, we can use formal methods from Seiberg-Witten theory to compute these couplings. We also calculate various quantities of phenomenological interest such as the cross section for scattering between visible sector states and heavy extra sector states as well as the effects of supersymmetry breaking induced from coupling to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model.

  12. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in two approaches to the study of strong Langmuir turbulence is reported. In two spatial dimensions, numerical solution of the Zakharov equations yields a steady state involving linear growth, linear damping, and a collection of coherent, long-lived entities which might loosely be called solitons. In one spatial dimension, a statistical theory is applied to the cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation and is solved analytically in a special case.

  13. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in two approaches to the study of strong Langmuir turbulence is reported. In two spatial dimensions, numerical solution of the Zakharov equations yields a steady state involving linear growth, linear damping, and a collection of coherent, long-lived entities which might loosely be called solitons. In one spatial dimension, a statistical theory is applied to the cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation and is solved analytically in a special case.

  14. Flavour democracy in strong unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, S. A.; King, S. F.

    1998-09-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of ``strong unification''. Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged SU(3)LxSU(3)R family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  15. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  16. Tilts in strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.

    2006-01-01

    Most instruments used in seismological practice to record ground motion are pendulum seismographs, velocigraphs, or accelerographs. In most cases it is assumed that seismic instruments are only sensitive to the translational motion of the instrument's base. In this study the full equation of pendulum motion, including the inputs of rotations and tilts, is considered. It is shown that tilting the accelerograph's base can severely impact its response to the ground motion. The method of tilt evaluation using uncorrected strong-motion accelerograms was first suggested by Graizer (1989), and later tested in several laboratory experiments with different strong-motion instruments. The method is based on the difference in the tilt sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical pendulums. The method was applied to many of the strongest records of the Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake of 1994. Examples are shown when relatively large tilts of up to a few degrees occurred during strong earthquake ground motion. Residual tilt extracted from the strong-motion record at the Pacoima Dam-Upper Left Abutment reached 3.1?? in N45??E direction, and was a result of local earthquake-induced tilting due to high-amplitude shaking. This value is in agreement with the residual tilt measured by using electronic level a few days after the earthquake. The method was applied to the building records from the Northridge earthquake. According to the estimates, residual tilt reached 2.6?? on the ground floor of the 12-story Hotel in Ventura. Processing of most of the strongest records of the Northridge earthquake shows that tilts, if happened, were within the error of the method, or less than about 0.5??.

  17. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-01

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in "infinite" parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The "infinite" matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  18. Strongly magnetized classical plasma models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.; Peyraud, J.; Dewitt, C.

    1974-01-01

    Discrete particle processes in the presence of a strong external magnetic field were investigated. These processes include equations of state and other equilibrium thermodynamic relations, thermal relaxation phenomena, transport properties, and microscopic statistical fluctuations in such quantities as the electric field and the charge density. Results from the equilibrium statistical mechanics of two-dimensional plasmas are discussed, along with nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the electrostatic guiding-center plasma (a two-dimensional plasma model).

  19. Disordered strongly correlated electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javan Mard, Hossein

    Disorder can have a vast variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this dissertation we study the effects of quenched disorder on electronic systmens at zero temperature. First, we perform variational studies of the interaction-localization problem to describe the interaction-induced renormalizations of the effective (screened) random potential seen by quasiparticles. Here we present results of careful finite-size scaling studies for the conductance of disordered Hubbard chains at half-filling and zero temperature. While our results indicate that quasiparticle wave functions remain exponentially localized even in the presence of moderate to strong repulsive interactions, we show that interactions produce a strong decrease of the characteristic conductance scale g* signaling the crossover to strong localization. This effect, which cannot be captured by a simple renormalization of the disorder strength, instead reflects a peculiar non-Gaussian form of the spatial correlations of the screened disordered potential, a hitherto neglected mechanism to dramatically reduce the impact of Anderson localization (interference) effects. Second, we formulate a strong-disorder renormalization-group (SDRG) approach to study the beta function of the tight-binding model in one dimension with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder for states at the band center. We show that the SDRG method, when used to compute transport properties, yields exact results since it is identical to the transfer matrix method. The beta function is shown to be universal when only off-diagonal disorder is present even though single-parameter scaling is known to be violated. A different single-parameter scaling theory is formulated for this particular (particle-hole symmetric) case. Upon breaking particle-hole symmetry (by adding diagonal disorder), the beta function is shown to

  20. Strong interactive massive particles from a strong coupled theory

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Kouvaris, Chris

    2008-03-15

    Minimal walking technicolor models can provide a nontrivial solution for cosmological dark matter, if the lightest technibaryon is doubly charged. Technibaryon asymmetry generated in the early Universe is related to baryon asymmetry, and it is possible to create an excess of techniparticles with charge (-2). These excessive techniparticles are all captured by {sup 4}He, creating techni-O-helium tOHe atoms, as soon as {sup 4}He is formed in big bang nucleosynthesis. The interaction of techni-O-helium with nuclei opens new paths to the creation of heavy nuclei in big bang nucleosynthesis. Because of the large mass of technibaryons, the tOHe ''atomic'' gas decouples from the baryonic matter and plays the role of dark matter in large scale structure formation, while structures in small scales are suppressed. Nuclear interactions with matter slow down cosmic techni-O-helium in the Earth below the threshold of underground dark matter detectors, thus escaping severe cryogenic dark matter search constraints. On the other hand, these nuclear interactions are not sufficiently strong to exclude this form of strongly interactive massive particles by constraints from the XQC experiment. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are possible in the search for tOHe in balloon-borne experiments (or on the ground) and for its charged techniparticle constituents in cosmic rays and accelerators. The tOHe atoms can cause cold nuclear transformations in matter and might form anomalous isotopes, offering possible ways to exclude (or prove?) their existence.

  1. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.

    2006-04-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within

  2. Dynamics of strongly correlated and strongly inhomogeneous plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kählert, Hanno; Kalman, Gabor J; Bonitz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Kinetic and fluid equations are derived for the dynamics of classical inhomogeneous trapped plasmas in the strong coupling regime. The starting point is an extended Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander (STLS) ansatz for the dynamic correlation function, which is allowed to depend on time and both particle coordinates separately. The time evolution of the correlation function is determined from the second equation of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy. We study the equations in the linear limit and derive a nonlocal equation for the fluid displacement field. Comparisons to first-principles molecular dynamics simulations reveal an excellent quality of our approach thereby overcoming the limitations of the broadly used STLS scheme.

  3. Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion.

    PubMed

    Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J

    2009-08-28

    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  4. Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2009-08-01

    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  5. Prediction of maximal or peak oxygen uptake from ratings of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Coquart, Jérémy B; Garcin, Murielle; Parfitt, Gaynor; Tourny-Chollet, Claire; Eston, Roger G

    2014-05-01

    Maximal or peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max and V˙O2 peak , respectively) are commonly measured during graded exercise tests (GXTs) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), to prescribe exercise intensity and/or to evaluate the effects of training. However, direct measurement of CRF requires a GXT to volitional exhaustion, which may not always be well accepted by athletes or which should be avoided in some clinical populations. Consequently, numerous studies have proposed various sub-maximal exercise tests to predict V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak . Because of the strong link between ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and oxygen uptake (V˙O2), it has been proposed that the individual relationship between RPE and V˙O2 (RPE:V˙O2) can be used to predict V˙O2 max (or V˙O2 peak) from data measured during submaximal exercise tests. To predict V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak from these linear regressions, two procedures may be identified: an estimation procedure or a production procedure. The estimation procedure is a passive process in which the individual is typically asked to rate how hard an exercise bout feels according to the RPE scale during each stage of a submaximal GXT. The production procedure is an active process in which the individual is asked to self-regulate and maintain an exercise intensity corresponding to a prescribed RPE. This procedure is referred to as a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET). Recently, prediction of V˙O2max or V˙O2 peak from RPE:V˙O2 measured during both GXT and PRET has received growing interest. A number of studies have tested the validity, reliability and sensitivity of predicted V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak from RPE:V˙O2 extrapolated to the theoretical V˙O2 max at RPE20 (or RPE19). This review summarizes studies that have used this predictive method during submaximal estimation or production procedures in various populations (i.e., sedentary individuals, athletes and pathological populations). The accuracy of the methods is

  6. Numerical micromagnetism of strong inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Christian; Gliga, Sebastian; Hertel, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    The size of micromagnetic structures, such as domain walls or vortices, is comparable to the exchange length of the ferromagnet. Both, the exchange length of the stray field ls and the magnetocrystalline exchange length lk, are material-dependent quantities that usually lie in the nanometer range. This emphasizes the theoretical challenges associated with the mesoscopic nature of micromagnetism: the magnetic structures are much larger than the atomic lattice constant, but at the same time much smaller than the sample size. In computer simulations, the smallest exchange length serves as an estimate for the largest cell size admissible to prevent appreciable discretization errors. This general rule is not valid in special situations where the magnetization becomes particularly inhomogeneous. When such strongly inhomogeneous structures develop, micromagnetic simulations inevitably contain systematic and numerical errors. It is suggested to combine micromagnetic theory with a Heisenberg model to resolve such problems. We analyze cases where strongly inhomogeneous structures pose limits to standard micromagnetic simulations, arising from fundamental aspects as well as from numerical drawbacks.

  7. Strong dynamics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ittisamai, Pawin

    The limitations of the Standard Model of particle physics, despite its being a well-established theory, have prompted various proposals for new physics capable of addressing its shortcomings. The particular issue to be explored here is the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, the probing of which lies within the TeV-scale physics accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This thesis focuses on the phenomenology of a class of models featuring a dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry via strong dynamics. Consequences of recent experiments and aspects of near-future experiments are presented. We study the implications of the LHC Higgs searches available at the time the related journal article was written for technicolor models that feature colored technifermions. Then we discuss the properties of a technicolor model featuring strong-top dynamics that is viable for explaining the recently discovered boson of mass 126 GeV. We introduce a novel method of characterizing the color structure of a new massive vector boson, often predicted in various new physics models, using information that will be promptly available if it is discovered in the near-future experiments at the LHC. We generalize the idea for more realistic models where a vector boson has flavor non-universal couplings to quarks. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of probing the chiral structure of a new color-octet vector boson.

  8. Strong-Coupling Superconductivity. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalapino, D. J.; Schrieffer, J. R.; Wilkins, J. W.

    The pairing theory of superconductivity is extended to treat systems having strong electron-phonon coupling. In this regime the Landau quasiparticle approximation is invalid. In the theory we treat phonon and Coulomb interactions on the same basis and carry out the analysis using the nonzero-temperature Green's functions of the Nambu formalism. The generalized energy-gap equation thus obtained is solved (at T = 0°K) for a model which closely represents lead and the complex energy-gap parameter Δ(ω)) is plotted as a function of energy for several choices of phonon and Coulomb interaction strengths. An expression for the single-particle tunneling density of states is derived, which, when combined with Δ(ω), gives excellent agreement with experiment, if the phonon interaction strength is chosen to give the observed energy gap Δ0 at zero temperature. The tunneling experiments therefore give a detailed justification of the phonon mechanism of superconductivity and of the validity of the strong-coupling theory. In addition, by combining theory and the tunneling experiments, much can be learned about the electron-phon interaction and the phonon density of states. The theory is accurate to terms of order the square root of the electron-ion mass ratio, 10-2-10-3.

  9. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  10. Differentiated perceptions of exertion: part I. mode of integration of regional signals.

    PubMed

    Robertson, R J; Gillespie, R L; McCarthy, J; Rose, K D

    1979-12-01

    The mode of sensory integration of differentiated perceptions of exertion from the legs and chest was determined during sub-maximal cycle ergometer exercise. 50 male subjects performed three separate cycle ergometer tests. Power output was held constant at 840 kpm/min., while pedalling rate was randomly set at 40, 60, or 80 rpm. The over-all rating of perceived exertion was significantly lower than the rating for the legs and higher than that for the chest at each pedalling rate. Local signals from the legs dominated the sensory process. Central signals were less pronounced. The mean of the ratings for the legs and chest was slightly but significantly higher than the over-all rating at each pedalling rate. Therefore, the integration process at the superordinate level of sensory processing appeared as a weighted average of the involved regional signals.

  11. Interaction of some limbic structures which exert inhibitory effect on corticosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Perassi, N I

    1990-12-01

    The interaction between limbic structures which exert inhibitory influence on corticosterone secretion was investigated in the rat. The following experiments were performed: 1) electrical stimulation at mammillary medial nucleus (MMN) in rats with lesioned anterodrosal thalami nucleus (ADTN) or intermediate tegmental area; 2) electrical stimulation at ADTN in rats with lesioned retrosplenial cortex (RC). Bilateral stimulation at MMN in ADTN or RC-lesioned rats produces an increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. In animals with lesioned RC, values of plasma corticosterone after stimulation at ADTN were higher than before stimulation. Taking into consideration that electrical stimulation of MMN or ADTN in intact rats produces a decrease in plasma corticosterone concentration, these studies demonstrate that MMN and ADTN exert inhibitory influence on corticoadrenal activity only when their projection areas remain intact.

  12. Biomechanical analysis for handle stability during maximum push and pull exertions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of handle stability on maximum push/pull force. It was hypothesised that people apply force in directions deviated from the pure push/pull direction to generate a moment that assists producing greater push/pull force when the handle position is fixed (stable) compared to when it is not fixed (unstable). Eight healthy subjects performed maximum push and pull exertions on a stable and an unstable handle in a seated posture, while maximum push/pull force, vertical force and lateral force were recorded. For the unstable handle, vertical and lateral forces were not different from zero during push and pull. For the stable handle, subjects intuitively applied significant downward force during push and significant upward force during pull exertions. As predicted from biomechanical analysis, this downward and upward force was found to be significantly associated with increased push and pull force, respectively, for the stable handle compared to the unstable handle.

  13. A field test comparison of hiking stick use on heartrate and rating of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, B H; Wright, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heartrate carrying a load and rating of perceived exertion with and without hiking sticks while ascending and descending a slope. 11 novice, moderately fit volunteers, ages 18 to 21 years (M = 19.3 yr.) completed two alternate 50-meter, uphill and downhill hikes on a 40 degrees slope during randomly ordered trials with and without fitted hiking sticks and backpacks (15 kg). Paired t test comparisons for 4 trials indicated that mean heartrate was significantly lower only following the first ascent by those using hiking sticks than those without sticks. Rating of perceived exertion also was significantly lower (p < .05) for those using hiking sticks. Perhaps heartrate may be lower at the onset of climbing using hiking sticks, but as the duration the hike is extended, heartrates become comparable, presumably due to the transfer of energy utilization from the legs to the upper body.

  14. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted.

  15. Effect of Stimulant Medication Use by Children with ADHD on Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Horn, Mary P.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)--heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 [plus or minus] 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 [plus or minus] 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD…

  16. Determination of muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in Standardbred racehorses as an aid to predicting exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Rosa; Leleu, Claire; Fraipont, Audrey; Serteyn, Didier; Votion, Dominique-M

    2015-09-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluated the potential of high-resolution respirometry applied to permeabilized muscle fibers for fitness evaluation in French Standardbred racehorses. Fitness evaluation by means of respirometric parameters did not correlate with racing performance registered over the following racing season. However, altered mitochondrial energy metabolism was associated with higher risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis, a common cause of exercise intolerance in racehorses. These data represent a first step towards establishing reference values for muscle OXPHOS capacity in this breed.

  17. The Effect of Rocktape on Rating of Perceived Exertion and Cycling Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael G; Michael, Timothy J; Nicholson, Karrie S; Petro, Rebecca V; Hanson, Nicholas J; Prater, Daryl R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Rocktape (RT), a type of kinesiology tape, on perceived exertion and cycling efficiency. Eighteen recreational cyclists volunteered as subjects for this study. Four experimental conditions were used: (a) 60% VO2peak with RT, (b) 60% VO2peak without RT, (c) 80% VO2peak with RT, and (d) 80% VO2peak without RT. The Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used to evaluate subjective exertion during the cycling bouts. Overall RPE and leg, arm, and chest RPEs were obtained (RPE-O, RPE-L, RPE-A, and RPE-C, respectively). Gross cycling efficiency was determined by calculating the ratio of the amount of work performed to the energy expended. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to investigate the differences between the 2 intensities and 2 tape conditions. There were main effects of intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02) found for the RPE-O, with RPE-C showing similar results for intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02). Similar findings were present for the RPE-C, and main effects of intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02) were discovered. A significant main effect of intensity was found for efficiency (p = 0.03), with the 80% intensity condition showing a greater level of efficiency than the 60% intensity condition. However, the use of RT did not increase gross efficiency (p = 0.61). The main finding in this study was that subjects reported a lower level of exertion overall and at the chest, which may lead to increases in overall performance of these athletes. The use of RT before athletic events should not be discouraged.

  18. Bivalent Compound 17MN Exerts Neuroprotection through Interaction at Multiple Sites in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Chojnacki, Jeremy E; Wade, Emily E; Saathoff, John M; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    Multiple pathogenic factors have been suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The multifactorial nature of AD also suggests the potential use of compounds with polypharmacology as effective disease-modifying agents. Recently, we have developed a bivalent strategy to include cell membrane anchorage into the molecular design. Our results demonstrated that the bivalent compounds exhibited multifunctional properties and potent neuroprotection in a cellular AD model. Herein, we report the mechanistic exploration of one of the representative bivalent compounds, 17MN, in MC65 cells. Our results established that MC65 cells die through a necroptotic mechanism upon the removal of tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, we have shown that mitochondrial membrane potential and cytosolic Ca2+ levels are increased upon removal of TC. Our bivalent compound 17MN can reverse such changes and protect MC65 cells from TC removal induced cytotoxicity. The results also suggest that 17MN may function between the Aβ species and RIPK1 in producing its neuroprotection. Colocalization studies employing a fluorescent analog of 17MN and confocal microscopy demonstrated the interactions of 17MN with both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, thus suggesting that 17MN exerts its neuroprotection via a multiple-site mechanism in MC65 cells. Collectively, these results strongly support our original design rationale of bivalent compounds and encourage further optimization of this bivalent strategy to develop more potent analogs as novel disease-modifying agents for AD.

  19. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Nidovirus Replicative Endoribonuclease NendoU Exerts Pleiotropic Effects on the Arterivirus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Posthuma, Clara C.; Nedialkova, Danny D.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Blokhuis, Jeroen H.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Snijder, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    The highly conserved NendoU replicative domain of nidoviruses (arteriviruses, coronaviruses, and roniviruses) belongs to a small protein family whose cellular branch is prototyped by XendoU, a Xenopus laevis endoribonuclease involved in nucleolar RNA processing. Recently, sequence-specific in vitro endoribonuclease activity was demonstrated for the NendoU-containing nonstructural protein (nsp) 15 of several coronaviruses. To investigate the biological role of this novel enzymatic activity, we have characterized a comprehensive set of arterivirus NendoU mutants. Deleting parts of the NendoU domain from nsp11 of equine arteritis virus was lethal. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues exerted pleiotropic effects. In a first-cycle analysis, replacement of two conserved Asp residues in the C-terminal part of NendoU rendered viral RNA synthesis and virus production undetectable. In contrast, mutagenesis of other conserved residues, including two putative catalytic His residues that are absolutely conserved in NendoU and cellular homologs, produced viable mutants displaying reduced plaque sizes (20 to 80% reduction) and reduced yields of infectious progeny of up to 5 log units. A more detailed analysis of these mutants revealed a moderate reduction in RNA synthesis, with subgenomic RNA synthesis consistently being more strongly affected than genome replication. Our data suggest that the arterivirus nsp11 is a multifunctional protein with a key role in viral RNA synthesis and additional functions in the viral life cycle that are as yet poorly defined. PMID:16439522

  20. Interaction of natural killer cells with neutrophils exerts a significant antitumor immunity in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Ryosuke; Narumi, Kenta; Hashimoto, Hisayoshi; Miyakawa, Reina; Okusaka, Takuji; Aoki, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can induce a strong antitumor immunity by homeostatic proliferation (HP) of T cells and suppression of regulatory T cells following preconditioning-induced lymphopenia. However, the role of innate immunity including natural killer (NK) cells is still not understood. Here, first, we examined whether NK cells exert an antitumor effect after syngeneic HSCT in a murine colon cancer model. Flow cytometry showed that NK cells as well as T cells rapidly proliferated after HSCT, and the frequency of mature NK cells was increased in tumor during HP. Furthermore, NK cells undergoing HP were highly activated, which contributed to substantial tumor suppression. Then, we found that a large number of neutrophils accumulated in tumor early after syngeneic HSCT. It was recently reported that neutrophil-derived mediators modulate NK cell effector functions, and so we examined whether the neutrophils infiltrated in tumor are associated with NK cell-mediated antitumor effect. The depletion of neutrophils significantly impaired an activation of NK cells in tumor and increased the fraction of proliferative NK cells accompanied by a decrease in NK cell survival. The results suggested that neutrophils in tumor prevent NK cells from activation-induced cell death during HP, thus leading to a significant antitumor effect by NK cells. This study revealed a novel aspect of antitumor immunity induced by HSCT and may contribute to the development of an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer using HSCT.

