Science.gov

Sample records for exertional heat illness

  1. Exertional heat illness and hyponatremia in hikers.

    PubMed

    Backer, H D; Shopes, E; Collins, S L; Barkan, H

    1999-10-01

    We compared clinical presentation and course of exercise-associated hyponatremia with heat exhaustion among summertime hikers in Grand Canyon National Park. Cases were selected from among hikers who requested medical help from the National Park Service Emergency Medical Service (EMS) or who presented to the medical clinic on the rim of the canyon with complaints related to exercise in the heat. Of 44 patients who had serum samples analyzed, 7 had hyponatremia with clinically significant symptoms and serum sodium levels <130 mmol/L: 3 had grand mal seizures, 2 had other major central nervous system disorders, and 2 had minor neurological symptoms. Seizures and change of mental status distinguished hyponatremia, (P = 0.0002). Indirect evidence suggests that hyponatremic patients were hyperhydrated. Other common symptoms included nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness, but these symptoms did not predict the level of serum sodium. When exercise in the heat is prolonged, hyponatremia is suggested either by altered mental status or by seizures without hyperpyrexia or hypoglycemia. No mortality or long-term morbidity occurred in any of these cases of hyponatremia.

  2. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:12937591

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  4. Exertional Heat Illness and Hyponatremia: An Epidemiological Prospective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    and Hyponatremia : An Epidemiological Prospective Robert Carter III Department of Human Factors, Research Center of the Army Health Service, La Tronche...illness and hyponatremia : an epidemiological prospective. Curr. Sports Med. Rep., Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. S20YS27, 2008. In active populations, heat...illness remains a cause of exercise-related injury and death. There is evidence that hyponatremia also occurs, but less often than heat illness. Incidence

  5. Risk factors predicting exertional heat illness in male Marine Corps recruits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Kark, J A; Karnei, K; Sanborn, J S; Gastaldo, E; Burr, P; Wenger, C B

    1996-08-01

    A matched population-based case-control study was conducted on exertional heat illness (EHI) in male Marine Corps recruits in basic training at Parris Island, SC. Physical fitness and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 391 of 528 cases of EHI identified in this population during 1988-1992, and 1467 of 1725 controls matched to cases by initial training platoon. The risk for developing EHI increased with increase in body mass index (BMI = weight.height-2) as measured on arrival and with increase in time to complete a 1.5-mile run conducted during the first week. Recruits at highest risk for developing exertional heat illness had a BMI of 22 or more kg.m-2 and a 1.5-mile run-time for 12 of more minutes. These recruits had an eightfold higher risk for developing exertional heat illness during basic training when compared with those with BMI less than 22 kg.m-2 and 1.5-mile run-time under 10 min (P < 10(-6). Only one-fifth (18%) of male recruits met these criteria for high risk, but they accounted for nearly half (47%) of the exertional heat illness cases occurring during the 12-wk basic training course.

  6. Environmental Conditions and the Occurrence of Exertional Heat Illnesses and Exertional Heat Stroke at the Falmouth Road Race

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Julie K.; Casa, Douglas J.; Belval, Luke N.; Crago, Arthur; Davis, Rob J.; Jardine, John J.; Stearns, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Falmouth Road Race is unique because of the environmental conditions and relatively short distance, which allow runners to maintain a high intensity for the duration of the event. Therefore, the occurrence of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs), especially exertional heat stroke (EHS), is 10 times higher than in other races. Objective: To summarize the occurrence and relationship of EHI and environmental conditions at the Falmouth Road Race. Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Setting: An 11.3-km (7-mile) road race in Falmouth, Massachusetts. Patients or Other Participants: Runners who sustained an EHI while participating in the Falmouth Road Race. Main Outcome Measure(s): We obtained 18 years of medical records and environmental conditions from the Falmouth Road Race and documented the incidence of EHI, specifically EHS, as related to ambient temperature (Tamb), relative humidity, and heat index (HI). Results: Average Tamb, relative humidity, and HI were 23.3 ± 2.5°C, 70 ± 16%, and 24 ± 3.5°C, respectively. Of the 393 total EHI cases observed, EHS accounted for 274 (70%). An average of 15.2 ± 13.0 EHS cases occurred each year; the incidence was 2.13 ± 1.62 cases per 1000 runners. Regression analysis revealed a relationship between the occurrence of both EHI and EHS and Tamb (R2 = 0.71, P = .001, and R2 = 0.65, P = .001, respectively) and HI (R2 = 0.76, P < .001, and R2 = 0.74, P < .001, respectively). Occurrences of EHS (24.2 ± 15.5 cases versus 9.3 ± 4.3 cases) and EHI (32.3 ± 16.3 versus 13.0 ± 4.9 cases) were higher when Tamb and HI were high compared with when Tamb and HI were low. Conclusions: Because of the environmental conditions and race duration, the Falmouth Road Race provides a unique setting for a high incidence of EHS. A clear relationship exists between environmental stress, especially as measured by Tamb and HI, and the occurrence of EHS or other EHI. Proper prevention and treatment strategies should be used during periods

  7. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exertional heat illness during training and competition.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; Moran, Daniel S; Pyne, Scott W; Roberts, William O

    2007-03-01

    Exertional heat illness can affect athletes during high-intensity or long-duration exercise and result in withdrawal from activity or collapse during or soon after activity. These maladies include exercise associated muscle cramping, heat exhaustion, or exertional heatstroke. While certain individuals are more prone to collapse from exhaustion in the heat (i.e., not acclimatized, using certain medications, dehydrated, or recently ill), exertional heatstroke (EHS) can affect seemingly healthy athletes even when the environment is relatively cool. EHS is defined as a rectal temperature greater than 40 degrees C accompanied by symptoms or signs of organ system failure, most frequently central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and rapid cooling can reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with EHS. The clinical changes associated with EHS can be subtle and easy to miss if coaches, medical personnel, and athletes do not maintain a high level of awareness and monitor at-risk athletes closely. Fatigue and exhaustion during exercise occur more rapidly as heat stress increases and are the most common causes of withdrawal from activity in hot conditions. When athletes collapse from exhaustion in hot conditions, the term heat exhaustion is often applied. In some cases, rectal temperature is the only discernable difference between severe heat exhaustion and EHS in on-site evaluations. Heat exhaustion will generally resolve with symptomatic care and oral fluid support. Exercise associated muscle cramping can occur with exhaustive work in any temperature range, but appears to be more prevalent in hot and humid conditions. Muscle cramping usually responds to rest and replacement of fluid and salt (sodium). Prevention strategies are essential to reducing the incidence of EHS, heat exhaustion, and exercise associated muscle cramping.

  8. Exercise in the Heat. II. Critical Concepts in Rehydration, Exertional Heat Illnesses, and Maximizing Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To acquaint athletic trainers with the numerous interrelated components that must be considered when assisting athletes who exercise in hot environments. Useful guidelines to maximize performance and minimize detrimental health consequences are presented. Data Sources: The databases MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1980 to 1999, with the terms. “body cooling,” “dehydration,” “exercise,” “heat illnesses,” “heat,” “fluid replacement,” “acclimatization,” “hydration,” “rehydration,” “performance,” and “intravenous,” among others. Data Synthesis: This paper provides an in-depth look at issues regarding physiologic and performance considerations related to rehydration, strategies to maximize rehydration, modes of rehydration, health consequences of exercise in the heat, heat acclimatization, body cooling techniques, and practice and competition modifications. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers have a responsibility to ensure that athletes who exercise in hot environments are prepared to do so in an optimal manner and to act properly to avoid the potentially harmful heat illnesses that can result from exercise in the heat. PMID:16558573

  9. Exertional heat illness: a review of the syndrome affecting racing Thoroughbreds in hot and humid climates.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, M A; Dart, A J; Jeffcott, L B

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic heat produced by Thoroughbred racehorses during racing can rapidly elevate core body temperature (1°C/min). When environmental conditions are hot and humid, the normal physiological cooling mechanisms become ineffective. The heat accumulated may exceed a critical thermal maximum (estimated to be 42°C), which may trigger a complex pathophysiological cascade with potentially lethal consequences. This syndrome has been labelled exertional heat illness (EHI). EHI is described in humans, but has not been well documented in Thoroughbred racehorses. The clinical signs described in racehorses would suggest that the pathophysiological events affecting the central nervous (CNS) and gastrointestinal systems are similar to those described in humans. Clinical signs are progressive and include signs of endotoxaemia and increasing levels of CNS dysfunction. Initially, horses that may be mildly irritable (agitated, randomly kicking out) may progress to unmanageable (disorientation, severe ataxia, falling) and ultimately convulsions, coma and death. Currently, the approach to treatment is largely empirical and involves rapid and effective cooling, administration of drugs to provide sedation, administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to ameliorate the effects of endotoxaemia and glucocorticoids to stabilise cell membranes and reduce the effects of inflammation on the CNS. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about EHI in Thoroughbred racehorses, suggests a likely pathophysiology of the syndrome in horses based on the current literature on heat illness in humans and horses, and outlines current treatment strategies being used to treat racehorses with clinical signs of EHI.

  10. Plasma and lymphocyte Hsp72 responses to exercise in athletes with prior exertional heat illness.

    PubMed

    Ruell, Patricia A; Simar, David; Périard, Julien D; Best, Stuart; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise in the heat on both intracellular and extracellular Hsp72 in athletes with a prior history of exertional heat illness (EHI). Two groups of runners, one consisting of athletes who had a previous history of EHI, and a control group (CON) of similar age (29.7 ± 1.2 and 29.1 ± 2 years CON vs. EHI) and fitness [maximal oxygen consumption [Formula: see text] 65.7 ± 2 and 64.5 ± 3 ml kg(-1) min(-1) CON vs. EHI] were recruited. Seven subjects in each group ran on a treadmill for 1 h at 72 % [Formula: see text] in warm conditions (30 °C, 40 % RH) reaching rectal temperatures of ~39.3 (CON) and ~39.2 °C (EHI). Blood was collected every 10 min during exercise and plasma was analysed for extracellular Hsp72. Intracellular Hsp72 levels were measured in both monocytes and lymphocytes before and immediately after the 60-min run, and then after 1 h recovery at an ambient temperature of 24 °C. Plasma Hsp72 increased from 1.18 ± 0.14 and 0.86 ± 0.08 ng/ml (CON vs. EHI) at rest to 4.56 ± 0.63 and 4.04 ± 0.45 ng/ml (CON vs. EHI, respectively) at the end of exercise (p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. Lymphocyte Hsp72 was lower in the EHI group at 60 min of exercise (p < 0.05), while monocyte Hsp72 was not different between groups. The results of the present study suggest that the plasma Hsp72 response to exercise in athletes with a prior history of EHI remained similar to that of the CON group, while the lymphocyte Hsp72 response was reduced.

  11. National Athletic Trainers' Association Releases New Guidelines for Exertional Heat Illnesses: What School Nurses Need to Know.

    PubMed

    VanScoy, Rachel M; DeMartini, Julie K; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI.

  12. Exertional Heat-Related Illnesses at the Grand Canyon National Park, 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Rebecca S.; Choudhary, Ekta; Cheng-Dobson, Jennifer; Wolkin, Amy F.; Newman, Sara B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Grand Canyon National Park has approximately 4 million visitors between April and September each year. During this period, outdoor activity such as hiking is potentially hazardous owing to extreme heat, limited shade, and steep, long ascents. Given the high visitation and the public health interest in the effects of extreme heat, this study calculated morbidity rates and described heat-related illness (HRI) among visitors. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study from April 1 through September 30, during 2004–2009. From a review of Ranger Emergency Medical Services (EMS) incident report files, we extracted information on those that met the case definition of greater than 1 hour of outdoor heat exposure with an HRI assessment or diagnosis, HRI self-report, or signs or symptoms of HRI without another etiology noted. Visitor and temperature data were obtained from respective official sources. Results Grand Canyon EMS responded to 474 nonfatal and 6 fatal HRI cases, with the majority (84%) being US residents, 29% from Western states. Of the nonfatal cases, 51% were women, the median age was 43 years (range, 11–83 years), and 18% reported a cardiovascular condition. Clinical HRI assessments included dehydration (25%), heat exhaustion (23%), and suspected hyponatremia (19%). Almost all (90%) were hiking; 40% required helicopter evacuation. The highest HRI rates were seen in May. Conclusions HRI remains a public health concern at the Grand Canyon. High-risk evacuations and life-threatening conditions were found. Majority were hikers, middle-aged adults, and US residents. These findings support the park’s hiker HRI prevention efforts and use of park EMS data to measure HRI. PMID:24119571

  13. Within-year Exertional Heat Illness Incidence in U.S. Army Soldiers, 2008-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    distribution of EHI within the heat season, overall and by installation was determined. In order to assess the relation between ambient weather ...conditions and EHI incidence, weather data were downloaded from the National Centers for Environmental Information website and overlaid with weekly EHI...incidence in U.S. Army Soldiers, 2008-2012 1 Summary 1.1 Overview Strenuous activity performed over long durations in hot weather increases the

  14. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms include heavy sweating, rapid breathing and a fast, weak pulse Heat cramps - muscle pains or spasms that happen during heavy exercise Heat rash - skin irritation from excessive sweating Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  15. Heat illness. I. Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ellis, F P

    1976-01-01

    Reliable information on the epidemiology of heat illness has come, until recently, mainly from the armed forces and, to a lesser extent, from some industries and civil communities. Data from the records of the British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Indian Armed Forces, U.S. Army and forces engaged in the Arab-Israeli wars, from the South African gold mining corporations and Persian Gulf oil tankers, and from civilian communities, mainly in the U.S.A., are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to the classification of heat illness and definition of the terms used, and the effects on acclimatized and non-acclimatized personnel and on other sections of the civilian communities most at risk, i.e. the old and very young. This section concludes with an outline of the classification of acute heat illnesses from 1899 to the eighth revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases in 1967.

  16. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures.

  17. Heat illness in the emergency department: keeping your cool.

    PubMed

    Santelli, Jaron; Sullivan, Julie M; Czarnik, Ann; Bedolla, John

    2014-08-01

    Heat illness spans a broad spectrum of disease, with outcomes ranging from benign rash to fatal heat stroke. Heat illness is broadly divided into 2 types: classic and exertional. Both types occur as a result of exposure to elevated temperature with inadequate thermoregulation; however, classic illness occurs without preceding physical activity. Treatment consists of rapid cooling, fluid replacement, and physiologic support. Other milder forms of heat illness include heat fatigue, heat syncope, heat edema, and heat rash. Drugs, drug combinations, drug side effects, and infections can also cause or complicate heat illness and these manifestations may not respond to standard cooling maneuvers and treatments alone; each requires specific additional therapy or antidotes to reverse the cycle of heat and organ damage. This review examines the physiology, diagnosis, and treatment of exertional, classic, and drug-induced hypothermia. Field and prehospital diagnosis and treatment are also reviewed, with recommendations for rehydration and monitoring in rhabdomyolysis.

  18. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Atha, Walter F

    2013-11-01

    Environmental exposure to high temperatures can result in abnormalities ranging from mild heat exhaustion to heat stroke with multiorgan system failure. An understanding of the mechanisms of thermoregulation and how those mechanisms fail with extreme heat stress is critical for management of the patient with elevated body temperature in the emergency department.

  19. Exertional heat stroke: the runner's nemesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, L. E.; Egier, B. P.; Shimizu, A. G.; Tandan, P. J.; Sutton, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Heat stroke in distance runners is increasing in frequency. A case is reported of a 41-year-old man who collapsed during a 10-km "fun run" held when the temperature was 31.6 degrees C and the humidity 80%. Acute renal failure (serum creatinine level 1530 mumol/l [17.3 mg/dl]), rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic damage complicated the clinical picture. Repeated peritoneal dialysis and one cycle of hemodialysis because of a very high serum level of uric acid (1.23 mmol/l [20.7 mg/dl]) were required. Although the illness was prolonged, recovery was almost complete, and 4 months after the man's collapse the serum creatinine level had fallen to 133 mumol/l (1.5 mg/dl). PMID:7388706

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    immersion is rapid (see Chapter 3). Convection Heat loss to air and water vapor molecules circulating around the body is termed convection. As ambient...Skin temperature is believed to have an effect on sweating and heat loss , since a person resting in a warm environment with elevated skin temperature...exercise, rapid (10-20 minutes) decreases in central blood volume occur due to several mechanisms, including osmotic loss of plasma water into working

  1. [Pathophysiology of heat illness].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Tohru; Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-06-01

    Human core temperature is strictly controlled by mechanism of radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation from skin surface. Serial hot and humid climate induces dehydration which interferes heat pump-out from the body. Heart dysfunction is the third factor to rise body temperature. Hyperthermia and hypo-perfusion caused by dehydration and heart failure deteriorate specific organ functions, i.e. central nervous system, liver and renal functions and coagulation system. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy is one of the standard indicators of severity and mortality of heat stroke.

  2. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations and Deaths from Heat Illness in Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    compared with Caucasians (incidence density ratio, 0.76 [95% confidence interval , 0.71-0.82]; greater rates of hospitalizations and heat strokes among...recruits from northern than southern states (incidence density ratio, 1.69 [95% confidence interval , 1.42-1 .90]; and greater rates of hospitalizations...and heat strokes among women than men (incidence density ratio, 1.18 [95% confidence interval , 1.09-1.27]). Exertional heat illness continues to be a

  3. Heat Illness among North Carolina Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W.; Chen, Haiying; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heat exposure is an important hazard for workers in manual occupations, including farmworkers. This analysis delineates the prevalence of heat illness among farmworkers, and the factors associated with heat illness. Methods North Carolina Latino male farmworkers completed interviews in August, 2013. They reported on heat exposure and behaviors over the previous 3 months while working both outdoors and indoors. Results A third (35.6%) of the participants reported heat illness while working outside, and 13.9% while working inside. Factors associated with heat illness while working outside included working in wet clothes and shoes, harvesting and topping tobacco, and spending after-work time in an extremely hot house. Conclusions Policy addressing heat illness is needed, as is more detailed research on occupational heat exposure that uses common measures. PMID:26641825

  4. Heat-Related Illness among Oregon Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Jeffrey W.; Harger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Farmworkers are particularly vulnerable to climate-sensitive health outcomes such as heat-related illness (HRI) given their tasks involve heavy exertion in an outdoor setting. The objectives of the study were to: (1) describe symptoms of HRI experienced by farmworkers and (2) explore factors associated with heat knowledge, level of concern regarding HRI, and comfort level taking breaks at work. Bilingual research staff conducted personal interviews of 100 farmworkers during July and August 2013. Data collected included demographics, work history and current work practices, trainings received, HRI symptoms experienced, health status, and health behaviors. Nearly 30% of participants reported experiencing ≥2 HRI symptoms during the previous work. Few participants had high level of heat knowledge (21.0%) and 15.6% of participants reported being “very concerned” about the health effects of working in hot conditions. Participants who were paid by the piece were more likely to have a high heat knowledge score and be “very concerned” about HRI but less likely to be “very comfortable” taking a break compared to workers paid by the hour than those who had not received HRI training. Results suggest several areas in which employers and agencies conducting outreach and education to the workers about HRI can change their practices including providing cooling measures and HRI training about risk factors for HRI. PMID:25198688

  5. Heat-related illness among Oregon farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Harger, Renee

    2014-09-05

    Farmworkers are particularly vulnerable to climate-sensitive health outcomes such as heat-related illness (HRI) given their tasks involve heavy exertion in an outdoor setting. The objectives of the study were to: (1) describe symptoms of HRI experienced by farmworkers and (2) explore factors associated with heat knowledge, level of concern regarding HRI, and comfort level taking breaks at work. Bilingual research staff conducted personal interviews of 100 farmworkers during July and August 2013. Data collected included demographics, work history and current work practices, trainings received, HRI symptoms experienced, health status, and health behaviors. Nearly 30% of participants reported experiencing ≥ 2 HRI symptoms during the previous work. Few participants had high level of heat knowledge (21.0%) and 15.6% of participants reported being "very concerned" about the health effects of working in hot conditions. Participants who were paid by the piece were more likely to have a high heat knowledge score and be "very concerned" about HRI but less likely to be "very comfortable" taking a break compared to workers paid by the hour than those who had not received HRI training. Results suggest several areas in which employers and agencies conducting outreach and education to the workers about HRI can change their practices including providing cooling measures and HRI training about risk factors for HRI.

  6. A Virtual Rat for Simulating Environmental and Exertional Heat Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    A virtual rat for simulating environmental and exertional heat stress Vineet Rakesh,1 X Jonathan D. Stallings,2 and Jaques Reifman1 1Department of...Health Research, Fort Detrick, Maryland Submitted 8 July 2014; accepted in final form 18 September 2014 Rakesh V, Stallings JD, Reifman J. A virtual rat ...different heat-stress conditions. To this end, we used our previously published virtual rat , which is capable of computing the spatiotemporal

  7. A virtual rat for simulating environmental and exertional heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Vineet; Stallings, Jonathan D; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-12-01

    Severe cases of environmental or exertional heat stress can lead to varying degrees of organ dysfunction. To understand heat-injury progression and develop efficient management and mitigation strategies, it is critical to determine the thermal response in susceptible organs under different heat-stress conditions. To this end, we used our previously published virtual rat, which is capable of computing the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in the animal, and extended it to simulate various heat-stress scenarios, including 1) different environmental conditions, 2) exertional heat stress, 3) circadian rhythm effect on the thermal response, and 4) whole body cooling. Our predictions were consistent with published in vivo temperature measurements for all cases, validating our simulations. We observed a differential thermal response in the organs, with the liver experiencing the highest temperatures for all environmental and exertional heat-stress cases. For every 3°C rise in the external temperature from 40 to 46°C, core and organ temperatures increased by ∼0.8°C. Core temperatures increased by 2.6 and 4.1°C for increases in exercise intensity from rest to 75 and 100% of maximal O2 consumption, respectively. We also found differences as large as 0.8°C in organ temperatures for the same heat stress induced at different times during the day. Even after whole body cooling at a relatively low external temperature (1°C for 20 min), average organ temperatures were still elevated by 2.3 to 2.5°C compared with normothermia. These results can be used to optimize experimental protocol designs, reduce the amount of animal experimentation, and design and test improved heat-stress prevention and management strategies.

  8. Preventing heat-related illness among agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Larry L; Rosenberg, Howard R

    2010-07-01

    Hyperthermia from exertion and environmental conditions during agricultural work manifests itself by various symptoms and may lead to death. From 1992 through 2006, 68 workers employed in crop production and related services died from heat-related illness. The crop worker fatality rate averaged 4 heat-related deaths per one million workers per year-20 times higher than the 0.2 rate for US civilian workers overall. Many of the agricultural workers who died were foreign-born. Foreign-born workers tend to have limited English language skills and often are not acclimatized to exertion in hot weather when beginning seasonal jobs. Increased recognition of heat hazards to agricultural workers, in particular, has stimulated concern among employers, workers, and public policy makers. California and Washington have led the nation in adopting workplace safety standards designed to prevent heat-related illnesses. These state regulations include new specific requirements for employer provision of drinking water, shade for rest or other sufficient means to recover from heat, worker and supervisor training, and written heat safety plans. Agricultural employers face practical challenges in fulfilling the purpose and complying with these standards. By their very nature the standards impose generic requirements in a broad range of circumstances and may not be equally protective in all agricultural work settings. It is vital that employers and supervisors have a thorough knowledge of heat illness prevention to devise and implement safety measures that suit local conditions. Ongoing risk-based assessment of current heat conditions by employers is important to this safety effort. Workers need training to avoid heat illness and recognize the symptoms in themselves and coworkers. Innovative management practices are joining time-honored approaches to controlling heat stress and strain. Research targeted to answer questions about heat accumulation and dissipation during agricultural work

  9. Heat Illness: A Handbook for Medical Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-03

    should be done early. The oliguric patient with a casts, piggmenturia or red celis a i a urine [Na] greater thanl 30 1iieq/l (btefore diulletics) has a...Heat Illnesses 1. Miliaxia RubrgýJ~tiarja Profunda aind AnhidrotIc Heat Exhaustion Mliliaria rubra is a subacute pruritic, inflameid papuloveslc-ular...epidermis, which takes 7 to 10 days. Miiliaza that becomes generplized and prolonged (miltaria profunda ) can c~ause an uncomnmon but disab~ling dit

  10. Exertional rhabdomyolysis and heat stroke: Beware of volatile anesthetic sedation

    PubMed Central

    Heytens, Karel; De Bleecker, Jan; Verbrugghe, Walter; Baets, Jonathan; Heytens, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In view of the enormous popularity of mass sporting events such as half-marathons, the number of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis or exercise-induced heat stroke admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) has increased over the last decade. Because these patients have been reported to be at risk for malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia, the intensive care community should bear in mind that the same risk of life-threatening rhabdomyolysis is present when these patients are admitted to an ICU, and volatile anesthetic sedation is chosen as the sedative technique. As illustrated by the three case studies we elaborate upon, a thorough diagnostic work-up is needed to clarify the subsequent risk of strenuous exercise, and the anesthetic exposure to volatile agents in these patients and their families. Other contraindications for the use of volatile intensive care sedation consist of known malignant hyperthermia susceptibility, congenital myopathies, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and intracranial hypertension. PMID:28224104

  11. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-03-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  12. The effect of passive heating and face cooling on perceived exertion during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Armada-da-Silva, P A S; Woods, J; Jones, D A

    2004-05-01

    Increased body temperature is thought to be an important component of the higher perception of exertion that is a feature of fatigue during exercise in the heat but a causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. We have investigated the effect of passive heating on the perception of exertion during a standard bout of exercise and also assessed the effect of cooling the head on compensating for the increased body temperature on the feelings of exertion. Ten male subjects performed a 14-min cycling exercise [average power approximately 63% of maximum power output ( W(max))] at an ambient temperature of 35 degrees C at resting rectal temperature [mean (SD): 37.49 (0.27) degrees C; control (CON) trial] on one occasion, and after sitting in a sauna to raise rectal temperature [mean (SD): 38.95(0.13) degrees C; sauna (SAU) trial]. During the exercise, subjects reported their ratings of overall perceived exertion (RPE), perceived exertion of the legs (RPE(legs)) and thermal comfort (TC). A blood sample was collected by the end of the exercise for determination of plasma glucose, lactate and prolactin and haematocrit. RPE values were significantly elevated after passive heating [mean (SE): 14.5 (0.7) units in CON and 17.2 (0.5) units in SAU, at the end of exercise; P<0.001] as were the RPE(legs) ( P<0.01), while ratings of TC were similar in CON and SAU trials. Passive heating increased blood glucose ( P<0.05) but had no effect on lactate at the end of the exercise. Plasma prolactin was markedly elevated as a result of the sauna exposure [mean (SE): 1598 (152) versus 225 (31) mU l(-1) in SAU and CON trials, respectively; P<0.001]. Six of the subjects repeated the two trials but with the face cooled during exercise (trials CON(FAN) and SAU(FAN)) that was achieved by combining face fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cooled water. Face cooling decreased RPE values after sauna to a point that no differences between the two conditions existed. RPE(legs) scores and

  13. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  14. Heat-related illness in China, summer of 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shaohua; Huang, Cunrui; Bai, Li; Chu, Cordia; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat events have occurred more frequently in China in recent years, leading to serious impacts on human life and the health care system. To identify the characteristics of individuals with heat-related illnesses in China during the summer of 2013, we collected the data from the Heat-related Illness Surveillance System in Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). A total of 5758 cases were reported in the summer of 2013, mostly concentrated in urban areas around the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. We found a difference in age distribution of percentage of deaths from heat-related illness between males and females. Severe cases in males mostly occurred in the age group 45-74 years but in females mostly in the age group over 75. A distributed lag non-linear model had been used to identify population vulnerabilities in Ningbo and Chongqing. The results show that there was a clear positive relationship between maximum temperature and heat-related illness, and the heat effect was nonlinear and could last for 3 days. The elderly and males in the range of 45-64 years old might be the most vulnerable people of heat-related illness in China. We also highlighted some deficiencies of the surveillance system, such that the reported data were not accurate, comprehensive, or timely enough at this stage.

  15. Exertional heat stroke in navy and marine personnel: a hot topic.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl W; Kazman, Josh B

    2015-02-01

    Although exertional heat stroke is considered a preventable condition, this life-threatening emergency affects hundreds of military personnel annually. Because heat stroke is preventable, it is important that Navy critical care nurses rapidly recognize and treat heat stroke casualties. Combined intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors can quickly lead to heat stroke if not recognized by deployed critical care nurses and other first responders. In addition to initial critical care nursing interventions, such as establishing intravenous access, determining body core temperature, and assessing hemodynamic status, aggressive cooling measures should be initiated immediately. The most important determinant in heat stroke outcome is the amount of time that patients sustain hyperthermia. Heat stroke survival approaches 100% when evidence-based cooling guidelines are followed, but mortality from heat stroke is a significant risk when care is delayed. Navy critical care and other military nurses should be aware of targeted assessments and cooling interventions when heat stroke is suspected during military operations.

  16. Promoting Best Practices regarding Exertional Heat Stroke: A Perspective from the Team Physician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; McDowell, Lindsey; Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Context: Knowing the team physician's perspective regarding the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) for treatment of exertional heat stroke (EHS) may help increase the number of athletic trainers (ATs) implementing best practices and avoiding the use of improper assessment tools and treatment methods. Objective: To ascertain team physicians'…

  17. Professional Preparation regarding the Recognition and Treatment of Exertional Heat Stroke: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence; Maresh, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Context: Current evidence suggests rectal temperature(T[subscript re] and cold-water immersion (CWI) are the most effective means to diagnose and treat exertional heat stroke (EHS), respectively. Educators, clinicians, and students should be apprised of this evidence to guide their practice. Objective: Investigate what athletic training students…

  18. Heat Illness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Heat Waves English (Arabic) الموجات الحارة - العربية ...

  19. Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible.

    PubMed

    Flouris, A D; Friesen, B J; Carlson, M J; Casa, D J; Kenny, G P

    2015-06-01

    Immediate treatment with cold water immersion (CWI) is the gold standard for exertional heatstroke. In the field, however, treatment is often delayed due to delayed paramedic response and/or inaccurate diagnosis. We examined the effect of treatment (reduction of rectal temperature to 37.5 °C) delays of 5, 20, and 40 min on core cooling rates in eight exertionally heat-stressed (40.0 °C rectal temperature) individuals. We found that rectal temperature was elevated above baseline (P < 0.05) at the end of all delay periods (5 min: 40.08 ± 0.32; 20 min: 39.92 ± 0.40; 40 min: 39.57 ± 0.29 °C). Mean arterial pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) below baseline (92 ± 1.8 mm Hg) after all delay periods (5 min: 75 ± 2.6; 20 min: 74 ± 1.7; 40 min: 70 ± 2.1 mm Hg; P > 0.05). Rectal core cooling rates were similar among conditions (5 min: 0.20 ± 0.01; 20 min: 0.17 ± 0.02; 40 min: 0.17 ± 0.01 °C/min; P > 0.05). The rectal temperature afterdrop following CWI was similar across conditions (5 min: 35.95; 20 min: 35.61; 40 min: 35.87 °C; P > 0.05). We conclude that the effectiveness of 2 °C CWI as a treatment for exertional heat stress remains high even when applied with a delay of 40 min. Therefore, our results support that CWI is the most appropriate treatment for exertional heatstroke as it is capable of quickly reversing hyperthermia even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay.

  20. Heat-related illnesses. When are they a true emergency?

    PubMed

    Scott, J

    1989-06-01

    During the hot, humid months of summer, heat-related illnesses are common. Many of these are minor and self-limited, but heatstroke is a true emergency because the body's cooling mechanisms have been overwhelmed. The condition must be recognized rapidly and treated immediately with fluid replacement and cooling. The most effective and accessible technique for cooling involves the use of cool mist and fans directed across the patient's body to promote rapid evaporation. With aggressive management, the effects of heatstroke are almost uniformly reversible. With proper precautions, its occurrence is universally preventable.

  1. Effectiveness of exercise-heat acclimation for preventing heat illness in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of heat-related illness in the workplace is linked to whether or not workers have acclimated to a hot environment. Heat acclimation improves endurance work performance in the heat and thermal comfort at a given work rate. These improvements are achieved by increased sweating and skin blood flow responses, better fluid balance and cardiovascular stability. As a practical means of acclimatizing the body to heat stress, daily aerobic exercise training is recommended since thermoregulatory capacity and blood volume increase with physical fitness. In workers wearing personal protective suits in hot environments, however, little psychophysiological benefit is received from short-term exercise training and/or heat acclimation because of the ineffectiveness of sweating for heat dissipation and the aggravation of thermal discomfort with the accumulation of sweat within the suit. For a manual laborer who works under uncompensable heat stress, better management of the work rate, the work environment and health is required.

  2. Identification of Risk Factors for Exertional Heat Illness: A Brief Commentary on Genetic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    RYR1 ) gene and other genes related to disorders of skeletal muscle. Data Synthesis: EHI is a complex disorder wherein physiological, environmental, and...due to mutations in the calcium release channel, type 1 ryanodine receptor ( RYR1 ). The RYR1 belongs to a class of calcium ion channels located in the...Muscle fibers from MH susceptible individuals are markedly more sensitive to RYR1 agonists halothane, caffeine, and 4-chloro-m-cresol. A reproducible

  3. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression.

  4. The Secondary School Football Coach's Relationship With the Athletic Trainer and Perspectives on Exertional Heat Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). Objective: To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Results: Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. Conclusions: These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care. PMID:24933433

  5. Estimating the burden of heat illness in England during the 2013 summer heatwave using syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sue; Elliot, Alex J; Hajat, Shakoor; Bone, Angie; Smith, Gillian E; Kovats, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of heat illness on health systems is not well described in the UK. Although the UK generally experiences mild summers, the frequency and intensity of hot weather is likely to increase due to climate change, particularly in Southern England. We investigated the impact of the moderate heatwave in 2013 on primary care and emergency department (ED) visits using syndromic surveillance data in England. Methods General practitioner in hours (GPIH), GP out of hours (GPOOH) and ED syndromic surveillance systems were used to monitor the health impact of heat/sun stroke symptoms (heat illness). Data were stratified by age group and compared between heatwave and non-heatwave years. Incidence rate ratios were calculated for GPIH heat illness consultations. Results GP consultations and ED attendances for heat illness increased during the heatwave period; GPIH consultations increased across all age groups, but the highest rates were in school children and those aged ≥75 years, with the latter persisting beyond the end of the heatwave. Extrapolating to the English population, we estimated that the number of GPIH consultations for heat illness during the whole summer (May to September) 2013 was 1166 (95% CI 1064 to 1268). This was double the rate observed during non-heatwave years. Conclusions These findings support the monitoring of heat illness (symptoms of heat/sun stroke) as part of the Heatwave Plan for England, but also suggest that specifically monitoring heat illness in children, especially those of school age, would provide additional early warning of, and situation awareness during heatwaves. PMID:26873949

  6. Development of a Heat-Illness Screening Instrument Using the Delphi Panel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Eberman, Lindsey E.; Cleary, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Exertional heat illness (EHI) is the third leading cause of death among athletes, but with preparticipation screening, risk factors can be identified, and some EHIs can be prevented. Objective: To establish content validity of the Heat Illness Index Score (HIIS), a 10-item screening instrument designed to identify athletes at risk for EHI during a preparticipation examination. Design: Delphi study. Setting: The Delphi technique included semistructured face-to-face or telephone interviews and included electronic questionnaires administered via e-mail. Patients or Other Participants: Six individuals with extensive research experience and/or clinical expertise in EHI participated as expert panelists. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a Delphi panel technique (3 rounds) to evaluate the HIIS with the consensus of expert opinions. For round 1, we conducted face-to-face interviews with the panelists. For round 2, we solicited panelists' feedback of the transcribed data to ensure trustworthiness, then provided the participants with the revised HIIS and a questionnaire eliciting their levels of agreement for each revision from the previous round on a visual analog scale (11.4 cm) with extreme indicators of strongly disagree and strongly agree. We calculated the mean and SD for each revision and accepted when the mean was greater than 7.6 cm (agree) and the SD still permitted a positive response (>5.7 cm), suggesting consensus. For round 3, we instructed participants to indicate their levels of agreement with each final, revised item and their levels of agreement with the entire instrument on a 4-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree). Results: In round 1, panelists supported all 10 items but requested various revisions. In round 2, 16.3% (7 of 43) revisions were rejected, and 2 revisions were modified. In round 3, 100% of panelists reported agreeing (n = 3 of 6) or strongly agreeing (n = 3 of 6) with the final instrument

  7. Risk factors for heat illness among British soldiers in the hot Collective Training Environment

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alice C; Stacey, M J; Bailey, K G H; Bunn, R J; Woods, D R; Haworth, K J; Brett, S J; Folkes, S E F

    2016-01-01

    Background Heat illness is a preventable disorder in military populations. Measures that protect vulnerable individuals and contribute to effective Immediate Treatment may reduce the impact of heat illness, but depend upon adequate understanding and awareness among Commanders and their troops. Objective To assess risk factors for heat illness in British soldiers deployed to the hot Collective Training Environment (CTE) and to explore awareness of Immediate Treatment responses. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to British soldiers deployed in the hot CTEs of Kenya and Canada. Responses were analysed to determine the prevalence of individual (Intrinsic) and Command-practice (Extrinsic) risk factors for heat illness and the self-reported awareness of key Immediate Treatment priorities (recognition, first aid and casualty evacuation). Results The prevalence of Intrinsic risk factors was relatively low in comparison with Extrinsic risk factors. The majority of respondents were aware of key Immediate Treatment responses. The most frequently reported factors in each domain were increased risk by body composition scoring, inadequate time for heat acclimatisation and insufficient briefing about casualty evacuation. Conclusions Novel data on the distribution and scale of risk factors for heat illness are presented. A collective approach to risk reduction by the accumulation of ‘marginal gains’ is proposed for the UK military. This should focus on limiting Intrinsic risk factors before deployment, reducing Extrinsic factors during training and promoting timely Immediate Treatment responses within the hot CTE. PMID:26036822

  8. Preservation of Cognitive Performance with Age during Exertional Heat Stress under Low and High Air Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn M.; Hardcastle, Stephen G.; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be at greater risk for occupational injuries given their reduced capacity to dissipate heat, leading to greater thermal strain and potentially cognitive decrements. Purpose. To examine the effects of age and increased air velocity, during exercise in humid heat, on information processing and attention. Methods. Nine young (24 ± 1 years) and 9 older (59 ± 1 years) males cycled 4 × 15 min (separated by 15 min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (low) and 3.0 (high) m·s−1 air velocity wearing coveralls. At rest, immediately following exercise (end exercise), and after the final recovery, participants performed an abbreviated paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT, 2 sec pace). Results. PASAT numbers of correct responses at end exercise were similar for young (low = 49 ± 3; high = 51 ± 3) and older (low = 46 ± 5; high = 47 ± 4) males and across air velocity conditions, and when scored relative to age norms. Psychological sweating, or an increased sweat rate with the administration of the PASAT, was observed in both age groups in the high condition. Conclusion. No significant decrements in attention and speeded information processing were observed, with age or altered air velocity, following intermittent exercise in humid heat. PMID:25874223

  9. [Sports and extreme conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and extreme temperatures (heat, cold)].

    PubMed

    Melin, B; Savourey, G

    2001-06-30

    During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body temperature and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 130 mEq/L) which is also a serious accident. Heat environment increases the thermal constraint and when the air humidity is high, evaporation of sweat is compromise. Thus, thermal stress becomes uncompensable which increases the risk of cardiovascular collapse. Cold exposure induces physiological responses to maintain internal temperature by both limiting thermal losses and increasing metabolic heat production. Cold can induce accidental hypothermia and local frost-bites; moreover, it increases the risk of arrhythmia during exercise. Some guidelines (cardiovascular fitness, water and electrolyte intakes, protective clothing) are given for each extreme condition.

  10. Warning Signs and Symptoms of Heat-Related Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... continues, seek medical attention immediately. Heat Stroke High body temperature (above 103°F)* Hot, red, dry or moist ... person to a cooler environment. Reduce the person's body temperature with cool cloths or even a bath. Do ...

  11. Preventing Heat-Related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... should include hydra- tion (drinking plenty of water), acclimatization (getting used to weather conditions), and schedules that ... their bodies used to the local weather conditions (acclimatization) may help reduce heat stress effects. Workers who ...

  12. The descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Boufous, Soufiane

    2008-01-01

    Sport-related heat illness has not been commonly studied from an epidemiological perspective. This study presents the descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia. All in-patient separations from all acute hospitals in NSW during 2001-2004, with an International Classification of Diseases external cause of injury code indicating "exposure to excessive natural heat (X30)" or any ICD-10 diagnosis code in the range: "effects of heat and light (T67.0-T67.9)", were analysed. The sport/leisure relatedness of cases was defined by ICD-10-AM activity codes indicating involvement in sport/leisure activities. Cases of exposure to heat while engaged in sport/leisure were described by gender, year, age, principal diagnosis, type of activity/sport and length of stay. There were 109 hospital separations for exposure to heat while engaging in sport/leisure activity, with the majority occurring during the hottest months. The number of male cases significantly increased over the 4-year period and 45+ -year olds had the largest number of cases. Heat exhaustion was the leading cause of hospital separation (40% of cases). Marathon running, cricket and golf were the activities most commonly associated with heat-related hospitalisation. Ongoing development and refinement of expert position statements regarding heat illnesses need to draw on both epidemiological and physiological evidence to ensure their relevance to all levels of risk from the real world sport training and competition contexts.

  13. Heat-related illnesses: the role of the occupational and environmental health nurse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bonnie; Stiehl, Kristin; Borst, Jennifer; Hess, Andrea; Hutchins, Shauna

    2007-07-01

    Heat-related illnesses can occur in workplaces where hot environments pose a threat to at-risk workers. Operations involving high air temperatures and humidity, radiant heat sources, direct physical contact with hot objects, or strenuous physical activities have potential for inducing heat stress in employees engaged in job functions in specific industries. Exposure to high temperatures can lead to a progression of symptoms in the body, which can result in widespread tissue damage, organ damage, and even death if not treated in a timely and effective manner. Strategies to reduce the effects of heat in the workplace include engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment. Occupational and environmental health nurses must be able to recognize and treat the broad range of symptoms that can result from exposure to high temperatures. They must work together with interdisciplinary teams to provide training and education to the work force so that workers are able to take appropriate measures to prevent the onset of a heat-related illness, recognize the early symptoms, and seek treatment. Interdisciplinary teams must ensure that appropriate controls in the work environment reduce the risk of heat exposure and related heat stress disorders. Education and early intervention are key to avoiding heat-induced illness and eliminating or minimizing the effects of high temperature environments.

  14. Relationships between maximum temperature and heat-related illness across North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Sugg, Margaret M; Konrad, Charles E; Fuhrmann, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Heat kills more people than any other weather-related event in the USA, resulting in hundreds of fatalities each year. In North Carolina, heat-related illness accounts for over 2,000 yearly emergency department admissions. In this study, data on emergency department (ED) visits for heat-related illness (HRI) were obtained from the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool to identify spatiotemporal relationships between temperature and morbidity across six warm seasons (May-September) from 2007 to 2012. Spatiotemporal relationships are explored across different regions (e.g., coastal plain, rural) and demographics (e.g., gender, age) to determine the differential impact of heat stress on populations. This research reveals that most cases of HRI occur on days with climatologically normal temperatures (e.g., 31 to 35 °C); however, HRI rates increase substantially on days with abnormally high daily maximum temperatures (e.g., 31 to 38 °C). HRI ED visits decreased on days with extreme heat (e.g., greater than 38 °C), suggesting that populations are taking preventative measures during extreme heat and therefore mitigating heat-related illness.

  15. Relationships between maximum temperature and heat-related illness across North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugg, Margaret M.; Konrad, Charles E.; Fuhrmann, Christopher M.

    2016-05-01

    Heat kills more people than any other weather-related event in the USA, resulting in hundreds of fatalities each year. In North Carolina, heat-related illness accounts for over 2,000 yearly emergency department admissions. In this study, data on emergency department (ED) visits for heat-related illness (HRI) were obtained from the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool to identify spatiotemporal relationships between temperature and morbidity across six warm seasons (May-September) from 2007 to 2012. Spatiotemporal relationships are explored across different regions (e.g., coastal plain, rural) and demographics (e.g., gender, age) to determine the differential impact of heat stress on populations. This research reveals that most cases of HRI occur on days with climatologically normal temperatures (e.g., 31 to 35 °C); however, HRI rates increase substantially on days with abnormally high daily maximum temperatures (e.g., 31 to 38 °C). HRI ED visits decreased on days with extreme heat (e.g., greater than 38 °C), suggesting that populations are taking preventative measures during extreme heat and therefore mitigating heat-related illness.

  16. Climatic and psychosocial risks of heat illness incidents on construction site.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed.

  17. Community Trial on Heat Related-Illness Prevention Behaviors and Knowledge for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Noriko; Nakao, Rieko; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Kondo, Masahide; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs), to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW), HHW and water delivery (HHW+W), and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047), water intake (p = 0.003), cooling body (p = 0.002) and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047) compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008). An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067) and cooling body (p = 0.095) behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly. PMID:25789456

  18. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Smargiassi, Audrey; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Labrèche, France

    2014-10-15

    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in colder

  19. Predictive Factors for Hospitalization of Patients with Heat Illness in Yamaguchi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Todani, Masaki; Oda, Yasutaka; Kaneko, Tadashi; Kaneda, Kotaro; Fujita, Motoki; Miyauchi, Takashi; Tsuruta, Ryosuke

    2015-09-18

    The objective of the study was to investigate the predictive factors for the hospitalization of patients who presented with mild to moderate heat illness at an emergency department. We conducted a retrospective survey of hospitals with an emergency department in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The survey questionnaire entries included patient age, sex, use of an ambulance, vital signs, blood examination conducted at the emergency department, the length of hospitalization, and outcome. We analyzed the predictive factors for hospitalization in patients with heat illness. A total of 127 patients were analyzed. Of these, 49 (37%) were admitted, with 59% discharged on the day following admission. In univariate analysis, the following inpatient characteristics were predictive for hospitalization: old age, low Glasgow Coma Scale score, elevated body temperature, increased serum C-reactive protein, and increased blood urea nitrogen. In logistic regression multivariate analysis, the following were predictive factors for hospitalization: age of ≥ 65 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-17.00), body temperature (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.14-3.41), Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.16-0.98), and creatinine (OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.23-6.94). The results suggest that the elderly with hyperthermia, disturbance of consciousness, and elevated serum creatinine have an increased risk for hospitalization with heat illness.

  20. Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

  1. Effects of perceived and exerted pain control on neural activity during pain relief in experimental heat hyperalgesia: a fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Mohr, C; Leyendecker, S; Petersen, D; Helmchen, C

    2012-04-01

    Perceived control over pain can attenuate pain perception by mechanisms of endogenous pain control and emotional reappraisal irrespective of whether this control is exerted or only perceived. Self-initiated termination of pain elicits different expectations of subsequent pain relief as compared to perceived pain control. It is unknown whether and how this perceived vs. exerted control on pain differs and affects subsequent pain relief. Using fMRI, we studied two factors of pain control on pain relief: the (i) sense of control (perceived control but no execution) and (ii) the execution of control (exerted control). To account for the impact of factual execution of pain control on pain relief we applied bearable short and hardly bearable long contact-heat stimuli which were applied either controllable or not. Using controllability as factor, there was dissociable neural activity during pain relief: following the perceived control condition neural activity was found in the orbitofrontal and mediofrontal cortex and, following the exerted control condition, in the anterolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. We conclude that (i) pain controllability has an impact on pain relief and (ii) the prefrontal cortex shows dissociable neural activity during pain relief following exerted vs. perceived pain control. This might reflect the higher grade of uncertainty during pain relief following perceived pain control mediated by the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex and processes of working memory and updating expectations during pain relief following exerted control mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex.

  2. Sickle Cell Trait and Fatal Exertional Heat Illness: Implications for Exercise-Related Death of Young Ddults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-22

    anemia with increased RDW for 97% of sickle cell disease. • 2. Quantitative... Sickle Cell Trait Patients – have higher risk of death Clinical Features of Sickle Cell Disease Hemolytic anemia & other types of anemia • Median Hb about...and sensitivity. • CBC - normal for Hb AS, anemia with increased RDW for 97% of sickle cell disease. • Quantitative Hemoglobin electrophoresis

  3. Females exposed to 24 h of sleep deprivation do not experience greater physiological strain, but do perceive heat illness symptoms more severely, during exercise-heat stress.

    PubMed

    Relf, Rebecca; Willmott, Ashley; Mee, Jessica; Gibson, Oliver; Saunders, Arron; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil

    2017-03-24

    There is limited and inconclusive evidence surrounding the physiological and perceptual responses to heat stress while sleep deprived, especially for females. This study aimed to quantify the effect of 24 h sleep deprivation on physiological strain and perceptual markers of heat-related illness in females. Nine females completed two 30-min heat stress tests (HST) separated by 48 h in 39°C, 41% relative humidity at a metabolic heat production of 10 W · kg(-1). The non-sleep deprived HST was followed by the sleep deprivation (SDHST) trial for all participants during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Physiological and perceptual measures were recorded at 5 min intervals during the HSTs. On the cessation of the HSTs, heat illness symptom index (HISI) was completed. HISI scores increased after sleep deprivation by 28 ± 16 versus 20 ± 16 (P = 0.01). Peak (39.40 ± 0.35°C vs. 39.35 ± 0.33°C) and change in rectal temperature (1.91 ± 0.21 vs. 1.93 ± 0.34°C), and whole body sweat rate (1.08 ± 0.31 vs. 1.15 ± 0.36 L · h(-1)) did not differ (P > 0.05) between tests. No difference was observed in peak, nor rise in: heart rate, mean skin temperature, perceived exertion or thermal sensation during the HSTs. Twenty-four hours sleep deprivation increased perceptual symptoms associated with heat-related illness; however, no thermoregulatory alterations were observed.

  4. Heat Stress Illness in a Mechanized Infantry Brigade During Simulated Combat at Fort Irwin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    exercise. There were fixed latrine, shower, and laundry facilities in the main post bivouac area (appropriately referred to as the " Dust Bowl " because of the...u•t Sick call Heat illness B &g Db W Cag Level 3 43 7 74 139 114 91 5 1 Dust bowl bivouac 4 58 10 69 108 94 79.3 1 1 5 52 2 69 132 98 84.5 2 1 6 54 4...82.1 2 Movement to contact 22 - - - Brigade force on force 23 - - - End of exercise move back to Dust Bowl *AAR: After Action Report ATLS Tent

  5. Safety in the Heat: A Comprehensive Program for Prevention of Heat Illness Among Workers in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jens; Harrison, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The Safety in the Heat program was developed in response to the extreme heat stress conditions experienced by workers in the United Arab Emirates and other Middle Eastern countries each summer, where ambient air temperatures often reach 45°C (135°F) and higher with 90% humidity. A comprehensive, multimedia, economical education and awareness program targeting companies in the region was developed; 465 companies employing 814 996 heat-exposed workers across 6254 work and labor residence sites were reached. Feedback from program participants indicated a high level of support and satisfaction. Results indicated a marked reduction in heat related illness over a period of 2 years (2008–2009) at 2 companies, one of which reported a combined 79.5% decrease in cases (15.3 vs 1.16 cases per 1000 workers) while the other experienced a 50% reduction in serious cases (0.08–0.04 cases per 100 000 work hours). PMID:21307373

  6. The rate of heat storage mediates an anticipatory reduction in exercise intensity during cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ross; Marle, Trevor; Lambert, Estelle V; Noakes, Timothy D

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of exercise intensity in hot environments when exercise is performed at a predetermined, fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Eight cyclists performed cycling trials at 15 degrees C (COOL), 25 degrees C (NORM) and 35 degrees C (HOT) (65% humidity throughout), during which they were instructed to cycle at a Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 16, increasing or decreasing their power output in order to maintain this RPE. Power output declined linearly in all three trials and the rate of decline was significantly higher in HOT than in NORM and COOL (2.35 +/- 0.73 W min(-1), 1.63 +/- 0.70 and 1.61 +/- 0.80 W min(-1), respectively, P < 0.05). The rate of heat storage was significantly higher in HOT for the first 4 min of the trials only, as a result of increasing skin temperatures. Thereafter, no differences in heat storage were found between conditions. We conclude that the regulation of exercise intensity is controlled by an initial afferent feedback regarding the rate of heat storage, which is used to regulate exercise intensity and hence the rate of heat storage for the remainder of the anticipated exercise bout. This regulation maintains thermal homeostasis by reducing the exercise work rate and utilizing the subjective RPE specifically to ensure that excessive heat accumulation does not occur and cellular catastrophe is avoided.