  1. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sufen; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Cheng, Jian-Xin; Yang, Burton B; Peng, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.

  2. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Background It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. Objectives This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. Study design A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. Methods The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Results Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Conclusion Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. PMID:25138114

  3. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p < 0.05), theanine accentuated local processing (p < 0.05), and the combination did not differ from placebo. Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p < 0.05), theanine increased difference scores (p < 0.05), and the combination did not differ from placebo. Thus, under emotional arousal, caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  4. A Study of Exertional Headache’s Prevalence and Characteristics Among Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Tofangchiha, Shahnaz; Rabiee, Behnam; Mehrabi, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Headache is one of the most common complaints in today's society. Patterns and prevalence of headache, especially headaches associated with physical activity (Exertional Headache) in the population of conscripts in our country is unknown. Objectives In this cross sectional study we tried to answer these questions to some extent. Patients and Methods Using a Persian questionnaire based on international headache society criteria of headache types (ICHD-II) and a sample size of 300, filled by two trained medical doctors, we gathered our data and analyzed it with an acceptable P value of < 0.05 and a confidence interval of 95%. Results Headache prevalence among our conscript participants was 78.7%. The prevalence of exertional headache was 12.7%. EH sufferers’ mean age was 22.16 (SD: 2.60) years. EH was found more often bilaterally and almost equally pulsating or compressive. The main location of pain was frontotemporal region. The most common aggravating and alleviating factors of EH were hot environment and discontinuation of exercise respectively. Conclusions Our team provided a reasonable database of exertional headache and its characteristics in conscripts’ population which could be used in further investigations to improve their general health and function. PMID:27826395

  5. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Keith R.; Sherwood, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007a) compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevinson and Biddle, 1998). In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task) to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type) increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors) in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies, and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion. PMID:22102843

  6. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001) but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:26133125

  7. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-06-30

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001) but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  8. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  9. Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.

    PubMed

    Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine.

  10. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  11. Convergent evolution in European and Rroma populations reveals pressure exerted by plague on Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Laayouni, Hafid; Oosting, Marije; Luisi, Pierre; Ioana, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Trynka, Gosia; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Plantinga, Theo S.; Cheng, Shih-Chin; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Popp, Radu; Sood, Ajit; Thelma, B. K.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic history in which two populations with different genetic ancestry, Europeans and Rroma (Gypsies), have lived in the same geographic area and have been exposed to similar environments, including infections, during the last millennium. We identified several genes under evolutionary pressure in European/Romanian and Rroma/Gipsy populations, but not in a Northwest Indian population, the geographic origin of the Rroma. Genes in the immune system were highly represented among those under strong evolutionary pressures in Europeans, and infections are likely to have played an important role. For example, Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1)/TLR6/TLR10 gene cluster showed a strong signal of adaptive selection. Their gene products are functional receptors for Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, as shown by overexpression studies showing induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6 as one possible infection that may have exerted evolutionary pressures. Immunogenetic analysis showed that TLR1, TLR6, and TLR10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms modulate Y. pestis–induced cytokine responses. Other infections may also have played an important role. Thus, reconstruction of evolutionary history of European populations has identified several immune pathways, among them TLR1/TLR6/TLR10, as being shaped by convergent evolution in two human populations with different origins under the same infectious environment. PMID:24550294

  12. Convergent evolution in European and Rroma populations reveals pressure exerted by plague on Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Laayouni, Hafid; Oosting, Marije; Luisi, Pierre; Ioana, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Trynka, Gosia; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Plantinga, Theo S; Cheng, Shih-Chin; van der Meer, Jos W M; Popp, Radu; Sood, Ajit; Thelma, B K; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A B; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-02-18

    Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic history in which two populations with different genetic ancestry, Europeans and Rroma (Gypsies), have lived in the same geographic area and have been exposed to similar environments, including infections, during the last millennium. We identified several genes under evolutionary pressure in European/Romanian and Rroma/Gipsy populations, but not in a Northwest Indian population, the geographic origin of the Rroma. Genes in the immune system were highly represented among those under strong evolutionary pressures in Europeans, and infections are likely to have played an important role. For example, Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1)/TLR6/TLR10 gene cluster showed a strong signal of adaptive selection. Their gene products are functional receptors for Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, as shown by overexpression studies showing induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6 as one possible infection that may have exerted evolutionary pressures. Immunogenetic analysis showed that TLR1, TLR6, and TLR10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms modulate Y. pestis-induced cytokine responses. Other infections may also have played an important role. Thus, reconstruction of evolutionary history of European populations has identified several immune pathways, among them TLR1/TLR6/TLR10, as being shaped by convergent evolution in two human populations with different origins under the same infectious environment.

  13. Typhoons exert significant but differential impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange of subtropical mangrove forests in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

    2014-10-01

    Typhoons are very unpredictable natural disturbances to subtropical mangrove forests in Asian countries, but little information is available on how these disturbances affect ecosystem level carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of mangrove wetlands. In this study, we examined short-term effect of frequent strong typhoons on defoliation and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of subtropical mangroves, and also synthesized 19 typhoons during a 4-year period between 2009 and 2012 to further investigate the regulation mechanisms of typhoons on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes following typhoon disturbances. Strong wind and intensive rainfall caused defoliation and local cooling effect during the typhoon season. Daily total NEE values decreased by 26-50% following some typhoons (e.g., W28-Nockten, W35-Molave and W35-Lio-Fan), but significantly increased (43-131%) following typhoon W23-Babj and W38-Megi. The magnitudes and trends of daily NEE responses were highly variable following different typhoons, which were determined by the balance between the variances of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Furthermore, results from our synthesis indicated that the landfall time of typhoon, wind speed and rainfall were the most important factors controlling the CO2 fluxes following typhoon events. These findings indicate that different types of typhoon disturbances can exert very different effects on CO2 fluxes of mangrove ecosystems and that typhoon will likely have larger impacts on carbon cycle processes in subtropical mangrove ecosystems as the intensity and frequency of typhoons are predicted to increase under future global climate change scenarios.

  14. Quantitative trait loci mapping of the stigma exertion rate and spikelet number per panicle in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M H; Yu, P; Zhang, Y X; Sun, L P; Wu, W X; Shen, X H; Zhan, X D; Chen, D B; Cao, L Y; Cheng, S H

    2016-10-17

    The stigma exertion rate is a polygenic inherited trait that is important for increased seed yield in hybrid rice breeding. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with high stigma exertion rate, we conducted QTL mapping using 134 recombinant inbred lines derived from XieqingzaoB and Zhonghui9308, which have high and low stigma exertion rates, respectively. A total of eight QTLs (qSES6, qSSE11, qDSE1a, qDSE1b, qDSE10, qDSE11, qTSE1, and qTSE11) for single stigma exertion, double stigma exertion, and total stigma exertion were detected. The locations of qSSE11 and qTSE11 have not been previously reported, and the qDSE11 allele from parent XQZB exhibited a positive additive effect. In addition, three QTLs (qSNP1, qSNP3a, and qSNP3b), for spikelet number per panicle were identified. Of note, one QTL (qSNP1) was detected in two different environments (Hainan and Zhejiang). To evaluate the advantage of exerted stigma for cross-pollination, single, dual, and total stigma exertion should be considered separately for future genetic improvement in the production of rice hybrid seeds. In addition, this study provides information for fine mapping, gene cloning, and marker assisted selection, with emphasis on the latter.

  15. Strong Winds over the Keel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The latest ESO image reveals amazing detail in the intricate structures of one of the largest and brightest nebulae in the sky, the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372), where strong winds and powerful radiation from an armada of massive stars are creating havoc in the large cloud of dust and gas from which the stars were born. ESO PR Photo 05a/09 The Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05a/09 Pan over the Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05b/09 Carina Nebula Zoom-in The large and beautiful image displays the full variety of this impressive skyscape, spattered with clusters of young stars, large nebulae of dust and gas, dust pillars, globules, and adorned by one of the Universe's most impressive binary stars. It was produced by combining exposures through six different filters from the Wide Field Imager (WFI), attached to the 2.2 m ESO/MPG telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, in Chile. The Carina Nebula is located about 7500 light-years away in the constellation of the same name (Carina; the Keel). Spanning about 100 light-years, it is four times larger than the famous Orion Nebula and far brighter. It is an intensive star-forming region with dark lanes of cool dust splitting up the glowing nebula gas that surrounds its many clusters of stars. The glow of the Carina Nebula comes mainly from hot hydrogen basking in the strong radiation of monster baby stars. The interaction between the hydrogen and the ultraviolet light results in its characteristic red and purple colour. The immense nebula contains over a dozen stars with at least 50 to 100 times the mass of our Sun. Such stars have a very short lifespan, a few million years at most, the blink of an eye compared with the Sun's expected lifetime of ten billion years. One of the Universe's most impressive stars, Eta Carinae, is found in the nebula. It is one of the most massive stars in our Milky Way, over 100 times the mass of the Sun and about four million times brighter, making it the most luminous star known. Eta Carinae is highly

  16. The generation of torque in the horizontal plane at the foot-base during laterally directed manual exertions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, A T; Grieve, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms by which both translational forces and a turning moment in the horizontal plane at the foot-base are transmitted by the lower limb during laterally directed manual exertions. The first used a force plate to measure forces and moments exerted by the feet separately or together in order to investigate the contribution of each foot to the moment. The second examined the role of flexors and extensors of the hip, knee and ankle in the transmission of torque. The results suggest that approximately half of the moment is generated by each foot exerting a translational force at a distance from, and in the opposite direction to, the other. The other half is by each foot exerting an individual torque upon the floor. It is suggested that biomechanical models of asymmetric exertion should take these mechanisms into account. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8771404

  17. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  18. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines1, 2, 3, 4. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number5. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes6. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  19. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-09

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  20. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of ectoparasiticides against biting lice, sucking lice and sheep keds on ruminants.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, P A; Vercruysse, J; Rehbein, S; Peter, R J; Letonja, T; Green, P

    2006-02-28

    These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of ectoparasiticides against biting and sucking lice and sheep keds on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. These guidelines advocate the use of pen facilities for dose determination and dose confirmation studies for defining therapeutic and persistent efficacy. These guidelines are also intended to assist investigators on how to conduct specific experiments, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the world-wide adoption of standard procedures.

  1. Calcium transport in strongly calcifying laying birds: mechanisms and regulation.

    PubMed

    Bar, Arie

    2009-04-01

    Birds that lay long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"), among them the high-producing, strongly-calcifying Gallus gallus domesticus (domestic hen) and Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail), transfer about 10% of their total body calcium daily. They appear, therefore, to be the most efficient calcium-transporters among vertebrates. Such intensive transport imposes severe demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, and activates at least two extremely effective mechanisms for Ca2+ transfer from food and bone to the eggshell. This review focuses on the development, action and regulation of the mechanisms associated with paracellular and transcellular Ca2+ transport in the intestine and the eggshell gland (ESG); it also considers some of the proteins (calbindin, Ca2+ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, epithelial calcium channels (TRPVs), osteopontin and carbonic anhydrase (CA) associated with this phenomenon. Calbindins are discussed in some detail, as they appear to be a major component of the transcellular transport system, and as only they have been studied extensively in birds. The review aims to gather old and new knowledge, which could form a conceptual basis, albeit not a completely accepted one, for our understanding of the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. In the intestine, the transcellular pathway appears to compensate for low Ca2+ intake, but in birds fed adequate calcium the major drive for calcium absorption remains the electrochemical potential difference (ECPD) that facilitates paracellular transport. However, the mechanisms involved in Ca2+ transport into the ESG lumen are not yet established. In the ESG, the presence of Ca2+-ATPase and calbindin--two components of the transcellular transport pathway--and the apparently uphill transport of Ca2+ support the idea that Ca2+ is transported via the transcellular pathway. However, the positive (plasma with respect to mucosa) electrical potential difference (EPD) in the

  2. Relation between physical exertion and heart rate variability characteristics in professional cyclists during the Tour of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, C; Jurca, R; Church, T; Chicharro, J; Hoyos, J; Lucia, A

    2004-01-01

    TRIMPS/day accumulated in race stages 10–15. Total TRIMPS correlated with square root of mean squared differences of successive RR intervals (r = –0.93; p<0.001), standard deviation of the RR intervals (r = –0.94; p<0.001), log normalised total power (r = –0.97; p<0.001), log normalised low frequency power (r = –0.79; p<0.02), and log normalised high frequency power (r = –0.94; p<0.001). Conclusion: HRV may be strongly affected by chronic exposure to heavy exertion. Training volume and intensity are necessary to delineate the degree of these alterations. PMID:15388541

  3. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  4. The strong maximum principle revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  5. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.

  6. The effect of galactose ingestion on affect and perceived exertion in recreationally active females.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Lauren C; Backhouse, Susan H; Stevenson, Emma J

    2013-12-01

    The beneficial effects of acute carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on exercise performance have been well described. Also reported is the attenuation of perceived exertion and enhancement of affect during prolonged exercise following CHO ingestion. However, no studies to date have assessed the impact of the type of CHO ingested on affective responses during moderate intensity exercise, lasting 60 min or less. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of consuming a galactose (GAL) CHO drink versus a glucose (GLU) CHO or placebo (PLA) drink before and during exercise on affect and perceived exertion. Nine recreationally active females undertook three trials, each consisting of running for 60 min at 65% VO2max followed immediately by a 90 min rest period. Prior to (300 ml) and at every 15 min during exercise (150 ml), participants consumed either a GLU or GAL drink each containing 45 g of CHO, or an artificially-sweetened PLA drink. Ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation were measured throughout exercise and the rest period and measures of perceived exertion were measured during exercise. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were significantly greater throughout exercise and rest following the GLU trial compared with the GAL and PLA trials (P<0.05). Measures of perceived activation and pleasure-displeasure were not enhanced nor RPE reduced as a result of ingestion of a CHO solution. In conclusion, the GAL beverage elicited a more favourable metabolic profile in the exercising females but this did not translate into an enhanced affective profile. Indeed, CHO ingestion had no noticeable effect on the assessed psychological indices during 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise in females. It is suggested that the maintenance of a positive affective profile may be explained more by the level of hydration as opposed to fuel availability. Therefore, those seeking to use beverages containing CHO to enhance their exercise experience

  7. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine

    PubMed Central

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26–67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36–64] versus 32% [95% CI 18–46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64–90] versus 54% [95% CI 40–67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88–6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81–6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance. PMID:26557405

  8. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exertional heat illness during training and competition.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; Moran, Daniel S; Pyne, Scott W; Roberts, William O

    2007-03-01

    Exertional heat illness can affect athletes during high-intensity or long-duration exercise and result in withdrawal from activity or collapse during or soon after activity. These maladies include exercise associated muscle cramping, heat exhaustion, or exertional heatstroke. While certain individuals are more prone to collapse from exhaustion in the heat (i.e., not acclimatized, using certain medications, dehydrated, or recently ill), exertional heatstroke (EHS) can affect seemingly healthy athletes even when the environment is relatively cool. EHS is defined as a rectal temperature greater than 40 degrees C accompanied by symptoms or signs of organ system failure, most frequently central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and rapid cooling can reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with EHS. The clinical changes associated with EHS can be subtle and easy to miss if coaches, medical personnel, and athletes do not maintain a high level of awareness and monitor at-risk athletes closely. Fatigue and exhaustion during exercise occur more rapidly as heat stress increases and are the most common causes of withdrawal from activity in hot conditions. When athletes collapse from exhaustion in hot conditions, the term heat exhaustion is often applied. In some cases, rectal temperature is the only discernable difference between severe heat exhaustion and EHS in on-site evaluations. Heat exhaustion will generally resolve with symptomatic care and oral fluid support. Exercise associated muscle cramping can occur with exhaustive work in any temperature range, but appears to be more prevalent in hot and humid conditions. Muscle cramping usually responds to rest and replacement of fluid and salt (sodium). Prevention strategies are essential to reducing the incidence of EHS, heat exhaustion, and exercise associated muscle cramping.

  9. Application of the Repetitions in Reserve-Based Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, John; Storey, Adam; Zourdos, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION ARE A VALID METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE INTENSITY OF A RESISTANCE TRAINING EXERCISE OR SESSION. SCORES ARE GIVEN AFTER COMPLETION OF AN EXERCISE OR TRAINING SESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ATHLETE MONITORING. HOWEVER, A NEWLY DEVELOPED SCALE BASED ON HOW MANY REPETITIONS ARE REMAINING AT THE COMPLETION OF A SET MAY BE A MORE PRECISE TOOL. THIS APPROACH ADJUSTS LOADS AUTOMATICALLY TO MATCH ATHLETE CAPABILITIES ON A SET-TO-SET BASIS AND MAY MORE ACCURATELY GAUGE INTENSITY AT NEAR-LIMIT LOADS. THIS ARTICLE OUTLINES HOW TO INCORPORATE THIS NOVEL SCALE INTO A TRAINING PLAN. PMID:27531969

  10. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  11. [Unusual triggering circumstance of benign acute cerebral angiopathy; link with exertion cephalalgia?].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, S; Baron, J C

    1994-01-01

    Immediately following a scream of fear, a sixty-year old woman complained of severe bilateral headache which relapsed several times over the following month during exercise. There was no history of sympathomimetic drug intake. The work-up was normal save for minimal subarachnoid bleeding and the angiogram showed a disseminated "sausage-string" appearance over all cerebral arterial territories, without aneurysm. The unusual triggering event in this case and the subsequent recurrence of headache in relation to exercise lead us to discuss possible links between the clinical entity of "Isolated benign cerebral angiopathy" and exertional headache.

  12. Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible.

    PubMed

    Flouris, A D; Friesen, B J; Carlson, M J; Casa, D J; Kenny, G P

    2015-06-01

    Immediate treatment with cold water immersion (CWI) is the gold standard for exertional heatstroke. In the field, however, treatment is often delayed due to delayed paramedic response and/or inaccurate diagnosis. We examined the effect of treatment (reduction of rectal temperature to 37.5 °C) delays of 5, 20, and 40 min on core cooling rates in eight exertionally heat-stressed (40.0 °C rectal temperature) individuals. We found that rectal temperature was elevated above baseline (P < 0.05) at the end of all delay periods (5 min: 40.08 ± 0.32; 20 min: 39.92 ± 0.40; 40 min: 39.57 ± 0.29 °C). Mean arterial pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) below baseline (92 ± 1.8 mm Hg) after all delay periods (5 min: 75 ± 2.6; 20 min: 74 ± 1.7; 40 min: 70 ± 2.1 mm Hg; P > 0.05). Rectal core cooling rates were similar among conditions (5 min: 0.20 ± 0.01; 20 min: 0.17 ± 0.02; 40 min: 0.17 ± 0.01 °C/min; P > 0.05). The rectal temperature afterdrop following CWI was similar across conditions (5 min: 35.95; 20 min: 35.61; 40 min: 35.87 °C; P > 0.05). We conclude that the effectiveness of 2 °C CWI as a treatment for exertional heat stress remains high even when applied with a delay of 40 min. Therefore, our results support that CWI is the most appropriate treatment for exertional heatstroke as it is capable of quickly reversing hyperthermia even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay.