  7. Economic Burden of Hospitalizations for Heat-Related Illnesses in the United States, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Schmeltz, Michael T.; Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Gamble, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how heat waves affect morbidity and mortality, as well as the associated economic costs, is essential for characterizing the human health impacts of extreme heat under a changing climate. Only a handful of studies have examined healthcare costs associated with exposures to high temperatures. This research explores costs associated with hospitalizations for heat-related illness (HRI) in the United States using the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Descriptive statistics of patient data for HRI hospitalizations were examined and costs of hospitalizations were reported using the all-payer inpatient cost-to-charge ratio. Costs were examined using a log-gamma model with patient and hospital characteristics included as fixed effects. Adjusted mean costs were then compared across racial groups. The mean costs of HRI hospitalizations were higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites, who accounted for almost 65% of all HRI hospitalizations. Observed differences in costs based on income, insurance, and gender were also significant. These results suggest that these populations are suffering disproportionately from health inequity, thus, they could shoulder greater disease and financial burdens due to climate change. These findings may have important implications in understanding the economic impact public health planning and interventions will have on preventing hospitalizations related to extreme heat. PMID:27618079

  8. Modeling and syndromic surveillance for estimating weather-induced heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Perry, Alexander G; Korenberg, Michael J; Hall, Geoffrey G; Moore, Kieran M

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares syndromic surveillance and predictive weather-based models for estimating emergency department (ED) visits for Heat-Related Illness (HRI). A retrospective time-series analysis of weather station observations and ICD-coded HRI ED visits to ten hospitals in south eastern Ontario, Canada, was performed from April 2003 to December 2008 using hospital data from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) database, ED patient chief complaint data collected by a syndromic surveillance system, and weather data from Environment Canada. Poisson regression and Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS), a nonlinear time series modeling technique, were used to construct models for the expected number of HRI ED visits using weather predictor variables (temperature, humidity, and wind speed). Estimates of HRI visits from regression models using both weather variables and visit counts captured by syndromic surveillance as predictors were slightly more highly correlated with NACRS HRI ED visits than either regression models using only weather predictors or syndromic surveillance counts.

  9. Increased Air Velocity Reduces Thermal and Cardiovascular Strain in Young and Older Males during Humid Exertional Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Wright Beatty, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been reported to have a lower evaporative heat loss capacity than younger adults during exercise when full sweat evaporation is permitted. However, it is unclear how conditions of restricted evaporative and convective heat loss (i.e., high humidity, clothing insulation) alter heat stress. to the purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress responses of young and older males during and following exercise in a warm/humid environment under two different levels of air velocity. Ten young (YOUNG: 24±2 yr) and 10 older (OLDER: 59±3 yr) males, matched for body surface area performed 4×15-min cycling bouts (15-min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in warm/humid conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (Low) and 3.0 (High) m·s(-1) air velocity while wearing work coveralls. Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MTsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate, % max skin blood flow (SkBF) (recovery only), and blood pressure (recovery only) were measured. High air velocity reduced core and skin temperatures (p < 0.05) equally in YOUNG and OLDER males (p > 0.05) but was more effective in reducing cardiovascular strain (absolute and % max HR; p < 0.05) in YOUNG males (p < 0.05). Greater increases in local dry heat loss responses (% max SkBF and cutaneous vascular conductance) were detected across time in OLDER than YOUNG males in both conditions (p < 0.05). Local dry heat loss responses and cardiovascular strain were attenuated during the High condition in YOUNG compared to OLDER (p < 0.05). High air velocity reduced the number of males surpassing the 38.0°C Tre threshold from 90% (Low) to 50% (High). Despite age-related local heat loss differences, YOUNG and OLDER males had similar levels of heat stress during intermittent exercise in warm and humid conditions while wearing work coveralls. Increased air velocity was effective in reducing heat stress equally, and cardiovascular strain to a greater extent, in YOUNG and OLDER

  10. Numerical approximation of null controls for the heat equation: Ill-posedness and remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Arnaud; Zuazua, Enrique

    2010-08-01

    The numerical approximation of exact or trajectory controls for the wave equation is known to be a delicate issue, since the pioneering work of Glowinski-Lions in the nineties, because of the anomalous behavior of the high-frequency spurious numerical waves. Various efficient remedies have been developed and analyzed in the last decade to filter out these high-frequency components: Fourier filtering, Tychonoff's regularization, mixed finite-element methods, multi-grid strategies, etc. Recently convergence rate results have also been obtained. This work is devoted to analyzing this issue for the heat equation, which is the opposite paradigm because of its strong dissipativity and smoothing properties. The existing analytical results guarantee that, at least in some simple situations, as in the finite-difference scheme in 1 - d, the null or trajectory controls for numerical approximation schemes converge. This is due to the intrinsic high-frequency damping of the heat equation that is inherited by its numerical approximation schemes. But when developing numerical simulations the topic appears to be much more subtle and difficult. In fact, efficiently computing the null control for a numerical approximation scheme of the heat equation is a difficult problem in itself. The difficulty is strongly related to the regularizing effect of the heat kernel. The controls of minimal L2-norm are characterized as minima of quadratic functionals on the solutions of the adjoint heat equation, or its numerical versions. These functionals are shown to be coercive in very large spaces of solutions, sufficient to guarantee the L2 character of controls, but very far from being identifiable as energy spaces for the adjoint system. The very weak coercivity of the functionals under consideration makes the approximation problem exponentially ill-posed and the functional framework far from being well adapted to standard techniques in numerical analysis. In practice, the controls of the

  11. Exertional thermal strain, protective clothing and auxiliary cooling in dry heat: evidence for physiological but not cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2012-10-01

    Individuals exposed to extreme heat may experience reduced physiological and cognitive performance, even during very light work. This can have disastrous effects on the operational capability of aircrew, but such impairment could be prevented by auxiliary cooling devices. This hypothesis was tested under very hot-dry conditions, in which eight males performed 2 h of low-intensity exercise (~30 W) in three trials, whilst wearing biological and chemical protective clothing: temperate (control: 20°C, 30% relative humidity) and two hot-dry trials (48°C, 20% relative humidity), one without (experimental) and one with liquid cooling (water at 15°C). Physiological strain and six cognitive functions were evaluated (MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery), and participants drank to sustain hydration state. Maximal core temperatures averaged 37.0°C (±0.1) in the control trial, and were significantly elevated in the experimental trial (38.9°C ± 0.3; P < 0.05). Similarly, heart rates peaked at 92 beats min(-1) (±7) and 133 beats min(-1) (±4; P < 0.05), respectively. Liquid cooling reduced maximal core temperatures (37.3°C ± 0.1; P < 0.05) and heart rates 87 beats min(-1) (±3; P < 0.05) in the heat, such that neither now differed significantly from the control trial (P > 0.05). However, despite inducing profound hyperthermia and volitional fatigue, no cognitive degradation was evident in the heat (P > 0.05). Since extensive dehydration was prevented, it appears that thermal strain in the absence of dehydration may have minimal impact upon cognitive function, at least as evaluated within this experiment.

  12. Case ascertainment of heat illness in the British Army: evidence of under-reporting from analysis of Medical and Command notifications, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Michael J; Brett, S; Woods, D; Jackson, S; Ross, D

    2016-01-01

    Background Heat illness in the Armed Forces is considered preventable. The UK military relies upon dual Command and Medical reporting for case ascertainment, investigation of serious incidents and improvement of preventive practices and policy. This process could be vulnerable to under-reporting. Objectives To establish whether heat illness in the British Army has been under-reported, by reviewing concordance of reporting to the Army Incident Notification Cell (AINC) and the Army Health Unit (AHU) and to characterise the burden of heat illness reported by these means. Methods Analysis of anonymised reporting databases held by the AHU and AINC, for the period 2009–2013. Results 565 unique cases of heat illness were identified. Annual concordance of reporting ranged from 9.6% to 16.5%. The overall rate was 13.3%. July was the month with the greatest number of heat illness reports (24.4% of total reporting) and the highest concordance rate (30%). Reports of heat illness from the UK (n=343) exceeded overseas notifications (n=221) and showed better concordance (17.1% vs 12.8%). The annual rate of reported heat illness varied widely, being greater in full-time than reservist personnel (87 vs 23 per100 000) and highest in full-time untrained personnel (223 per100 000). Conclusions The risk of heat illness was global, year-round and showed dynamic local variation. Failure to dual-report casualties impaired case ascertainment of heat illness across Command and Medical chains. Current preventive guidance, as applied in training and on operations, should be critically evaluated to ensure that risk of heat illness is reduced as low as possible. Clear procedures for casualty notification and surveillance are required in support of this and should incorporate communication within and between the two reporting chains. PMID:25717054

  13. Modeling and Syndromic Surveillance for Estimating Weather-Induced Heat-Related Illness

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Alexander G.; Korenberg, Michael J.; Hall, Geoffrey G.; Moore, Kieran M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares syndromic surveillance and predictive weather-based models for estimating emergency department (ED) visits for Heat-Related Illness (HRI). A retrospective time-series analysis of weather station observations and ICD-coded HRI ED visits to ten hospitals in south eastern Ontario, Canada, was performed from April 2003 to December 2008 using hospital data from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) database, ED patient chief complaint data collected by a syndromic surveillance system, and weather data from Environment Canada. Poisson regression and Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS), a nonlinear time series modeling technique, were used to construct models for the expected number of HRI ED visits using weather predictor variables (temperature, humidity, and wind speed). Estimates of HRI visits from regression models using both weather variables and visit counts captured by syndromic surveillance as predictors were slightly more highly correlated with NACRS HRI ED visits than either regression models using only weather predictors or syndromic surveillance counts. PMID:21647355

  14. Hansenula polymorpha expressed heat shock protein gp96 exerts potent T cell activation activity as an adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Song, Haolei; Li, Jin; Wang, Yanzhong; Yan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Saifeng; Chen, Lizhao; Qiu, Bingsheng; Meng, Songdong

    2011-02-20

    Previous studies together with ours showed that heat shock protein gp96 as an adjuvant induces antigen specific T cell responses against cancer and infectious diseases. However, at present there is no efficient method to obtain high amount of full-length gp96 by in vitro expression. Here, we used the yeast Hansenula polymorpha as an efficient host for gp96 recombinant protein production. The transformant clones with highly expressed recombinant proteins were screened and selected by measuring the halo size which indicates enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in the medium. High-level production of gp96 (around 150mg/mL) was achieved by using high-cell density fed-batch cultivations. We showed that peptide binding of the recombinant protein has similar specificity and intrinsic binding parameters as that of the native gp96. We next examined the self-assembly properties and high-order structures of the recombinant protein. Moreover, the H. polymorpha expressed recombinant gp96 can effectively induce HBV-specific CTL response in immunized mice while Escherichia coli-expressed gp96 cannot. Our results therefore may provide bases for structure and functional studies of gp96 and thereby potentially expedite the development of gp96-based vaccines for immunotherapy of cancer or infectious diseases.

  15. Bacterial Heat Shock Protein GroEL (Hsp64) Exerts Immunoregulatory Effects on T Cells by Utilizing Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nalbant, Ayten; Kant, Melis

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) expresses a 64-kDa GroEL protein belonging to the heat shock family of proteins. This protein has been shown to influence human host cells, but the apoptotic capacity of the GroEL protein regarding T cells is not yet known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans GroEL (AaGroEL) protein to induce human peripheral blood T-cell apoptosis. Endogenous, purified AaGroEL protein was used as an antigen. In AaGroEL-treated T cells, the data indicated that phosphatidylserine exposure, an early apoptotic event, was dose- and time-dependent. The AaGroEL-treated T cells were also positive for active caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. The rate of AaGroEL-induced apoptosis was suppressed by the addition of the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, cleaved caspase-8 bands (40/36 kDa and 23 kDa) were identified in cells responding to AaGroEL. DNA fragmentation was also detected in the AaGroEL-treated T cells. Overall, we demonstrated that the endogenous GroEL from A. actinomycetemcomitans has the capacity to induce T-cell apoptosis.

  16. Bacterial Heat Shock Protein GroEL (Hsp64) Exerts Immunoregulatory Effects on T Cells by Utilizing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ayten; Kant, Melis

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) expresses a 64-kDa GroEL protein belonging to the heat shock family of proteins. This protein has been shown to influence human host cells, but the apoptotic capacity of the GroEL protein regarding T cells is not yet known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans GroEL (AaGroEL) protein to induce human peripheral blood T-cell apoptosis. Endogenous, purified AaGroEL protein was used as an antigen. In AaGroEL-treated T cells, the data indicated that phosphatidylserine exposure, an early apoptotic event, was dose- and time-dependent. The AaGroEL-treated T cells were also positive for active caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. The rate of AaGroEL-induced apoptosis was suppressed by the addition of the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, cleaved caspase-8 bands (40/36 kDa and 23 kDa) were identified in cells responding to AaGroEL. DNA fragmentation was also detected in the AaGroEL-treated T cells. Overall, we demonstrated that the endogenous GroEL from A. actinomycetemcomitans has the capacity to induce T-cell apoptosis. PMID:27736933

  17. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative impacts of heat and cold on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and cold in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and cold, which were defined as temperatures above and below an “optimum temperature” that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and cold. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and cold was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%–13.65%). Taken separately, cold was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%–12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%–2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%–24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%–16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with cold responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on cold days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the impact of ambient

  18. Medical Evaluation for Exposure Extremes: Heat.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Bennett, Brad L; OʼConnor, Francis G; Young, Justin M J; Asplund, Chad A

    2015-09-01

    Exertional heat illness can be a serious consequence of sports or exercise in hot environments. Participants can possess intrinsic or face extrinsic risk factors that may increase their risk for heat-related illness. Knowledge of the physiology and pathology of heat illness, identification of risk factors, and strategies to combat heat accumulation will aid both the practitioner and the participant in preparing for activities that occur in hot environments. Through preparation and mitigation of risk, safe and enjoyable wilderness adventure can be pursued.

  19. Medical Evaluation for Exposure Extremes: Heat.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Bennett, Brad L; O'Connor, Francis G; Young, Justin M J; Asplund, Chad A

    2015-12-01

    Exertional heat illness can be a serious consequence of sports or exercise in hot environments. Participants can possess intrinsic or face extrinsic risk factors that may increase their risk for heat-related illness. Knowledge of the physiology and pathology of heat illness, identification of risk factors, and strategies to combat heat accumulation will aid both the practitioner and the participant in preparing for activities that occur in hot environments. Through preparation and mitigation of risk, safe and enjoyable wilderness adventure can be pursued.

  20. Evidence-Based Practice and the Recognition and Treatment of Exertional Heat Stroke, Part I: A Perspective From the Athletic Training Educator

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ruiz, Roberto C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Pinkus, Danielle E.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Maresh, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers (ATs) know to diagnose exertional heat stroke (EHS) via rectal thermometry (Tre) and to treat EHS via cold-water immersion (CWI) but do not implement these recommendations in clinical practice. Objective: To gain an understanding of educational techniques used to deliver content regarding EHS. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: In-person focus groups at the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Annual Meeting in June 2009 and 2 follow-up telephone interviews to confirm emergent themes. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen AT educators (11 men, 2 women) from programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, with an average of 22 ± 9 years of clinical experience and 16 ± 10 years of experience as educators. Five NATA districts were represented. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review and data source triangulation also were conducted to establish trustworthiness. Results: Four themes emerged from the analysis: educational techniques, educational competencies, previous educational training, and privacy/public opinion. Educational techniques highlighted the lack of hands-on training for Tre and CWI. Educational competencies referred to the omission of Tre and CWI as psychomotor skills. Previous educational training addressed educators not having the skills or comfort with the skills necessary to properly educate students. Privacy/public opinion comprised external inputs from various groups (parents and coaches), legal considerations, and social bias. Conclusions: Educators supplied students with the appropriate didactic knowledge about EHS, but their lack of training and misgivings about Tre prevented them from allowing students to gain competence with this skill. Until the NATA competencies state the need to teach Tre and CWI and until educators are provided with their own learning opportunities, evidence-based practice regarding EHS

  1. Evidence-Based Medicine and the Recognition and Treatment of Exertional Heat Stroke, Part II: A Perspective From the Clinical Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pinkus, Danielle E.; Casa, Douglas J.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Ruiz, Roberto C.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Maresh, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is one of the leading causes of death in athletes. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) demonstrate strong knowledge of recommended practices with EHS but are apprehensive in implementing 2 basic procedures: rectal temperature assessment and cold water immersion. This apprehension might lead to deaths from EHS that could have been prevented. Objective: To investigate why collegiate and high school ATs do not implement best practices for the recognition and treatment of EHS. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: In-person focus groups consisting of 3 to 6 collegiate or high school ATs. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 19 ATs (9 men, 10 women; age = 36 ± 10 years, length of certification = 12 ± 9 years) employed at either the collegiate (n = 10) or high school (n = 9) level participated in the study. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and data were analyzed using deductive data analysis. Peer review and multiple-analyst data triangulation were conducted to establish trustworthiness of the data. Results: Five emergent themes explained the lack of evidence-based practice (EBP) regarding recognition and treatment of EHS. Three themes (lack of knowledge, comfort level, lack of initiative) were common in both the collegiate and high school settings, and 2 separate themes (liability concerns, lack of resources) were present in the high school setting. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with those in the literature on EBP and EHS. Regardless of clinical setting, ATs have basic information on recognition and treatment of EHS, but 5 themes act as barriers to implementing proper management in the clinical setting. Workshops or hands-on training sessions need to be made available to improve students' comfort levels so ATs will implement EBP into everyday settings. PMID:22488141

  2. Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating

    SciTech Connect

    Honicky, R.E.; Osborne, J.S.; Akpom, C.A.

    1985-03-01

    The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n . 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home used a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children.

  3. Identifying Individual Risk Factors and Documenting the Pattern of Heat-Related Illness through Analyses of Hospitalization and Patterns of Household Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Schmeltz, Michael T.; Sembajwe, Grace; Marcotullio, Peter J.; Grassman, Jean A.; Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events researchers and public health officials must work towards understanding the causes and outcomes of heat-related morbidity and mortality. While there have been many studies on both heat-related illness (HRI), there are fewer on heat-related morbidity than on heat-related mortality. Objective To identify individual and environmental risk factors for hospitalizations and document patterns of household cooling. Methods We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis of secondary U.S. data, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Risk ratios were calculated from multivariable models to identify risk factors for hospitalizations. Hierarchical modeling was also employed to identify relationships between individual and hospital level predictors of hospitalizations. Patterns of air conditioning use were analyzed among the vulnerable populations identified. Results Hospitalizations due to HRI increased over the study period compared to all other hospitalizations. Populations at elevated risk for HRI hospitalization were blacks, males and all age groups above the age of 40. Those living in zip-codes in the lowest income quartile and the uninsured were also at an increased risk. Hospitalizations for HRI in rural and small urban clusters were elevated, compared to urban areas. Conclusions Risk factors for HRI include age greater than 40, male gender and hospitalization in rural areas or small urban clusters. Our analysis also revealed an increasing pattern of HRI hospitalizations over time and decreased association between common comorbidities and heat illnesses which may be indicative of underreporting. PMID:25742021

  4. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Burden of Heat-Related Illness and Death within the Florida Population

    PubMed Central

    Harduar Morano, Laurel; Watkins, Sharon; Kintziger, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The failure of the human body to thermoregulate can lead to severe outcomes (e.g., death) and lasting physiological damage. However, heat-related illness (HRI) is highly preventable via individual- and community-level modification. A thorough understanding of the burden is necessary for effective intervention. This paper describes the burden of severe HRI morbidity and mortality among residents of a humid subtropical climate. Work-related and non-work-related HRI emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among Florida residents during May to October (2005–2012) were examined. Sub-groups susceptible to HRI were identified. The age-adjusted rates/100,000 person-years for non-work-related HRI were 33.1 ED visits, 5.9 hospitalizations, and 0.2 deaths, while for work-related HRI/100,000 worker-years there were 8.5 ED visits, 1.1 hospitalizations, and 0.1 deaths. The rates of HRI varied by county, data source, and work-related status, with the highest rates observed in the panhandle and south central Florida. The sub-groups with the highest relative rates regardless of data source or work-relatedness were males, minorities, and rural residents. Those aged 15–35 years had the highest ED visit rates, while for non-work-related hospitalizations and deaths the rates increased with age. The results of this study can be used for targeted interventions and evaluating changes in the HRI burden over time. PMID:27258296

  5. Heat-Related Illnesses

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cool place and give small amounts of cool water, juice or a commercial sports liquid. (Do not ... non-caffeinated fluids. Apply cool, wet cloths or water mist while fanning the person. Seek immediate medical ...

  6. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  7. KU135, a Novel Novobiocin-Derived C-Terminal Inhibitor of the 90-kDa Heat Shock Protein, Exerts Potent Antiproliferative Effects in Human Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Shary N.; Shawgo, Mary E.; Matthews, Shawna B.; Lu, Yuanming; Donnelly, Alison C.; Szabla, Kristen; Tanol, Mehmet; Vielhauer, George A.; Rajewski, Roger A.; Matts, Robert L.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) assists in the proper folding of numerous mutated or overexpressed signal transduction proteins that are involved in cancer. Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing chemotherapeutic drugs that specifically disrupt the function of Hsp90. Here, we investigated the extent to which a novel novobiocin-derived C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, designated KU135, induced antiproliferative effects in Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The results indicated that KU135 bound directly to Hsp90, caused the degradation of known Hsp90 client proteins, and induced more potent antiproliferative effects than the established N-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). Closer examination of the cellular response to KU135 and 17-AAG revealed that only 17-AAG induced a strong up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90. In addition, KU135 caused wild-type cells to undergo G2/M arrest, whereas cells treated with 17-AAG accumulated in G1. Furthermore, KU135 but not 17-AAG was found to be a potent inducer of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as evidenced, in part, by the fact that cell death was inhibited to a similar extent by Bcl-2/Bcl-xL overexpression or the depletion of apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Together, these data suggest that KU135 inhibits cell proliferation by regulating signaling pathways that are mechanistically different from those targeted by 17-AAG and as such represents a novel opportunity for Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:19741006

  8. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Youjin; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24–48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered. PMID:27900075

  9. [Nonthyroidal illness (NTI)].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2012-11-01

    Thyroxine (T4), a major secretory product of thyroid gland, needs to be converted to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) by iodothyronine deiodinases to exert its biological effect. Nonthyroidal illness, also known as low T3 syndrome, is associated with low serum T3 concentrations, which are inversely correlated to the severity of the illness. The patients with nonthyroidal illness do not show compensatory rise in serum TSH concentrations, and sometimes develop low serum T4 and TSH concentrations. It has been postulated that decreased extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 is a responsible mechanism underlying low T3 syndrome. The roles of three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, D3) in the pathophysiology of nonthyroidal illness are discussed.

  10. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.J.; Hert-Picciotto, I.; Dostal, M.; Keller, J.A.; Nozicka, J.; Kotesovec, F.; Dejmek, J.; Loomis, D.; Sram, R.J.

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. Lower respiratory illness (LRI) diagnoses occurred more frequently in children from homes heated by coal (vs. other energy sources or distant furnaces; rate ratio (RR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.97). Maternal prenatal smoking and other adult smokers also increased LRI rates (respectively: RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; and RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65). Cooking fuels (primarily electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associated with LRI incidence. For children never breast-fed, coal home heating and mother's smoking conferred substantially greater risks: RR = 2.77 (95% CI, 1.45-5.27) and RR = 2.52 (95% CI, 1.31-4.85), respectively. This maternal smoking and coal home heating increased risk for LRI in the first 3 years of life, particularly in children not breast-fed.

  11. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. Methods We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Results Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers’ HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. Conclusions We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion

  12. Cold thermoregulatory responses following exertional fatigue.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N; DeGroot, David W; Young, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Participants in prolonged, physically demanding cold-weather activities are at risk for a condition called "thermoregulatory fatigue". During cold exposure, the increased gradient favoring body heat loss to the environment is opposed by physiological responses and clothing and behavioral strategies that conserve body heat stores to defend body temperature. The primary human physiological responses elicited by cold exposure are shivering and peripheral vasoconstriction. Shivering increases thermogenesis and replaces body heat losses, while peripheral vasoconstriction improves thermal insulation of the body and retards the rate of heat loss. A body of scientific literature supports the concept that prolonged and/or repeated cold exposure, fatigue induced by sustained physical exertion, or both together, can impair the shivering and vasoconstrictor responses to cold ("thermoregulatory fatigue"). The mechanisms accounting for this thermoregulatory impairment are not clear, but there is evidence to suggest that changes in central thermoregulatory control or peripheral sympathetic responsiveness to cold lead to thermoregulatory fatigue and increased susceptibility to hypothermia.

  13. Effect of heat and moisture exchangers on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Auxiliadora-Martins, M; Menegueti, M G; Nicolini, E A; Alkmim-Teixeira, G C; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Martins-Filho, O A; Basile-Filho, A

    2012-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains one of the major causes of infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with the length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We compared the frequency of VAP 10 months prior to (pre-intervention group) and 13 months after (post-intervention group) initiation of the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) filter. This is a study with prospective before-and-after design performed in the ICU in a tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to the ICU under mechanical ventilation, 168 of whom were included in group HH (heated humidifier) and 146 in group HME. The frequency of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days was similar for both the HH and HME groups (18.7 vs 17.4, respectively; P = 0.97). Duration of mechanical ventilation (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.48) and length of ICU stay (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.39) did not differ between the HH and HME groups. The chance of developing VAP was higher in patients with a longer ICU stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. This finding was similar when adjusted for the use of HME. The use of HME in intensive care did not reduce the incidence of VAP, the duration of mechanical ventilation, or the length of stay in the ICU in the study population.

  14. Voodoo illness.

    PubMed

    Campinha-Bacote, J

    1992-01-01

    Healthcare providers must familiarize themselves with specific culture-bound syndromes and their manifestations in order to provide quality care to culturally diverse clients seeking healthcare services. Voodoo illness is one of several culture-bound syndromes that nurses need to be familiar with, for an inability to understand voodoo illness may result in the client's death (voodoo death).

  15. The force exerted by a fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.

    2014-02-15

    The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

  16. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  17. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people in the U.S. get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms ... are the most common cause of foodborne illness. Foods may have some bacteria on them when you ...

  18. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, David C.; Borchers, James

    2014-01-01

    Context: Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a relatively uncommon but potentially fatal condition affecting athletes that requires prompt recognition and appropriate management. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the PubMed database from 2003 to 2013 using the term exertional rhabdomyolysis was performed. Further evaluation of the bibliographies of articles expanded the evidence. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a relatively uncommon condition with an incidence of approximately 29.9 per 100,000 patient years but can have very serious consequences of muscle ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia, and death. The athlete will have pain, weakness, and swelling in the muscles affected as well as significantly elevated levels of creatine kinase (CK). Hydration is the foundation for any athlete with ER; management can also include dialysis or surgery. Stratifying the athlete into high- or low-risk categories can determine if further workup is warranted. Conclusion: Exertional rhabdomyolysis evaluation requires a history, physical examination, and serology for definitive diagnosis. Treatment modalities should include rest and hydration. Return to play and future workup should be determined by the risk stratification of the athlete. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:24982707

  19. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    From 1999 through 2013, there were 1,406 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 to 2010 but decreased by 59 percent from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, there were fewer incident cases (n=73) than in any of the previous 9 years. The recent decrease in overall rates reflects sharply declining rates in the Marine Corps and slight decreases in the other Services. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 15-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, recruit trainees, and "other" military occupations. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather.

  20. Foodborne Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    ond time. Britain. A similar investigational drug, 3.4-dia- Therapy is nonspecific in patients poisoned minopyridine, is less toxic and shows dramatic...time of onset as well as in the type of Because neuromuscular paralysis may pro- toxicity . FOODBORNE ILLNESS-Continuod 19 The earliest manifestations of... toxicity result Favism from the peripheral anticholinergic effects of Some persons with an inherited deficiency of muscarine. Symptoms begin 10 to 120

  1. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A

    2014-01-07

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.

  2. Reflections on the Institute of Medicine's systemic exertion intolerance disease.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Furst, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States has recently proposed that the term systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) replace chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, the IOM proposed a new case definition for SEID, which includes substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre‑illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, postexertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Unfortunately, these recommendations for a name change were not vetted with patient and professional audiences, and the new criteria were not evaluated with data sets of patients and controls. A recent poll suggests that the majority of patients reject this new name. In addition, studies have found that prevalence rates will dramatically increase with the new criteria, particularly due to the ambiguity revolving around exclusionary illnesses. Findings suggest that the new criteria select more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than several other criteria. The implications of these findings are discussed in the current review.

  3. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses The Basics Would ...

  4. Reflections on the Design of Exertion Games.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Florian Floyd; Altimira, David; Khot, Rohit Ashot

    2015-02-01

    The design of exertion games (i.e., digital games that require physical effort from players) is a difficult intertwined challenge of combining digital games and physical effort. To aid designers in facing this challenge, we describe our experiences of designing exertion games. We outline personal reflections on our design processes and articulate analyses of players' experiences. These reflections and analyses serve to highlight the unique opportunities of combining digital games and physical effort. The insights we seek aim to enhance the understanding of exertion game design, contributing to the advancement of the field, and ultimately resulting in better games and associated player experiences.

  5. High-Altitude Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... high-altitude illness:Acute mountain sicknessHigh-altitude pulmonary edema (also called HAPE), which affects the lungsHigh-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brainThese illnesses ...

  6. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  7. Coping with Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  8. Pathophysiology of Heat-Related Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    creams, inhaled salbutamol , and IV hydrocortisone, all of which worked normally after rewarming. All forms of tablet medication warmed from frozen have...Lack of acclimatization Dehydration Drug Use Diuretics Anticholinergics (e.g., atropine) β-blockers (e.g., propranolol) Antihistamines Amphetamines

  9. Clinical Management of Heat-Related Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    temperature measurement can be obtained. Cooling measures should only be minimally delayed for vital resuscitation measures. Nevertheless, it is... resuscitative measures.49 In the field, the sick individual should be placed in the shade, and any restrictive clothing should be removed. There are mul- tiple...positive-pressure ventilation—should be provided. Overly vigorous fluid resuscitation may precipitate pul- monary edema, so careful monitoring is

  10. Exertional leg pain: teasing out arterial entrapments.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thomas T; Kapur, Rahul; Harwood, Marc I

    2007-12-01

    Vascular causes of exertional lower extremity pain are relatively rare, but may be the answer in athletes refractory to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes of the lower extremities. It is important to differentiate these vascular causes from chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and stress fractures in order to develop appropriate treatment plans, avoid complications, and return athletes to play expeditiously. Important vascular etiologies to be considered are popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), endofibrotic disease, popliteal artery aneurysm, cystic adventitial disease, and peripheral arterial dissections. The diagnostic workup involves angiography or noninvasive vascular studies such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance angiography in both the neutral and provocative positions. Treatment of these vascular abnormalities typically involves surgical correction of the vascular anomaly.

  11. Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Kristin L; Pallardy, Shannon E; Johnson, Richard J; Horswill, Craig A

    2010-02-01

    Rapid and complete rehydration, or restoration of fluid spaces, is important when acute illness or excessive sweating has compromised hydration status. Many studies have investigated the effects of graded concentrations of sodium and other electrolytes in rehydration solutions; however, no study to date has determined the effect of carbohydrate on fluid retention when electrolyte concentrations are held constant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded levels of carbohydrate on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. Fifteen heat-acclimatized men exercised in the heat for 90 min with no fluid to induce 2-3% dehydration. After a 30-min equilibration period, they received, over the course of 60 min, one of five test beverages equal to 100% of the acute change in body mass. The experimental beverages consisted of a flavored placebo with no electrolytes (P), placebo with electrolytes (P + E), 3%, 6%, and 12% carbohydrate solutions with electrolytes. All beverages contained the same type and concentration of electrolytes (18 meq/l Na(+), 3 meq/l K(+), 11 meq/l Cl(-)). Subjects voided their bladders at 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, and urine specific gravity and urine volume were measured. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 30, 90, 180, and 240 min following exercise and were analyzed for glucose, sodium, hemoglobin, hematocrit, renin, aldosterone, and osmolality. Body mass was measured before and after exercise and a final body mass was taken at 240 min. There were no differences in percent dehydration, sweat loss, or fluid intake between trials. Fluid retention was significantly greater for all carbohydrate beverages compared with P (66.3 +/- 14.4%). P + E (71.8 +/- 9.9%) was not different from water, 3% (75.4 +/- 7.8%) or 6% (75.4 +/- 16.4%) but was significantly less than 12% (82.4 +/- 9.2%) retention of the ingested fluid. No difference was found between the carbohydrate beverages. Carbohydrate at the levels

  12. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  13. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  14. Caregivers and Serious Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... or those we choose to call family. Caregiver Responsibilities When a family member has a serious illness , ... transportation; do housework; handle your loved one’s former responsibilities, such as child care; and provide help with ...

  15. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... call, or go the website of the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-8255). Trained crisis ... improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Learn more about clinical trials on the ...

  16. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  17. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... temperatures are high and the job involves physical work. Risk Factors for Heat Illness • High temperature and humidity, ... heat or those that have been away from work to adapt to working in the heat (acclimatization). • Routinely check workers who are at risk of heat stress due to protective clothing and ...

  18. Differentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Physical Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE VOl 14, No 5. Pp 397-405. 1982 -1982 Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion during physical ...that PANDOLF, KENT B. Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion utilizes differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during physical exercise ...in the eval- Specific instructions and procedures for the utilization uation of effort sensations during physical exercise . Ekblom and Goldbarg (17

  19. Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

  20. Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus called the resistive exercise device (RED) has been proposed to satisfy a requirement for exercise equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that could passively exert a selectable constant load on both the outward and return strokes. The RED could be used alone; alternatively, the RED could be used in combination with another apparatus called the treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization (TVIS), in which case the combination would be called the subject load device (SLD). The basic RED would be a passive device, but it could incorporate an electric motor to provide eccentric augmentation (augmentation to make the load during inward movement greater than the load during outward movement). The RED concept represents a unique approach to providing a constant but selectable resistive load for exercise for the maintenance and development of muscles. Going beyond the original ISS application, the RED could be used on Earth as resistive weight training equipment. The advantage of the RED over conventional weight-lifting equipment is that it could be made portable and lightweight.

  1. Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Forgacs, Peter; Lukacs, Arpad; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is pulled towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the {phi}{sup 4} model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the {phi}{sup 4} model. In the sine-Gordon (SG) model the time-averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the SG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a SG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton's law.

  2. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  3. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  4. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  5. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lyme disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result in distinctive ... arthritic or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to person in ...

  6. Platelets in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    In patients with critical illness, thrombocytopenia is a frequent laboratory abnormality. However frequent this may occur, a low platelet count is not an epiphenomenon, but a marker with further significance. It is always important to assess the proper cause for thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients because different underlying disorders may precipitate different diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies. Platelets are part of the first-line defense of the body against bleeding; hence, thrombocytopenia may increase the risk of hemorrhage. In case of systemic inflammatory syndromes, such as the response to sepsis, disseminated intravascular platelet activation may occur. This will contribute to microvascular failure and thereby play a role in the development of organ dysfunction. Platelets are circulating blood cells that will normally not interact with the intact vessel wall but that may swiftly respond to endothelial disruption (which is often part of the pathogenesis of critical illness) by adhering to subendothelial structures, followed by interaction with each other, thereby forming a platelet aggregate. The activated platelet (phospholipid) membrane may form a suitable surface on which further coagulation activation may occur. A low platelet count is a strong and independent predictor of an adverse outcome in critically ill patients, thereby facilitating a simple and practically risk assessment in these patients and potentially guiding the use of complex or expensive treatment strategies.

  7. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  8. Temperature-Related Death and Illness. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Saha, Shubhayu; Hawkins, Michelle D.; Mills, David M.; Hess, Jeremy; Horton, Radley; Kinney, Patrick; Schwartz, Joel; St. Juliana, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Based on present-day sensitivity to heat, an increase of thousands to tens of thousands of premature heat-related deaths in the summer and a decrease of premature cold-related deaths in the winter are projected each year as a result of climate change by the end of the century. Future adaptation will very likely reduce these impacts (see Changing Tolerance to Extreme Heat Finding). The reduction in cold-related deaths is projected to be smaller than the increase in heat-related deaths in most regions. Days that are hotter than usual in the summer or colder than usual in the winter are both associated with increased illness and death. Mortality effects are observed even for small differences from seasonal average temperatures. Because small temperature differences occur much more frequently than large temperature differences, not accounting for the effect of these small differences would lead to underestimating the future impact of climate change. An increase in population tolerance to extreme heat has been observed over time. Changes in this tolerance have been associated with increased use of air conditioning, improved social responses, and or physiological acclimatization, among other factors. Expected future increases in this tolerance will reduce the projected increase in deaths from heat. Older adults and children have a higher risk of dying or becoming ill due to extreme heat. People working outdoors, the socially isolated and economically disadvantaged, those with chronic illnesses, as well as some communities of color, are also especially vulnerable to death or illness.

  9. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  10. An anatomy of illness.

    PubMed

    Biro, David

    2012-03-01

    Because it focuses primarily on the sick body (disease), medicine ignores many of the concerns and needs of sick people. By listening to the stories of patients in the clinic, on the Internet, and in published book form, health care providers could gain a better understanding of the impact of disease on the person (illness), what it means to patients over and above their physical symptoms and what they might require over and above surgery or chemotherapy. Only by familiarizing themselves with the entire emotional landscape of illness, which includes fear, anger, shame, guilt, and above all loneliness, can the healthy--medicine as well as society in general--hope to heal in a comprehensive manner.

  11. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  12. Mechanisms in Chronic Multisymptom Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    difficulties commonly seen in patients with Chronic Multisymptom Illnesses (CMI) (i.e., fibromyalgia , chronic fatigue syndrome, Gulf War Illnesses, etc.); to...Avera Research Institute, Sioux Falls, SD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS chronic multisymptom illnesses, fibromyalgia , Gulf War Illness, chronic pain 16. SECURITY...16 2.4.6 Internet and Telehealth Enhanced CBT for the Management of  Fibromyalgia

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Heat Stress, Heat Injury and Heat Stroke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    A systems biology approach to heat stress, heat injury and heat stroke Jonathan D. Stallings and Danielle L. Ippolito US Army Center for...paramount importance to the military. Here, we review our recent systems biology approaches to heat stress in order to develop a 3-dimensional (3D...Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Systems biology, Protein aggregation, Metabolomics, Energetics, Computational modeling 1. HEAT ILLNESS IN THE U.S. ARMED FORCES

  14. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Parasites and Foodborne Illness Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  15. Images of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician. PMID:20469529

  16. The Effect of Exertion on Heart Rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Acutely Concussed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea; Leddy, John; Freitas, Michael; Czuczman, Natalie; Willer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population. Methods We compared changes in heart rate and perceived effort during graded treadmill exertion in recently concussed patients to elucidate the effect of brain injury on cardiovascular response to exercise. Resting HR, HR on exercise initiation, and changes in HR and RPE during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) were compared on two test visits: When patients were symptomatic (acute) and after recovery. Results were compared with the test-retest results obtained from a control group consisting of healthy, non-concussed individuals. Results Patients had a significantly lower HR at onset of exercise when acutely concussed as compared to when recovered and reported greater perceived exertion at every exercise intensity level when symptomatic, despite exercising at lower workloads, than when recovered. Sympathetic response to increased exertion was not affected by concussion - HR increased in response to exercise at a comparable rate in both tests. These differences observed in response to exercise between the first BCTT and follow-up evaluation in initially concussed patients were not present in non-concussed individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest that during the acute phase after concussion, acutely concussed patients demonstrated an impaired ability to shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic control over heart rate at the onset of exercise. Changes in the autonomic nervous system after concussion may be more complex than previously reported. Continued evaluation of

  17. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  18. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  19. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  20. Using Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagally, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion have been shown to be a valid method of monitoring physical activity intensity for both adults and children. As such, this subjective method may serve as an alternative to objective measurements for assessing students' performance on national standards 2 and 4. The OMNI-Child perceived exertion scales were…

  1. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: What Is It and Why Should We Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David Q.; Carlson, Kelli A.; Marzano, Amy; Garrahy, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis gained increased attention recently when 13 football players from the University of Iowa developed this condition after an especially demanding practice session and were hospitalized. Exertional rhabdomyolysis may lead to severe kidney stress, kidney failure, and even sudden death. Anyone who does physical exercise at a…

  2. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  3. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  4. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  5. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  6. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  7. Treating foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Theodore

    2013-09-01

    In healthy adults and children in developed countries, most foodborne and water-borne infections are short-lived and resolve without specific treatment. In developing areas, these infections may produce acute mortality and chronic morbidity caused by developmental impairment. Immune-compromised hosts are at increased risk of life-threatening complications. This article reviews recommendations for the treatment of the most common and important foodborne illnesses, focusing on those caused by infections or toxins of microbial origin. The cornerstone of life-saving treatment remains oral rehydration therapy, although the use of other supportive measures as well as antibiotics for certain infections is also recommended.

  8. Portraits of an illness

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Access to patients' inner lives can be expanded and enriched by incorporating the arts and humanities into the clinical encounter. A series of self-portraits created by an artist undergoing induction chemotherapy for leukemia afforded a unique opportunity to concentrate one's gaze upon the patient as a stimulus for reflection on suffering and isolation of patients. Poetry and theater were also invaluable in expanding the physician's awareness of the shared experience of illness. The process highlights the central role of the “New Humanities” in modern medicine, where science informs the arts and the arts inform science and medicine. PMID:19768179

  9. Exertional myopathy in whooping cranes (Grus americana) with prognostic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Thomas, Nancy J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hartup, Barry K

    2005-09-01

    Exertional myopathy developed in three whooping cranes (Grus americana) secondary to routine capture, handling, and trauma. Presumptive diagnosis of exertional myopathy was based on history of recent capture or trauma, clinical signs, and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum potassium. Treatments were attempted in each case, but ultimately were not successful. Gross and microscopic lesions at necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in each case, with the leg musculature most severely affected. Guidelines for determining prognosis of exertional myopathy in cranes have been included based on the analysis of these cases and others in the literature. As treatment is largely unrewarding, prevention remains the key in controlling exertional myopathy. Identification of predisposing factors and proper handling, immobilization, and transportation techniques can help prevent development of exertional myopathy in cranes.

  10. Exertional myopathy in whooping cranes (Grus americana) with prognostic guidlelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanley, C.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Paul-Murphy, P.; Hartup, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    Exertional myopathy developed in three whooping cranes (Grus americana) secondary to routine capture, handling, and trauma. Presumptive diagnosis of exertional myopathy was based on history of recent capture or trauma, clinical signs, and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum potassium. Treatments were attempted in each case, but ultimately were not successful. Gross and microscopic lesions at necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in each case, with the leg musculature most severely affected. Guidelines for determining prognosis of exertional myopathy in cranes have been included based on the analysis of these cases and others in the literature. As treatment is largely unrewarding, prevention remains the key in controlling exertional myopathy. Identification of predisposing factors and proper handling, immobilization, and transportation techniques can help prevent development of exertional myopathy in cranes.

  11. Acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L

    1995-01-01

    Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.

  12. Absence of exertional hyperthermia in a 17-year-old boy with severe burns.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Lee, Jong O; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2009-01-01

    An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia=body core temperature>39 degrees C) during exercise. We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31 degrees C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17-year-old boy with a 99% TBSA burn. A 30-minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured before, during, and postexercise. The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30-minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 degrees C and increased 0.69 degrees C during exercise. After exercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature; however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low-fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he was forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia.

  13. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes e; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. Methods: The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: “mental exertion”, “mental fatigue”, “mental fatigue and performance”, “mental exertion and sports” “mental exertion and exercise”. Results: We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Conclusion: Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates. PMID:27867415

  14. The microbiome and critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    The central role of the microbiome in critical illness is supported by a half century of experimental and clinical study. The physiological effects of critical illness and the clinical interventions of intensive care substantially alter the microbiome. In turn, the microbiome predicts patients’ susceptibility to disease, and manipulation of the microbiome has prevented or modulated critical illness in animal models and clinical trials. This Review surveys the microbial ecology of critically ill patients, presents the facts and unanswered questions surrounding gut-derived sepsis, and explores the radically altered ecosystem of the injured alveolus. The revolution in culture-independent microbiology has provided the tools needed to target the microbiome rationally for the prevention and treatment of critical illness, holding great promise to improve the acute and chronic outcomes of the critically ill. PMID:26700442

  15. Defining Occupational Illnesses and Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    This technical report will discuss the definitions of occupational illnesses and injuries as established by the Occupational Safety and Health...Administration (OSHA). A systematic method for classifying an occupational event as either an illness or an injury will be presented. The Air Force is...required to collect occupational injury and illness data, to analyze collected data, and to establish preventive programs based upon any identified unsafe

  16. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  17. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    PubMed

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  18. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  19. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  20. Recreational water–related illness

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the risk factors, management, and prevention of recreational water–related illness in family practice. Sources of information Original and review articles from January 1998 to February 2012 were identified using PubMed and the search terms water-related illness, recreational water illness, and swimmer illness. Main message There is a 3% to 8% risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) after swimming. The high-risk groups for AGI are children younger than 5 years, especially if they have not been vaccinated for rotavirus, and elderly and immunocompromised patients. Children are at higher risk because they swallow more water when swimming, stay in the water longer, and play in the shallow water and sand, which are more contaminated. Participants in sports with a lot of water contact like triathlon and kite surfing are also at high risk, and even activities involving partial water contact like boating and fishing carry a 40% to 50% increase in risk of AGI compared with nonwater recreational activities. Stool cultures should be done when a recreational water illness is suspected, and the clinical dehydration scale is a useful clinical tool for assessing the treatment needs of affected children. Conclusion Recreational water illness is the main attributable cause of AGI during swimming season. Recognition that swimming is a substantial source of illness can help prevent recurrent and secondary cases. Rotavirus vaccine is highly recommended for children who will swim frequently. PMID:23673583

  1. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  2. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  3. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    PubMed

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed.

  4. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:27900193

  5. [Religious beliefs, illness and death: family's perspectives in illness experience].

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Poles, Kátia; Serafim, Taís de Souza; de Miranda, Mariana Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify predominant themes in religion, illness and death in the life histories of families and examine the relationship between religion creeds, illness and death in the discourse of families that have an ill person. The theoretical framework used in this study was Symbolic Interactionism and the method was Oral History. Participants were seventeen families with nine different religions, who had experienced the death of a relative. Data analysis showed that following a religion is a relevant part of the lives of many families and cannot be neglected in the illness context. Results point to the importance of understanding the meaning that religion has to the families in the health-disease process, so nurses can work on the promotion of health.

  6. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years.

  7. Mental illness and criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, J A; Brennan, P A; Hodgins, S; Mednick, S A

    1998-12-01

    This article examines the relationship between criminal violence and mental illness. Our data suggest that mentally ill persons tend to have an increased risk for committing violent offenses, and that the violent offending by these individuals tends to be recidivistic. Our findings suggest that parents who have both committed violent offenses and experienced a psychiatric hospitalization increase the risk of violent offending among their offspring. We propose the hypothesis that mentally ill parents transmit a biological characteristic which may genetically predispose their child towards criminal violence. Prenatal disturbances during critical periods of fetal development may provide clues regarding the etiology of criminal violence.

  8. Freud, his illness, and ourselves.

    PubMed

    Haynal, André

    2008-06-01

    The history of Freud's illness shows that he tried to avoid confrontation with it, and to treat it as unimportant. In his personal letters, the ill body remains outside-as another person, "Konrad," not he himself-and it is not taken into account. Particularly in Freud's correspondence with Ferenczi, we realize to what extent certain phenomena, especially depressive ones, he considered somatic, with a tendency to dismiss them, and this despite important occasional insights, such as about the role played by hate in psychosomatic illnesses. In the post-Freudian development, these topics have been more and more integrated in the dialogue, in the discourse between the analyst and the analysand.

  9. A case of mitochondrial cytopathy with exertion induced dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonias are a group of relatively benign hyperkinetic childhood movement disorders of varied etiology. Mitochondrial diseases are well known to produce persistent dystonias as sequelae, but paroxysmal exertion induced dystonia has been reported in only one case to the best of our knowledge. Two siblings born to consanguineous parents presented with early-onset exertion induced dystonia, which was unresponsive to diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine. A trial with valproate in one of the siblings turned fatal within 24 h. Based on this clue, the second child was investigated and found to suffer from complex I deficiency with a paternally inherited dominant nuclear DNA mutation, which is responsive to the mitochondrial cocktail. Exertion induced dystonia can be a rare manifestation of complex I deficiency. PMID:26557169

  10. A Technique for Establishing True Levels of Muscle Strength Exertion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    performed -"aximal or submaximal isometric strength exertions. The exertions tested were elbow flexion, finger flexion, knee flexion and knee...190.1 167.11 17.3350 Buttock-Knee Length (cm) 54.1 66.7 59.29 3.2106 Knee Height, sitting (cm) 46.5 58.7 52.91 2.8737 Shoulder- Elbow Length (cm) 29.3...propped the elbow of the right arm on the arm rest, extended the fore- arm directly forward so that the cuff was exactly above the load cell, with

  11. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  12. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-07

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  13. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  15. Delayed puberty in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús

    2002-03-01

    Delayed puberty can be defined as the lack of pubertal development at an age of 2 SD above the mean, which corresponds to an age of approximately 14 years for males and 13 years for females, taking both sex and ethnic origin into consideration. Its incidence associated with chronic illnesses is unknown; however, its clinical importance is relevant due to the larger percentage of patients with chronic disorders surviving until the age of puberty. Virtually every child with any chronic disease could present with delayed puberty (due to recurrent infections, immunodeficiency, gastrointestinal disease, renal disturbances, respiratory illnesses, chronic anaemia, endocrine disease, eating disorders, exercise and a number of miscellaneous abnormalities). Pubertal delay associated with chronic illness is accompanied by a delay in growth and the pubertal growth spurt. The degree to which growth and pubertal development are affected in chronic illness depends upon the type of disease and individual factors, as well as on the age at illness onset, its duration and severity. The earlier its onset and the longer and more severe the illness, the greater the repercussions on growth and pubertal development. The mechanism that trigger the start of physiological puberty remain unknown. Although malnutrition is probably the most important mechanism responsible for delayed puberty, emotional deprivation, toxic substances, stress and the side effects of chronic therapy, among others, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of delayed puberty. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential and appropriate and specific therapy fundamental.

  16. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 404.1569a Section 404.1569a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 404.1569a Section 404.1569a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  2. Perceived Exertion: An Old Exercise Tool Finds New Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Terry

    1988-01-01

    Perceived exertion scales, based on subjective perception of energy output, are gaining respect as prescribing and monitoring tools for individual exercise programs. A review of recent literature indicates growing research interest in applications for individuals who are elderly, inactive, or subject to medical conditions such as angina. (IAH)

  3. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  5. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  7. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  9. Are the Measurements of Attention Allocation and Perceived Exertion Trustworthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Gily; Hutchinson, Jasmin C.; Habeeb, Christine M.; Boiangin, Nataniel M.; Shaffer, Cory; Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined the trustworthiness of commonly used measurement scales for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and state attentional focus (SAF) during exercise. In Study 1, participants (N = 24, 14 female) performed a treadmill graded-exercise test. The order of scale presentation during the task was manipulated (i.e., RPE followed by SAF…

  10. Perception of Forces Exerted by Objects in Collision Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Impressions of force are commonplace in the visual perception of objects interacting. It is proposed that these impressions have their source in haptically mediated experiences of exertion of force in actions on objects. Visual impressions of force in interactions between objects occur by a kind of generalization of the proprioceptive impression…

  11. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    PubMed

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  12. Cognitions and Procedures in Response to Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Michael A.; And Others

    Recent research in illness has stressed the importance of constructive processes as determinants for coping and appraisal with illnesses. The goal of this study was to construct a lexicon of cognitive and behavioral responses people employ to cope with illness. Undergraduate college students (N=105) were given two illness scenarios describing the…

  13. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  14. Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, C F; Gilbert, J J; Hahn, A F; Sibbald, W J

    1984-01-01

    Five patients developed a severe motor and sensory polyneuropathy at the peak of critical illness (sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction complicating a variety of primary illnesses). Difficulties in weaning from the ventilator as the critical illness subsided and the development of flaccid and areflexic limbs were early clinical signs. However, electrophysiological studies, especially needle electrode examination of skeletal muscle, provided the definite evidence of polyneuropathy. The cause is uncertain, but the electrophysiological and morphological features indicate a primary axonal polyneuropathy with sparing of the central nervous system. Nutritional factors may have played a role, since the polyneuropathy improved in all five patients after total parenteral nutrition had been started, including the three patients who later died of unrelated causes. The features allow diagnosis during life, and encourage continued intensive management since recovery from the polyneuropathy may occur. Images PMID:6094735

  15. Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review provides a conceptual introduction to sleep and circadian research in psychiatric illness, and discusses recent experimental and intervention findings in this area. Recent Findings In this review, studies published since January 2011 on circadian disturbance and psychiatric illness have been summarized. Summary Exciting new results have increasingly utilized objective and validated instruments to measure the circadian system in experimental studies. Since 2011, treatment research has still predominantly utilized self-report measures as outcome variables. However, research in the treatment domain for sleep/circadian disturbances comorbid with psychiatric illness has advanced the field in its work to broaden the validation of existing sleep treatments to additional patient populations with comorbid sleep/circadian disruptions, address how to increase access to and affordability of treatment for sleep and circadian dysfunction for patients with psychiatric disorders, and how to combine psychosocial treatments with psychopharmacology to optimize treatment outcomes. PMID:24060916

  16. Darwin's illness: a biopsychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Pasnau, R O

    1990-01-01

    Throughout an illustrious scientific career, Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) suffered from a mysterious and disabling malady. The illness, which was characterized by depressed feelings and violent and uncomfortable cardiac palpitations, gastric upsets, and headaches, began shortly after Darwin returned from a five-year voyage to South America as the naturalist of the Beagle. One explanation for Darwin's symptoms is he suffered from Chagas' disease as a result of being bitten by an insect common to South America. More psychodynamically oriented theorists speculate that Darwin's illness was an expression of repressed anger toward his father. Others have noted a familial vulnerability to the symptoms Darwin described. The author examines these theories and suggests that they all may have validity in explaining the mysterious illness of Charles Darwin.