  13. The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton.

  14. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  15. Raw and thermally treated cement asbestos exerts different cytotoxicity effects on A549 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Lucarini, Guendalina; Rubini, Corrado; Smorlesi, Arianna; Tomasetti, Marco; Strafella, Elisabetta; Armeni, Tatiana; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2015-01-01

    Raw cement asbestos (RCA) undergoes a complete solid state transformation when heated at high temperatures. The secondary raw material produced, high temperatures-cement asbestos (HT-CA) is composed of newly-formed crystals in place of the asbestos fibers present in RCA. Our previous study showed that HT-CA exerts lower cytotoxic cell damage compared to RCA. Nevertheless further investigations are needed to deepen our understanding of pathogenic pathways involving oxidative and nitrative damage. Our aim is to deepen the understanding of the biological effects on A549 cells of these materials regarding DNA damage related proteins (p53, its isoform p73 and TRAIL) and nitric oxide (NO) production during inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated inflammation. Increments of p53/p73 expression, iNOS positive cells and NO concentrations were found with RCA, compared to HT-CA and controls mainly at 48 h. Interestingly, ferrous iron causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage was found in RCA as a contaminant. HT-CA thermal treatment induces a global recrystallization with iron in a crystal form poorly released in media. HT-CA slightly interferes with genome expression and exerts lower inflammatory potential compared to RCA on biological systems. It could represent a safe approach for storing or recycling asbestos and an environmentally friendly alternative to asbestos waste.

  16. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Michele; Carabalona, Roberta; Petrilli, Silvia; Sibilla, Paolo; Negrini, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from the pad") in different positions (sitting, supine, on all fours). Main outcome measure Pressure detected by the F-Socket System between the rib hump and the pad of the brace. Results In static and dynamic conditions, the position adopted did not alter the total pressure exerted by the brace, although the part of the sensor stimulated did vary. Kyphotization and rotation exercises produced a significant increase of pressure (+ 58.9% and +29.8%, respectively); however, the "escape from the pad" exercise, despite its name, did not produce any significant variation of pressure. Conclusion Exercises in the brace allow adjunctive forces to be applied on soft tissues and through them, presumably on the spine. Different exercises can be chosen to obtain different actions. Physical exercises and sporting activities are useful in mechanical terms, although other important actions should not be overlooked. PMID:16859544

  17. Mechanical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Changes Following Eccentric or Concentric Exertions

    PubMed Central

    Sesto, Mary E.; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Block, Walter F.; Radwin, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prior work has shown that changes in mechanical parameters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters occur following submaximal eccentric activity but it is unclear whether similar changes occur following submaximal concentric activity. This study compared mechanical response parameters and MRI relaxation parameters following submaximal concentric or eccentric exertions. Methods This single site, randomized study investigated in-vivo changes in human upper limb dynamic mechanical properties following exposure to short term repetitive submaximal eccentric or concentric exertions. Eighteen subjects were assigned to either an eccentric or concentric group and exercised for 30 minutes at 50% of isometric forearm maximum voluntary contraction. Changes in strength, symptom intensity, MRI T2 relaxation measurements, which are indicative of edema, and dynamic mechanical parameters (stiffness, effective mass, and damping) were ascertained prior to exercise, one hour after, and 24 hours later. Findings Strength decreased following exercise (P < 0.01), however only the eccentric exercise group exhibited a reduction in mechanical stiffness (55%, P <0.01) and damping (31%, P < 0.05), and an increase (17%, P < 0.05) in MRI T2 relaxation time. Interpretations The changes in mechanical parameters and MRI findings following repetitive submaximal eccentric activity could negatively impact the ability of the arm to react to rapid forceful loading during repetitive industrial work activities and may result in increased strain on the upper limb. Similar changes were not observed following concentric exercise. PMID:18485551

  18. Activity Exerted by a Testosterone Derivative on Myocardial Injury Using an Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia-Alcocer; Monica, Velázquez-Sarabia Betty

    2014-01-01

    Some reports indicate that several steroid derivatives have activity at cardiovascular level; nevertheless, there is scarce information about the activity exerted by the testosterone derivatives on cardiac injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Analyzing these data, in this study, a new testosterone derivative was synthetized with the objective of evaluating its effect on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model. In addition, perfusion pressure and coronary resistance were evaluated in isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Additionally, molecular mechanism involved in the activity exerted by the testosterone derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in the absence or presence of the following compounds: flutamide, prazosin, metoprolol, nifedipine, indomethacin, and PINANE TXA2. The results showed that the testosterone derivative significantly increases (P = 0.05) the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated heart. Other data indicate that the testosterone derivative increases left ventricular pressure in a dose-dependent manner (0.001–100 nM); however, this phenomenon was significantly inhibited (P = 0.06) by indomethacin and PINANE-TXA2  (P = 0.05) at a dose of 1 nM. In conclusion, these data suggest that testosterone derivative induces changes in the left ventricular pressure levels through thromboxane receptor activation. PMID:24839599

  19. Fruit extract of the medicinal plant Crataegus oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ana Paula Oliveira; Mazzeo, Dania Elisa Christofoletti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2017-02-17

    Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. Genotoxicity analysis showed that the extract produced no marked genotoxic effects at concentrations of 2.5 or 5 µg/ml in either cell type; however, at concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher significant DNA damage was detected. The micronucleus test also demonstrated that concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher produced clastogenic/aneugenic responses. In the Ames test, the extract induced mutagenic effects in TA98 strain of S. typhimurium with metabolic activation at all tested concentrations (2.5 to 500 µg/ml). Data indicate that, under certain experimental conditions, the fruit extract of C. oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in cultured human cells, and with metabolism mutagenicity occurs in bacteria cells.

  20. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-03-12

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain.

  1. Inner dialogue and its relationship to perceived exertion during different running intensities.

    PubMed

    Aitchison, Callum; Turner, Louise A; Ansley, Les; Thompson, Kevin G; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the effect of low- and high-intensity running on cognitive thoughts (an individual's "inner dialogue") and its relationship to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Cognitive thoughts and RPE of eight runners were collected during a 40-min. treadmill run at either a low (50% peak running speed) or a high (70% peak running speed) exercise intensity. Runners were asked to place their thoughts into one of 10 themed categories, which incorporated a broad association/dissociation classification (Schomer, 1986, 1987). At a low intensity and RPE (6-10), runners reported more dissociative thoughts, while at a high intensity and RPE (16-20) they reported more associative thoughts. Further, although the runners may report a particular RPE, the inner dialogue and description of perceived exertion and fatigue may be markedly different. These findings suggest that an athlete's "internal dialogue" is intensity dependent, and may relate to the more urgent need to self-monitor physical changes and sensations during high-intensity running.

  2. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  3. Validation of a personalized curved muscle model of the lumbar spine during complex dynamic exertions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jaejin; Knapik, Gregory G; Dufour, Jonathan S; Best, Thomas M; Khan, Safdar N; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S

    2017-01-09

    Previous curved muscle models have typically examined their robustness only under simple, single-plane static exertions. In addition, the empirical validation of curved muscle models through an entire lumbar spine has not been fully realized. The objective of this study was to empirically validate a personalized biologically-assisted curved muscle model during complex dynamic exertions. Twelve subjects performed a variety of complex lifting tasks as a function of load weight, load origin, and load height. Both a personalized curved muscle model as well as a straight-line muscle model were used to evaluate the model's fidelity and prediction of three-dimensional spine tissue loads under different lifting conditions. The curved muscle model showed better model performance and different spinal loading patterns through an entire lumbar spine compared to the straight-line muscle model. The curved muscle model generally showed good fidelity regardless of lifting condition. The majority of the 600 lifting tasks resulted in a coefficient of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.8 with an average of 0.83, and the average absolute error less than 15% between measured and predicted dynamic spinal moments. As expected, increased load and asymmetry were generally found to significantly increase spinal loads, demonstrating the ability of the model to differentiate between experimental conditions. A curved muscle model would be useful to estimate precise spine tissue loads under realistic circumstances. This precise assessment tool could aid in understanding biomechanical causal pathways for low back pain.

  4. Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion during 20 minutes of moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, J A; Schroeder, J M; Goff, K L

    2000-12-01

    The effects of different types of music on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during 20 min. of moderate intensity exercise were examined. 27 physically active subjects (age 18-30 yr.) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to establish peak aerobic power (VO2peak). Four 20-min. exercise sessions were performed at a power output equal to 70% of VO2peak in a soundproof visually sterile room. The sessions were randomly assigned from the conditions of fast upbeat music, classical music, self-selected music, and no music. Heart rate, peripheral RPE, central RPE, and overall RPE were measured every 5 min. during exercise. No significant differences were found in heart rate among the four conditions indicating similar exercise intensity during each condition. Each type of music resulted in a reduced peripheral, central, and overall RPE when compared with the no-music condition. The data indicate that different types of music can act as an effective passive distractor during exercise and are associated with lower ratings of perceived exertion.

  5. Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Exerts Anti-Atherogenic Effects by Inhibiting RAGE Signaling in Diabetic Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jihwa; An, Shung Hyun; Kang, Sang Won; Kwon, Kihwan

    2016-01-01

    A naturally occurring bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is known to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the cellular level. However, the detailed action mechanisms of UDCA in atherosclerosis are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated whether UDCA exerts anti-atherogenic activity in diabetic atherosclerosis by targeting ER stress and “receptor for advanced glycation endproduct” (RAGE) signaling. UDCA markedly reduced ER stress, RAGE expression, and pro-inflammatory responses [including NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production] induced in endothelial cells (ECs) by high glucose (HG). In particular, UDCA inhibited HG-induced ROS production by increasing the Nrf2 level. In macrophages, UDCA also blocked HG-induced RAGE and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and inhibited foam cell formation via upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. In the diabetic mouse model, UDCA inhibited atheromatous plaque formation by decreasing ER stress, and the levels of RAGE and adhesion molecules. In conclusion, UDCA exerts an anti-atherogenic activity in diabetic atherosclerosis by targeting both ER stress and RAGE signaling. Our work implicates UDCA as a potential therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis. PMID:26807573

  6. Absence of exertional hyperthermia in a 17-year-old boy with severe burns.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Lee, Jong O; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2009-01-01

    An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia=body core temperature>39 degrees C) during exercise. We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31 degrees C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17-year-old boy with a 99% TBSA burn. A 30-minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured before, during, and postexercise. The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30-minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 degrees C and increased 0.69 degrees C during exercise. After exercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature; however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low-fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he was forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia.

  7. Adenovirus with p16 gene exerts antitumor effect on laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengang; Hu, Jingxia; Li, Dajun; Pan, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer is an uncommon form of cancer. The tumor suppressor P16, known to be mutated or deleted in various types of human tumor, including laryngeal carcinoma, is involved in the formation and development of laryngeal carcinoma. It has been previously reported that the inactivation or loss of P16 is associated with the acquisition of malignant characteristics. The current study hypothesized that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16‑null malignant Hep2 cells may exert an antitumor effect. A recombinant adenovirus carrying the P16 gene (Ad‑P16) was used to infect and express high levels of P16 protein in P16‑null Hep2 cells. Cell proliferation and invasion assays and polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effects of the P16 gene on cell proliferation and the antitumor effect on Hep2 cells. The results demonstrated that the Hep2 cells infected with Ad‑P16 exhibited significantly reduced cell proliferation, invasion and tumor volume compared with untreated or control adenovirus cells. Furthermore, the expression of laryngeal carcinoma‑associated genes, EGFR, survivin and cyclin D1, were measured in Ad‑P16‑infected cells and were significantly reduced compared with control groups. The results of the current study demonstrate that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16-null Hep2 cells exerts an antitumor effect.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Exerts Anti-Atherogenic Effects by Inhibiting RAGE Signaling in Diabetic Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jihwa; An, Shung Hyun; Kang, Sang Won; Kwon, Kihwan

    2016-01-01

    A naturally occurring bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is known to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the cellular level. However, the detailed action mechanisms of UDCA in atherosclerosis are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated whether UDCA exerts anti-atherogenic activity in diabetic atherosclerosis by targeting ER stress and "receptor for advanced glycation endproduct" (RAGE) signaling. UDCA markedly reduced ER stress, RAGE expression, and pro-inflammatory responses [including NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production] induced in endothelial cells (ECs) by high glucose (HG). In particular, UDCA inhibited HG-induced ROS production by increasing the Nrf2 level. In macrophages, UDCA also blocked HG-induced RAGE and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and inhibited foam cell formation via upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. In the diabetic mouse model, UDCA inhibited atheromatous plaque formation by decreasing ER stress, and the levels of RAGE and adhesion molecules. In conclusion, UDCA exerts an anti-atherogenic activity in diabetic atherosclerosis by targeting both ER stress and RAGE signaling. Our work implicates UDCA as a potential therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis.

  9. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity.

  10. Activity exerted by a testosterone derivative on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia-Alcocer; Monica, Velázquez-Sarabia Betty

    2014-01-01

    Some reports indicate that several steroid derivatives have activity at cardiovascular level; nevertheless, there is scarce information about the activity exerted by the testosterone derivatives on cardiac injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Analyzing these data, in this study, a new testosterone derivative was synthetized with the objective of evaluating its effect on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model. In addition, perfusion pressure and coronary resistance were evaluated in isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Additionally, molecular mechanism involved in the activity exerted by the testosterone derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in the absence or presence of the following compounds: flutamide, prazosin, metoprolol, nifedipine, indomethacin, and PINANE TXA2. The results showed that the testosterone derivative significantly increases (P = 0.05) the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated heart. Other data indicate that the testosterone derivative increases left ventricular pressure in a dose-dependent manner (0.001-100 nM); however, this phenomenon was significantly inhibited (P = 0.06) by indomethacin and PINANE-TXA2  (P = 0.05) at a dose of 1 nM. In conclusion, these data suggest that testosterone derivative induces changes in the left ventricular pressure levels through thromboxane receptor activation.

  11. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    From 1999 through 2013, there were 1,406 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 to 2010 but decreased by 59 percent from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, there were fewer incident cases (n=73) than in any of the previous 9 years. The recent decrease in overall rates reflects sharply declining rates in the Marine Corps and slight decreases in the other Services. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 15-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, recruit trainees, and "other" military occupations. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather.

  12. The BET bromodomain inhibitor exerts the most potent synergistic anticancer effects with quinone-containing compounds and anti-microtubule drugs

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Faraz; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Telfer, Thomas J.; Sun, Yuting; Zhang, Lihong; Yu, Denise; Mccarroll, Joshua; Liu, Bing; Yang, Rui H.; Guo, Xiang Y.; Tee, Andrew E.; Itoh, Ken; Wang, Jenny; Kavallaris, Maria; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D.; Cheung, Belamy B.; Byrne, Jennifer A.; Ziegler, David S.; Marshall, Glenn M.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Codd, Rachel; Zhang, Xu D.; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    BET bromodomain inhibitors are very promising novel anticancer agents, however, single therapy does not cause tumor regression in mice, suggesting the need for combination therapy. After screening a library of 2697 small molecule compounds, we found that two classes of compounds, the quinone-containing compounds such as nanaomycin and anti-microtubule drugs such as vincristine, exerted the best synergistic anticancer effects with the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in neuroblastoma cells. Mechanistically, the quinone-containing compound nanaomycin induced neuroblastoma cell death but also activated the Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathway, and the BET bromodomain proteins BRD3 and BRD4 formed a protein complex with Nrf2. Treatment with JQ1 blocked the recruitment of Nrf2 to the antioxidant responsive elements at Nrf2 target gene promoters, and JQ1 exerted synergistic anticancer effects with nanaomycin by blocking the Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathway. JQ1 and vincristine synergistically induced neuroblastoma cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, aberrant mitotic spindle assembly formation and apoptosis, but showed no effect on cell survival in normal non-malignant cells. Importantly, co-treatment with JQ1 and vincristine synergistically suppressed tumor progression in neuroblastoma-bearing mice. These results strongly suggest that patients treated with BET bromodomain inhibitors in clinical trials should be co-treated with vincristine. PMID:27764794

  13. Commercially-cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas) exert top-down control on intertidal pelagic resources in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, Elizabeth; Ruesink, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    The capacity of filter feeders to reduce seston and phytoplankton concentrations in the water column has important implications for restoration and management of coastal ecosystems. We directly measured changes in chlorophyll a concentration on commercially stocked intertidal oyster beds (Crassostrea gigas) in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA by recording water properties near small drifters as they tracked parcels of water across tide flats. Chlorophyll declined 9.6% per half hour in water passing on-bottom adult oysters and 41% for longline adult oysters, whereas chlorophyll concentrations increased as water flowed across tide flats without adult oysters. Field filtration rates, which were fit to exponential declines in chlorophyll and accounted for oyster density and water depth, averaged 0.35 L g- 1 h- 1 (shucked dry weight) for on-bottom aquaculture and 0.73 L g- 1 h- 1 for longline culture, compared to values of 2.5-12 L g- 1 h- 1 reported from laboratory studies of C. gigas. Field filtration rates may be lower than laboratory rates due to unfavorable field conditions (e.g., low initial chlorophyll concentrations) or masked by resuspension of benthic microalgae. In addition to distinctions among on-bottom, longline, and no-oyster habitats, Akaike's Information Criterion analysis showed temperature, initial chlorophyll concentration, and depth related to chlorophyll decline. This research corroborates mathematical models suggesting that benthic suspension feeders are exerting top-down control of pelagic production in this estuary, with strong patterns in chlorophyll emerging across extensive tideflats populated by C. gigas despite low field filtration rates.

  14. Arabidopsis NAC Transcription Factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 Exerts Conserved Control Over Gibberellin and Brassinosteroid Metabolism and Signaling Genes in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Allu, Annapurna D.; Mehterov, Nikolay; Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.; Alseekh, Saleh; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (AtJUB1) regulates growth by directly repressing GA3ox1 and DWF4, two key genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, respectively, leading to GA and BR deficiency phenotypes. AtJUB1 also reduces the expression of PIF4, a bHLH transcription factor that positively controls cell elongation, while it stimulates the expression of DELLA genes, which are important repressors of growth. Here, we extend our previous findings by demonstrating that AtJUB1 induces similar GA and BR deficiency phenotypes and changes in gene expression when overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Importantly, and in accordance with the growth phenotypes observed, AtJUB1 inhibits the expression of growth-supporting genes, namely the tomato orthologs of GA3ox1, DWF4 and PIF4, but activates the expression of DELLA orthologs, by directly binding to their promoters. Overexpression of AtJUB1 in tomato delays fruit ripening, which is accompanied by reduced expression of several ripening-related genes, and leads to an increase in the levels of various amino acids (mostly proline, β-alanine, and phenylalanine), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and major organic acids including glutamic acid and aspartic acid. The fact that AtJUB1 exerts an inhibitory effect on the GA/BR biosynthesis and PIF4 genes but acts as a direct activator of DELLA genes in both, Arabidopsis and tomato, strongly supports the model that the molecular constituents of the JUNGBRUNNEN1 growth control module are considerably conserved across species. PMID:28326087

  15. Maximal dynamic grip force and wrist torque: the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity, and wrist angle.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jonathan L; Jung, Myung-Chul; Bashford, Gregory R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity and wrist angle on simultaneous grip force and wrist torque under the isokinetic condition. The study used 20 participants (10 males and 10 females) and included 6 angular velocities (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees /s) and 2 wrist exertion directions (flexion and extension) over the wrist range of motion of 70 degrees flexion to 60 degrees extension in 5 degrees increments. Similar to other studies, males and flexion exertion produced larger forces than females and extension exertion, respectively. However, the largest forces were generated at near extreme flexion of the wrist and the dependent variable of angular velocity was not practically significant. These results can contribute to the evaluation of cumulative trauma syndromes, but there is a need for more research on the dynamic measures of the hand and wrist complex and for standard development for dynamic force measurement.