  17. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  18. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2016-12-28

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population.

  19. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  20. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  1. Exertional dyspnea as a symptom of infrarenal aortic occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Schott, Stacey L; Carreiro, Fernanda Porto; Harkness, James R; Malas, Mahmoud B; Sozio, Stephen M; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-06-01

    Advanced atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause severe ischemia in the kidneys, refractory hypertension, and claudication. However, no previous reports have clearly associated infrarenal aortic stenosis with shortness of breath. A 77-year-old woman with hypertension and hyperlipidemia presented with exertional dyspnea. Despite extensive testing and observation, no apparent cause for this patient's dyspnea was found. Images revealed severe infrarenal aortic stenosis. After the patient underwent stenting of the aortic occlusion, she had immediate symptomatic improvement and complete resolution of her dyspnea within one month. Twelve months after vascular intervention, the patient remained asymptomatic. In view of the distinct and lasting elimination of dyspnea after angioplasty and stenting of a nearly occluded infrarenal aortic lesion, we hypothesize that infrarenal aortic stenosis might be a treatable cause of exertional dyspnea. Clinicians should consider infrarenal aortic stenosis as a possible cause of dyspnea. Treatment of the stenosis might relieve symptoms.

  2. Wall pressure exerted by hydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Yon E.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Zimmerman, Mark D.

    2009-06-01

    Wall pressure exerted by the bulk expansion of a sodium aluminum hydride bed was measured as a function of hydrogen content. A custom apparatus was designed and loaded with sodium alanates at densities of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.16 g/cc. Four complete cycles were performed to identify variations in measured pressure. Results indicated poor correlation between exerted pressure and hydrogen capacity of the sodium alanate beds. Mechanical pressure due to the hydrogenation of sodium alanates does not influence full-scale system designs as it falls within common design factors of safety. Gas pressure gradients within the porous solid were identified and may limit reaction rates, especially for high aspect ratio beds.

  3. Failing phrenics: an obscure cause of exertional dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Arsalan; Ijaz, Mohsin; Tariq, Hassan; Vakde, Trupti; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Idiopathic phrenic nerve palsy is a rare cause of exertional dyspnea. We present a case of a patient presenting with worsening dyspnea of an unknown etiology found to be related to bilateral phrenic nerve palsy. Discussion: Forty-two-year-old man presented to our emergency department with exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, and a left lower lobe consolidation treated initially as bronchitis by his primary physician as an outpatient, then subsequently as pneumonia at another institution, with no improvement in symptomatology. After admission to our hospital, CT chest demonstrated only supradiaphragmatic atelectatic changes. Echocardiography was normal. Bronchoscopy was contemplated however the patient could not lie flat. A fluoroscopic sniff test demonstrated diaphragmatic dysfunction and pulmonary function tests revealed restrictive pulmonary disease with evidence of neuromuscular etiology. Nerve conduction studies confirmed bilateral phrenic neuropathy. He was referred to a specialized neuromuscular disease center where subsequent workup did not demonstrate any specific etiology. A sleep study confirmed sleep disordered breathing suggestive of diaphragmatic paralysis and he was discharged on bi-level positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion: This is a unique case of exertional dyspnea and orthopnea from diaphragmatic paresis caused by bilateral phrenic nerve palsy where the initial workup for pulmonary and cardiovascular etiologies was essentially unremarkable. Shortness of breath and orthopnea caused by phrenic neuropathy is a rare condition, yet has a variety of etiologies. Our case suggests a template to the diagnostic approach, management, and follow up of bilateral phrenic nerve palsy. PMID:27442657

  4. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  5. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  6. Raw and thermally treated cement asbestos exerts different cytotoxicity effects on A549 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Lucarini, Guendalina; Rubini, Corrado; Smorlesi, Arianna; Tomasetti, Marco; Strafella, Elisabetta; Armeni, Tatiana; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2015-01-01

    Raw cement asbestos (RCA) undergoes a complete solid state transformation when heated at high temperatures. The secondary raw material produced, high temperatures-cement asbestos (HT-CA) is composed of newly-formed crystals in place of the asbestos fibers present in RCA. Our previous study showed that HT-CA exerts lower cytotoxic cell damage compared to RCA. Nevertheless further investigations are needed to deepen our understanding of pathogenic pathways involving oxidative and nitrative damage. Our aim is to deepen the understanding of the biological effects on A549 cells of these materials regarding DNA damage related proteins (p53, its isoform p73 and TRAIL) and nitric oxide (NO) production during inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated inflammation. Increments of p53/p73 expression, iNOS positive cells and NO concentrations were found with RCA, compared to HT-CA and controls mainly at 48 h. Interestingly, ferrous iron causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage was found in RCA as a contaminant. HT-CA thermal treatment induces a global recrystallization with iron in a crystal form poorly released in media. HT-CA slightly interferes with genome expression and exerts lower inflammatory potential compared to RCA on biological systems. It could represent a safe approach for storing or recycling asbestos and an environmentally friendly alternative to asbestos waste.

  7. Family Therapy and Psychosomatic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the use of family therapy in dealing with illnesses such as childhood diabetes, asthma, pain, and anorexia nervosa. Marital and family therapy may be effective in treating some psychosomatic problems. Family assessment is helpful in the management of all psychosomatic problems. (Author/JAC)

  8. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  9. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  10. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Marks, Seth D

    2009-12-01

    Neuroendocrine changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis during critical illness result in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) characterized by abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels. Studies looking at the natural history of neuroendocrine changes during critical illness have revealed the presence of NTIS. NTIS has been described in a variety of patient settings. Many studies have tried to uncover the pathophysiology behind NTIS and several theories are proposed. Whether NTIS requires treatment or intervention is still controversial and the results of the treatment studies are arguably mixed. Whether implicitly stated or not, the underlying purpose of all the natural history, pathophysiology, or treatment studies is to determine whether NTIS is adaptive or maladaptive. Some studies have illustrated a correlation between illness severity and the degree of NTIS but a cause and effect relationship is still elusive. The human studies can be divided between those with either adult or pediatric subjects, with much less data available in the latter. This review examines the available literature on NTIS with an emphasis on the pediatric literature.

  11. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  12. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  13. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  14. Teaching the Terminally Ill Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Trisha

    1981-01-01

    Classroom teachers of terminally ill children face potentially difficult, challenging, rewarding and professionally expanding experiences which require an understanding of the basic needs of the dying. Strategies for teaching such children include literature, writing, role playing, magic circle discussions, play therapy, art therapy, counseling,…

  15. Gulf War Illness Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    neurofibromato- sis; autism ; and other areas with military health interests including psychological health, traumatic brain injury, and Gulf War Illness (GWI...the national news headlines, it has not dimmed our hope that treatments and cures for GWI are waiting to be discovered and brought to bear against

  16. Mental Illness Disclosure Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rohini; Fulginiti, Anthony; Brekke, John S; Rice, Eric

    2017-04-10

    Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision. The current study uses the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM) by Greene (2009) to better understand the processes of mental illness disclosure preference and selective disclosure for individuals with SMI (n = 60) using multivariate random intercept logistic regression with an emphasis on the constituent factors of disclosure preference at both individual and relational levels. The majority of participants were found to practice selective disclosure, with 68% of the participants identifying at least 1 network member to whom they could disclose. Family members and friends were central to the selective disclosure process, comprising the greatest proportion of network members who, both were and were not identified as preferred confidants. Women were found to show higher odds of preference for mental illness disclosure than men. Having lower perceived social support was associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Among relational factors, greater relationship availability and lower dyadic tangible social support were associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Practice and research implications of using social network analysis to get a deeper understanding of disclosure and disclosure preference are discussed, including implications for future interventions targeting stigma reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Life Event, Stress and Illness

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Mohd. Razali

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system. This suppression, in turn raises the risk of viral infection. Stress also leads to the release of histamine, which can trigger severe broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Stress increases the risk for diabetes mellitus, especially in overweight individuals, since psychological stress alters insulin needs. Stress also alters the acid concentration in the stomach, which can lead to peptic ulcers, stress ulcers or ulcerative colitis. Chronic stress can also lead to plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially if combined with a high-fat diet and sedentary living. The correlation between stressful life events and psychiatric illness is stronger than the correlation with medical or physical illness. The relationship of stress with psychiatric illness is strongest in neuroses, which is followed by depression and schizophrenia. There is no scientific evidence of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the immune system changes and the development of cancer. However, recent studies found a link between stress, tumour development and suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, which is actively involved in preventing metastasis and destroying small metastases. PMID:22589633

  18. Short-term hyperoxia does not exert immunologic effects during experimental murine and human endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, Dorien; Gerretsen, Jelle; Janssen, Emmy; John, Aaron; Groeneveld, R.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Pickkers, Peter; Kox, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen therapy to maintain tissue oxygenation is one of the cornerstones of critical care. Therefore, hyperoxia is often encountered in critically ill patients. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that hyperoxia may affect outcome, although mechanisms are unclear. Immunologic effects might be involved, as hyperoxia was shown to attenuate inflammation and organ damage in preclinical models. However, it remains unclear whether these observations can be ascribed to direct immunosuppressive effects of hyperoxia or to preserved tissue oxygenation. In contrast to these putative anti-inflammatory effects, hyperoxia may elicit an inflammatory response and organ damage in itself, known as oxygen toxicity. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of systemic inflammation, short-term hyperoxia (100% O2 for 2.5 hours in mice and 3.5 hours in humans) does not result in increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in both mice and healthy volunteers. Furthermore, we show that, compared with room air, hyperoxia does not affect the systemic inflammatory response elicited by administration of bacterial endotoxin in mice and man. Finally, neutrophil phagocytosis and ROS generation are unaffected by short-term hyperoxia. Our results indicate that hyperoxia does not exert direct anti-inflammatory effects and temper expectations of using it as an immunomodulatory treatment strategy. PMID:26616217

  19. Pressure garment design tool to monitor exerted pressures.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Lisa; Ferguson, Rhona

    2013-09-01

    Pressure garments are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scarring following serious burns. The use of pressure garments is believed to hasten the maturation process, reduce pruritus associated with immature hypertrophic scars and prevent the formation of contractures over flexor joints. Pressure garments are normally made to measure for individual patients from elastic fabrics and are worn continuously for up to 2 years or until scar maturation. There are 2 methods of constructing pressure garments. The most common method, called the Reduction Factor method, involves reducing the patient's circumferential measurements by a certain percentage. The second method uses the Laplace Law to calculate the dimensions of pressure garments based on the circumferential measurements of the patient and the tension profile of the fabric. The Laplace Law method is complicated to utilise manually and no design tool is currently available to aid this process. This paper presents the development and suggested use of 2 new pressure garment design tools that will aid pressure garment design using the Reduction Factor and Laplace Law methods. Both tools calculate the pressure garment dimensions and the mean pressure that will be exerted around the body at each measurement point. Monitoring the pressures exerted by pressure garments and noting the clinical outcome would enable clinicians to build an understanding of the implications of particular pressures on scar outcome, maturation times and patient compliance rates. Once the optimum pressure for particular treatments is known, the Laplace Law method described in this paper can be used to deliver those average pressures to all patients. This paper also presents the results of a small scale audit of measurements taken for the fabrication of pressure garments in two UK hospitals. This audit highlights the wide range of pressures that are exerted using the Reduction Factor method and that manual pattern 'smoothing' can dramatically

  20. [Exertion syncope disclosing supravalvular mitral stenosis in an infant].

    PubMed

    Buyse, G; Kuchler, H; Crittin, J; Sekarski, N; Hurni, M; Cotting, J; Payot, M

    1993-05-01

    An infant with frequent upper airways infections presented syncopes during meals and weeping since the age of eleven months. Cardiac examination was always normal. At 14 months of age, an echocardiogram with colour Doppler demonstrated a severely stenotic isolated supramitral membrane with severe pulmonary hypertension. The membrane was immediately excised curing the malformation and suppressing definitively the syncopes, probably due to decreased cerebral blood flow during exertion. An echocardiogram should always be performed when syncopes remain unexplained in small children. It allows early diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects which do not have auscultatory findings especially those resulting in severe pulmonary venous obstruction.

  1. Exercise Challenge in Gulf War Illness Reveals Two Subgroups with Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rayhan, Rakib U.; Stevens, Benson W.; Raksit, Megna P.; Ripple, Joshua A.; Timbol, Christian R.; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; VanMeter, John W.; Baraniuk, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990–1991) have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n = 10). This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n = 18) that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness. PMID:23798990

  2. Exercise challenge in Gulf War Illness reveals two subgroups with altered brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Rayhan, Rakib U; Stevens, Benson W; Raksit, Megna P; Ripple, Joshua A; Timbol, Christian R; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; VanMeter, John W; Baraniuk, James N

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991) have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n = 10). This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n = 18) that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness.

  3. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794

  4. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  5. Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, A

    2001-01-01

    There have been in recent years increasing claims in both popular and professional literature for a connection between bipolar illness and creativity. A review of studies supporting this claim reveals serious flaws in sampling, methodology, presentation of results, and conclusions. Although there is therefore no evidence for etiological or genetic linkages, it is still necessary to explain interrelationships in those creative persons suffering from the illness. Examples of the work in progress of artists with bipolar disorder, Jackson Pollock and Edvard Munch, illustrate the use of healthy and adaptive creative cognition--janusian and homospatial processes--in the former's breakthrough conception during an improvement phase in treatment leading to the development of the Abstract Expressionist Movement and in the latter's transformation of an hallucination into his famous artwork "The Scream." Treatment options that do not produce cognitive effects are important for creative persons with bipolar disorder.

  6. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  7. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness.

  8. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  9. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  10. Caffeine ingestion, affect and perceived exertion during prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Susan H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Bishop, Nicolette C; Williams, Clyde

    2011-08-01

    Caffeine's metabolic and performance effects have been widely reported. However, caffeine's effects on affective states during prolonged exercise are unknown. Therefore, this was examined in the present study. Following an overnight fast and in a randomised, double-blind, counterbalanced design, twelve endurance trained male cyclists performed 90 min of exercise at 70% VO(₂ max) 1h after ingesting 6 mg kg⁻¹ BM of caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Dimensions of affect and perceived exertion were assessed at regular intervals. During exercise, pleasure ratings were better maintained (F(₃,₃₈)=4.99, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial with significantly higher ratings at 15, 30 and 75 min (all P < 0.05). Perceived exertion increased (F(₃,₃₈) = 19.86, P < 0.01) throughout exercise and values, overall, were significantly lower (F(₁,₁₁) = 9.26, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial. Perceived arousal was elevated during exercise but did not differ between trials. Overall, the results suggest that a moderate dose of CAF ingested 1h prior to exercise maintains a more positive subjective experience during prolonged cycling. This observation may partially explain caffeine's ergogenic effects.

  11. Designing pressure garments capable of exerting specific pressures on limbs.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Pressure garments have been used prophylactically and to treat hypertrophic scars, resulting from serious burns, since the early 1970s. They are custom-made from elastic fabrics by commercial producers and hospital staff. However, no clear scientifically established method has ever been published for their design and manufacture. Previous work [2] identified the most commonly used fabrics and construction methods for the production of pressure garments by hospital staff in UK burn units. These methods were evaluated by measuring pressures delivered to both cylinder models and to human limbs using I-scan pressure sensors. A new calibration method was developed for the I-scan system to enable measurement of low interface pressures to an accuracy of +/-2.5 mmHg. The effects of cylinder/limb circumference and pressure garment design on the pressures exerted were established. These measurements confirm the limitations of current pressure garment construction methods used in UK hospitals. A new method for designing pressure garments that will exert specific known pressures is proposed and evaluated for human thighs. Evaluation of the proposed design method is ongoing for other body parts.

  12. Development of the color scale of perceived exertion: preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Thais H S; Tognato, Andrea C; Nakamura, Priscila M; Queiroga, Marcos R; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Gleber; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    This study developed a Color Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE-color scale) and assessed its concurrent and construct validity in adult women. One hundred participants (18-77 years), who were habitual exercisers, associated colors with verbal anchors of the Borg RPE scale (RPE-Borg scale) for RPE-color scale development. For RPE-color scale validation, 12 Young (M = 21.7 yr., SD = 1.5) and 10 Older (M = 60.3 yr., SD = 3.5) adult women performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill and reported perceived exertion in both RPE-color and RPE-Borg scales. In the Young group, the RPE-color scale was significantly associated with heart rate and oxygen consumption, having strong correlations with the RPE-Borg scale. In the Older group, the RPE-color scale was significantly associated with heart rate, having moderate to high correlations with the RPE-Borg scale. The RPE-color scale demonstrated concurrent and construct validity in the Young women, as well as construct validity in Older adults.

  13. Respiratory illness caused by overheating of polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Froneberg, B; Johnson, P L; Landrigan, P J

    1982-01-01

    On 9 August 1979, 62 (30.8%) of 201 workers and one of 60 management personnel in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabricating plant developed acute upper and lower respiratory irritation, headache, nausea, and fainting. All were taken to hospital; none died. Sixty of the patients were women. Interviews two weeks later with 57 affected and 14 unaffected workers disclosed that illness had followed exposure to fumes from an overheated (362 degrees C) PVC extruding machine. Fumes were emitted from 1100 until 1150; cases occurred from 1100 until late afternoon. All workers who became ill worked west of the overheated extruder, and the affected manager had visited that area. The earliest cases occurred closest to the machine, and incidence decreased (from 53.3% to 15.4%) with distance westward. This pattern was consistent with plant ventilation. Incidence rates in men and women did not differ (p greater than 0.1). At two and 14 weeks, pulmonary function testing of workers with persistent pulmonary symptoms showed abnormalities in 13 of 16 and in 9 of 11 respectively; the group with persistent symptoms contained an excess of non-smokers and of those with previous respiratory illnesses. One kilogram of PVC heated to 300 degrees C releases an estimated 12.9 g of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 4.9 g of carbon monoxide (CO). We attributed the outbreak to exposure to toxic HCl and CO and rejected the hypothesis of mass psychogenic illness. PMID:7093150

  14. Explanatory Models for Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  15. Women living with environmental illness.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea; Keddy, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    We used a case study approach to explore the experiences of 4 women who live with environmental illness (EI). From the unstructured interviews we found a variety of themes that pointed to the complexity of EI and its severe impact on the lives of these women, their families, and their significant others. The methodology was guided by an ecofeminist approach, which enabled a critical analysis of the data to move beyond the personal to the broader sociopolitical forces shaping society. We identified the following themes from the women's stories: indirect exposure to incitants through people with whom these women come in close physical contact; the phenomenon of burden of proof, meaning that these women are forced to explain and legitimize their illness on a continuous basis; taking refuge from a hostile environment in social isolation to a more controlled environment, not as a matter of choice, but because of the severity of the illness; and, finally, a change in value system was integral to the entire process of living with EI.

  16. Delirium in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Slooter, A J C; Van De Leur, R R; Zaal, I J

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence.

  17. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Methods Using Williams and Folland’s model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1) vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1). Results At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01) and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01) than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02). Conclusion Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise. PMID:28257486

  18. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered.

  19. The use of subjective rating of exertion in Ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, P

    2002-01-01

    In Ergonomics, the use of psychophysical methods for subjectively evaluating work tasks and determining acceptable loads has become more common. Daily activities at the work site are studied not only with physiological methods but also with perceptual estimation and production methods. The psychophysical methods are of special interest in field studies of short-term work tasks for which valid physiological measurements are difficult to obtain. The perceived exertion, difficulty and fatigue that a person experiences in a certain work situation is an important sign of a real or objective load. Measurement of the physical load with physiological parameters is not sufficient since it does not take into consideration the particular difficulty of the performance or the capacity of the individual. It is often difficult from technical and biomechanical analyses to understand the seriousness of a difficulty that a person experiences. Physiological determinations give important information, but they may be insufficient due to the technical problems in obtaining relevant but simple measurements for short-term activities or activities involving special movement patterns. Perceptual estimations using Borg's scales give important information because the severity of a task's difficulty depends on the individual doing the work. Observation is the most simple and used means to assess job demands. Other evaluations integrating observation are the followings: indirect estimation of energy expenditure based on prediction equations or direct measurement of oxygen consumption; measurements of forces, angles and biomechanical parameters; measurements of physiological and neurophysiological parameters during tasks. It is recommended that determinations of performances of occupational activities assess rating of perceived exertion and integrate these measurements of intensity levels with those of activity's type, duration and frequency. A better estimate of the degree of physical activity

  20. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  1. [Vulnerability to environmental heat among persons with mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Vida, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This review is intended to alert health professionals to the particular vulnerability of persons with mental health problems or taking certain medications to heat-related illness, a threat that is increasing due to climate change. It reviews epidemiology, physiology and clinical features of heat-related illness. For acute medical management, it refers readers to existing guidelines and recommendations. It reviews risk and protective factors. Finally, it presents preventive strategies that may help reduce the impact of heat-related illness in this population.

  2. Simultaneous Multiple Control Force Exertion Capabilities of Males and Females versus Helicopter Control Force Design Limits,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    percent) than for collective inputs ( typically 20-35 percent). Substantial proportions of the subjects (approximately 50 percent of the males and more ...nearly 86 percent of the females performed one or more exertions below the design limit. The exertions of 28.6 percent of the females were below the pedal...design limit for more than one-half of the 16 exertions they performed; 75 percent of the exertions by 6 of the 63 females were below design-limit

  3. Human heat adaptation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation.

  4. Heat strain during explosive ordnance disposal.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian B; Rojek, Amanda M; Hunt, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    Bomb technicians perform their work while encapsulated in explosive ordnance disposal suits. Designed primarily for safety, these suits have an unintended consequence of impairing the body's natural mechanisms for heat dissipation. Consequently, bomb technicians are known to experience symptoms of heat illness while performing their work. This research provides the first field based analysis of heat strain in bomb technicians. Six participants undertook simulated operational tasks across 2 days of variable climate. All subjects demonstrated high levels of heat strain as evidenced by elevated heart rate, core body temperature, and physiological strain index. Participants also reported signs and symptoms associated with heat illness. These results were exacerbated by more intense physical activity despite being undertaken in a cooler environment. The universal experience of heat strain in this sample has significant implications for the health of bomb technicians and additional research examining methods to improve temperature regulation and performance is warranted.

  5. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  6. [Family and chronic paediatric illness].

    PubMed

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, M

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric illnesses are always a family problem. Hospitalization, treatments and their long term consequences constitute a challenge for the family. In this paper, we describe the structural, procedural and emotional alterations that affect the family dynamic. We argue that the child should be treated within the family context and propose a multi-dimensional intervention model centered on the family's singularities and specific needs, the support available in their environment, the development of capacities and resilience, and also the organization of user-centered services that are coordinated with all the services provided by the community.

  7. [Pets for the mentally ill].

    PubMed

    Jonas, C; Feline, A

    1981-07-01

    After studying the historical importance of the domestic animal through the ages and the role of the "pet" animal in the contemporary world, the authors present an analysis of the literature dealing with the function of the animal in child development and the use of animals as therapeutic "tools". The author's then consider, based on a series of observations, the relationship certain mentally ill patients may establish with one or several pet animals and the significance this object relation may have for the patient : animals become invested as counter depressive or delusional objects, auxiliary means for identification and projection, symbiotic relationship, as well as encouraging feeling of security and responsibility.

  8. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  9. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  10. Seizures in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Ch'ang, J; Claassen, J

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill patients with seizures are either admitted to the intensive care unit because of uncontrolled seizures requiring aggressive treatment or are admitted for other reasons and develop seizures secondarily. These patients may have multiorgan failure and severe metabolic and electrolyte disarrangements, and may require complex medication regimens and interventions. Seizures can be seen as a result of an acute systemic illness, a primary neurologic pathology, or a medication side-effect and can present in a wide array of symptoms from convulsive activity, subtle twitching, to lethargy. In this population, untreated isolated seizures can quickly escalate to generalized convulsive status epilepticus or, more frequently, nonconvulsive status epileptics, which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Status epilepticus (SE) arises from a failure of inhibitory mechanisms and an enhancement of excitatory pathways causing permanent neuronal injury and other systemic sequelae. Carrying a high 30-day mortality rate, SE can be very difficult to treat in this complex setting, and a portion of these patients will become refractory, requiring narcotics and anesthetic medications. The most significant factor in successfully treating status epilepticus is initiating antiepileptic drugs as soon as possible, thus attentiveness and recognition of this disease are critical.

  11. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS).

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS "attacks" that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man's seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur-although rarely-in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina.

  12. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist.

    PubMed

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health.