  16. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong; Jin, Shao-Bo; Han, Liwei; Lendahl, Urban; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  17. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kawabata, Hisashi; Ito, Takashi; Mera, Kentaro; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Tancharoen, Salunya; Higashi, Yuko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2008-12-12

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and it was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.

  18. Perceived exertion and muscle efficiency in Parkinson's disease: L-DOPA effects.

    PubMed

    LeWitt, P A; Bharucha, A; Chitrit, I; Takis, C; Patil, S; Schork, M A; Pichurko, B

    1994-10-01

    Weakness, easy fatiguing, and lack of endurance are commonly perceived by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the slowed motor repertoire in PD may underlie these experiences, other abnormalities in skeletal muscle utilization also may be involved. We investigated whether an index of metabolic efficiency during a continuous exercise task, the latency until anaerobic threshold (AT), is altered by L-DOPA (LD). While pedalling a bicycle ergometer against a uniform workload, subjects were monitored for expired O2 and CO2. As compared to an unmedicated state, LD treatment delayed AT by a mean (+/-SE) of 5.67 +/- 0.89 to 6.62 +/- 1.23 min (p < 0.05), paired t test). Subjects did not differ in their perceived exertion upon reaching AT. With relief of parkinsonism by LD, the efficiency of energy utilization is also increased in exercised skeletal muscle.

  19. Locked-in syndrome caused by the pressure exerted by the sound gun.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ayse Belin; Demirel, Ismail; Bayar, Mustafa K; Gunduz, Gulay; Tokdemir, Mehmet

    2014-11-01

    A 19-year-old male patient who wounded himself with a gun in the cranial region had a Glasgow coma scale of 3E. At posttraumatic day 7, locked-in syndrome was considered upon detection of vertical eye movements, meaningful winks, and quadriplegia. Apart from the classical view, computed tomography (CT) and postmortem examination of the brain showed an infarct area in the cerebellum. However, vertebrobasilar artery system was normal. In this case report, we would like to present that unlike cases with ischemia, specific CT findings may not be evident in posttraumatic cases and ischemia may occur in the cerebellum as a result of the pressure exerted by a sound gun.

  20. Statins can exert dual, concentration dependent effects on HCV entry in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Le, Quoc-Tuan; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Statins are used daily by a large and increasing number of individuals worldwide. They were initially designed as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) inhibitors to treat patients with hypercholesterolemia. Recent studies on HCV chronically infected individuals have suggested that their use in vivo in combination with PEG-IFN and ribavirin favor the sustained viral response (SVR). Herein, we describe the effects of a set of statins on HCV entry and on HCV key entry factors in vitro. Our results suggest that all tested statins exert a proviral effect through the upregulation of LDLR. Interestingly, at higher concentration, we also provide evidence of a yet unknown competing antiviral effect of statins (except for pravastatin) through the downregulation of CLDN-1. Importantly, this work enlightens the blunt proviral effect of pravastatin at the entry step of HCV in vitro.

  1. Imaging the traction stresses exerted by locomoting cells with the elastic substratum method.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M; Oliver, T; Ishihara, A; Jacobson, K

    1996-01-01

    The cytoskeletal activity of motile or adherent cells is frequently seen to induce detectable displacements of sufficiently compliant substrata. The physics of this phenomenon is discussed in terms of the classical theory of small-strain, plane-stress elasticity. The main results of such analysis is a transform expressing the displacement field of the elastic substrate as an integral over the traction field. The existence of this transform is used to derive a Bayesian method for converting noisy measurements of substratum displacement into "images" of the actual traction forces exerted by adherent or locomoting cells. Finally, the Monte Carlo validation of the statistical method is discussed, some new rheological studies of films are presented, and a practical application is given. PMID:8785360

  2. Phloretin exerts hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and improves insulin resistance in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin; Zhou, Nan; Mi, Le; Hu, Zishuo; Wang, Libin; Liu, Xueying; Zhang, Shengyong

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the possible antiobesity and hypoglycemic effects of phloretin (Ph). In an attempt to discover the hypoglycemic effect and potential mechanism of Ph, we used the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and (L6) myotubes. Daily oral treatment with Ph for 4 weeks significantly (P<0.05) reduced postprandial blood glucose and improved islet injury and lipid metabolism. Glucose consumption and glucose tolerance were improved by Ph via GOD–POD method. Western blot results revealed that the expression of Akt, PI3K, IRS-1, and GLUT4 were upregulated in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats and in L6 myotubes by Ph. The immunofluorescence studies confirmed that Ph improved the translocation of GLUT4 in L6 myotubes. Ph exerted hypoglycemic effects in vivo and in vitro, hence it may play an important role in the management of diabetes. PMID:28223777

  3. Riluzole exerts central and peripheral modulating effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Steve; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi; Cheah, Benjamin C; Murray, Jenna; Menon, Parvathi; Krishnan, Arun V; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Riluzole, a benzothiazole derivative, has been shown to be effective in prolonging survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mechanisms by which riluzole exerts neuroprotective effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains to be fully elucidated, although inhibition of glutamatergic transmission and modulation of Na+ channel function have been proposed. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which riluzole exerts neuroprotective effects, in particular to dissect the relative contributions of inhibition of glutamatergic transmission and Na+ channel modulation, the present study utilized a combination of cortical and peripheral axonal excitability approaches to monitor changes in excitability and function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical assessment was undertaken by utilising the threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique and combined with peripheral axonal excitability studies in 25 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Studies were performed at baseline and repeated when patients were receiving riluzole 100 mg/day. At the time of second testing all patients were tolerating the medication well. Motor evoked potential and compound muscle action potential responses were recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. At baseline, features of cortical hyperexcitability were evident in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicated by marked reduction in short interval intracortical inhibition (P < 0.001) and cortical silent period duration (P < 0.001), as well as an increase in the motor evoked potential amplitude (P < 0.01). Riluzole therapy partially normalized cortical excitability by significantly increasing short interval intracortical inhibition (short interval intracortical inhibitionbaseline 0.5 ± 1.8%; short interval intracortical inhibitionON riluzole 7.9 ± 1.7%, P < 0.01). In contrast, riluzole did not exert any modulating effect on cortical silent period duration (P = 0

  4. Coenzyme Q10 Administration Increases Brain Mitochondrial Concentrations and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Russell T.; Yang, Lichuan; Browne, Susan; Baik, Myong; Flint Beal, M.

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain as well as a potent free radical scavenger in lipid and mitochondrial membranes. Feeding with coenzyme Q10 increased cerebral cortex concentrations in 12- and 24-month-old rats. In 12-month-old rats administration of coenzyme Q10 resulted in significant increases in cerebral cortex mitochondrial concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 markedly attenuated striatal lesions produced by systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid and significantly increased life span in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results show that oral administration of coenzyme Q10 increases both brain and brain mitochondrial concentrations. They provide further evidence that coenzyme Q10 can exert neuroprotective effects that might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Construct and concurrent validation of OMNI-Kayak rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Perandini, Luiz A; Okuno, Nilo M; Borges, Thiago O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Robertson, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study tested the concurrent and construct validity of a newly developed OMNI-Kayak Scale, testing 8 male kayakers who performed a flatwater load-incremented "shuttle" test over a 500-m course and 3 estimation-production trials over a 1,000-m course. Velocity, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), using the OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale and the Borg 6-20 Scale were recorded. OMNI-Kayak Scale RPE was highly correlated with velocity, the Borg 6-20 Scale RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate for both load-incremented test (rs = .87-.96), and estimation trials (rs = .75-.90). There were no significant differences among velocities, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between estimation and production trials. The OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale showed concurrent and construct validity in assessing perception of effort in flatwater kayaking and is a valid tool for self-regulation of exercise intensity.

  6. Analysis of stimuli triggering attacks of paroxysmal dystonia induced by exertion

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, B; Irlbacher, K; Meierkord, H

    2001-01-01

    In a patient with a familial form of paroxysmal exertion induced dyskinesia (PED), the efficacy of different stimuli and manoeuvres in triggering dystonic attacks in the arm was studied. As a new approach, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex was used to trigger motor paroxysms and to monitor cortical excitability during attacks. Motor paroxysms could be provoked by muscle vibration, passive movements, TMS, magnetic stimulation of the brachial plexus, and electrical nerve stimulation. Sham stimulation over the motor cortex and thermal and tactile cutaneous stimuli were ineffective in triggering attacks. It is concluded that dystonic attacks are triggered by proprioceptive afferents rather than cutaneous stimuli or the descending motor command itself. Outside the attacks, motor cortical excitatory and inhibitory neuronal mechanisms as assessed by TMS (response threshold and amplitudes, duration of the contralateral and ipsilateral silent period, corticocortical inhibition, and facilitation) were normal, which underlines the paroxysmal character of the disorder.

 PMID:11160479

  7. Venous pressure and dyspnea on exertion in cardiac failure: was Tinsley Randolph Harrison right?

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe

    2009-05-30

    More than 70 years ago, Harrison and his group proposed that in the absence of pulmonary edema, an increased systemic venous pressure could be a major source of dyspnea upon exertion in cardiac patients. Harrison provided evidence that in resting animals systemic venous pressure can affect ventilatory control through afferent information originating from the right side of the central circulation (i.e. right ventricle and large veins) via the vagus nerves. This review explores the concept that "increased venous pressure acts as a cause of dyspnea", which emerged from the remarkable work performed by Harrison and co-workers. Their conclusion will be however extended by developing the hypothesis that the load imposed on the venous blood returning from the skeletal muscles during any muscular activity is sensed by slow conducting muscle afferent fibers and provides a source of dyspnea in heart failure patients.

  8. The Validity of Submaximal Ratings of Perceived Exertion to Predict One Repetition Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Eston, Roger; Evans, Harrison James Llewelyn

    2009-01-01

    The One Repetition Maximum (1-RM) test is commonly used to assess strength. However, direct assessments of 1-RM are time consuming and unsafe for novice lifters. Whilst various equations exist to predict 1-RM, there is limited research on the validity of these equations. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using sub-maximal ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to predict 1-RM in young adults, using the Borg 6-20 RPE Scale. Twenty healthy participants (ten male (Mean ± SD, 20.8 ± 0.6 y, 75.7 ± 9.3 kg, 1.8 ± 0.07 m) and ten female (20.3 ± 0.7 y, 68.4 ± 10.0 kg, 1.68 ± 0.03 m)) completed two trials involving resistance exercises for both the upper and lower body. In the first trial the 1-RM for the bilateral biceps curl (BC) and the bilateral knee extension (KE) were determined for each participant. In the second trial, participants performed blinded repetitions which were equivalent to 20, 40 and 60 % of 1-RM for both exercises. The RPE was recorded immediately after two repetitions had been completed at each intensity. The order of intensity of the repetitions was randomly assigned with participants wearing blindfolds to exclude the possibility of pre-determined judgments about load and RPE. Individual RPE recorded at each intensity was subjected to linear regression analysis and the line of best fit was extrapolated to RPE 20 to predict 1-RM in both exercises. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the 1-RM predicted from RPE 20 and measured 1-RM for both exercises for the men and women. Measured and predicted values for men were 46.0 ± 4.6 and 45.2 ± 6. 1 kg for biceps curl, and 46.3 ± 3.8 and 43.0 ± 7.1 kg for knee extension, respectively. Measured and predicted values for women were 18.6 ± 5.7 and 19.3 ± 5.6 kg for biceps curl, and 25.5 ± 9.6 and 27.2 ± 12.6 kg for knee extension, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between actual and predicted 1-RM for the BC and KE were 0.97 and 0

  9. Postural discomfort and perceived exertion in standardized box-holding postures.

    PubMed

    Olendorf, M R; Drury, C G

    2001-12-15

    To help in the design or redesign of workplaces it would be helpful to know in advance the postural stress consequences of a wide range of body postures. This experiment evaluated 168 postures chosen to represent those in the Ovako Working-posture Analysing System (OWAS) using Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) measures. The postures comprised all combinations of three arm postures, four back postures, seven leg postures and two forces (weights of held boxes). Twelve male subjects held each posture for a fixed duration (20 s) before providing RPE and BPD ratings. Analysis of the ratings gave highly significant main effects, with the major driver being the object weight. As each factor was varied, the largest effect was on the body region corresponding to that factor. A simple main-effects-only additive model explained 91% of the variance of RPE means for the postures.

  10. Exertional myopathy in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) captured by leghold snare.

    PubMed

    Cattet, Marc; Stenhouse, Gordon; Bollinger, Trent

    2008-10-01

    We diagnosed exertional myopathy (EM) in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) that died approximately 10 days after capture by leghold snare in west-central Alberta, Canada, in June 2003. The diagnosis was based on history, post-capture movement data, gross necropsy, histopathology, and serum enzyme levels. We were unable to determine whether EM was the primary cause of death because autolysis precluded accurate evaluation of all tissues. Nevertheless, comparison of serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase concentrations and survival between the affected bear and other grizzly bears captured by leghold snare in the same research project suggests EM also occurred in other bears, but that it is not generally a cause of mortality. We propose, however, occurrence of nonfatal EM in grizzly bears after capture by leghold snare has potential implications for use of this capture method, including negative effects on wildlife welfare and research data.

  11. Exertional heat stroke in navy and marine personnel: a hot topic.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl W; Kazman, Josh B

    2015-02-01

    Although exertional heat stroke is considered a preventable condition, this life-threatening emergency affects hundreds of military personnel annually. Because heat stroke is preventable, it is important that Navy critical care nurses rapidly recognize and treat heat stroke casualties. Combined intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors can quickly lead to heat stroke if not recognized by deployed critical care nurses and other first responders. In addition to initial critical care nursing interventions, such as establishing intravenous access, determining body core temperature, and assessing hemodynamic status, aggressive cooling measures should be initiated immediately. The most important determinant in heat stroke outcome is the amount of time that patients sustain hyperthermia. Heat stroke survival approaches 100% when evidence-based cooling guidelines are followed, but mortality from heat stroke is a significant risk when care is delayed. Navy critical care and other military nurses should be aware of targeted assessments and cooling interventions when heat stroke is suspected during military operations.

  12. Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats.

    PubMed

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2015-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the present study, we targeted two critical brain areas, i.e. the central amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal raphe (DR), both containing high levels of OXT receptors (OXTRs) and constituting important nodes of the neural circuitry related to aggression. Behavioral effects of local micro-infusion of OXT and OXTR antagonist, L368.899, (alone and combined) were evaluated in resident male rats during confrontations with an unfamiliar male intruder. Our results show that OXT microinjected into the CeA markedly reduced resident's offensive behavior and facilitated social exploration, without affecting other non-aggressive behaviors. The receptor specificity of the behavioral effects was verified when a micro-infusion of a selective OXTR antagonist nullified the changes. Pharmacological blockade of CeA OXTRs per se was without clear behavioral effects suggesting that endogenous OXT within the CeA does not play a major inhibitory role on offensiveness. Anatomical specificity was also supported by the absence of relevant behavioral effects when OXT was microinjected into more medial sub-regions of the amygdala. Likewise, within the DR neither OXT nor OXTR exerted significant effects on offensive aggression, while microinjection of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist in this region significantly suppressed aggression. In conclusion, our results point at the CeA as an important brain site of action for the anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects induced by exogenous enhancement of brain OXT levels.

  13. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-03-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  14. The effects of physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Kasey; Larkin, Paul; O'Connor, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making is a key component of an umpire's in-game performance, with each decision potentially having a direct impact on the result of the game. Additionally, umpires have to be physically fit to ensure they keep up with the gameplay. While research has identified the decision-making demands and running demands of umpires separately, few have explored the relationship between them. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance of Australian football umpires at the sub-elite and junior levels. A total of 18 Australian football umpires (sub-elite, n = 10; junior n = 8) performed 10 × 300 m runs, with each repetition immediately followed by a video-based decision-making test, then 1 min of recovery. A Mann-Whitney U assessment indicated a significant difference between the sub-elite and junior level umpires for decision-making accuracy (U = 13.00, z = -2.43, P = 0.016, r = -0.5). However, there was no significant difference in response time (U = 28.00, z = -1.07, P = 0.315, r = -0.25). The sub-elite umpires completed the running efforts in significantly less time than the junior umpires (P < 0.05). Further, there was no significant correlation between decision-making performance and running times for either skill level (P > 0.05). This suggests decision-making performance may not be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, it may be suggested coaches of football umpires allocate more time to the decision-making development of their umpires instead of focusing largely on the physical fitness side, as is currently the trend.

  15. Photon energy dependence of the light pressure exerted onto a thin silicon slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, F. K.; Boero, G.

    2011-04-01

    We review the theory of ponderomotive forces of classical nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) radiation exerted on dispersive matter. Minkowski's EM energy and momentum density lack any dispersion term in contrast to Nelson's theory, where they are included naturally. By considering force experiments on a dielectric mirror immersed in weakly dispersive liquids [R. V. Jones and B. Leslie, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A1364-502110.1098/rspa.1978.0072 360, 347 (1978)], we found that the appearance of the dispersive term should depend on the phase of the mirror reflectivity. It thus matters if the electric or the magnetic field is dominant at the interface. Accordingly, the force measurements depend on the boundary condition and do not permit to uniquely determine the EM momentum in the liquids. Force measurements as a function of the reflectivity phase would permit to experimentally verify the expressions for the EM energy density in a dispersive medium. In our experiments, we chop light beams of different photon energies to excite the motion of a very thin and long Si slab near its mechanical resonance under UHV conditions. This permits to study the force response, where the power reflectivity of the sample varies from 0.7 to smaller than 10-3. The determination of the velocity of the slab with a Doppler interferometer yields the effective force exerted by the light beam. The measurements also confirm our theoretical considerations that the observed forces due to EM radiation cannot be traced to the EM momentum in matter, as the observed forces primarily depend on the boundary conditions. Minkowski's stress tensor remains applicable in our case thanks to the embedding of the Si slab in vacuum. Our quantitative analysis of the experimental data reveals an extra force of thermal origin most likely associated with the difference of the native oxide thickness on the surfaces of the slab. The estimated difference in oxide layer thickness amounts to ˜4 nm.

  16. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PMID:26784701

  17. Analysis of masseter deformation patterns during a maximum exertion clenching in patients with unilateral chewing

    PubMed Central

    BUSATO, A.; BALCONI, G.; VISMARA, V.; BERTELÈ, L.; GARO, G.; DE GREGORIO, D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose The aim of the following study is to examine both masseter muscles (left/right) in a group of patients suffering from unilateral chewing during a maximum exertion isometric contraction using the deformation pattern analysis of ultrasound videos and compare them with the results obtained by studying patients with alternate bilateral chewing patterns. Materials and methods This study has been conducted by use of an ultrasound machine and a linear probe which allowed us to record a video (DCM) comprised of 45 frames per second (MicrUs ext-1H Telemed Medical Systems Milano) and a linear probe (L12-5l40S-3 5–12 MHz 40 mm). The probe was fixed to a brace and the patients were asked to clench their teeth as hard as possible, obtain the muscle’s maximum exertion, for 5 seconds three times, with 30 seconds intervals in between. Both right and left masseter muscles were analyzed. We applied to the ultrasound video a dedicated software (Mudy 1.7.7.2 AMID Sulmona Italy) for the analysis of muscle deformation patterns. The total number of patients for this study is 150. Out of this number, 50 belong to Group A, mono lateral chewing on the left side arch, and 50 to Group B, mono lateral chewing on the right side arch. The remains patients belong to Group C, bilateral alternate chewing. The deformation pattern analysis of the skeletal muscles on ultrasound videos allows us to highlight with ease the clear difference in the clenching capabilities and strain management between the dominant masseter and the subordinate masseter in a unilaterally chewing patient. Results In the sample investigated both in Group A and Group B the unilateral chewing is associated with a series of parameters (number, shape, volume, position and orientation of the teeth) and is also associated with the extension of the cutting surface really available. PMID:28280533

  18. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Physical Performances, Mood State and Perceived Exertion in Young Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on the profile of mood state and perceived exertion in young soccer players and aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests. Methods Twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests on three different occasions: one-week before Ramadan (BR), the second week (SWR) and the fourth week (ER) of Ramadan. The total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) during the Yo-Yo test were recorded. During the RSA test, peak power (PP) during each sprint, the percentage of decrement of PP (PD) and total work (Wtotal) were calculated. During the Wingate test, peak (Ppeak) and mean (Pmean) powers and fatigue index (FI) were recorded. Results TD and MAV (P=0.01) during the Yo-Yo test and PP (P=0.01, P=0.004, P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.03 for sprints 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) and Wtotal (P=0.02) during the RSA test were significantly higher during BR than ER. Furthermore, muscle fatigue during the RSA test increased significantly from BR to ER (P=0.01). Ppeak and Pmean during the Wingate test decreased significantly from BR to SWR and ER (P<0.0005). FI was higher during SWR (P=0.001) and ER (P<0.0005) than BR. In addition, rating of perceived exertion scores and fatigue estimated by the profile of mood state questionnaire were higher during Ramadan in comparison with BR. Conclusions The present study suggests that both aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, the RSA and the Wingate tests were affected by Ramadan fasting in young soccer players. PMID:22375237

  19. Native Thrombocidin-1 and Unfolded Thrombocidin-1 Exert Antimicrobial Activity via Distinct Structural Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; de Boer, Leonie; Nguyen, Leonard T.; Boszhard, Laura; Vreede, Jocelyne; Dekker, Henk L.; Speijer, Dave; Drijfhout, Jan W.; te Velde, Anje A.; Crielaard, Wim; Vogel, Hans J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) can have direct antimicrobial activity, which is apparently related to the presence of a distinct positively charged patch on the surface. However, chemokines can retain antimicrobial activity upon linearization despite the loss of their positive patch, thus questioning the importance of this patch for activity. Thrombocidin-1 (TC-1) is a microbicidal protein isolated from human blood platelets. TC-1 only differs from the chemokine NAP-2/CXCL7 by a two-amino acid C-terminal deletion, but this truncation is crucial for antimicrobial activity. We assessed the structure-activity relationship for antimicrobial activity of TC-1. Reduction of the charge of the TC-1-positive patch by replacing lysine 17 with alanine reduced the activity against bacteria and almost abolished activity against the yeast Candida albicans. Conversely, augmentation of the positive patch by increasing charge density or size resulted in a 2–3-fold increased activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis but did not substantially affect activity against C. albicans. Reduction of TC-1 resulted in loss of the folded conformation, but this disruption of the positive patch did not affect antimicrobial activity. Using overlapping 15-mer synthetic peptides, we demonstrate peptides corresponding to the N-terminal part of TC-1 to have similar antimicrobial activity as intact TC-1. Although we demonstrate that the positive patch is essential for activity of folded TC-1, unfolded TC-1 retained antimicrobial activity despite the absence of a positive patch. This activity is probably exerted by a linear peptide stretch in the N-terminal part of the molecule. We conclude that intact TC-1 and unfolded TC-1 exert antimicrobial activity via distinct structural elements. PMID:22025617

  20. Ratings of perceived exertion-lactate association during actual singles tennis match play.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez-Fernández, Jaime; Bishop, David; Fernandez-Garcia, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationship between metabolic (i.e., blood lactate concentration) and perceptual (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE) responses and their association with variables describing the characteristics of the singles tennis match play. Eight trained and internationally ranked (Association of Tennis Professionals rankings) male tennis players were studied during singles matches (best of 3 sets) played on an outdoor clay court surface during a professional invitational tournament. Ratings of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentrations were determined at selected change overs during the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches, (a) duration of rallies (DR), (b) rest time, (c) effective playing time, and (d) strokes per rally (SR), were determined from video recordings. Significant correlations (r = 0.57-0.48; p < 0.01) were found for RPE-blood lactate responses during the games. Both RPE and blood lactate concentration values were significantly correlated with SR and DR (r = 0.80-0.61; p < 0.001) in service games. Average RPE was significantly higher (p < 0.05) following service games (13.5 +/- 1.9; n = 24) than following receiving games (12.2 +/- 2.0; n = 22). Mean blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) following service games (4.4 +/- 2.4 mmol.L; n = 24) than following receiving games (3.0 +/- 1.3 mmol.L; n = 22). These results indicate that monitoring RPE may be a useful technique for regulating on-court tennis training intensity. Moreover, blood lactate may mediate the relation between RPE and tennis match play intensity.

  1. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect.

  2. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Benoit; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean; Perrault, Hélène; Jensen, Dennis; Maltais, François

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST) to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort) after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7), % predicted) performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg)/salbutamol (2.5 mg) and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results A total of 37 (92.5%), 36 (90%), 34 (85%) and 27 (67.5%) patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01) and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01); however, no statically significant differences were observed between treatments at 20 and 24 steps/min (both P>0.05). Conclusion The 3-MST, when performed at 14 and 16 steps/min, was responsive to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea after acute bronchodilation in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. PMID:27942208

  3. Delayed onset muscle soreness and perceived exertion following blood flow restriction exercise.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-01-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptual responses to resistance exercise with either heavy-loads (80% 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]), light-loads (20% 1-RM), or light-loads in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Despite the use of light-loads, it has been suggested that the adoption of BFR resistance exercise may be limited due to increases in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and perceived exertion. Seventeen healthy untrained males participated in this balanced, randomized cross-over study. Following four sets of elbow-flexion exercise, participants reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), with DOMS also recorded for seven days following each trial. DOMS was significantly greater for low-pressure continuous BFR (until 48 h post-exercise) and high-pressure intermittent BFR (until 72 h post-exercise) compared with traditional heavy-load and light-load resistance exercise. In addition, RPE was higher for heavy-load resistance exercise and high-pressure intermittent BFR compared with low-pressure continuous BFR, with all trials greater than light-load resistance exercise. For practitioners working with untrained participants, this study provides evidence to suggest that in order to minimize the perception of effort and post-exercise muscle soreness associated with BFR resistance exercise, continuous low-pressure application may be more preferential compared with intermittent high-pressure application. Importantly, these perceptual responses are relatively short-lived (∼2 days) and have previously been shown to subside after a few exercise sessions. Combined with smaller initial training volumes (set x repetitions) this may limit RPE and DOMS to strengthen uptake and adherence, and assist in program progression for muscle hypertrophy and gains in strength.

  4. MiRNA regulation of TRAIL expression exerts selective cytotoxicity to prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wei; Jin, Ning; Fan, Li; Wang, Weihua

    2014-03-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer for men and among the leading cancer-related causes. Many evidences have shown that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) potently induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and thus, is a promising biologic agent for prostate carcinoma therapy. However, TRAIL expression mediated by the current vectors lacks tumor specificity, thereby exerting cytotoxicity to normal cells. To solve this problem, we inserted miRNA response elements (MREs), miR-143 and miR-145, expression levels of which were reduced in prostate carcinoma, as well as that of miR-122, which is specifically expressed in hepatic cells, into adenoviral vectors to control TRAIL expression (Ad-TRAIL-M3). qPCR data confirmed that miR-143, miR-145, and miR-122 levels were all decreased in prostate carcinoma cell lines and prostate cancer samples from patients. Luciferase assays showed that MREs-regulated luciferase expression was potently suppressed in normal cells, but not in prostate cancer cells. Ad-TRAIL-M3, which expresses TRAIL in a MREs-regulated manner, produced high level of TRAIL and suppressed the survival of prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, while Ad-TRAIL-M3 had no TRAIL expression in normal cells and thus exerted no cytotoxicity to them. The studies on PC-3 tumor xenograft in mice further confirmed that Ad-TRAIL-M3 was able to inhibit the growth of tumors and possessed high biosafety. In conclusion, we successfully generated an adenoviral vector that expresses TRAIL in miRNA-regulated mechanism. This miRNA-based gene therapy may be promising for prostate carcinoma treatment.

  5. OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion: mixed gender and race validation for Singapore children during cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Loh, Mun Keong; Govindaswamy, Visvasuresh Victor; Robertson, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    The children's OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE) has not been validated for children of Asian origin. The purpose was to validate the RPE for Singapore children, 12-15 years. 81 children of male and female of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicities participated in the study. A cross-sectional, perceptual estimation paradigm using a multistage cycle ergometer protocol was used. Oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]; ml min(-1)), heart rate (HR; beats min(-1)), and RPE for the Overall body (RPE-O), Legs (RPE-L), and Chest (RPE-C) were determined at the end of each continuously administered 3-min power output stage (PO) starting at 25 W with 25 W increments until exhaustion. For validation, linear regression analysis for all PO revealed that RPE-O, RPE-L, and RPE-C for each of the six gender-race and combined cohort distributed as positive linear functions of both [Formula: see text] (ml min(-1), ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and HR (beats min(-1)). All regression functions were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Differences between undifferentiated (RPE-O) and differentiated (RPE-L and RPE-C) at each PO stage were examined separately for the male (up to PO 8 [200 W]) and female (up to PO 5 [125 W]) cohorts. For the males, RPE-L was greater (P < 0.05) than both RPE-C and RPE-O only at PO 8. For the females, RPE-O was greater (P < 0.05) than RPE-C only at PO 3 and 4. OMNI Scale validity was established for male and female Asian children of Chinese, Malay, and Indian origin. Male and female children did not perceive the intensity of exertional perceptions to differ between the legs and the chest. As there were no differences between the undifferentiated and differentiated perceptual responses, a dominant signal was not observed.

  6. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that...

  7. Self-perceived exertion level and objective evaluation of neuromuscular fatigue in a training session of orchestral violin players.

    PubMed

    Chan, R F; Chow, C; Lee, G P; To, L; Tsang, X Y; Yeung, S S; Yeung, E W

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the self-perceived exertion level and an objective measurement of muscle fatigue on violin players before and after a training session. Fourteen professional violin players volunteered in this study. Surveillance study was used to investigate the demographic characteristics, instrument playing background, playing habits variables and factors associated with playing-related musculoskeletal complaints (PRMCs). The subjective rating of the training-induced exertion was evaluated by the Borg scale ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the fatigue level of the upper trapezius muscles before and after a training session. Medium frequency (MF) of the EMG signals was used to document the fatigue rate of this muscle. Descriptive statistics revealed a 79% prevalence rate of PRMCs with neck and shoulder region accounting for 57.1% of the areas reported. On the self-perceived exertion level associated with the training session, results indicated a significant increase in fatigue level (p = 0.003) after the training session. Regression analysis and paired samples t-tests revealed no significant difference in the slopes of MF on both sides of trapezius muscle, before and after the training sessions. The disparity in the subjective perception with the objective findings indicated that the violinists' self-perceived exertion arises from multiple sources. The high prevalence of PRMCs in this profession warrants further ergonomic investigation of possible work-related risk factors.

  8. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  9. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in quarter horses and thoroughbreds: one syndrome, multiple aetiologies.

    PubMed

    Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J R; Gallant, E M; MacLeay, J M; Lentz, L; de la Corte, F

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds represents one or several distinct myopathies. Eighteen Quarter Horses and 18 Thoroughbreds with ER were selected from cases presented to the Veterinary Hospital on the basis of a history of ER, assessment of muscle histopathology, and serum CK activity before and 4 h post exercise. In addition, 2 of 3 of the following parameters were evaluated: muscle glycogen concentrations, thyroid hormones (T3, T4), fractional excretion (FE) of sodium, potassium and chloride. The CK response to training, the metabolic response to a near maximal standardised exercise test (SET), blood glucose concentrations after an i.v. glucose challenge and a skeletal muscle in vitro caffeine contracture test were performed on 5 of the Quarter Horses, selected because of polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), and 5 of the Thoroughbreds. Serum T3 and T4 were all within normal limits. Low FE of sodium and potassium were seen in < 20% of Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds. Four hours post exercise, CK was increased in 77% of Quarter Horses and 72% of Thoroughbreds with ER. Muscle glycogen concentrations in Quarter Horses with ER were significantly higher than in normal Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds with ER. No Thoroughbreds, but 15/18 Quarter Horses with ER had abnormal polysaccharide accumulation in muscle biopsies consistent with a diagnosis of PSSM. PSSM Quarter Horses had higher CK activity during training than Thoroughbreds and higher glycogen utilisation with the SET. PSSM Quarter Horses also had significantly enhanced glucose clearance compared to normal Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds with ER. Thoroughbreds with ER had significantly lower thresholds for caffeine-induced contracture than normal horses and PSSM Quarter Horses. It was concluded that there are multiple causes for exertional rhabdomyolysis. In Quarter Horses, rhabdomyolysis is commonly due to a glycogen

  10. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Exerts Renoprotective Effects in Rats with Established Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Arruda-Junior, Daniel F.; Martins, Flavia L.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jensen, Leonardo; Antonio, Ednei L.; dos Santos, Leonardo; Tucci, Paulo J. F.; Girardi, Adriana C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in humans and experimental heart failure (HF) models, suggesting that DPPIV may play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Renal dysfunction is one of the key features of HF, but it remains to be determined whether DPPIV inhibitors are capable of improving cardiorenal function after the onset of HF. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that DPPIV inhibition by vildagliptin improves renal water and salt handling and exerts anti-proteinuric effects in rats with established HF. To this end, male Wistar rats were subjected to left ventricle (LV) radiofrequency ablation or sham operation. Six weeks after surgery, radiofrequency-ablated rats who developed HF were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 4 weeks with vildagliptin (120 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by oral gavage. Echocardiography was performed before (pretreatment) and at the end of treatment (post-treatment) to evaluate cardiac function. The fractional area change (FAC) increased (34 ± 5 vs. 45 ± 3%, p < 0.05), and the isovolumic relaxation time decreased (33 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 1 ms; p < 0.05) in HF rats treated with vildagliptin (post-treatment vs. pretreatment). On the other hand, cardiac dysfunction deteriorated further in vehicle-treated HF rats. Renal function was impaired in vehicle-treated HF rats as evidenced by fluid retention, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and high levels of urinary protein excretion. Vildagliptin treatment restored urinary flow, GFR, urinary sodium and urinary protein excretion to sham levels. Restoration of renal function in HF rats by DPPIV inhibition was associated with increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) serum concentration, reduced DPPIV activity and increased activity of protein kinase A in the renal cortex. Furthermore, the anti-proteinuric effect of vildagliptin treatment in rats with established HF was associated with

  11. Effects of Oral Stimulus Frequency Spectra on the Development of Non-nutritive Suck in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome or Chronic Lung Disease, and Preterm Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, SM; Lee, Jaehoon; Wang, Jingyan; Oder, Austin; Oh, Hyuntaek; Hall, Sue; Knox, Kendi; Weatherstone, Kathleen; Thompson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The precocial nature of orofacial sensorimotor control underscores the biological importance of establishing ororythmic activity in human infants. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of comparable doses of three forms of orosensory experience, including a low-velocity spectrally reduced orocutaneous stimulus (NT1), a high-velocity broad spectrum orocutaneous stimulus (NT2), and a SHAM stimulus consisting of a blind pacifier. Each orosensory experience condition was paired with gavage feedings 3x/day for 10 days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Four groups of preterm infants (N=214), including those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), infants of diabetic mothers (IDM), and healthy controls (HI) were randomized to the type of orosensory condition. Mixed modeling, adjusted for gender, gestational age, postmenstrual age, and birth weight, demonstrated the most significant gains in non-nutritive suck (NNS) development among CLD infants who were treated with the NT2 stimulus, with smaller gains realized among RDS and IDM infants. The broader spectrum of the NT2 stimulus maps closely to known response properties of mechanoreceptors in lip, tongue, and oral mucosa and is more effective in promoting NNS development among preterm infants with impaired oromotor function compared to the low-velocity, spectrally reduced NT1 orosensory stimulus. PMID:25018662

  12. Strongly Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations are suggestive of strongly magnetized accretion disks around black holes. Performing local (shearing box) simulations of accretion disks, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. We demonstrate that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion disks. We also show that black hole spin measurements can become unconstrained if magnetic fields provide a significant contribution to the vertical pressure support of the accretion disk atmosphere.

  13. Use of ratings of perceived exertion for predicting maximal work rate and prescribing exercise intensity in patients taking atenolol.

    PubMed Central

    Eston, R G; Thompson, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale to predict maximal exercise levels to control exercise intensity in patients taking atenolol for the treatment of essential hypertension. Normally, a standard formula (220-age) is used for calculating a percentage of exercise intensity, but beta blockade can cause reductions in maximal heart rate of between 20 and 30%. METHODS: Patients were split into a control group-10 men and 10 women, aged 50 (SD 12) and 46 (9) respectively, who had risk factors for cardiovascular disease but were not taking any drugs, and a treatment group-11 men and 11 women, aged 53 (13) and 55 (13) respectively, who were established on 25-100 mg of atenolol. All patients performed two submaximal tests on a cycle ergometer. Test 1 was an estimation test, during which the RPE was reported for each increment in work rate. Test 2 was an RPE production test, during which the patient regulated the work rate according to his/her perception of effort at four predetermined points on the RPE scale (RPE 9, 13, 15, 17). RESULTS: In both tests the individual correlations (r) between RPE, heart rate, and work rate ranged from 0.96 to 0.99. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in maximal heart rate and maximal power output for the control group when predicted from the regression lines of RPE versus heart rate and RPE versus power output in the estimation test. However, the prediction of maximal power output was lower in the women in the control group and patients in the treatment group when this was predicted from the effort production protocol (P < 0.01). When exercise intensity at each RPE was expressed relative to maximal power output there were no differences between treatment and control groups. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study confirmed the strong positive relation between RPE, heart rate, and work rate in these patients in both passive effort estimation and

  14. Photokinetic analysis of the forces and torques exerted by optical tweezers carrying angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Yevick, Aaron; Evans, Daniel J; Grier, David G

    2017-02-28

    The theory of photokinetic effects expresses the forces and torques exerted by a beam of light in terms of experimentally accessible amplitude and phase profiles. We use this formalism to develop an intuitive explanation for the performance of optical tweezers operating in the Rayleigh regime, including effects arising from the influence of light's angular momentum. First-order dipole contributions reveal how a focused beam can trap small objects, and what features limit the trap's stability. The first-order force separates naturally into a conservative intensity-gradient term that forms a trap and a non-conservative solenoidal term that drives the system out of thermodynamic equilibrium. Neither term depends on the light's polarization; light's spin angular momentum plays no role at dipole order. Polarization-dependent effects, such as trap-strength anisotropy and spin-curl forces, are captured by the second-order dipole-interference contribution to the photokinetic force. The photokinetic expansion thus illuminates how light's angular momentum can be harnessed for optical micromanipulation, even in the most basic optical traps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  15. Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

    2013-05-31

    Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities.

  16. 3-Hydroxykynurenine: an intriguing molecule exerting dual actions in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Maldonado, Perla D; Santamaría, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine pathway is gaining attention due to the many metabolic processes in which it has been involved. The tryptophan conversion into several other metabolites through this pathway provides neuronal and redox modulators useful for maintenance of major functions in the brain. However, when physiopathological conditions prevail - i.e. oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation - preferential formation and accumulation of toxic metabolites could trigger factors for degeneration in neurological disorders. 3-Hydroxykynurenine has been largely described as one of these toxic metabolites capable of inducing oxidative damage and cell death; consequently, this metabolite has been hypothesized to play a pivotal role in different neurological and psychiatric disorders. Supporting evidence has shown altered 3-hydroxykynurenine levels in samples of patients from several disorders. In contrast, some experimental studies have provided evidence of antioxidant and scavenging properties inherent to this molecule. In this review, we explored most of literature favoring one or the other concept, in order to provide an accurate vision on the real participation of this tryptophan metabolite in both experimental paradigms and human brain pathologies. Through this collected evidence, we provide an integrative hypothesis on how 3-hydroxykynurenine is exerting its dual actions in the central nervous system and what will be the course of investigations in this field for the next years.