  13. FMRI reveals abnormal central processing of sensory and pain stimuli in ill Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Gandhi, Parina; Goyal, Aman; Jiang, Lei; Fang, Yan; Ouyang, Luo; Ganji, Sandeepkumar; Buhner, David; Ringe, Wendy; Spence, Jeffrey; Biggs, Melanie; Briggs, Richard; Haley, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Many veterans chronically ill from the 1991 Gulf War exhibit symptoms of altered sensation, including chronic pain. In this study of 55 veterans of a Construction Battalion previously examined in 1995-1996 and 1997-1998, brain activation to innocuous and noxious heat stimuli was assessed in 2008-2009 with a quantitative sensory testing fMRI protocol in control veterans and groups representing three syndrome variants. Testing outside the scanner revealed no significant differences in warm detection or heat pain threshold among the four groups. In the fMRI study, Syndrome 1 and Syndrome 2, but not Syndrome 3, exhibited hypo-activation to innocuous heat and hyper-activation to noxious heat stimuli compared to controls. The results indicate abnormal central processing of sensory and painful stimuli in 2 of 3 variants of Gulf War illness and call for a more comprehensive study with a larger, representative sample of veterans.

  14. Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert-based competition.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Crockford, Michael J; Moore, Jonathan P; Walsh, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    C T amb. Preventing exertional heat illnesses and optimising performance outcomes in ultra-endurance runners may occur with exposure to at least 2 h of exercise-heat stress on at least two occasions in the days leading up to multi-stage ultra-marathon competition in the heat.

  15. Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness.

    PubMed

    Manderscheid, Ronald W; Ryff, Carol D; Freeman, Elsie J; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Dhingra, Satvinder; Strine, Tara W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  16. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  17. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX. PMID:26184238

  18. Respiratory and leg muscles perceived exertion during exercise at altitude.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G

    2011-07-31

    We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.

  19. Resveratrol exerts pharmacological preconditioning by activating PGC-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2008-11-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol phytoalexin abundantly found in grape skins and in wines, is currently the focus of intense research as a pharmacological preconditioning agent in kidney, heart, and brain from ischemic injury. However, the exact molecular mechanism of RSV preconditioning remains obscure. The data from current studies indicate that pharmacological preconditioning with RSV were attributed to its role as intracellular antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent, its ability to induce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, its ability to induce angiogenesis, and its ability to increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that owns mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidation, growth factor signaling regulation, and angiogenesis activities. And, almost all the signaling pathways activated by RVS involve in PGC-1alpha activity. Moreover, it has been proofed that RVS could mediate an increase PGC-1alpha activity. These significant conditions support the hypothesis that RSV exerts pharmacological preconditioning by activating PGC-1alpha. Attempts to confirm this hypothesis will provide new directions in the study of pharmaceutical preconditioning and the development of new treatment approaches for reducing the extent of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  20. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Attila; Tóth, Balázs I.; Borbíró, István; Sugawara, Koji; Szöllõsi, Attila G.; Czifra, Gabriella; Pál, Balázs; Ambrus, Lídia; Kloepper, Jennifer; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Picardo, Mauro; Voets, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Paus, Ralf; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels. Activation of TRPV4 interfered with the prolipogenic ERK1/2 MAPK pathway and resulted in the downregulation of nuclear receptor interacting protein-1 (NRIP1), which influences glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby inhibiting sebocyte lipogenesis. CBD also exerted complex antiinflammatory actions that were coupled to A2a adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) and inhibition of the NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25061872

  1. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Attila; Tóth, Balázs I; Borbíró, István; Sugawara, Koji; Szöllõsi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Pál, Balázs; Ambrus, Lídia; Kloepper, Jennifer; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Picardo, Mauro; Voets, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C; Paus, Ralf; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels. Activation of TRPV4 interfered with the prolipogenic ERK1/2 MAPK pathway and resulted in the downregulation of nuclear receptor interacting protein-1 (NRIP1), which influences glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby inhibiting sebocyte lipogenesis. CBD also exerted complex antiinflammatory actions that were coupled to A2a adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) and inhibition of the NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward; Geraghty, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9’s role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR. PMID:26284919

  3. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  4. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or...

  5. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or...

  6. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or...

  7. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or...

  8. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or...

  9. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  10. Liver Illness and Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Girard, Murielle; Jacques, Jérémie; Nubukpo, Philippe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders are usually more exposed to multiple somatic illnesses, including liver diseases. Specific links are established between psychiatric disorders and alcohol hepatitis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in the population as a whole, and specifically in drug abusers. Metabolic syndrome criteria, and associated steatosis or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) are frequent in patients with chronic psychiatric disorders under psychotropic drugs, and should be screened. Some psychiatric medications, such as neuroleptics, mood stabilizers, and a few antidepressants, are often associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In patients with advanced chronic liver diseases, the prescription of some specific psychiatric treatments should be avoided. Psychiatric disorders can be a limiting factor in the decision-making and following up for liver transplantation. PMID:28123443

  11. Social networks and neurological illness.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Amar; Luke, Douglas A; Lang, Catherine E; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2016-10-01

    Every patient is embedded in a social network of interpersonal connections that influence health outcomes. Neurologists routinely need to engage with a patient's family and friends due to the nature of the illness and its social sequelae. Social isolation is a potent determinant of poor health and neurobiological changes, and its effects can be comparable to those of traditional risk factors. It would seem reasonable, therefore, to map and follow the personal networks of neurology patients. This approach reveals influential people, their habits, and linkage patterns that could facilitate or limit health behaviours. Personal network information can be particularly valuable to enhance risk factor management, medication adherence, and functional recovery. Here, we propose an agenda for research and clinical practice that includes mapping the networks of patients with diverse neurological disorders, evaluating the impact of the networks on patient outcomes, and testing network interventions.

  12. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  13. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  14. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations.

  15. Transfusion therapy in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tai-Tsung

    2008-04-01

    Critically ill children in pediatric intensive care units are commonly indicated for blood transfusion due to many reasons. Children are quite different from adults during growth and development, and that should be taken into consideration. It is very difficult to establish a universal transfusion guideline for critically ill children, especially preterm neonates. Treating underlying disease and targeted replacement therapy are the most effective approaches. Red blood cells are the first choice for replacement therapy in decompensated anemic patients. The critical hemoglobin concentration may be higher in critically ill children for many reasons. Whole blood is used only in the following conditions or diseases: (1) exchange transfusion; (2) after cardiopulmonary bypass; (3) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; (4) massive transfusion, especially in multiple component deficiency. The characteristics of hemorrhagic diseases are so varied that their therapy should depend on the specific needs associated with the underlying disease. In general, platelet transfusion is not needed when a patient has platelet count greater than 10,000/mm3 and is without active bleeding, platelet functional deficiency or other risk factors such as sepsis. Patients with risk factors or age less than 4 months should be taken into special consideration, and the critical thrombocyte level will be raised. Platelet transfusion is not recommended in patients with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopenia due to acceleration of platelet destruction without active bleeding or life-threatening hemorrhage. There are many kinds of plasma-derived products, and recombinant factors are commonly used for hemorrhagic patients due to coagulation factor deficiency depending on the characteristics of the diseases. The most effective way to correct disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is to treat the underlying disease. Anticoagulant therapy is very important; heparin is the most common

  16. Effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Killen, L G; Green, J M; O'Neal, E K; McIntosh, J R; Hornsby, J; Coates, T E

    2013-03-01

    This study examined effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following 30 min constant-load cycling. Individuals (n = 15) of varying aerobic fitness completed a [Formula: see text] max trial and two 30 min cycling bouts (double-blind, counterbalanced) following ingestion of 6 mL/kg of caffeine or matched placebo. RPE overall, legs and breathing were estimated every 5 min and session RPE was estimated 30 min post-exercise using the OMNI pictorial scale. Session RPE for caffeine and placebo trails were compared using paired t test. Between-trial comparisons of HR, RPE overall, RPE legs and RPE breathing were analyzed using an independent 2 (trial) × 6 (time point) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each dependent variable. Caffeine resulted in a significantly lower session RPE (p < 0.05) for caffeine (6.1 ± 2.2) versus placebo (6.8 ± 2.1). Acute perceptual responses were significantly lower for caffeine for RPE overall (15, 20, 25, and 30 min), RPE breathing (15, 20, 25, and 30 min) and RPE legs (20 and 30 min). Survey responses post-exercise revealed greater feelings of nervousness, tremors, restlessness and stomach distress following caffeine versus placebo. Blunted acute RPE and survey responses suggest participants responded to caffeine ingestion. Caffeine decreased acute RPE during exercise which could partially account for lower session RPE responses. However, decreased session RPE could also reveal a latent analgesic affect of caffeine extending into recovery. Extending the understanding of session RPE could benefit coaches in avoiding overtraining when adjusting training programs.

  17. Perceived exertion responses to changing resistance training programming variables.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Daniel J; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of intensity (%1 repetition maximum [1RM]), tonnage (sets × repetitions × load), rate of fatigue (percentage decrement in repetitions from set to set), work rate (total tonnage per unit of time), rest interval (time between sets), time under load, and session duration on session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE: Borg's CR-10 scale). Here, participants performed a standardized lifting session of 5 exercises (bench press, leg press, lat pulldown, leg curl, and triceps pushdown) as either: (a) 3 sets × 8 repetitions × 3-minute recovery at 70% 1RM, (b) 3 sets × 14 repetitions × 3-minute recovery at 40% 1RM, (c) 3 sets × MNR (maximum number of repetitions) × 1-minute recovery at 70% 1RM, (d) 3 sets × MNR × 3-minute recovery at 70% 1RM, (e) 3 sets × MNR × 1-minute recovery at 40% 1RM, or (f) 3 sets × MNR × 3-minute recovery at 40% 1RM. The sRPE for session A (4 ± 1) was significantly higher than session B (2.5 ± 1), despite matched tonnage. Protocols involving MNR showed no significant difference in sRPE. Work rate was the only variable to significantly relate with sRPE (r = 0.45). Additionally, sRPE at 15-minute postexercise (5 ± 2) was not different to 30-minute postexercise (5 ± 2). In resistance training with matched tonnage and rest duration between sets, sRPE increases with intensity. In sets to volitional failure, sRPE is likely to be similar, regardless of intensity or rest duration between sets.

  18. Grip forces exerted against stationary held objects during gravity changes.

    PubMed

    Hermsdörfer, J; Marquardt, C; Philipp, J; Zierdt, A; Nowak, D; Glasauer, S; Mai, N

    1999-05-01

    In the present study, grip forces exerted against a stationary held object were recorded during parabolic flights. Such flight maneuvers induce changes of gravity with two periods of hypergravity, associated with a doubling of normal terrestrial gravity, and a 20 s period of microgravity. Accordingly, the object's weight changed from being twice as heavy as normally experienced and weightless. Grip-force recordings demonstrated that force control was seriously disturbed only during the first experience of hyper- and microgravity, with the grip forces being exceedingly high and yielding irregular fluctuations. Thereafter, however, grip force traces were smooth, the force level was scaled to the object's weight under normal and high-G conditions, and the grip force changed in parallel with the weight during the transitions between hyper- and microgravity. In addition, during weightlessness, when virtually no force was necessary to stabilize the object, a low force was established, which obviously represented a reasonable safety margin for preventing possible perturbations. Thus, all relevant aspects of grip-force control observed under normal gravity conditions were preserved during gravity changes induced by parabolic flights. Hence, grip-force control mechanisms were able to cope with hyper- and microgravity, either by incorporating relevant receptor signals, such as those originating from cutaneous mechanoreceptors, or by adequately including perceived gravity signals into control programs. However, the adaptation to the uncommon gravity conditions was not complete following the first experience; finer tuning of the control system to both hyper- and microgravity continued over the measurement interval, presumably with a longer observation period being necessary before a stable performance can be reached.

  19. Illness narratives of people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and "freedom" in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  20. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    PubMed Central

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets. PMID:27914194

  1. Exertional Heatstroke: An International Perspective. An Introduction: The Role of Exercise in the Etiology of Exertional Heatstroke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-12

    responses of heat loss mechanisms ( sweating and vasodilation or skin blood flow). Human eccrine sweat glands behave physiologically and...mean = 41.1 C, n=8) and all were sweating profusely. So subtle are the evolving symptoms of hyperthermia that only three had signs of restlessness...loss. Under these conditions, heatstroke can occur even in the presence of profusc sweating . In such circumstances, the longer that exercise and the

  2. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  3. Camelid heat stress: 15 cases (2003–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Piper L.; Gold, Jenifer R.; Russell, Karen E.; Schulz, Kara L.; Porter, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    This case series describes novel findings associated with heat stress in 15 cases in South American camelids that had no pre-existing illnesses and which had clinical signs of illness after exposure to a warm environment. Novel findings include decreased packed cell volume and albumin concentration and mild spinal axonal degeneration. Heat stress should be considered in weak camelids with a history of hyperthermia. PMID:25320390

  4. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  5. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Promotes Process Outgrowth in Neural Cells and Exerts Protective Effects against Tropodithietic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Heidi; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a plethora of bioactive substances, including drug candidates of potential value in the field of neuroscience. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), produced by several algae, corals and higher plants, on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a and OLN-93 cells as model system for nerve cells and glia, respectively. Additionally, the protective capabilities of DMSP were assessed in cells treated with tropodithietic acid (TDA), a marine metabolite produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria. Both cell lines, N2a and OLN-93, have previously been shown to be a sensitive target for the action of TDA, and cytotoxic effects of TDA have been connected to the induction of oxidative stress. Our data shows that DMSP promotes process outgrowth and microtubule reorganization and bundling, accompanied by an increase in alpha-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, DMSP was able to prevent the cytotoxic effects exerted by TDA, including the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of heat shock protein Hsp32 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our study points to the conclusion that DMSP provides an antioxidant defense, not only in algae but also in mammalian neural cells. PMID:27164116

  6. Resilience in the Chronic Illness Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralik, Debbie; van Loon, Antonia; Visentin, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article advances the consideration of resilience as an important concept in the transitional process of learning to adapt to life with chronic illness, by utilising interactional processes inherent in participatory action research (PAR) that may strengthen a person's capacity to live well with long-term illness. Sharing experiences and…

  7. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  8. A Behavioral Response to Illness. N106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Judith

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Response to Illness," a required course offered in the second quarter of a two-year college nursing program, which examines physiological and psychosocial changes in patients from the framework of illness as a stressor, and the possible behavioral responses to such stress. The course focuses on behavioral…

  9. Chronic Illness and the Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Stephanie A.; Morgan, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the hidden epidemic in higher education. They describe the stigma of chronic illness and argue that the invisibility of chronic illness may elicit particularly problematic responses from others, especially when faculty work in a context where people are expected to be highly productive and have unlimited…

  10. Foodborne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW While the American food supply is among the safest in the ... deaths. The chart below includes foodborne disease-causing organisms that frequently cause illness in the United States. ...

  11. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  12. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  13. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  14. Managerial practices regarding workers working while ill.

    PubMed

    Norton, D M; Brown, L G; Frick, R; Carpenter, L R; Green, A L; Tobin-D'Angelo, M; Reimann, D W; Blade, H; Nicholas, D C; Egan, J S; Everstine, K

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that handling of food by an ill worker is a cause of almost half of all restaurant-related outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code contains recommendations for food service establishments, including restaurants, aimed at reducing the frequency with which food workers work while ill. However, few data exist on the extent to which restaurants have implemented FDA recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study on the topic of ill food workers in restaurants. We interviewed restaurant managers (n = 426) in nine EHS-Net sites. We found that many restaurant policies concerning ill food workers do not follow FDA recommendations. For example, one-third of the restaurants' policies did not specifically address the circumstances under which ill food workers should be excluded from work (i.e., not be allowed to work). We also found that, in many restaurants, managers are not actively involved in decisions about whether ill food workers should work. Additionally, almost 70% of managers said they had worked while ill; 10% said they had worked while having nausea or "stomach flu," possible symptoms of foodborne illness. When asked why they had worked when ill, a third of the managers said they felt obligated to work or their strong work ethic compelled them to work. Other reasons cited were that the restaurant was understaffed or no one was available to replace them (26%), they felt that their symptoms were mild or not contagious (19%), they had special managerial responsibilities that no one else could fulfill (11%), there was non-food handling work they could do (7%), and they would not get paid if they did not work or the restaurant had no sick leave policy (5%). Data from this study can inform future research and help policy makers target interventions designed to reduce the frequency with which food workers work while ill.

  15. Musicians' illness perceptions of musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    Kok, Laura M; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; Fiocco, Marta; Kaptein, Ad A; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the views of people about their illness, i.e., illness perceptions, determine coping strategies, and outcome. Previous research suggests a higher prevalence and a different perception of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. The aim of this study is to compare illness perceptions related to musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. In this cross-sectional study, students from three music academies (n = 345) and one university medical center (n = 2,870) in the Netherlands received an electronic questionnaire concerning questions on sociodemographic characteristics, use of musical instruments, occurrence and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints in the past year, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Baseline and B-IPQ scores were compared between the samples by means of t tests, chi-square tests, and regression models to adjust for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three music academy students and 494 medical students completed the questionnaire (response rates, 25.5 and 17.6 %, respectively). Seventy-four (89 %) persons in the musician group and 382 (78 %) persons in the nonmusician group reported occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints during the last 12 months. Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the B-IPQ scores of the domains consequences (my illness is a serious condition), concern (I am extremely concerned about my illness), and emotions (my illness makes me scared) were significantly higher among musicians, whereas personal control (there is little I can do to improve my illness), identity (number of symptoms patient sees as part of illness) were not significantly different. Music academy students had a significant more positive score on treatment control. Music academy students report more negative perceptions of their musculoskeletal complaints compared to medical students. Although some selection bias is

  16. Jacob Aall's illness and death.

    PubMed

    Hem, Erlend; Stubhaug, Arild

    2013-12-10

    Jacob Aall (1773-1844) was one of Norway's most notable nation-builders at the beginning of the 19th century. He owned and operated a large ironworks, participated in political life and was an historian, writer and translator of sagas. In the last 15 years of his life, he suffered greatly from pain attacks. After his death, an autopsy was performed and the doctors found a stone the size of a hen's egg, which weighed more than 90 g. The stone was variously described as a kidney stone and a bladder stone. Aall had travelled to Copenhagen in 1837 and consulted the Danish doctor Ludvig Levin Jacobson (1783-1843), known for his instrument for crushing bladder stones, a new and revolutionary treatment method. But some disagreement appears to have arisen between them about the treatment. A year later Aall consulted Christen Heiberg (1799-1872), a professor of surgery in Christiania (now Oslo). Heiberg also examined Aall's bladder and found «no cause for alarm». Aall adhered to a strict diet, including drinking an Italian «spa water» daily which he obtained in bottles from Trieste. However, he showed no great improvement. To all appearances, it was kidney stones that afflicted him in his last years and which finally ended his life. This article gives a full portrayal of the course of his illness with an authentic description from an age when there were no treatment possibilities for kidney stones.

  17. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  19. Strategies and factors associated with preparing for competing in the heat: a cohort study at the 2015 IAAF World Athletics Championships

    PubMed Central

    Périard, Julien D; Racinais, Sébastien; Dahlström, Örjan; Spreco, Armin; Bargoria, Victor; Halje, Karin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Assess exertional heat illness (EHI) history and preparedness in athletes competing in a World Athletics Championships under hot/humid conditions and identify the factors associated with preparedness strategies. Methods Of the 207 registered national teams invited to participate in the study, 50 (24%) accepted. The 957 athletes (49% of all 1965 registered) in these teams were invited to complete a precompetition questionnaire evaluating EHI history, heat stress prevention (heat acclimatisation, precooling and hydration) and recovery. Responses from 307 (32%) athletes were separated in field events, sprints, middle-distance and long-distance running, and decathlon/heptathlon for analysis. Results 48% of athletes had previously experienced EHI symptoms and 8.5% had been diagnosed with EHI. 15% heat acclimatised (∼20 days) before the championships. 52% had a precooling strategy, ice slurry ingestion (24%) being the most prevalent and women using it more frequently than men (p=0.005). 96% of athletes had a fluid consumption strategy, which differed between event categories (p<0.001). The most common volumes planned on being consumed were 0.5–1 L (27.2%) and ≥2 L (21.8%), water being the most frequent. 89% of athletes planned on using at least one recovery strategy. Female sex (p=0.024) and a previous EHI diagnosis increased the likelihood of using all 3 prevention strategies (p<0.001). Conclusions At a World Championships with expected hot/humid conditions, less than one-fifth of athletes heat acclimatised, half had a precooling strategy and almost all a hydration plan. Women, and especially athletes with an EHI history, were more predisposed to use a complete heat stress prevention strategy. More information regarding heat acclimatisation should be provided to protect athlete health and optimise performance at major athletics competitions in the heat. PMID:27815238

  20. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  1. Heat Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear up the heat rash?Should I use diaper ointment on my child?What caused my heat rash?Should I stop exercising until the heat rash clears up?What is the best way to prevent heat rash? Last Updated: April 2014 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: ...

  2. New pharmaceuticals reduce cost of illness.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R W

    1986-06-01

    The cost of illness includes not only the funds required to treat illness, but also the effect on the patient's quality of life. Recent concern about rising health costs have focused on the direct expenditures without noting that the cost of illness in terms of mortality and morbidity has declined significantly. Pharmaceuticals have played a major role in reducing the total cost of illness. Several studies of the cost-effectiveness of past introductions of vaccines and pharmaceuticals reveal large cost savings. Although the focus of most studies has been on major advances, the continuing process of less dramatic therapeutic improvements has significantly trimmed the cost of illness. Cost-benefit studies of new drugs or changes in drug use, while more difficult to perform, make it possible to influence the selection of therapy. Since pharmaceuticals represent less than 10% of total treatment costs, reduction in the cost of pharmaceutical products can only have a minor impact on the total cost of illness. Pharmaceuticals can reduce the cost of illness by providing alternative therapies that reduce direct treatment cost or improve the public health.

  3. Preventing injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Angert, David; Schaff, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Wilderness trips have become increasingly popular, especially in the adolescent population. The wilderness can be a source of rejuvenation while being mentally and physically challenging; however, it is also fraught with the potential for injury, illness, and even death. Epidemiologic studies of injuries and illnesses from hikers are not extensive, but there are sufficient data to identify the most common risk factors to offer some strategies for prevention. Many youth will have a medical visit or preparticipation physical assessment before an organized wilderness experience. This article highlights commonly seen wilderness injuries and illnesses and provides guidance for proper planning and problem solving.

  4. Chronic illness in adolescents: a sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1983-01-01

    This article relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. This is an area of controversy: the views of Freidson, Lorber and Robinson are presented as being representative of the dispute. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perception and rules explicit. The concept of the chronically ill adolescent as deviant is descriptive and devoid of value judgment. Only through such rigorous assessment is it possible to gain a realistic understanding of the societal role in the life of the chronically ill adolescent.

  5. Mental illness: media perpetuation of stigma.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Taylor, J

    1995-03-01

    Content analysis of 83 newspaper articles from February 1991 to January 1993 was the chosen method to determine the role of newspapers in the portrayal of the mentally ill. Two emergent themes arose: the closure of a mental health hospital was viewed negatively; and the stereotypical perception of the mentally ill as violent and unpredictable was reinforced. Over the two year period of the study the shift in focus from the ideology of de-institutionalisation, funding issues, crisis and chaos in the mental health hospital eventuated in an emphasis on the negativity associated with mental illness.

  6. Asymmetric Heat Conduction in Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bambi

    2008-12-01

    Heat conduction is an old yet important problem. Since Fourier introduced the law bearing his name two hundred years ago, a first-principle derivation of this law from statistical mechanics is still lacking. Worse still, the validity of this law in low dimensions, and the necessary and sufficient conditions for its validity are still far from clear. In this talk I'll give a review of recent works done on this subject. I'll also report our latest work on asymmetric heat conduction in nonlinear systems. The study of heat condution is not only of theoretical interest but also of practical interest. The study of electric conduction has led to the invention of such important electric devices such as electric diodes and transistors. The study of heat conduction may also lead to the invention of thermal diodes and transistors in the future. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  7. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  8. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance. PMID:27965592

  9. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives.

  10. Mass sociogenic illness--real and imaginary.

    PubMed

    Doyle, C R; Akhtar, J; Mrvos, R; Krenzelok, E P

    2004-04-01

    Mass sociogenic illness is the occurrence of a group of nonspecific physical symptoms for which no organic cause can be determined and is often transmitted by 'line of sight'. The fear of bioterrorism can also lead to panic and produce cases of mass sociogenic illness, in which people develop symptoms in response to an imaginary threat. Poison centers are faced with resolving the dilemma of sociogenic vs poison related symptoms. We report 2 situations of mass sociogenic illnesses involving school age children where multiple victims exhibited similar symptoms prompted by the presence or suggestion of fumes. Symptoms resolved spontaneously. When clusters of unexplained illness occur, a sociogenic etiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis. As fears about bioterrorism increase, the frequency of such incidents and the anxiety generated may increase.

  11. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of

  12. Antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Vassalo, Juliana; Spector, Nelson; de Meis, Ernesto; Soares, Márcio; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis and severe catastrophic cases account for a large morbidly/mortality. Through the connection between the immune, inflammatory and hemostatic systems, it is possible that these antibodies may contribute to the development of organ dysfunction and are associated with poor short and long-term prognoses in critically ill patients. We performed a search of the PubMed/MedLine database for articles written during the period from January 2000 to February 2013 to evaluate the frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients and their impact on the outcomes of these patients. Only eight original studies involving critically ill patients were found. However, the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients seems to be frequent, but more studies are necessary to clarify their pathogenic role and implications for clinical practice. PMID:25028953

  13. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been behaving this way, teachers' or caregivers' perceptions of the problem, and any family history of ... www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/mental-illness-in-children/art-20046577 . Mayo Clinic ...

  14. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model.

  15. [Metabolic emergencies in critically ill cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Hernández-Garay, Marisol; García-Guillén, Francisco J; Correa-García, Paulina; Herrera Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo

    2013-11-01

    Severe metabolic alterations frequently occur in critically ill cancer patients; hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, tumor lysis syndrome, metabolic complications of renal failure and lactic acidosis. Cancer patients with metabolic emergencies should be treated in a medical oncology department or an intensive care unit. Most metabolic emergencies can be treated properly when they are identified early. The clinician should consider that the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients depends on their primary disease, comorbidities and organ failure.