  17. Theranostic Nucleic Acid Binding Nanoprobe Exerts Anti-inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects in Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Howard H.; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Feng, Yan; Ngoy, Soeun; Kumar, Anand T. N.; Liao, Ronglih; Chao, Wei; Josephson, Lee; Sosnovik, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids are proinflammatory molecules that have been implicated in a diverse range of diseases. We report here the development of a multivalent nucleic acid scavenging nanoprobe, where the fluorochrome thiazole orange (TO) is conjugated to a polymeric 40 kDa dextran carrier. Dextran-TO (Dex-TO) has nanomolar affinity for mammalian and bacterial nucleic acids and attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages exposed to DNA and RNA. Mice with myocardial ischemia reperfusion that were treated with Dex-TO showed a decrease in myocardial macrophage infiltration at 24 hours (p<0.05) and a decrease in infarct size (18% ± 9%, p<0.01) on day 7. Dex-TO allows sites of injury to be identified with fluorescence imaging, while simultaneously exerting an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effect. Dex-TO could be of significant diagnostic and therapeutic (theranostic) utility in a broad range of conditions including ischemia, trauma, burns, sepsis and autoimmune disease. PMID:28382156

  18. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, S H; Ali, A; Biddle, S J H; Williams, C

    2007-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on affective states and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise. Seventeen male soccer players completed a prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise protocol for 90 min on two occasions, separated by at least 7 days. Participants consumed either a 6.4% CHO (0.6 g/kg body mass (BM)/h) or an artificially sweetened placebo (PLA) solution immediately before (8 mL/kg BM) and every 15 min (3 mL/kg BM) during exercise in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Pleasure-displeasure, perceived activation, RPE and plasma glucose concentration was assessed. The results showed that compared with the CHO trial, perceived activation were lower in the placebo trial during the last 30 min of exercise and this was accompanied by lowered plasma glucose concentrations. In the CHO trial, RPE was maintained in the last 30 min of exercise but carried on increasing in the PLA trial. Therefore, CHO ingestion during prolonged high-intensity exercise appears to elicit an enhanced perceived activation profile that may impact upon task persistence and performance. This finding is in addition to the physiological and metabolic benefits of the exogenous energy supply.

  19. Selection mosaic exerted by specialist and generalist herbivores on chemical and physical defense of Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Guillermo; Cruz, Laura L; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Olmedo-Vicente, Eika; Carmona, Diego; Anaya-Lang, Ana Luisa; Fornoni, Juan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Valverde, Pedro L; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Selection exerted by herbivores is a major force driving the evolution of plant defensive characters such as leaf trichomes or secondary metabolites. However, plant defense expression is highly variable among populations and identifying the sources of this variation remains a major challenge. Plant populations are often distributed across broad geographic ranges and are exposed to different herbivore communities, ranging from generalists (that feed on diverse plant species) to specialists (that feed on a restricted group of plants). We studied eight populations of the plant Datura stramonium usually eaten by specialist or generalist herbivores, in order to examine whether the pattern of phenotypic selection on secondary compounds (atropine and scopolamine) and a physical defense (trichome density) can explain geographic variation in these traits. Following co-evolutionary theory, we evaluated whether a more derived alkaloid (scopolamine) confers higher fitness benefits than its precursor (atropine), and whether this effect differs between specialist and generalist herbivores. Our results showed consistent directional selection in almost all populations and herbivores to reduce the concentration of atropine. The most derived alkaloid (scopolamine) was favored in only one of the populations, which is dominated by a generalist herbivore. In general, the patterns of selection support the existence of a selection mosaic and accounts for the positive correlation observed between atropine concentration and plant damage by herbivores recorded in previous studies.

  20. Hugan Qingzhi Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tang, WaiJiao; Zeng, Lu; Yin, JinJin; Yao, YuFa; Feng, LiJuan; Yao, XiaoRui; Sun, XiaoMin; Zhou, BenJie

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance. The Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of HQT in rats with NAFLD. Materials and Methods. HQT was administered daily to the NAFLD experimental groups. Biochemical markers, histopathological data, and oxidative stress/antioxidant biomarkers were determined. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Expressions of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and acetylated-nuclear-factor kappaB-p65 (Ac-NF-κB-p65) were performed by western blotting. Results. At high and moderate doses, HQT was highly effective in decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.01), hepatic total cholesterol (P < 0.01), triglycerides (P < 0.01), and free fatty acid levels (P < 0.01). Moreover, high and moderate doses of HQT reduced hepatic levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.01), and IL-6 (P < 0.01), enhanced SIRT1 expression, and depressed Ac-NF-κB-p65 expression at protein level. Conclusions. In our NAFLD rat model, HQT exerted substantial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, possibly involving the regulation of SIRT1 and Ac-NF-κB-p65 expression. PMID:26146507

  1. Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenlan; Hua, Cong; Pan, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Xijia; Wu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia. Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is naturally occurring in various plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae and exerts protective effects in a mice model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing infarct volume and decreasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which carvacrol protect the brain have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on inflammatory reaction and inflammatory mediators in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The results of the present study showed that carvacrol inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2. It also increased SOD activity and decreased MDA level in ischemic cortical tissues. In addition, carvacrol treatment suppressed the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the protein expression of nuclear NF-kB p65. In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  2. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Keisuke; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Yamano, Noriko; Urushihara, Maki; Sakurada, Takumi; Imanishi, Masaki; Fujii, Shoko; Nuno, Asami; Miyamoto, Licht; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice), NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  3. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Promotes Process Outgrowth in Neural Cells and Exerts Protective Effects against Tropodithietic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Heidi; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a plethora of bioactive substances, including drug candidates of potential value in the field of neuroscience. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), produced by several algae, corals and higher plants, on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a and OLN-93 cells as model system for nerve cells and glia, respectively. Additionally, the protective capabilities of DMSP were assessed in cells treated with tropodithietic acid (TDA), a marine metabolite produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria. Both cell lines, N2a and OLN-93, have previously been shown to be a sensitive target for the action of TDA, and cytotoxic effects of TDA have been connected to the induction of oxidative stress. Our data shows that DMSP promotes process outgrowth and microtubule reorganization and bundling, accompanied by an increase in alpha-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, DMSP was able to prevent the cytotoxic effects exerted by TDA, including the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of heat shock protein Hsp32 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our study points to the conclusion that DMSP provides an antioxidant defense, not only in algae but also in mammalian neural cells. PMID:27164116

  4. A Herbal Formula, CGXII, Exerts Antihepatofibrotic Effect in Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced SD Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Seon; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Sung-Bae; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Won-Yong; Lee, Dong-Soo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the antihepatofibrotic effects of CGXII, an aqueous extract which is composed of A. iwayomogi, A. xanthioides, and S. miltiorrhiza, against dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced hepatofibrosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 10 mg/kg of DMN for 4 weeks (three consecutive days weekly). Rats were orally given distilled water, CGXII (50 or 100 mg/kg), or dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (50 mg/kg) daily. DMN injection caused substantial alteration of total body weight and liver and spleen mass, whereas they were notably normalized by CGXII. CGXII treatment also markedly attenuated the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl contents. Collagen accumulation in hepatic tissue evidenced by histopathological analysis and quantitative assessment of hepatic hydroxyproline was ameliorated by CGXII. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed decreased α-smooth muscle actin supporting the antihepatofibrotic effect of CGXII. The profibrogenic cytokines transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor-β, and connective tissue growth factor were increased by DMN injection. Administration of CGXII normalized the protein and gene expression levels of these cytokines. Our findings suggest that CGXII lowers the levels of profibrogenic cytokines and thereby exerts antifibrotic effects. PMID:27340416

  5. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aldo Coelho; Dos Santos Ferreira, Sandro; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Follador, Lucio; DA Silva, Sergio Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg's RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE.

  6. Photokinetic analysis of the forces and torques exerted by optical tweezers carrying angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevick, Aaron; Evans, Daniel J.; Grier, David G.

    2017-02-01

    The theory of photokinetic effects expresses the forces and torques exerted by a beam of light in terms of experimentally accessible amplitude and phase profiles. We use this formalism to develop an intuitive explanation for the performance of optical tweezers operating in the Rayleigh regime, including effects arising from the influence of light's angular momentum. First-order dipole contributions reveal how a focused beam can trap small objects, and what features limit the trap's stability. The first-order force separates naturally into a conservative intensity-gradient term that forms a trap and a non-conservative solenoidal term that drives the system out of thermodynamic equilibrium. Neither term depends on the light's polarization; light's spin angular momentum plays no role at dipole order. Polarization-dependent effects, such as trap-strength anisotropy and spin-curl forces, are captured by the second-order dipole-interference contribution to the photokinetic force. The photokinetic expansion thus illuminates how light's angular momentum can be harnessed for optical micromanipulation, even in the most basic optical traps. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  7. Modeling of Mechanical Stress Exerted by Cholesterol Crystallization on Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dongyao; Yu, Xiaojun; Chen, Si; Liu, Xinyu; Tang, Hongying; Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Linbo

    2016-01-01

    Plaque rupture is the critical cause of cardiovascular thrombosis, but the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have found abundant cholesterol crystals in ruptured plaques, and it has been proposed that the rapid expansion of cholesterol crystals in a limited space during crystallization may contribute to plaque rupture. To evaluate the effect of cholesterol crystal growth on atherosclerotic plaques, we modeled the expansion of cholesterol crystals during the crystallization process in the necrotic core and estimated the stress on the thin cap with different arrangements of cholesterol crystals. We developed a two-dimensional finite element method model of atherosclerotic plaques containing expanding cholesterol crystals and investigated the effect of the magnitude and distribution of crystallization on the peak circumferential stress born by the cap. Using micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), we extracted the cross-sectional geometric information of cholesterol crystals in human atherosclerotic aorta tissue ex vivo and applied the information to the model. The results demonstrate that (1) the peak circumference stress is proportionally dependent on the cholesterol crystal growth; (2) cholesterol crystals at the cap shoulder impose the highest peak circumference stress; and (3) spatial distributions of cholesterol crystals have a significant impact on the peak circumference stress: evenly distributed cholesterol crystals exert less peak circumferential stress on the cap than concentrated crystals. PMID:27149381

  8. The Force Exerted by the Membrane Potential During Protein Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The electrostatic force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated and found to vary from 1.4 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 12 to 6.5 Angstroms, its measured range. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a nonaqueous pore gives a force of 3.1 pN per unit charge, which represents an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein harness, these results imply that a force of 11 plus or minus 4 pN is sufficient to catalyze the unfolding of harness during import. Comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy suggests that the two are not inconsistent.

  9. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  10. Diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome by post-exercise MRI

    PubMed Central

    Paús, Vicente; Graieb, Ariel; Torrengo, Federico; Villalba, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is the cause of 27% of anterior leg pain in athletes. The source of pain in this condition is still debated. Measurement of intracompartmental pressure is the gold standard diagnosis, albeit an invasive study. The development and interpretation of new MRI sequences has provided a non-invasive alternative to CECS diagnosis. Post-exercise MRI is an attractive option, which is currently undergoing its validation process. Methods: 22 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CECS were included, with a median follow-up of 5 years (1-10 years). All the patients were evaluated by clinical examination, pre- and post-exercise MRI and pre-and post-exercise intracompartmental pressure measurement. Pressure was measured with Whitesides technique, and diagnosis was carried out by Pedowitz criteria. Results: Out of the total 22 patients, 19 had positive intracompartmental measurement (15 male, 4 female) and 3 had negative measurement. All the patients had a normal MRI at rest. The three patients who had negative intracompartmental measurement had a normal post-stress MRI. Out of the remaining 19 patients, the MRI detected hyperintense signal in T2 and STIR weighted in 15 of them (78,95%). Conclusions: MRI could be relevant for diagnosis, for which case the sensitivity of this method should be improved. Nevertheless, pre- and post-stress intracompartmental measurement continues to be the gold standard.

  11. Methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves exerted antioxidant and liver protective activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) against the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats model. Methods The respective chemicals and herbal solutions (10% DMSO, 200 mg/kg silymarin or MEMM (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg)) were administered orally to rats once everyday for 7 days followed by the hepatotoxicity assay. The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. Prior to the hepatoprotective study, MEMM was subjected to determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant properties using several standard assays (e.g. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- and superoxide anion- radical scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay). Results MEMM exerted significant (p < 0.05) and high antioxidant activity in which high TPC was recorded; while in the hepatotoxicity study, the extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective effects against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxic model. The results observed for serum liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) as well as the microscopic observations and microscopic scoring supported the hepatoprotective potential of MEMM. The phytochemical and HPLC analysis of MEMM demonstrated the presence of flavonoids as its major constituents. Conclusions The MEMM-induced hepatoprotective activity could be allied partly to its antioxidant activity and the presence of flavonoids. PMID:24267313

  12. Short-term hyperoxia does not exert immunologic effects during experimental murine and human endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, Dorien; Gerretsen, Jelle; Janssen, Emmy; John, Aaron; Groeneveld, R.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Pickkers, Peter; Kox, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen therapy to maintain tissue oxygenation is one of the cornerstones of critical care. Therefore, hyperoxia is often encountered in critically ill patients. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that hyperoxia may affect outcome, although mechanisms are unclear. Immunologic effects might be involved, as hyperoxia was shown to attenuate inflammation and organ damage in preclinical models. However, it remains unclear whether these observations can be ascribed to direct immunosuppressive effects of hyperoxia or to preserved tissue oxygenation. In contrast to these putative anti-inflammatory effects, hyperoxia may elicit an inflammatory response and organ damage in itself, known as oxygen toxicity. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of systemic inflammation, short-term hyperoxia (100% O2 for 2.5 hours in mice and 3.5 hours in humans) does not result in increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in both mice and healthy volunteers. Furthermore, we show that, compared with room air, hyperoxia does not affect the systemic inflammatory response elicited by administration of bacterial endotoxin in mice and man. Finally, neutrophil phagocytosis and ROS generation are unaffected by short-term hyperoxia. Our results indicate that hyperoxia does not exert direct anti-inflammatory effects and temper expectations of using it as an immunomodulatory treatment strategy. PMID:26616217

  13. Repulsive guidance molecule a blockade exerts the immunoregulatory function in DCs stimulated with ABP and LPS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-08-02

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is an axonal guidance molecule that has recently found to exert function in immune system. This study evaluated the function of RGMa in modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) function stimulated with Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a RGMa-neutralizing antibody. Compared with the Control-IgG/ABP and Control-IgG/LPS groups, DCs in the Anti-RGMa/ABP and Anti-RGMa/LPS groups 1) showed small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles; 2) had decreased MHC II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression; 3) displayed the decreased IL-12p70, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 secretion; 4) had a high percentage of FITC-dextran uptake; and 5) displayed a reduced ability to drive T cell proliferation and reinforced T cell polarization toward a Th2 cytokine pattern. We conclude that DCs treated with RGMa-neutralizing antibodies present with tolerogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics, which provides new insights into further understanding of the function of RGMa.

  14. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist, exerts anticonvulsive properties.

    PubMed

    Porta, Natacha; Vallée, Louis; Lecointe, Cécile; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Staels, Bart; Bordet, Régis; Auvin, Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the ketogenic diet (KD) remain unknown. Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) has been suggested. The aim of this study was to assess the anticonvulsant properties of fenofibrate, a PPARalpha agonist. Wistar rats were fed at libitum during 14 days by regular diet, KD, regular diet containing 0.2% fenofibrate (F), or KD containing 0.2% fenofibrate (KD + F). Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) threshold and latencies to the onset of status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine were used to assess diet treatments with anticonvulsive effects. Myoclonic and generalized seizure PTZ thresholds were increased in F- and KD-treated animals in comparison to control. No difference was observed between KD + F group and the others groups (control, F, KD). Latencies to the onset of status epilepticus were increased in F and KD groups compared to control. Fenofibrate exerts anticonvulsive properties comparable to KD in adult rats using PTZ and lithium-pilocarpine models. The underlying mechanisms such as PPARalpha activation and others should be investigated. These findings may provide insights into future directions to simplify KD protocols.

  15. The force exerted by the membrane potential during protein import into the mitochondrial matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated on the basis of continuum electrostatics. The force is found to vary from 3.0 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 6.5 to 12 A, its measured range. In the present model, the decrease in force with increasing pore width arises from the shielding effect of water. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a purely membranous pore without water gives a force of 3.2 pN per unit charge, which should represent an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein barnase, these results imply that forces between 11 +/- 2 pN and 13.5 +/- 2.5 pN catalyze the unfolding of barnase in those experiments. A comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy is made.

  16. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  17. Apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like and recognition memory improving activities in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Li, E; Deng, Haifeng; Wang, Bo; Fu, Wan; You, Yong; Tian, Shaowen

    2016-03-01

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor (APJ). The localization of APJ in limbic structures suggests a potential role for apelin in emotional processes. However, the role of apelin in the regulation of stress-induced responses such as depression and memory impairment is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of apelin-13 in the regulation of stress-induced depression and memory impairment in rats. We report that repeated intracerebroventricular injections of apelin-13 reversed behavioral despair (immobility) in the forced swim (FS) test, a model widely used for the selection of new antidepressant agents. Apelin-13 also reversed behavioral deficits (escape failure) in the learned helplessness test. The magnitude of the antiimmobility and anti-escape failure effects of apelin-13 was comparable to that of imipramine, a classic antidepressant used as a positive control. Rats exposed to FS stress showed memory performance impairment in the novel object recognition test, and this impairment was improved by apelin-13 treatment. Apelin-13 did not affect recognition memory performance in non-stressed rats. Furthermore, the pretreatment of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitors) or PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) blocked apelin-13-mediated activities in FS-stressed rats. These findings suggest that apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like and recognition memory improving activities through activating PI3K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in stressed rats.

  18. Seed Predators, not Herbivores, Exert Natural Selection on Solidago spp. in an Urban Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Bode, R F; Gilbert, A B

    2016-02-01

    The effects of urbanization on biodiversity are well established, as a growing city will reduce the size and diversity of patches of native plants. Recolonization of old patches and discovery of new ones by arthropod herbivores should occur as predicted by island biogeography theory. Although colonization represents an increase in biodiversity, such arrivals may exert new forms of natural selection on plants through herbivory and seed predation. Using a single species of old-field aster (Solidago altissima L.), we found that the level of natural selection by seed predators and herbivores follows patterns of island biogeography, with lower amounts of damage on smaller islands, where there are fewer species, and hypothetically smaller populations of arthropods. We also found that in an urban system, levels of herbivory are far below the tolerance levels of Solidago, and that seed predators are likely to be the only arthropod to cause reduced fitness. The pattern seen also implies that as a patch of Solidago grows through clonal expansion, it will come under higher selective pressure.

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy exerts mainly acute molecular changes in serum of major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Guest, Paul C; Rothermundt, Matthias; Sondermann, Carina; Michael, Nikolaus; Schwarz, Emanuel; Rahmoune, Hassan; Bahn, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is mainly used to treat medication resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, with a remission rate of up to 90%. However, little is known about the serum molecular changes induced by this treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of action of ECT at the molecular level could lead to identification of response markers and potential new drug targets for more effective antidepressant treatments. We have carried out a pilot study which analysed serum samples of MDD patients who received a series of ECT treatments over 4 weeks. Patients received only ECT treatments over the first two weeks and a combination of ECT and antidepressant drugs (AD) over the subsequent two weeks. Blood serum analyses were carried out using a combination of multiplex Human MAP® immunoassay and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) profiling. This showed that ECT had a predominant acute effect on the levels of serum proteins and small molecules, with changes at the beginning of ECT treatment and after administration of the ECT+AD combination treatment. This suggested a positive interaction between the two types of treatment. Changed molecules included BDNF, CD40L, IL-8, IL-13, EGF, IGF-1, pancreatic polypeptide, SCF, sortilin-1 and others which have already been implicated in MDD pathophysiology. We conclude that ECT appears to exert mainly acute effects on serum molecules.