  16. Mental illness and the dental patient.

    PubMed

    Longley, Alison J; Doyle, Patricia E

    2003-01-01

    Virtually every oral health care practice includes patients with mental illness. This continuing education (CE) course gives a practical overview of common psychiatric disorders, their effects on oral and dental health, and conditions associated with mental illness that affect oral health treatment. Following a brief description of mental illnesses, information on conducting a mental health interview and making a psychiatric referral are provided. Oral health problems associated with mental illness and factors affecting treatment delivery are discussed, as well as ideas for avoiding potentially dangerous medication interactions and working with fearful, suspicious, or cognitively impaired patients. Ways in which dental hygienists can work with case managers to provide much needed oral health care to patients whose illness is severe or chronic are covered. Examples are given of work with clients illustrating principles described in the text. The purpose of this course is to provide oral health personnel the information they need to knowledgeably care for patients who have mental illness. Successful completion will be assessed with a post-test to be completed after reading the article in its entirety, including figures and case-reports. Two continuing education course credit hours will be awarded following successful completion of the post-test.

  17. Diarrheal illnesses: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ocfemia, Cheryl Bañez; Taylor, Candace

    2004-04-01

    Diarrheal illnesses remain among the leading causes of morbidity in the United States. Approximately five million diarrheal cases occur annually (Chin, 2000; Ostroff & Leduc, 2000), with an estimated incidence of one diarrheal episode per person per year (Aranda-Michel & Giannella, 1999). Though the causes of diarrheal illnesses vary, infectious agents account for a majority of cases (Aranda-Michel & Giannella, 1999; Chin, 2000; Ostroff & Leduc, 2000). Most diarrhea-causing infectious agents are transmitted through food, water, or person-to-person via the fecal-oral route and are the cause of numerous diarrheal outbreaks. The risk for exposure to such pathogens within the general population is universal; however, persons in pediatric, geriatric, and other immunocompromised populations are at increased risk for subsequent illness and complications (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001; Ostroff & Leduc, 2000). Moreover, many persons with diarrheal illness do not seek medical care and self-treat with over-the-counter antidiarrheal agents, which have potentially serious side effects among high-risk individuals. The public health impact of diarrheal illness is apparent and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, timely notification of illness with public health implications, and coordination between healthcare professionals and public health officials to prevent and control the spread of infection.

  18. High Altitude Illnesses in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High Altitude Headache (HAH), Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) are all high altitude related illnesses in order of severity from the mildly symptomatic to the potentially life-threatening. High altitude illnesses occur when travelers ascend to high altitudes too rapidly, which does not allow enough time for the body to adjust. Slow graded ascent to the desired altitude and termination of ascent if AMS symptoms present are keys to illness prevention. Early recognition and rapid intervention of AMS can halt progression to HACE. Pharmacologic prophylaxis with acetazolamide is a proven method of prevention and treatment of high altitude illness. If prevention fails then treatment modalities include supplemental oxygen, supportive therapy, hyperbaric treatment, and dexamethasone. Given the multitude of visitors to the mountains of Hawai‘i, high altitude illness will continue to persist as a prevalent local condition. This paper will emphasize the prevention and early diagnosis of AMS so that the illness does not progress to HACE. PMID:25478293

  19. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  20. Anxiety in Medically Ill Children/Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or in the hospital, a threatening environment, as a result of other genetic and psychological factors, or as a combination of all these factors. Additionally, exposure to physical pain early in one’s life and or frequent painful medical procedures are correlated with fear and anxiety during subsequent procedures and treatments and may lead to medical nonadherence and other comorbidities. Anxiety disorders can have serious consequences in children/adolescents with chronic and or life limiting medical illnesses. Therefore, proper identification and treatment of anxiety disorders is necessary and may improve not only psychiatric symptoms but also physical symptoms. Behavioral and cognitive methods as well as psychotropic medications are used to treat anxiety disorders in pediatric patients. We will review current treatments for anxiety in children/adolescents with medical illnesses and propose future research directions. PMID:20721908

  1. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress Learn some tips to protect workers including: acclimatization, rest breaks, and fluid recommendations. NIOSH Workplace Solution: ... Blog: Adjusting to Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes ...

  2. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber ... Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ...

  3. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  4. The effects of running in an exerted state on lower extremity kinematics and joint timing.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Tracy A; Davis, Irene S; Hamill, Joseph

    2010-11-16

    Runners rarely run to the point of maximum fatigue or exhaustion. However, no studies have investigated how the level of exertion associated with a typical running session influences running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that running in an exerted state had on the kinematics and joint timing within the lower extremity of uninjured, recreational runners. Twenty runners performed a prolonged treadmill run at a self-selected pace that best represented each runner's typical training run. The run ended based on heart rate or perceived exertion levels that represented a typical training run. Kinematics and joint timing between the foot, knee, and hip were analyzed at the beginning and end of the run. Increases were primarily observed at the end of the run for the peak angles, excursions, and peak velocities of eversion, tibial internal rotation, and knee internal rotation. No differences were observed for knee flexion, hip internal rotation, or any joint timing relationship. Based on these results, runners demonstrated subtle changes in kinematics in the exerted state, most notably for eversion. However, runners were able to maintain joint timing throughout the leg, which may have been a function of the knee. Thus, uninjured runners normally experience small alterations in kinematics when running with typical levels of exertion. It remains unknown how higher levels of exertion influence kinematics with joint timing and the association with running injuries, or how populations with running injuries respond to typical levels of exertion.

  5. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation.

  6. COPD Patients with Exertional Desaturation Are at a Higher Risk of Rapid Decline in Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Yong Bum; Park, So Young; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung-Goo; Hyun, In-Gyu; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A recent study demonstrated that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the study was limited by its method used to detect exertional desaturation. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether exertional desaturation assessed using nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) can predict rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 patients with moderate to very severe COPD who underwent the 6MWT. Exertional desaturation was defined as a nadir SpO2 of <90% during the 6MWT. Rapid decline was defined as an annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50 mL. Patients were divided into rapid decliner (n=26) and non-rapid decliner (n=31) groups. Results A statistically significant difference in exertional desaturation was observed between rapid decliners and non-rapid decliners (17 vs. 8, p=0.003). No differences were found between the groups for age, smoking status, BODE index, and FEV1. Multivariate analysis showed that exertional desaturation was a significant independent predictor of rapid decline in patients with COPD (relative risk, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.4; p=0.004). Conclusion This study supports that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid lung function decline in male patients with COPD. PMID:24719141

  7. Measured energy expenditure in critically ill infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Chwals, W J; Lally, K P; Woolley, M M; Mahour, G H

    1988-05-01

    Technological limitations have impeded accurate energy expenditure assessment in critically ill infants and young children. Instead, a predicted energy expenditure (PEE) is derived based on weight, heat loss, activity, growth requirements, and degree of stress. This study compared actual measured energy expenditure (MEE) with conventional predicted values in 20 critically ill infants and children using a validated metabolic cart designed for use in this age group. All patients were studied either within 4 days of major surgery or during an acute disease process necessitating intensive care. All were severely stressed clinically and were studied while mechanically ventilated in a temperature-controlled environment. The study interval ranged from 1 to 12 hr and averaged 4 hr after a stabilization period of 30 min. The mean MEE was significantly lower than the mean PEE (52.2 +/- 16 kcal/kg/day vs 101.8 +/- 17 kcal/kg/day, P less than 0.001) with a mean MEE/PEE of 52.6 +/- 17% (range 26 to 92%). In a subgroup of 7 paralyzed patients, the mean MEE was significantly lower than in the 13 nonparalyzed patients when compared with PEE and predicted basal metabolic rate (PBMR). The coefficient of variance, conventionally recognized to be approximately 15% for PEE, averaged 6.35% for MEE in this study. These data indicate that if PEE is used as the sole guide for caloric repletion in the stressed infant or child, these patients will be substantially overfed.

  8. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  9. Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. PMID:26510676

  10. Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity.

  11. The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    8217 AFIT/CI/NR 86- 81D . TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a...34I i. ’’ , ’."k’ ’* The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill by Bruce Jaeger Captain, USAF 1986 NTIS GRA...Carolina State University I I p -. ~~ h~~~A k. .IbJ .~ .2~ ~or The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill by

  12. Health Update: Care of Ill Children in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses differing opinions about (1) exclusion of ill children from child care; (2) the meaning of fever; (3) appropriate care for ill children; (4) transfer of information about ill children in child care; and (5) written policies and procedures for care of ill children. (NH)

  13. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  14. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  15. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests excess illness in Persian Gulf War veterans (GWV) can be explained in part by exposure of GWV to organophosphate and carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEis), including pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides, and nerve agents. Evidence germane to the relation of AChEis to illness in GWV was assessed. Many epidemiological studies reported a link between AChEi exposure and chronic symptoms in GWV. The link is buttressed by a dose–response relation of PB pill number to chronic symptoms in GWV and by a relation between avidity of AChEi clearance and illness, based on genotypes, concentrations, and activity levels of enzymes that detoxify AChEis. Triangulating evidence derives from studies linking occupational exposure to AChEis to chronic health symptoms that mirror those of ill GWV. Illness is again linked to lower activity of AChEi detoxifying enzymes and genotypes conferring less-avid AChEi detoxification. AChEi exposure satisfies Hill's presumptive criteria for causality, suggesting this exposure may be causally linked to excess health problems in GWV. PMID:18332428

  17. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as "the forgotten electrolyte", is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis.

  18. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  19. Illness perception in tuberculosis by implementation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - a TBNET study.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Dragica P; Bursuc, Bogdana N; Bulajic, Milica V; Solovic, Ivan; Kruczak, Katarzyna; Duarte, Raquel; Sorete-Arbore, Adriana; Raileanu, Marinela; Strambu, Irina; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Adzic, Tatjana; Lazic, Zorica; Zlatev-Ionescu, Maria; Bhagyabati, Sorokhaibam; Singh, Irom Ibungo; Srivastava, Govind Narayan

    2014-01-01

    How patients relate to the experience of their illness has a direct impact over their behavior. We aimed to assess illness perception in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) by means of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) in correlation with patients' demographic features and clinical TB score. Our observational questionnaire based study included series of consecutive TB patients enrolled in several countries from October 2008 to January 2011 with 167 valid questionnaires analyzed. Each BIPQ item assessed one dimension of illness perceptions like the consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, identity, coherence, emotional representation and concern. An open question referred to the main causes of TB in each patient's opinion. The over-all BIPQ score (36.25 ± 11.054) was in concordance with the clinical TB score (p ≤ 0.001). TB patients believed in the treatment (the highest item-related score for treatment control) but were unsure about the illness identity. Illness understanding and the clinical TB score were negatively correlated (p < 0.01). Only 25% of the participants stated bacteria or TB contact as the first ranked cause of the illness. For routine clinical practice implementation of the BIPQ is convenient for obtaining fast and easy assessment of illness perception with potential utility in intervention design. This time saving effective personalized approach may improve communication with TB patients and contribute to better behavioral strategies in disease control.

  20. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  1. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  2. The Chronic Illness Initiative: Supporting College Students with Chronic Illness Needs at DePaul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Lynn; Marshall, Olena

    2008-01-01

    College students with chronic illness find it difficult to succeed in traditional degree programs due to disruptions caused by relapses and unpredictable waxing and waning symptoms. College disability offices are often unable to help, both because their standard supports are not appropriate and because students with chronic illness frequently do…

  3. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  4. Children's understanding of illness: the generalization of illness according to exemplar.

    PubMed

    Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn; Bati, Mariangela

    2003-11-01

    Using children's naïve theory of biology as a framework, this study examined children's illness conceptions. Children (aged 4-11), presented with one of four exemplars (child, dog, duck or rosebush) suffering an imaginary illness, were asked whether various entities from six categories, biological and non-biological, could also be afflicted. The children's illness generalizations differentiated between all of the categories; they not only distinguished between living and non-living things, but also recognized biological subkinds. Furthermore, the children's generalizations were significantly greater to the category of exemplar, indicating that human prototypicality is not the sole basis for children's generalizations. It is concluded that children's understanding of illness is mediated by a naïve biological theory that facilitates their systematic predictions of susceptibility to illness.

  5. Illness as a condition of our existence in the world: on illness and pathic existence.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Elin Håkonsen; Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2012-06-01

    This paper seeks to find different ways of addressing illness as an experience essential to the understanding of being a human being. As a conceptual point of departure, we suggest the notion of 'pathic existence' as developed by the German physician and philosopher Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957). Through an analysis of his conceptualisation of the pathic and of pathic categories, we demonstrate how this auxiliary typology may be of help in unveiling different modes of ill-being, or Kranksein. Furthermore, we show how illness plays a paradigmatic role in this type of existence. We discuss how von Weizsäcker's claim of illness as "a way of being human" indicates how such a view of the illness existence both differs from and touches upon other streams of thought within the philosophy of medicine and medical ethics. Finally, we highlight some of the normative implications emerging from this perspective of relevance in today's medicine.

  6. Chiari-associated exertional, cough, and sneeze headache responsive to medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M Gabriella; Formisano, Rita; Colonnese, Claudio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Benign exertional headache is coded as a separate entity within the International Headache Society's classification system, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this clinical headache subtype are unknown and possibly are similar to those generating migraine. Coexistence of migraine and benign exertional headache in the same patient is not unusual, and antimigraine pharmacologic treatments are often effective in both headache types. Regardless, optimal management mandates that the clinician exclude any intracranial or systemic disease that could mimic "primary" exertional headache. The same holds for primary headaches induced by coughing or sneezing; congenital malformations or neoplasms, particularly within the posterior fossa, are not rare in these patients. The neurologic examination may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect the offending lesion. We describe a patient with migraine without aura and exertional secondary headache due to Chiari malformation type I whose headaches responded to treatment with propranolol and indomethacin.

  7. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    PubMed Central

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods. PMID:3261989

  8. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  9. Diagnosis of Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R C

    1997-01-01

    The first case reports of human illness caused by exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida toxin(s) acquired outside of a laboratory are reported. Though Pfiesteria, a toxin-forming dinoflagellate, is responsible for killing billions of fish in estuaries in North Carolina, its role in human illness has remained controversial, in part due to lack of identification of the toxin. A recent fish kill in the rivers of the lower Eastern Shore has permitted careful investigation and identification of a distinct clinical syndrome resulting from exposure to the Pfiesteria toxin--Pfiesteria human illness syndrome (PHIS). Patients have memory losses, cognitive impairments, headaches, skin rashes, abdominal pain, secretory diarrhea, conjunctival irritation, and bronchospasm. Not all patients have all elements of the syndrome.

  10. [Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness].

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.

  11. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  12. Brainstorm: occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Grosskopf, Shawna; Yang, Ke

    2010-07-01

    Although economists have analyzed earnings, unemployment, and labor force participation for those with bipolar illness, occupational choice has yet to be explored. Psychological and medical studies often suggest an association between bipolar illness and creative achievement, but they tend to focus on eminent figures, case studies, or small samples. We seek to examine occupational creativity of non-eminent individuals with bipolar disorder. We use Epidemiologic Catchment Area data to estimate a multinomial logit model matched to an index of occupational creativity. Those with bipolar illness appear to be disproportionately concentrated in the most creative occupational category. Nonparametric kernel density estimates reveal that the densities of the occupational creativity variable for the bipolar and non-bipolar individuals significantly differ in the ECA data, and suggest that the probability of engaging in creative activities on the job is higher for bipolar than non-bipolar workers.

  13. Review of Critical Illness Myopathy and Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Starane; Batra, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and neuropathy are underdiagnosed conditions within the intensive care setting and contribute to prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator wean failure and ultimately lead to significant morbidity and mortality. These conditions are often further subdivided into CIM, critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), or the combination—critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM, along with diagnostic considerations such as detailed clinical examination, electrophysiological studies, and histopathological review of muscle biopsy specimens. We also review current available treatments and prognosis. Increased awareness and early recognition of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM in the intensive care unit setting may lead to earlier treatments and rehabilitation, improving patient outcomes. PMID:28042370

  14. Diastolic dysfunction in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J C; López, P; Mancebo, J; Zapata, L

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients. It is characterized by a progressive deterioration of the relaxation and the compliance of the left ventricle. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is a cornerstone in its diagnosis. Acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertensive crisis is the most frequent presentation of diastolic dysfunction critically ill patients. Myocardial ischemia, sepsis and weaning failure from mechanical ventilation also may be associated with diastolic dysfunction. The treatment is based on the reduction of pulmonary congestion and left ventricular filling pressures. Some studies have found a prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in some diseases such as sepsis. The present review aims to analyze thoroughly the echocardiographic diagnosis and the most frequent scenarios in critically ill patients in whom diastolic dysfunction plays a key role.

  15. Cultural diversity: family path through terminal illness.

    PubMed

    Baider, L

    2012-04-01

    In trying to comprehend a culture and its ways of structuring the world, much can be learned from addressing the manner in which intimate family relationships are ordered and family crises channeled toward care. A family's experience with illness cannot be considered in isolation from the cultural milieu in which it occurs. Family adaptation to cancer diagnosis is a continuous motion between many critical strata--a fragile oscillation between hope and desperation. Processes for optimal functioning and the well-being of members are seen to vary over time, as challenges unfold and families evolve across the life cycle and illness trajectory. The manner in which the healthcare system and family manage illness and terminal care is a particularly helpful window into the cultural, religious and traditional values of every family in a particular society.

  16. Bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; de Lara, Tais Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990’s. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560

  17. Sex-dependent mental illnesses and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Akiko; Rappeneau, Virginie

    2017-03-06

    The prevalence of some mental illnesses, including major depression, anxiety-, trauma-, and stress-related disorders, some substance use disorders, and later onset of schizophrenia, is higher in women than men. While the higher prevalence in women could simply be explained by socioeconomic determinants, such as income, social status, or cultural background, extensive studies show sex differences in biological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological factors contribute to females' vulnerability to these mental illnesses. In this review, we focus on estrogens, chronic stress, and neurotoxicity from behavioral, pharmacological, biological, and molecular perspectives to delineate the sex differences in these mental illnesses. Particularly, we investigate a possible role of mitochondrial function, including biosynthesis, bioenergetics, and signaling, on mediating the sex differences in psychiatric disorders.

  18. Witchcraft illness in the Evuzok nosological system.

    PubMed

    Guimera, L M

    1978-12-01

    The Evuzok nosological system is structured with respect to two frames of reference, one designating illness as an empirical reality (descriptive subsystem), the other designating it according to its religious, magical and social significance (etiological subsystem). The articulation of these two subsystems is brought about in the process of diagnosis. Having examined this system as a whole, the author devotes his attention to a particular set of etiological categories, those which associate illness with witchcraft (nocturnal illnesses). He attempts to define their distinctive traits and, from this, to determine their common elemental structure. This study, based on a number of years of fieldwork, is part of an ongoing research program on African folk-medicine pursued by the Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative of the Université de Paris X.

  19. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    PubMed

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  20. Gastrointestinal illness on passenger cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Merson, M H; Hughes, J M; Wood, B T; Yashuk, J C; Wells, J G

    1975-02-17

    Medical logs of 2,445 cruises taken by 38 vessels over a 20-month period beginning Jan 1, 1972, were reviewed. On 92% of the cruises, the recorded incidence of gastrointestinal illness was 1% or less; on 2% of cruises, it was 5% or greater. The actual incidence of gastrointestinal illness determined by a questionnaire survey of passengers sailing on nine cruises was found to be at least four times as high as that recorded in the medical logs. Although the cause of the illnesses was not known, there was evidence that transmission took place aboard ship. A survey of food-handling practices and water systems aboard selected ships demonstrated a significant potential for transmission of foodborne and waterborne disease.

  1. Association of infant alimentary and respiratory illness with parental smoking and other environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Ogston, S A; Florey, C D; Walker, C H

    1987-01-01

    The incidences of alimentary and respiratory illnesses were observed during the first year of life in 1565 infants born in Tayside during 1980. Significant correlations (p less than 0.05) were found between each of these outcomes and parental smoking, maternal age, social class, method of infant feeding, and heating fuels. Multiple logistic regression indicated a significant independent effect of parental smoking was related separately to alimentary and to respiratory outcomes, the relative risks being of similar strength. PMID:3668455

  2. Army dependents: childhood illness and health provision.

    PubMed

    Giles, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    This small qualitative study explored attitudes of a group of Army wives to childhood illness and their expectations of health provision. The author's practice serves a population mainly comprising of Army dependents where GP attendance rates are double the national average. Two focus groups were organised using health visitor groups attached to the practice. Transcripts were examined to produce a framework for semi-structured interviews with nine mothers, who were selected by purposive sampling. Mothers were asked about symptoms, coping, social problems, decisions to take action, health provision and support. Data were analysed and sorted, using the principles of grounded theory, into four main themes: attitude to child's illness, coping, Army culture and accessibility to health services. Many Army wives appear to suffer from high levels of stress. It seemed that the coping ability of the mother was affected by the constant turbulence and isolation of Army life. While mothers displayed a knowledge of common illnesses, they had fears of the unknown and of life threatening illnesses. They sometimes managed childhood illness at home owing to lack of transport. The author concluded that some Army wives suffer from stress and lack confidence in their mothering skills when their children are ill, which may be due, in part, to the constant cycle of postings and isolation from family and services. They need easily accessible health facilities and information regarding these services. Communication should be encouraged between civilian services and the Army. It appears that Army dependents require more support from their GP practice than the average civilian family, offering opportunity for nurses and health visitors to provide alternative and proactive services.

  3. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  4. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed.

  5. Monitoring Illness in a Closed Work Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-20

    AD-AlS 1#17 NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA F/S 5/2 MONITORING ILLNESS MN A CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT .(Ul OCT Al L HERNANSEN, V M PUGH...CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT Larry Hermansen* and William M. Pugh* Naval Health Research Center P.O. Box 85122 San Diego, California 92138 Accesion Yor NUIS 0R...monitoring outpatient illness rates in a closed work environment . This paper presents additional procedures which were used to further organize and

  6. Giving nutrition support to critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs.

  7. [Stigmatizing of persons with a mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-04-18

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.

  8. Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Bailey, Donald E.; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Thygeson, N. Marcus; Docherty, Sharron L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness as a novel framework for conceptualizing, studying, and providing care. This framework is an application of the Adaptive Leadership Framework developed by Heifetz and colleagues for business. Our framework views health care as a complex adaptive system and addresses the intersection at which people with chronic illness interface with the care system. We shift focus from symptoms to symptoms and the challenges they pose for patients/families. We describe how providers and patients/families might collaborate to create shared meaning of symptoms and challenges to coproduce appropriate approaches to care. PMID:25647829

  9. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J

    2016-06-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key pointsIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus.In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorptionIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate.

  10. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D.; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key points In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus. In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorption In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate PMID:27274672

  11. Assessment of decision-making performance and in-game physical exertion of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Paul; O'Brien, Brendan; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Harvey, Jack; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in-game physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires. Fifteen Australian football umpires (Mage = 36, s = 13.5 years; Mgames umpired = 235.2, s = 151.3) volunteered to participate in the study. During five competitive Australian football pre-season games, measures of in-game physical exertion (blood lactate levels, global positioning system [GPS]) and decision-making performance (video-based test) were obtained. There were no significant correlations between physical exertion in a particular quarter and decision-making performance in either the same quarter or any other quarter. Video-based decision-making performance was effected by time in game χ(2)(3) = 24.24, P = 0.001, with Quarter 4 performance significantly better than both Quarter 2 and Quarter 3. In-game physical exertion (blood lactate) significantly decreased over the course of the game χ(2)(3) = 11.58, P = 0.009. Results indicate no definable link between in-game physical exertion and decision-making performance. It is, however, presumed that decision-making performance may be affected by the time or context of the game. Future research is warranted to explore the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance to potentially inform Australian football umpire training programmes that replicate in-game physical and decision-making demands.

  12. Cough, exertional, and sexual headaches: an analysis of 72 benign and symptomatic cases.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Iglesias, F; Oterino, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; Berciano, J

    1996-06-01

    We analyzed our experience with cough, exertional, and vascular sexual headaches, evaluated the interrelationships among them, and examined the possible symptomatic cases. Seventy-two patients consulted us because of headaches precipitated by coughing (n = 30), physical exercise (n = 28), or sexual excitement (n = 14). Thirty (42%) were symptomatic. The 17 cases of symptomatic cough headache were secondary to Chiari type I malformation, while the majority of cases of symptomatic exertional headaches and the only case of symptomatic sexual headache were secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the precipitant was the same, benign and symptomatic headaches differed in several clinical aspects, such as age at onset, associated clinical manifestations, or response to pharmacologic treatment. Although sharing some properties, such as male predominance, benign cough headache and benign exertional headache are clinically separate conditions. Benign cough headache began significantly later, 43 years on average, than benign exertional headache. By contrast, our findings suggest that there is a close relationship between benign exertional headache and benign vascular sexual headache. We conclude that benign and symptomatic cough headaches are different from both benign and symptomatic exertional and sexual headaches.

  13. Quadriceps activation and perceived exertion during a high intensity, steady state contraction to failure.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Gear, W S

    2000-04-01

    The ability to sustain a high-intensity, steady-state muscle contraction may have differential effects on neuromuscular activation and perceived exertion. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in neuromuscular activation and perceived exertion at a near-maximal steady-state contraction of the quadriceps in healthy men. Seventeen healthy, college-aged male volunteers were studied during isometric contractions equivalent to 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Perceived exertion was measured with a modified category-ratio scale (CR-10). The CR-10 scale was anchored with one high anchor at 100% MVC and one low anchor at 10% MVC. Subjects then performed an 80% MVC for as long as they could sustain it. Subjects were asked to rate the feelings in their quadriceps every 5 s during the contraction. The results demonstrated significant increases in neuromuscular activation of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles (P < 0.05) during the 80% MVC, but there were no significant muscle by time interactions. The results also demonstrated a significant increase (P < 0.05) in perceived exertion during the 80% MVC. Neuromuscular activation of both muscles, and perceived exertion, were found to increase in linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic (P < 0.05) trends. Alterations in motor unit discharge properties or impairments in muscle fiber membrane excitability may account for nonlinear increases in vastii muscle activation and perceived exertion.

  14. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.