  20. An Examination of the Relationship Between Movement Demands and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Australian Footballers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between movement demands, match events, and perceptual match load, as determined by rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in professional Australian footballers. The movement variables were collected between 1 and 22 times using global positioning system units from 21 players during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and match events were collected to obtain a complete insight into the physical demands and work rates of these athletes. These data were separated into the high-load (HL, ≥9) and low-load (LL, ≤8) RPE groups. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups and the size of the difference. The results revealed that the HL groups covered more distance, spent more time, and produced more efforts at the high deceleration zone (2.4-6.7%). Further, the HL group had more possessions and disposals of the football than the LL group (9.2-29.6%). The findings have highlighted the importance of monitoring accelerations, decelerations, and instantaneous power outputs to obtain a comprehensive insight into the physical demands placed on team sport athletes. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that training sessions should involve a focus on drills that are composed of both skill development and physical stimulus element.

  1. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F.; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  2. Finite element determination of the forces exerted by endotracheal tubes on the upper airways.

    PubMed

    Gustin, B; G'Sell, C; Cochelin, B; Wourms, P; Potier-Ferry, M

    1996-06-01

    Accidents occurring during intubations often originate in the mechanical interaction between the tube and the upper airways. A review of these accidents, including their possible complications, shows that they are mainly due to the forces exerted by the tube on the anatomical structures during the long intubation periods. The structural design of currently available tubes is presented, and the viscoelastic properties of the constituent PVC materials are analysed. It is shown how the long-term viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer can be assessed from accelerated relaxation tests in uniaxial tension at temperatures higher than the body temperature and how the variation in the relaxation modulus can be modelled through a simple constitutive equation with a minimum number of parameters. From these data, the mechanical interaction of the tubes with the trachea are computed by means of the finite element method. The relative efficiency of different types of endotracheal tubes is thus discussed and operational criteria are eventually defined for the choice of tubes in clinical situations.

  3. Flagellar biosynthesis exerts temporal regulation of secretion of specific Campylobacter jejuni colonization and virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Tobon, Angelica M; Hendrixson, David R

    2014-09-01

    The Campylobacter jejuni flagellum exports both proteins that form the flagellar organelle for swimming motility and colonization and virulence factors that promote commensal colonization of the avian intestinal tract or invasion of human intestinal cells respectively. We explored how the C. jejuni flagellum is a versatile secretory organelle by examining molecular determinants that allow colonization and virulence factors to exploit the flagellum for their own secretion. Flagellar biogenesis was observed to exert temporal control of secretion of these proteins, indicating that a bolus of secretion of colonization and virulence factors occurs during hook biogenesis with filament polymerization itself reducing secretion of these factors. Furthermore, we found that intramolecular and intermolecular requirements for flagellar-dependent secretion of these proteins were most reminiscent to those for flagellin secretion. Importantly, we discovered that secretion of one colonization and virulence factor, CiaI, was not required for invasion of human colonic cells, which counters previous hypotheses for how this protein functions during invasion. Instead, secretion of CiaI was essential for C. jejuni to facilitate commensal colonization of the natural avian host. Our work provides insight into the versatility of the bacterial flagellum as a secretory machine that can export proteins promoting diverse biological processes.

  4. Genetic mapping of recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis in a population of North American Thoroughbreds

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, K.L.; McCue, M.E.; Valberg, S.J.; Rendahl, A.K.; Mickelson, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis is a heritable disorder that results in painful skeletal muscle cramping with exercise in up to 10% of all Thoroughbred racehorses. Here we report a genome-wide association study with 48,282 SNPs analyzed among 48 case and 37 control Thoroughbreds. The most significant SNPs spanned approximately 13 Mb on ECA16, and the p-value of the most significant SNP after correcting for population structure was 8.0 × 10−6. This region on ECA16 was further evaluated by genotyping 247 SNPs in both the initial population and a second population of 34 case and 98 control Thoroughbreds. Several SNPs across the 13 Mb region on ECA16 showed significance when each population was analyzed separately; however, the exact positions of the most significant SNPs within this region on ECA16 varied between populations. This variability in location may be attributed to lack of power due to insufficient sample sizes within each population individually, or to the relative distribution of long conserved haplotypes, which are characteristic of the Thoroughbred breed. Future genome-wide association studies with additional horses would likely improve the power to resolve casual loci located on ECA16 and increase the likelihood of detecting any additional loci on other chromosomes contributing to disease susceptibility. PMID:22497487

  5. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.

  6. Effective range of reproductive interference exerted by an alien dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, on a native congener.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishida, Takayoshi; Nishida, Sachiko

    2011-03-01

    Reproductive interference (RI), defined as the fitness cost of interspecific sexual interactions, such as interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) in plants, is ecologically important. Theoretically, RI could result in competitive exclusion, as it operates in a frequency-dependent manner. Additionally, IPT may have a greater range than resource competition, although information about the range of IPT is lacking. In the present study, we measured the range of IPT exerted by Taraxacum officinale (an alien species) on a native dandelion, T. japonicum. We used two approaches. In one, we analyzed the RI effect on a native seed set at three spatial scales. In the second, we tracked IPT from alien to native flower heads using fluorescent pigments as markers. We estimated that pollination distances were in the order of several meters. These distances exceeded the mean distance from each native plant to the nearest alien. As hypothesized, the effect of RI reached farther than neighboring individuals. These data indicate the spatial range from which alien dandelions should be removed to allow the conservation of natives.

  7. Effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Terasawa, Naoko

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal endurance exercises by 10 healthy young adults. Participants performed a submaximal endurance cycling exercise corresponding to 60% of maximum oxygen uptake capacity for 60 min. They drank either caffeinated coffee with a caffeine content of 6 mg/kg body-mass of each participant (Caf) or a decaffeinated coffee (Dec) 60 min. before starting exercise. Participants participated in the blind design experiment under both conditions at a one-week interval. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, RPE, and plasma lactate concentration were measured during the endurance exercise. The RPE under the Caffeinated coffee condition during the last 60 min. of endurance exercise was significantly lower than that in the Decaffeinated coffee condition. However, no significant differences in any physiological response were observed between conditions. Thus, caffeine ingestion 60 min. before starting exercise had an insignificant effect on the physiological responses, except for RPE during submaximal endurance exercises for 60 min. Caffeine ingestion before endurance exercise of relatively low intensity may have a beneficial effect on psychological responses.

  8. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  9. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg’s RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE. PMID:27990220

  10. Transportation stress and the incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepa G; Bennett, Darin C; Schaefer, Allan L; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2014-02-01

    Many emu farms are located in areas lacking processing facilities that can handle these birds. Thus, long-distance shipping of birds to an abattoir is necessary. Two experiments were conducted, wherein emus were transported in a modified horse trailer for 6 h to an abattoir. Changes in the indices of stress and metabolic homeostasis (hematology, serum biochemistry, enzymes, and body temperature and weight) were used to evaluate the physiological response to transport. The activities of enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase increased significantly (P < 0.001) from pretransport to slaughter, indicating muscle cell wall damages. The body temperature of emus was significantly (P < 0.001) increased from 37.0 to 39.6°C after transport in experiment 1 and from 37.2 to 38.9°C in experiment 2. Transport resulted in significant weight loss in both experiments (P < 0.001; 2.1 ± 0.2 kg vs. 0.6 ± 0.2 kg) and posttransport resting at lairage led to slight regaining (P < 0.01) of BW. Oral administration of supplements before and after transport was effective in protecting against muscle damage and faster recovery of BW losses during lairage. The clinical findings were suggestive of the incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis and thus underlined the need for careful handling and improved transport conditions of emus.

  11. Selection Mosaic Exerted by Specialist and Generalist Herbivores on Chemical and Physical Defense of Datura stramonium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Guillermo; Cruz, Laura L.; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Olmedo-Vicente, Eika; Carmona, Diego; Anaya-Lang, Ana Luisa; Fornoni, Juan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Valverde, Pedro L.; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Selection exerted by herbivores is a major force driving the evolution of plant defensive characters such as leaf trichomes or secondary metabolites. However, plant defense expression is highly variable among populations and identifying the sources of this variation remains a major challenge. Plant populations are often distributed across broad geographic ranges and are exposed to different herbivore communities, ranging from generalists (that feed on diverse plant species) to specialists (that feed on a restricted group of plants). We studied eight populations of the plant Datura stramonium usually eaten by specialist or generalist herbivores, in order to examine whether the pattern of phenotypic selection on secondary compounds (atropine and scopolamine) and a physical defense (trichome density) can explain geographic variation in these traits. Following co-evolutionary theory, we evaluated whether a more derived alkaloid (scopolamine) confers higher fitness benefits than its precursor (atropine), and whether this effect differs between specialist and generalist herbivores. Our results showed consistent directional selection in almost all populations and herbivores to reduce the concentration of atropine. The most derived alkaloid (scopolamine) was favored in only one of the populations, which is dominated by a generalist herbivore. In general, the patterns of selection support the existence of a selection mosaic and accounts for the positive correlation observed between atropine concentration and plant damage by herbivores recorded in previous studies. PMID:25051169

  12. Exertional Dyspnoea in Chronic Respiratory Diseases: From Physiology to Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Vermeulen, François; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-02-01

    Dyspnoea is a complex, highly personalized and multidimensional sensory experience, and its underlying cause and mechanisms are still being investigated. Exertional dyspnoea is one of the most frequently encountered symptoms of patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, and is a common reason for seeking medical help. As the symptom usually progresses with the underlying disease, it can lead to an avoidance of physical activity, peripheral muscle deconditioning and decreased quality of life. Dyspnoea is closely associated with quality of life, exercise (in)tolerance and prognosis in various conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension, and is therefore an important therapeutic target. Effective management and treatment of dyspnoea is an important challenge for caregivers, and therapeutic options that attempt to reverse its underlying cause have been only partially successful This "review" will attempt to shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying dyspnoea during exercise and to translate/apply them to a broad clinical spectrum of cardio-respiratory disorders.

  13. Exertional heat illness: a review of the syndrome affecting racing Thoroughbreds in hot and humid climates.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, M A; Dart, A J; Jeffcott, L B

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic heat produced by Thoroughbred racehorses during racing can rapidly elevate core body temperature (1°C/min). When environmental conditions are hot and humid, the normal physiological cooling mechanisms become ineffective. The heat accumulated may exceed a critical thermal maximum (estimated to be 42°C), which may trigger a complex pathophysiological cascade with potentially lethal consequences. This syndrome has been labelled exertional heat illness (EHI). EHI is described in humans, but has not been well documented in Thoroughbred racehorses. The clinical signs described in racehorses would suggest that the pathophysiological events affecting the central nervous (CNS) and gastrointestinal systems are similar to those described in humans. Clinical signs are progressive and include signs of endotoxaemia and increasing levels of CNS dysfunction. Initially, horses that may be mildly irritable (agitated, randomly kicking out) may progress to unmanageable (disorientation, severe ataxia, falling) and ultimately convulsions, coma and death. Currently, the approach to treatment is largely empirical and involves rapid and effective cooling, administration of drugs to provide sedation, administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to ameliorate the effects of endotoxaemia and glucocorticoids to stabilise cell membranes and reduce the effects of inflammation on the CNS. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about EHI in Thoroughbred racehorses, suggests a likely pathophysiology of the syndrome in horses based on the current literature on heat illness in humans and horses, and outlines current treatment strategies being used to treat racehorses with clinical signs of EHI.

  14. Heritability of Recurrent Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Standardbred and Thoroughbred Racehorses Derived From SNP Genotyping Data.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elaine M; Mickelson, James R; Binns, Matthew M; Blott, Sarah C; Caputo, Paul; Isgren, Cajsa M; McCoy, Annette M; Moore, Alison; Piercy, Richard J; Swinburne, June E; Vaudin, Mark; McCue, Molly E

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses is characterized by episodes of muscle rigidity and cell damage that often recur upon strenuous exercise. The objective was to evaluate the importance of genetic factors in RER by obtaining an unbiased estimate of heritability in cohorts of unrelated Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses. Four hundred ninety-one Thoroughbred and 196 Standardbred racehorses were genotyped with the 54K or 74K SNP genotyping arrays. Heritability was calculated from genome-wide SNP data with a mixed linear and Bayesian model, utilizing the standard genetic relationship matrix (GRM). Both the mixed linear and Bayesian models estimated heritability of RER in Thoroughbreds to be approximately 0.34 and in Standardbred racehorses to be approximately 0.45 after adjusting for disease prevalence and sex. To account for potential differences in the genetic architecture of the underlying causal variants, heritability estimates were adjusted based on linkage disequilibrium weighted kinship matrix, minor allele frequency and variant effect size, yielding heritability estimates that ranged between 0.41-0.46 (Thoroughbreds) and 0.39-0.49 (Standardbreds). In conclusion, between 34-46% and 39-49% of the variance in RER susceptibility in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses, respectively, can be explained by the SNPs present on these 2 genotyping arrays, indicating that RER is moderately heritable. These data provide further rationale for the investigation of genetic mutations associated with RER susceptibility.

  15. “Non-Toxic” Proteins of the Botulinum Toxin Complex Exert In-vivo Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Suzuki, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Takashi; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causes muscle paralysis and is the most potent toxin in nature. BoNT is associated with a complex of auxiliary “Non-Toxic” proteins, which constitute a large-sized toxin complex (L-TC). However, here we report that the “Non-Toxic” complex of serotype D botulinum L-TC, when administered to rats, exerts in-vivo toxicity on small-intestinal villi. Moreover, Serotype C and D of the “Non-Toxic” complex, but not BoNT, induced vacuole-formation in a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6), resulting in cell death. Our results suggest that the vacuole was formed in a manner distinct from the mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) and Vibrio cholerae haemolysin induce vacuolation. We therefore hypothesise that the serotype C and D botulinum toxin complex is a functional hybrid of the neurotoxin and vacuolating toxin (VT) which arose from horizontal gene transfer from an ancestral BoNT-producing bacterium to a hypothetical VT-producing bacterium. PMID:27507612

  16. Oral administration of Brazilian propolis exerts estrogenic effect in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Tobe, Takao; Ueda, Koji; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Kojima, Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Propolis, a natural product derived from plants by honeybees, is a mixture of several hundred chemicals, including flavonoids, coumaric acids, and caffeic acids, some of which show estrogen-like activity. In this study, the estrogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Brazilian propolis was determined using several in vitro and in vivo assays. Propolis was found to bind to human estrogen receptors (ERs). Furthermore, propolis induced the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in ER-positive MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. These in vitro assays suggest that propolis exerts estrogenic activity; therefore, in vivo experiments were conducted using ovariectomized rats. Oral administration of propolis (55 or 550 mg/kg/day for 3 days) significantly increased uterine wet weight and luminal epithelium thickness in comparison with the corresponding values in the corn oil-treated control group. Moreover, propolis induced ductal cell proliferation in the mammary glands. These effects were completely inhibited by full ER antagonist ICI 182,780, confirming that the effects of propolis are mediated by the ER. Our data show that oral intake of propolis induces estrogenic activity in ER-expressing organs in vivo and suggest that Brazilian propolis is a useful dietary source of phytoestrogens and a promising treatment for postmenopausal symptoms.

  17. Nanoprecipitated catestatin released from pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) exerts pro-survival effects on MSC.

    PubMed

    Angotti, C; Venier-Julienne, M C; Penna, C; Femminò, S; Sindji, L; Paniagua, C; Montero-Menei, C N; Pagliaro, P

    2016-11-22

    Catestatin (CST), a fragment of Chromogranin-A, exerts angiogenic, arteriogenic, vasculogenic and cardioprotective effects. CST is a very promising agent for revascularization purposes, in "NOOPTION" patients. However, peptides have a very short half-life after administration and must be conveniently protected. Fibronectin-coated pharmacologically active microcarriers (FN-PAM), are biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric microspheres that can convey mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) and therapeutic proteins delivered in a prolonged manner. In this study, we first evaluated whether a small peptide such as CST could be nanoprecipitated and incorporated within FN-PAMs. Subsequently, whether CST may be released in a prolonged manner by functionalized FN-PAMs (FN-PAM-CST). Finally, we assessed the effect of CST released by FN-PAM-CST on the survival of MSCs under stress conditions of hypoxia-reoxygenation. An experimental design, modifying three key parameters (ionic strength, mixing and centrifugation time) of protein nanoprecipitation, was used to define the optimum condition for CST. An optimal nanoprecipitation yield of 76% was obtained allowing encapsulation of solid CST within FN-PAM-CST, which released CST in a prolonged manner. In vitro, MSCs adhered to FN-PAMs, and the controlled release of CST from FN-PAM-CST greatly limited hypoxic MSC-death and enhanced MSC-survival in post-hypoxic environment. These results suggest that FN-PAM-CST are promising tools for cell-therapy.

  18. Magnolol Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effects in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Nobuaki; Akae, Haruka; Hirashima, Nana; Kido, Yuki; Tanabe, Satoshi; Koseki, Mayumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Akagi, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    Magnolol is the main constituent of Magnolia bark and has been reported to exhibit antidepressant effects in rodent models. Hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor are integrally involved in the action of conventional antidepressants. Here, we investigated the effects of magnolol on depressive behaviours, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related signal transduction in an olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) mouse model of depression. Mice were submitted to OBX to induce depressive behaviour, which was evaluated in the tail suspension test. Magnolol was administered orally by gavage needle. Neurogenesis was assessed by analysis of cells expressing NeuN, a neuronal marker, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein were evaluated by Western blot. Fourteen day treatment with magnolol (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) significantly improved OBX-induced depressive behaviour in tail suspension test. In agreement, magnolol significantly rescued impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, single treatments with magnolol (50 mg/kg) significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein after 3 h. The present data indicate that magnolol exerts antidepressant-like effects on behaviours by enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related intracellular signalling in OBX mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activities through enhancing Yes-associated protein stability.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qi; Li, Dean Y; Luo, Hongbo R; Guan, Kun-Liang; Ye, Keqiang

    2015-06-09

    Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcription coactivator, is the major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, which plays a critical role in organ size control and cancer development. However, how YAP is regulated by extracellular stimuli in tumorigenesis remains incompletely understood. Netrin-1, a laminin-related secreted protein, displays proto-oncogenic activity in cancers. Nonetheless, the downstream signaling mediating its oncogenic effects is not well defined. Here we show that netrin-1 via its transmembrane receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer and uncoordinated-5 homolog, up-regulates YAP expression, escalating YAP levels in the nucleus and promoting cancer cell proliferation and migration. Inactivating netrin-1, deleted in colorectal cancer, or uncoordinated-5 homolog B (UNC5B) decreases YAP protein levels, abrogating cancer cell progression by netrin-1, whereas knockdown of mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1/2 (MST1/2) or large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (Lats1/2), two sets of upstream core kinases of the Hippo pathway, has no effect in blocking netrin-1-induced up-regulation of YAP. Netrin-1 stimulates phosphatase 1A to dephosphorylate YAP, which leads to decreased ubiquitination and degradation, enhancing YAP accumulation and signaling. Hence, our findings support that netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activity through YAP signaling, providing a mechanism coupling extracellular signals to the nuclear YAP oncogene.

  20. Bilirubin exerts pro-angiogenic property through Akt-eNOS-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yasumasa; Hamano, Hirofumi; Satoh, Akiho; Horinouchi, Yuya; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Aihara, Ken-Ichi; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Low serum bilirubin levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases including peripheral artery disease. Bilirubin is known to exert its property such as antioxidant effect or the enhancement of flow-mediated vasodilation, however, bilirubin action on angiogenesis remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanism of bilirubin on angiogenic effect, we first employed C57BL/6J mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia surgery and divided the mice into two groups (vehicle-treated group and bilirubin-treated group). The analysis of laser speckle blood flow demonstrated the enhancement of blood flow recovery in response to ischemia of mice with bilirubin treatment. The density of capillaries was significantly higher in ischemic-adductor muscles of bilirubin-treated mice. The phosphorylated levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt were increased in ischemic skeletal muscles of mice with bilirubin treatment compared with vehicle treatment. In in vitro experiments by using human aortic endothelial cells, bilirubin augmented eNOS and Akt phosphorylation, cell proliferation, cell migration and tube formation. These bilirubin actions on endothelial cell activation were inhibited by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, bilirubin promotes angiogenesis through endothelial cells activation via Akt-eNOS-dependent manner.

  1. Tetrandrine Exerts a Radiosensitization Effect on Human Glioma through Inhibiting Proliferation by Attenuating ERK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ji-wei; Zhang, Yong; Ye, Ji-cheng; Li, Ru; Wen, Yu-Lin; Huang, Jian-xian; Zhong, Xue-yun

    2017-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has been reported to have a radiosensitization effect on tumors. However, its effects on human glioma and the specific molecular mechanisms of these effects remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Tet has a radiosensitization effect on human glioma cells. It has been hypothesized that Tet has a radiosensitization effect on glioma cells by affecting the glioma cell cycle and DNA repair mechanism and that ERK mediates these activities. Therefore, we conducted detailed analyses of the effects of Tet on the cell cycle by performing flow cytometric analysis and on DNA repair by detecting the expression of phosphorylated H2AX by immunofluorescence. We used western blot analysis to investigate the role of ERK in the effect of Tet on the cell cycle and DNA repair. The results revealed that Tet exerts its radiosensitization effect on glioma cells by inhibiting proliferation and decreasing the expression of phosphorylated ERK and its downstream proteins. In summary, our data indicate that ERK is involved in Tet-induced radiosensitization of glioma cells via inhibition of glioma cell proliferation or of the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. PMID:27829269

  2. Moutan cortex extract exerts protective effects in a rat model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Dan, Hong; Zhang, Liping; Qin, Xiaolin; Peng, Xiaohui; Wong, Mingyan; Tan, Xuan; Yu, Shanggong; Fang, Nianbai

    2016-03-01

    Moutan cortex (MC) is a traditional Chinese medicine with diverse biological effects. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of MC on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats and to explore its possible mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered MC extract (1.98 g/kg, i.g.) for 14 days and underwent a subsequent open-chest procedure involving 30 min of myocardial ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. The cardioprotective effect of MC was demonstrated by reduced infarct size and marked improvement in the histopathological examination. The increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) as well as the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that MC effectively promoted the anti-oxidative defense system. Increased anti-oxidative defense was accompanied by decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK). The reduction in TUNEL-positive myocytes demonstrated that MC decreased myocardial apoptosis. The mRNA expression of B cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) was upregulated by MC and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) mRNA expression was increased. MC pretreatment decreased the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The data from this study suggest that MC exerted protective effects on acute myocardial I/R injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities.

  3. The novel combination of chlorpromazine and pentamidine exerts synergistic antiproliferative effects through dual mitotic action.

    PubMed

    Lee, Margaret S; Johansen, Lisa; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wilson, Amy; Keegan, Mitchell; Avery, William; Elliott, Peter; Borisy, Alexis A; Keith, Curtis T

    2007-12-01

    Combination therapy has proven successful in treating a wide variety of aggressive human cancers. Historically, combination treatments have been discovered through serendipity or lengthy trials using known anticancer agents with similar indications. We have used combination high-throughput screening to discover the unexpected synergistic combination of an antiparasitic agent, pentamidine, and a phenothiazine antipsychotic, chlorpromazine. This combination, CRx-026, inhibits the growth of tumor cell lines in vivo more effectively than either pentamidine or chlorpromazine alone. Here, we report that CRx-026 exerts its antiproliferative effect through synergistic dual mitotic action. Chlorpromazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin KSP/Eg5 and inhibits tumor cell proliferation through mitotic arrest and accumulation of monopolar spindles. Pentamidine treatment results in chromosomal segregation defects and delayed progression through mitosis, consistent with inhibition of the phosphatase of regenerating liver family of phosphatases. We also show that CRx-026 synergizes in vitro and in vivo with the microtubule-binding agents paclitaxel and vinorelbine. These data support a model where dual action of pentamidine and chlorpromazine in mitosis results in synergistic antitumor effects and show the importance of systematic screening for combinations of targeted agents.

  4. Coulomb-like interaction in nematic emulsions induced by external torques exerted on the colloids.

    PubMed

    Pergamenshchik, V M; Uzunova, V O

    2007-07-01

    An external mechanical torque on colloids immersed in a nematic liquid crystal can induce a Coulomb-like 1/r interaction between them [Lev and Tomchuk, Phys. Rev. E 59, 591 (1999); Lev, ibid. 65, 021709 (2002)]. In this paper we show that the director-mediated Coulomb-like interaction of two colloids is determined by the vectors Gamma perpendicular (1) and Gamma perpendicular (2) of the transverse external torques exerted upon these colloids. We derive the 1/r potential in which the scalar product -(Gamma perpendicular (1) x Gamma perpendicular (2)) of the two torques plays the role of the product of two electrostatic charges. The 1/r interaction is attractive for (Gamma perpendicular (1) x Gamma perpendicular (2))>0 and repulsive for (Gamma perpendicular (1) x Gamma perpendicular (2))<0 ("parallel torques" attract whereas "antiparallel torques" repel each other). The vector of transverse torque determines the two-component "elastic charge" (dyad), which is illustrated by the 1/r2 and 1/r3 terms in the elastic energy (the elastic analogs of the monopole-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions). The general status of the pairwise approach to nematic emulsions is considered in terms of the elastic charge density.

  5. Plumbagin exerts an immunosuppressive effect on human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Yura; Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jiyeon

    2016-04-22

    Of the hematological disorders typified by poor prognoses and survival rates, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is one of the most commonly diagnosed. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents, the treatment options for this cancer remain limited. In this manuscript, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of plumbagin, mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling; the human T-ALL MOLT-4 cell line was used as our experimental system. Plumbagin is a natural, plant derived compound, which exerts an anti-proliferative activity against many types of human cancer. Our experiments confirm that plumbagin induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells, with no significant cytotoxicity seen for normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Plumbagin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65, and the transcription of NF-κB target genes. Our results now show that plumbagin is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and suppressor of T-ALL cell proliferation.

  6. BDNF-secreting capsule exerts neuroprotective effects on epilepsy model of rats.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Satoshi; Yasuhara, Takao; Agari, Takashi; Kondo, Akihiko; Jing, Meng; Kikuchi, Yoichiro; Shinko, Aiko; Wakamori, Takaaki; Kameda, Masahiro; Wang, Feifei; Kin, Kyohei; Edahiro, Satoru; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Date, Isao

    2011-01-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a well neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective potentials for various diseases in the central nervous system. However several previous studies demonstrated that BDNF might deteriorate symptoms for epilepsy model of animals by progression of abnormal neurogenesis. We hypothesized that continuous administration of BDNF at low dose might be more effective for epilepsy model of animals because high dose of BDNF was used in many studies. BDNF-secreting cells were genetically made and encapsulated for transplantation. Rats receiving BDNF capsule showed significant amelioration of seizure stage and reduction of the number of abnormal spikes at 7 days after kainic acid administration, compared to those of control group. The number of BrdU and BrdU/doublecortin positive cells in the hippocampus of BDNF group significantly increased, compared to that of control group. NeuN positive cells in the CA1 and CA3 of BDNF group were significantly preserved, compared to control group. In conclusion, low dose administration using encapsulated BDNF-secreting cells exerted neuroprotective effects with enhanced neurogenesis on epilepsy model of rats. These results might suggest the importance of the dose and administrative way of this neurotrophic factor to the epilepsy model of animals.

  7. Nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites exert interdependent effects on the binding affinities of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bulyk, Martha L.; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Church, George M.

    2002-01-01

    We can determine the effects of many possible sequence variations in transcription factor binding sites using microarray binding experiments. Analysis of wild-type and mutant Zif268 (Egr1) zinc fingers bound to microarrays containing all possible central 3 bp triplet binding sites indicates that the nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites cannot be treated independently. This indicates that the current practice of characterizing transcription factor binding sites by mutating individual positions of binding sites one base pair at a time does not provide a true picture of the sequence specificity. Similarly, current bioinformatic practices using either just a consensus sequence, or even mononucleotide frequency weight matrices to provide more complete descriptions of transcription factor binding sites, are not accurate in depicting the true binding site specificities, since these methods rely upon the assumption that the nucleotides of binding sites exert independent effects on binding affinity. Our results stress the importance of complete reference tables of all possible binding sites for comparing protein binding preferences for various DNA sequences. We also show results suggesting that microarray binding data using particular subsets of all possible binding sites can be used to extrapolate the relative binding affinities of all possible full-length binding sites, given a known binding site for use as a starting sequence for site preference refinement. PMID:11861919

  8. 77 FR 16131 - Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities By the authority vested in me as President by...: Section 1. Policy. Cities, towns, and regions across our Nation continue to face difficult economic... established the Strong Cities, Strong Communities (SC2) pilot initiative. By partnering with cities...

  9. Time-dependent diffusion in skeletal muscle with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM): Application to normal controls and chronic exertional compartment syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Novikov, Dmitry S.; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Babb, James S.; Liu, Kecheng; Feiweier, Thorsten; Kwon, Jane; Mcgorty, KellyAnne; Bencardino, Jenny; Fieremans, Els

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To collect diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at multiple diffusion times Td in skeletal muscle in normal subjects and chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) patients and analyze the data with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM) for biophysical specificity. Materials and Methods Using an IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant protocol, seven patients with clinical suspicion of CECS and eight healthy volunteers underwent DTI of the calf muscle in a Siemens MAGNETOM Verio 3-T scanner at rest and after treadmill exertion at 4 different diffusion times. Radial diffusion values λrad were computed for each of 7 different muscle compartments and analyzed with RPBM to produce estimates of free diffusivity D0, fiber diameter a, and permeability κ. Fiber diameter estimates were compared with measurements from literature autopsy reference for several compartments. Response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) were computed and compared between normal controls and CECS patients using a mixed-model two-way analysis of variance. Results All subjects and muscle compartments showed nearly time-independent diffusion along and strongly time-dependent diffusion transverse to the muscle fibers. RPBM estimates of fiber diameter correlated well with corresponding autopsy reference. D0 showed significant (p<0.05) increases with exercise for volunteers, and a increased significantly (p<0.05) in volunteers. At the group level, response factors of all three parameters showed trends differentiating controls from CECS patients, with patients showing smaller diameter changes (p=0.07), and larger permeability increases (p=0.07) than controls. Conclusions Time-dependent diffusion measurements combined with appropriate tissue modeling can provide enhanced microstructural specificity for in vivo tissue characterization. In CECS patients, our results suggest that high-pressure interfiber edema elevates free diffusion and restricts exercise-induced fiber dilation. Such specificity may be

  10. Keeping Marriages Strong in Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Marci Wolff

    2009-01-01

    What makes a strong marriage anyway...? There are definite qualities that exist in healthy marriages, that is, a marriage that is defined by both partners to be "mostly" or "usually" very satisfying. This article explores these qualities and looks at what really works to make and keep marriages strong, healthy, and satisfying…

  11. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  12. Strong diamagnetism of normal metals and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O. V.; Gradov, O. M.; Kyrie, A. Yu

    1992-07-01

    The theory of strong diamagnetism of metals caused by the formation of a superlattice with the period being much larger than the crystal cell size has been developed. Strong diamagnetism has been shown to be the cause of the superconductivity of metals.

  13. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, Philip E.; Rodgers, Peter W.; Ewert, Daniel W.

    1995-01-01

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  14. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  15. 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (raphasatin) exerts chemopreventive effects against esophageal carcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Isamu; Cho, Young-Man; Hirata, Tadashi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Yasushi; Park, Eun Young; Sasaki, Azusa; Nakamura, Takako; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Shirota, Koji; Suetome, Noboru; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate on esophageal carcinogenesis, male 6-week-old F344 rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mg/kg body weight N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine three times per week for 5 weeks and fed a diet supplemented with 80 ppm 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, equivalent to 6.05 mg/kg body weight/day for the initiation stage, 4.03 mg/kg body weight/day for the promotion stage, or 4.79 mg/kg body weight/day for all stages. Although the incidence of lesions was not affected by 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate treatment, the multiplicity of squamous cell papilloma in the esophagus was significantly decreased in rats in the 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate initiation stage group (1.13 ± 0.74), 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate promotion stage group (1.47 ± 0.99), and 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate all stage group (1.47 ± 1.13) as compared with rats treated with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine alone (3.00 ± 1.46). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate induced apoptosis, suppressed cell proliferation, and increased p21 expression when administered in the promotion phase. These modifying effects were not observed in the rats treated with 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate alone. Our results indicated that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate may exert chemopreventive effects against N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal carcinogenesis in rats. PMID:27821908

  16. Effect of Beetroot Juice on Moderate-Intensity Exercise at a Constant Rating of Perceived Exertion.

    PubMed

    Rienks, Jordyn N; Vanderwoude, Andrea A; Maas, Elizabeth; Blea, Zachary M; Subudhi, Andrew W

    Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to reduce oxygen consumption at a fixed work rate. We questioned whether a similar effect would be observed during variable work rate exercise at a specific rating of perceived exertion (RPE), as is commonly prescribed for aerobic training sessions. Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, ten females (25 ± 3 years; VO2peak 37.1 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) performed two 20-min cycle ergometer trials at a constant RPE of 13 (somewhat hard) 2.5 hours following ingestion of 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice (12.9 mmol nitrate), or nitrate-depleted placebo. Performance was measured in terms of total VO2 (L) consumed and total mechanical work (kJ) accomplished across each trial. Following each experimental trial, subjects rode at 75W for an additional 5 min to determine the effect of beetroot juice on fixed work rate exercise. Coefficients of variation in total VO2 (L) and work performed (kJ) during the RPE 13 clamp trials were 8.2 and 9.5%, respectively. Consumption of beetroot juice did not affect total VO2 or work performed during RPE 13 exercise, but lowered resting systolic blood pressure by ~5 mmHg (P=0.041) and oxygen consumption at 75W by ~4% (P=0.048), relative to placebo. Since the effect of beetroot juice on oxygen consumption is small and may be masked by daily variability during self-regulated exercise, it is unlikely to have a notable effect on daily training.

  17. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaw-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE) and polysaccharide (Gt-PS) extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL-) 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5 ~ 50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL) and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma. PMID:25960757

  18. Sex differences in the intensity and qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea in physically active young adults

    PubMed Central

    Cory, Julia M.; Schaeffer, Michele R.; Wilkie, Sabrina S.; Ramsook, Andrew H.; Puyat, Joseph H.; Arbour, Brandon; Basran, Robbi; Lam, Michael; Les, Christian; MacDonald, Benjamin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in the qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea may provide insight into why women are more affected by this symptom than men. This study explored the evolution of the qualitative dimensions of dyspnea in 70 healthy, young, physically active adults (35 M and 35 F). Participants rated the intensity of their breathing discomfort (Borg 0-10 scale) and selected phrases that best described their breathing from a standardized list (work/effort, unsatisfied inspiration, and unsatisfied expiration) throughout each stage of a symptom-limited incremental-cycle exercise test. Following exercise, participants selected phrases that described their breathing at maximal exercise from a list of 15 standardized phrases. Intensity of breathing discomfort was significantly higher in women for a given ventilation, but differences disappeared when ventilation was expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation. The dominant qualitative descriptor in both sexes throughout exercise was increased work/effort of breathing. At peak exercise, women were significantly more likely to select the following phrases: “my breathing feels shallow,” “I cannot get enough air in,” “I cannot take a deep breath in,” and “my breath does not go in all the way.” Women adopted a more rapid and shallow breathing pattern and had significantly higher end-inspiratory lung volumes relative to total lung capacity throughout exercise relative to men. These findings suggest that men and women do not differ in their perceived quality of dyspnea during submaximal exercise, but subjective differences appear at maximal exercise and may be related, at least in part, to underlying sex differences in breathing patterns and operating lung volumes during exercise. PMID:26338458

  19. Plasma and lymphocyte Hsp72 responses to exercise in athletes with prior exertional heat illness.

    PubMed

    Ruell, Patricia A; Simar, David; Périard, Julien D; Best, Stuart; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise in the heat on both intracellular and extracellular Hsp72 in athletes with a prior history of exertional heat illness (EHI). Two groups of runners, one consisting of athletes who had a previous history of EHI, and a control group (CON) of similar age (29.7 ± 1.2 and 29.1 ± 2 years CON vs. EHI) and fitness [maximal oxygen consumption [Formula: see text] 65.7 ± 2 and 64.5 ± 3 ml kg(-1) min(-1) CON vs. EHI] were recruited. Seven subjects in each group ran on a treadmill for 1 h at 72 % [Formula: see text] in warm conditions (30 °C, 40 % RH) reaching rectal temperatures of ~39.3 (CON) and ~39.2 °C (EHI). Blood was collected every 10 min during exercise and plasma was analysed for extracellular Hsp72. Intracellular Hsp72 levels were measured in both monocytes and lymphocytes before and immediately after the 60-min run, and then after 1 h recovery at an ambient temperature of 24 °C. Plasma Hsp72 increased from 1.18 ± 0.14 and 0.86 ± 0.08 ng/ml (CON vs. EHI) at rest to 4.56 ± 0.63 and 4.04 ± 0.45 ng/ml (CON vs. EHI, respectively) at the end of exercise (p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. Lymphocyte Hsp72 was lower in the EHI group at 60 min of exercise (p < 0.05), while monocyte Hsp72 was not different between groups. The results of the present study suggest that the plasma Hsp72 response to exercise in athletes with a prior history of EHI remained similar to that of the CON group, while the lymphocyte Hsp72 response was reduced.

  20. Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 does not exhibit proteolytic activities to exert its pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteases are well-known virulence factors that promote survival, pathogenesis and immune evasion of many pathogens. Several lines of evidence suggest that the blood–brain barrier permeability is a prerequisite in microbial invasion of the central nervous system. Because proteases are frequently associated with vascular permeability by targeting junctional proteins, here it is hypothesized that neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 exhibit proteolytic activities to exert its pathogenicity. Methods Zymographic assays were performed using collagen and gelatin as substrates. The lysates of whole E. coli K1 strain E44, or E. coli K-12 strain HB101 were tested for proteolytic activities. The conditioned media were prepared by incubating bacteria in RPMI-1640 in the presence or absence of serum. The cell-free supernatants were collected and tested for proteases in zymography as mentioned above. Additionally, proteolytic degradation of host immune factors was determined by co-incubating conditioned media with albumin/immunoglobulins using protease assays. Results When collagen or gelatin were used as substrates in zymographic assays, neither whole bacteria nor conditioned media exhibited proteolytic activities. The conditioned media of neuropathogenic E. coli K1 strain E44, or E. coli K-12 strain HB101 did not affect degradation of albumin and immunoglobulins using protease assays. Conclusions Neither zymographic assays nor protease assays detected proteolytic activities in either the whole bacteria or conditioned media of E. coli K1 strain E44 and E. coli K-12 strain HB101. These findings suggest that host cell monolayer disruptions and immune evasion strategies are likely independent of proteolytic activities of neuropathogenic E. coli K1. PMID:23634997