  15. Gendering psychosis: the illness of Zelda Fitzgerald.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric textbooks tend to describe psychosis as it is experienced by men. The well-documented illness of Zelda Fitzgerald illustrates the feminine side of psychosis. The distinctive features of Zelda's illness--its specific precipitants, the timing of its onset, the discontinuities in its course, the pronounced mood swings, the preservation of intellect and of agency, the maintenance of human ties, the association of flare-ups with immune and hormonal changes, the responsiveness to treatment, the lifelong creativity and productivity--show the female side of psychotic illness, one that is rarely described in diagnostic manuals. This paper relies on Nancy Milford's biography of Zelda, as well as on several other biographical sources and, using Zelda's own words and the words of her husband and friends, allows entry into a feminine world of psychosis, not encountered in textbooks. The expression of psychotic illness varies from person to person, its exact shape depending on many factors, most of them still undetermined, but gender is a critically important core component of variance.

  16. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  17. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation.

  18. Managing Chronic Illness in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dorothy Botsch; Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    An important but often overlooked member of a student's health care team is the teacher. This text covers ways to help teachers and administrators understand the special needs of students suffering from a chronic illness, how to recognize health events that may interfere with learning, and suggestions for appropriate interventions. The book opens…

  19. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  1. Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-09

    Unione Matematica Italiana. 4. The parameter choice problem in linear regularization: a mathematical introduction, in "Ill-Posed Problems: Theory and...vector b which is generally unavailable (see [21], [22]). Kdckler [33] has shon however that in the case of Tikhonov regularization for matrices it may

  2. Chronic Illness in Adolescents: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Tomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility, and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perceptions and rules explicit. (JAC)

  3. Caring for a critically ill Amish newborn.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article describes a neonatal nurse's personal experience in working with a critically ill newborn and his Amish family in a newborn intensive care unit in Montana. The description includes a cultural experience with an Amish family with application to Madeleine Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

  4. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  5. Palliative Care for the Seriously Ill

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amy S.; Morrison, R. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care is the interdisciplinary specialty focused on improving quality of life for persons with serious illness and their families. Over the past decade,1 the field has undergone substantial growth and change, including an expanded evidence base, new care-delivery models, innovative payment mechanisms, and increasing public and professional awareness. PMID:26287850

  6. The Victimization of the Homeless Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    An indication of the failure of the mental health system in this country is reflected in the increasingly visible homeless population, many of whom suffer from some form of untreated mental illness. Public policy priorities have shifted from proactive, treatment-oriented policies to reactive, punitive institutionalization. The…

  7. Foodborne illness: implications for the future.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Many outbreaks of foodborne illness, even those involving newly recognized pathogens, could have been avoided if certain precautions had been taken. This article will draw on existing information to suggest realistic measures that, if implemented, are most likely to avert or diminish the impact of new foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:9366609

  8. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  9. Blood-Injury-Illness Phobia: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveys empirical literature pertaining to phobias of blood, injury, or illness (BII); defines BII phobia as selectively associated with vasovagal fainting response upon exposure to phobic stimuli. Presents clinical, demographic, and etiological information from 15 BII phobics and suggests that BII phobia warrants diagnostic category separate from…

  10. Pain Control Research in the Terminally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    Two main goals in the care of the terminally ill are to optimize the quality of their remaining life and to alleviate the distress of their survivors. Pain control research has contributed significantly to meeting those goals, but continued progress is needed in both basic studies and expanded applications of new techniques. (Author/NB)

  11. Fatally Ill Children's Comprehension of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walco, Gary A.; And Others

    Currently, professionals disagree about whether children should be informed about their illnesses and the possibility of their deaths. Some experts feel discussion of these subjects would only upset the children while others feel this knowledge is the children's right and will allay the children's anxieties. What is needed but not available is…

  12. I'll Never Do It Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Elayne

    2009-01-01

    While online teaching may be the wave of the future, it is not for this author, who writes "I trained for it, I tried it, and I'll never do it again." An instructor with years of experience successfully teaching in collegiate classrooms, she says online teaching does not compare. So she will chalk up her first and only venture to experience and…

  13. Remote Intimations: Performance Art and Environmental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Stephen; Laffin, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores and documents the work of leading Midwestern performance artist Julie Laffin, in the years since she developed a serious form of environmental illness (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity). This condition has effectively rendered her housebound and unable to appear in public, so that her previous live performance practice--which…

  14. Mechanisms influencing bone metabolism in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Daci, E; van Cromphaut, S; Bouillon, R

    2002-01-01

    Bone is permanently renewed by the coordinated actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts, which model and remodel bone structure during growth and adult life. The origin of osteoblastic cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and bone-lining cells) differs from that of osteoclasts, but both cell groups communicate with each other using cytokines and cell-cell contact as to optimally maintain bone homeostasis. This communication in many ways uses the same players as the communication between cells in the immune system. During acute life-threatening illness massive bone resorption is the rule, while bone formation is suppressed. During chronic illness, the balance between bone formation and bone resorption also shifts, frequently resulting in decreased bone mass and density. Several factors may contribute to the osteopenia that accompanies chronic illness, the most important being undernutrition and low body weight, inflammatory cytokines, disorders of the neuroendocrine axis (growth hormone/IGF-1 disturbances, thyroid and gonadal deficiency), immobilization, and the long-term use of glucocorticoids. Their combined effects not only influence the generation and activity of all bone cells involved, but probably also regulate their life span by apoptotic mechanisms. Osteopenia or even osteoporosis and bone fragility, and before puberty also decreased linear growth and lower peak bone mass are therefore frequent consequences of chronic illnesses.

  15. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  16. Pediatric Social Illnesses and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Robert L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the concept of "pediatric social illness" (child abuse, neglect, accidents, ingestions, and failure to thrive) in a sample of 94 Black families whose children were admitted to Children's Hospital Medical Center (Boston). Explores economic, social, and environmental causes of the phenomenon. (GC)

  17. Illness Cognition and Responses to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, George D.

    Along with the current epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has come what some have called an epidemic of fear. Two studies were conducted to explore lay responses to AIDS from the perspective of recent research on how lay people process illness information. The research examines the cognitive organization of disease information…

  18. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  19. Acronyms Gone Wild! ILL Flirts with NCIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Al

    2008-01-01

    While the traditional uses of InterLibrary Loan (ILL) can be cumbersome, much of the work is now done electronically. Google and WorldCat can tell patrons which libraries in their areas owns the the titles they want, but they cannot always tell patrons whether there is a copy on the shelf available for loan. Several ILS vendors and OCLC are…

  20. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Exertional Heat Stroke - Return to Duty/Return to Play: Conference Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    contrast the encephalopathy of EHS and concussive injury. 3. Determine whether medications that improve auto- nomic instability in the acute management of...Bouchama A, Al-Sedairy S, et al. Concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 receptors in heatstroke and heatstress. Crit. Care Med

  1. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  2. The nephroprotection exerted by curcumin in maleate-induced renal damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial fission and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Del Carmen Cárdenas-Aguayo, María; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Reyes, José L; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-11-12

    We have previously reported that the antioxidant curcumin exerts nephroprotection in maleate-induced renal damage, a model associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms involved in curcumin protective effect were not explored, to assess this issue, curcumin was administered daily by gavage (150 mg/kg) five days before a single maleate (400 mg/kg)-injection. Curcumin prevented maleate-induced proteinuria, increased heat shock protein of 72 KDa (Hsp72) expression, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Maleate-induced oxidative stress by increasing the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) and mitochondrial complex I-dependent superoxide anion (O2 •(-) ) production, formation of malondialdehyde (MDA)- and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT)-protein adducts and protein carbonylation and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. Curcumin treatment ameliorated all the above-described changes. The maleate-induced epithelial damage, evaluated by claudin-2 and occludin expressions, was ameliorated by curcumin. It was found that maleate-induced oxidative stress promoted mitochondrial fission, evaluated by dynamin-related protein (Drp) 1 and fission (Fis) 1 expressions and by electron-microscopy, and autophagy, evaluated by phospho-threonine 389 from p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p-Thr 389 p70S6K), beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II), autophagy-related gene 5 and 12 (Atg5-Atg12) complex, p62, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-2 expressions in isolated proximal tubules and by electron-microscopy and LC-3 immunolabelling. Curcumin treatment ameliorated these changes. Moreover, curcumin alone induced autophagy in proximal tubules. These data suggest that the nephroprotective effect exerted by curcumin in maleate-induced renal damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial fission and autophagy. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):686-702, 2016.

  3. Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Basile, John R.; Binmadi, Nada O.; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Paoli, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks. PMID:23675320

  4. Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Basile, John R; Binmadi, Nada O; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Paoli, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  5. State regulations for nursing home residents with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Street, Debra; Molinari, Victor; Cohen, Donna

    2013-08-01

    To identify state regulations for nursing home residents with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). We reviewed state regulations for policies relating to nursing home residents with SMI, and conducted interviews with expert stakeholders. A framework for analyzing state regulations was generated by identifying four discrete categories: States with specific mental illness regulations, Alzheimer's or dementia regulations, minor mention of mental illness, and no mention of mental illness. A large majority of the states have little or no mention of mental illness in their nursing home regulations, suggesting limited attention to all forms of mental illness by most state regulatory bodies.

  6. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  7. The chronic illness problem inventory: problem-oriented psychosocial assessment of patients with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Naliboff, B D; Heinrich, R L; Schag, C C

    1984-01-01

    Two studies are presented which describe the development of a problem-oriented psychosocial screening instrument for use in health care settings. Reliability and validity data are presented on the Chronic Illness Problem Inventory (CIPI) which demonstrate its ability to document accurately patient's specific problems in areas of physical limitations, psychosocial functioning, health care behaviors and marital adjustment. A study is also presented which compares the problems of patients with three distinct chronic illnesses: pain, obesity, and respiratory ailments. Results indicate a significantly greater severity of problems for pain patients and especially patients with multiple pain complaints. Problem areas common to all three illness groups are discussed in the context of providing better comprehensive treatment for chronically ill patients.

  8. Ineffective chronic illness behaviour in a patient with long-term non-psychotic psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Tilburg, Willem

    2010-11-29

    This case report offers a different perspective on a patient with a long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorder that was difficult to specify. The patient, a man in his 50s, was unable to profit from outpatient treatment and became increasingly dependent on mental healthcare - which could not be understood based on his history and psychiatric symptoms alone. By separating symptoms from illness behaviour, the negative course of this patient's treatment is analysed. Focusing on ineffective chronic illness behaviour by the patient, and mutual ineffective treatment behaviour by the clinicians, it becomes clear that basic requirements of effective treatment were unmet. By making a proper diagnosis, clarifying expectations and offering a suitable therapy, ineffective illness behaviour was diminished and this 'difficult' case became much easier for both patient and clinicians. The illness behaviour framework offers a useful, systematic tool to analyse difficulties between patients and clinicians beyond psychiatric symptoms or explanations.

  9. Exertional responses to sprint interval training: a comparison of 30-sec. and 60-sec. conditions.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sprint interval training on rating of perceived exertion. 20 healthy participants (11 men, 9 women; M age = 23 yr.) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test and two high-intensity interval training cycling sessions. Each session utilized the same work-to-rest ratio (1:1), work intensity (90% max), recovery intensity (10% work intensity), and session duration (16 min.). Trials differed on duration of the interval segment, with a 30-sec. trial and a 60-sec. trial. Sessions required the same amount of total work over the duration of the trial. Rating of perceived exertion assessed before, during, and after exercise were higher for the 60-sec. trial than the 30-sec. trial despite no difference in total work. High intensity interval training trials utilizing the same total external work but differing in interval length produced different ratings of perceived exertion. Perceived exertion is significantly higher for sessions of exercise that utilize longer work intervals. These findings suggest that shorter intervals may produce more favorable exertional responses that could positively affect future behavior.

  10. Critical illness neuromyopathy and the role of physical therapy and rehabilitation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Eddy

    2012-06-01

    Neuromuscular complications of critical illness are common, and can be severe and persistent, with substantial impairment in physical function and long-term quality of life. While the etiology of ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is multifactorial, both direct (ie, critical illness neuromyopathy) and indirect (ie, immobility/disuse atrophy) complications of critical illness contribute to it. ICUAW is often difficult to diagnose clinically during the acute phase of critical illness, due to the frequent use of deep sedation, encephalopathy, and delirium, which impair physical examination for patient strength. Despite its limitations, physical examination is the starting point for identification of ICUAW in the cooperative patient. Given the relative cost, invasiveness, and need for expertise, electrophysiological testing and/or muscle biopsy may be reserved for weak patients with slower than expected improvement on serial clinical examination. Currently there are limited interventions to prevent or treat ICUAW, with tight glycemic control having the greatest supporting evidence. There is a paucity of clinical trials evaluating the specific role of early rehabilitation in the chronic critically ill. However, a number of studies support the benefit of intensive rehabilitation in patients receiving chronic mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, emerging data demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and potential benefit of early mobility in critically ill patients, with the need for multicenter randomized trials to evaluate potential short- and long-term benefits of early mobility, including the potential to prevent the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and/or the development of chronic critical illness, and other novel treatments on patients' muscle strength, physical function, quality of life, and resource utilization. Finally, the barriers, feasibility, and efficacy of early mobility in both medical and other ICUs (eg, surgical, neurological, pediatric), as well as in

  11. Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Rivest, S. (2009). Regulation of innate immune responses in the brain. Nature Reviews. Immunology , 9(6), 429-439. doi:10.1038/nri2565 40 13. Sullivan K...15. SUBJECT TERMS- Gulf War Illness, consortium, CNS, innate immunity, cytokines, MRI neuroimaging, cognitive deficits, pesticides, DFP, sarin 16...researchers in the 10 funded sub-studies. 2. KEYWORDS: Provide a brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Gulf War Illness, consortium, CNS, innate

  12. Illness-induced anorexia and its possible function in the caterpillar, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Fidler, Tara L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2007-03-01

    Although many animals exhibit illness-induced anorexia when immune-challenged, the adaptive significance of this behavior remains unclear. Injecting Manduca sexta larvae (caterpillars) with live bacteria (Serratia marcescens), heat-killed bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharides resulted in a decline in feeding, demonstrating illness-induced anorexia in this species. We used M. sexta to test four commonly suggested adaptive functions for illness-induced anorexia. (1) Food deprivation did not reduce the iron content of the hemolymph. (2) Immune-challenged M. sexta were not more likely to move to a different part of the plant. Therefore, the decline in feeding is unlikely to be an adaptive response allowing the animal to move away from a patch of contaminated food. (3) M. sexta force-fed S. marcescens bacteria were not more susceptible to a S. marcescens systemic infection than were M. sexta force-fed nutrient broth. (4) Force-feeding infected M. sexta during illness-induced anorexia did not increase mortality and short-term food deprivation did not enhance survival. However, force-feeding M. sexta with a high lipid diet (linseed oil and water) resulted in an increase in mortality when challenged with S. marcescens. Force-feeding sucrose or water did not reduce resistance. Force-feeding a high lipid diet into healthy animals did not reduce weight gain, suggesting that it was not toxic. We hypothesize that there is a conflict between lipid metabolism and immune function, although whether this conflict has played a role in the evolution of illness-induced anorexia remains unknown. The adaptive function of illness-induced anorexia requires further study in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  13. Knowledge and awareness of heat-related morbidity among adult recreational endurance athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Alexander, Melannie S.; Lorentzson, Lauren; McCarty, Frances A.

    2010-07-01

    Adults have been increasingly motivated to compete in recreational endurance sports events. Amateurs may lack a complete understanding of recommended strategies for handling heat and humidity, making heat-related illnesses increasingly possible. This is compounded by global climate change and increasing average surface and air temperatures, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America that have hosted most events to date. We conducted an on-line, secure survey at the 2nd Annual ING Georgia Marathon and Half-Marathon in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2008. We included previously validated questions on participant socio-demographics, training locations, and knowledge and awareness of heat-related illnesses. Participants were aware of heat illnesses, and of heat stroke as a serious form of heat stress. However, the majority, across age and gender, did not understand the potential severity of heat stroke. Furthermore, 1-in-5 participants did not understand the concept of heat stress as a form of heat-related illness, and how heat stress may result from buildup of muscle-generated heat in the body. Adult recreational endurance athletes are another susceptible, vulnerable population sub-group for applied research and public health educational interventions, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America.

  14. Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.

  15. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  16. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  17. Heat: not black, not white. It's gray!!!

    PubMed

    Singh, Laxmi Prabha; Kapoor, Medha; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    Heat-related illness (HRI) is a broad term that includes clinical conditions ranging from heat cramps and syncope to heat exhaustion and heatstroke, which may result in death. HRIs are one of the major causes of death worldwide and continue to increase in severity with the rise in global temperature. The identification and estimation of heat-related morbidity and mortality is a major challenge. Heat stress manifests itself into respiratory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders, leading to the attribution of the deaths caused by heat stress to these disorders. Although HRIs affect mankind in general, certain occupational workers such as soldiers and athletes are more prone. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies have been employed to combat HRIs. Despite this, heat exposure results in significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, complete understanding of HRIs at physiological as well as molecular level is required to facilitate design of more efficient preventive and treatment strategies. The impact of heat on mankind is not just restricted to HRIs. Heat treatment, i.e., thermotherapy, has been used extensively since ancient times for relieving pain, making heat a two-edged sword. This review attempts to summarize various HRIs, their physiological and molecular basis, and the state-of-the-art techniques/research initiatives to combat the same. It also illustrates the application of thermotherapy as a means for improving quality of life and morbidity associated with several disease conditions such as fibromyalgia syndrome, heart diseases, cancer, chronic pain, and depression.

  18. Ways of increasing muscular activity by means of isometric muscular exertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalik, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of isometric muscular exertion on the human body was investigated by having subjects perform basic movements in a sitting position in the conventional manner with additional muscle tension at 50% maximum force and at maximum force. The pulse, arterial pressure, skin temperature, respiratory rate, minute respiratory volume and electrical activity of the muscles involved were all measured. Performance of the exercises with maximum muscular exertion for 20 sec and without movement resulted in the greatest shifts in these indices; in the conventional manner substantial changes did not occur; and with isometric muscular exertion with 50% maximum force with and without movement, optimal functional shifts resulted. The latter is recommended for use in industrial exercises for the prevention of hypodynamia. Ten exercises are suggested.

  19. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  20. Many with Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163139.html Many With Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests Rates of infection ... Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- People with severe mental illness are only slightly more likely to be screened ...

  1. Most Smokers with Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163073.html Most Smokers With Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit But psychiatrists and ... News) -- Nearly six in 10 Americans with severe mental illness smoke, and a new study suggests that many ...

  2. Health and illness in Pilipino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J N

    1983-12-01

    Immigrants from the Philippines and their descendants have tripled in number in the United States in the past 18 years. They will soon surpass 1 million and will be the largest Asian-American minority. Pilipinos in the United States are diverse ethnolinguistically and in important socioeconomic and demographic dimensions, one notable feature being the high level of education and professional status of many recent immigrants. Nevertheless, the health and disease circumstances of Pilipinos and their views of health and illness have been surprisingly neglected to date. A generic principle fundamental to their view of health is that concerning the maintenance of balance. Proper social and cultural conduct is believed to help avoid health problems. Imbalances in social relations, infringements of cultural norms or adverse interaction with the supernatural are linked, in the cultural logic of Pilipinos, to illness.

  3. Generalized anxiety disorder and medical illness.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often have multiple medical comorbidities. The adrenal system and genetic and environmental factors are intermediaries between anxiety and medical illnesses such as chronic pain conditions and gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine, and respiratory disorders. Medical disorders associated with anxiety include migraine, rheumatoid arthritis, peptic ulcer disease, irritable bowel syndrome, coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Compared to people with pain conditions without GAD, individuals with pain conditions and GAD experience and register pain differently; they also have increased awareness of symptoms. Comorbid medical illnesses may influence treatment choice for GAD. Treatment of anxiety in young patients with GAD needs to be long-term to decrease vulnerability to medical conditions.

  4. The discovery of drug-induced illness.

    PubMed

    Jick, H

    1977-03-03

    The increased use of drugs (and the concurrent increased risks of drug-induced illness) require definition of relevant research areas and strategy. For established marketed drugs, research needs depend on the magnitudes of risk of an illness from a drug and the base-line risk. With the drug risk high and the base-line risk low, the problem surfaces in premarketing studies or through the epidemic that develops after marketing. If the drug adds slightly to a high base-line risk, the effect is undetectable. When both risks are low, adverse effects can be discovered by chance, but systematic case-referent studies can speed discovery. If both risks are high, clinical trials and nonexperimental studies may be used. With both risks intermediate, systematic evaluations, especially case-referent studies are needed. Newly marketed drugs should be routinely evaluated through compulsory registration and follow-up study of the earliest users.

  5. Nutrition in critical illness: a current conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, L. John; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Critically ill people are unable to eat. What’s the best way to feed them? Nutrition authorities have long recommended providing generous amounts of protein and calories to critically ill patients, either intravenously or through feeding tubes, in order to counteract the catabolic state associated with this condition. In practice, however, patients in modern intensive care units are substantially underfed. Several large randomized clinical trials were recently carried out to determine the clinical implications of this situation. Contradicting decades of physiological, clinical, and observational data, the results of these trials have been claimed to justify the current practice of systematic underfeeding in the intensive care unit. This article explains and suggests how to resolve this conundrum. PMID:27803805

  6. Health and Illness in Pilipino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James N.

    1983-01-01

    Immigrants from the Philippines and their descendants have tripled in number in the United States in the past 18 years. They will soon surpass 1 million and will be the largest Asian-American minority. Pilipinos in the United States are diverse ethnolinguistically and in important socioeconomic and demographic dimensions, one notable feature being the high level of education and professional status of many recent immigrants. Nevertheless, the health and disease circumstances of Pilipinos and their views of health and illness have been surprisingly neglected to date. A generic principle fundamental to their view of health is that concerning the maintenance of balance. Proper social and cultural conduct is believed to help avoid health problems. Imbalances in social relations, infringements of cultural norms or adverse interaction with the supernatural are linked, in the cultural logic of Pilipinos, to illness. PMID:6364569

  7. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Hilary Ea; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns.

  8. Management of critically ill patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Perez, Livier Josefina; Benitez-Lopez, Mario Alberto; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis, such as stress-induced hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, are common complications in patients in the intensive care unit. Patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to hyperglycemia, as well as a higher risk from glucose overcorrection, that may results in severe hypoglycemia. In critically ill patients with DM, it is recommended to maintain a blood glucose range between 140-180 mg/dL. In neurological patients and surgical patients, tighter glycemic control (i.e., 110-140 mg/d) is recommended if hypoglycemia can be properly avoided. There is limited evidence that shows that critically ill diabetic patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin levels above 7% may benefit from looser glycemic control, in order to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and significant glycemic variability. PMID:28344751

  9. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a collegiate soccer player: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Farr, Derek; Selesnick, Harlan

    2008-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition among running athletes. In those who engage in repetitive activity, it can cause severe, debilitating leg pain. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough workup that includes history and physical examination, radiologic studies (x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan), and compartment pressure monitoring. Most patients do not respond well to nonoperative intervention. Fasciotomy provides satisfactory relief of symptoms and helps patients return to their sports. We present the case of a high-level collegiate soccer player with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

  10. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  11. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Giorgi, Ines; Baiardi, Paola; Giuntoli, Laura; Balestroni, Gianluigi; Cerutti, Paola; Manera, Marina; Gabanelli, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Fornara, Roberta; Luisetti, Michela; Omarini, Pierangela; Omarini, Giovanna; Vidotto, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ) assessing patients’ and caregivers’ denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. Patients and methods After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false) was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers) together with the Anxiety–Depression Questionnaire – Reduced form (AD-R), in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω), and test–retest analysis were performed. Results CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α: 0.87–0.96) indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability (r from 0.71 to 0.87). Conclusion The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive–affective elaboration of the illness. PMID:28356745

  11. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture...hyperendemic region and initially are screened for malaria by thick blood smear and, if negative, are tested for LASV. LASV infection is determined by the...display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 07 JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND

  12. Self-Concepts of Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William J.; Zweig, April R.

    1980-01-01

    The performance on the Draw-A-Face Test of fifty-four 3 1/2- to 12-year-old girls and boys, chronically ill with blood disease, were compared with the performance of 115 healthy girls and boys. While sex and age differences were obtained for both groups, few differences were found between the groups. Results were interpreted in terms of coping…

  13. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Gastroenteritis plays a major role in changing the gut microflora. Gut microflora are also known to change with travel, stress and diet changes- factors which...are relevant to GW Veterans. Altered gut flora may be the etiological factor for IBS and GW Illness. Probiotics are living organisms that improve...health by re-establishing a normal gut flora. The overall objective of the study was to determine whether Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align

  14. Extracorporeal Life Support in Critically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become increasingly popular as a salvage strategy for critically ill adults. Major advances in technology and the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that characterized the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic have stimulated renewed interest in the use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to support the respiratory system. Theoretical advantages of ECLS for respiratory failure include the ability to rest the lungs by avoiding injurious mechanical ventilator settings and the potential to facilitate early mobilization, which may be advantageous for bridging to recovery or to lung transplantation. The use of venoarterial ECMO has been expanded and applied to critically ill adults with hemodynamic compromise from a variety of etiologies, beyond postcardiotomy failure. Although technology and general care of the ECLS patient have evolved, ECLS is not without potentially serious complications and remains unproven as a treatment modality. The therapy is now being tested in clinical trials, although numerous questions remain about the application of ECLS and its impact on outcomes in critically ill adults. PMID:25046529

  15. Thyroid function in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita

    2015-10-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and macronutrient restriction, which might be beneficial. Pathogenesis of NTIS in long-term critical illness is more complex and includes suppression of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, accounting for persistently reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone despite low plasma thyroid hormone. In some cases distinguishing between NTIS and severe hypothyroidism, which is a rare primary cause for admission to the ICU, can be difficult. Infusion of hypothalamic-releasing factors can reactivate the thyroid axis in patients with NTIS, inducing an anabolic response. Whether this approach has a clinical benefit in terms of outcome is unknown. In this Series paper, we discuss diagnostic aspects, pathogenesis, and implications of NTIS as well as its distinction from severe, primary thyroid disorders in patients in the ICU.

  16. Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.

  17. Quadratic optimization in ill-posed problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Belgacem, F.; Kaber, S.-M.

    2008-10-01

    Ill-posed quadratic optimization frequently occurs in control and inverse problems and is not covered by the Lax-Milgram-Riesz theory. Typically, small changes in the input data can produce very large oscillations on the output. We investigate the conditions under which the minimum value of the cost function is finite and we explore the 'hidden connection' between the optimization problem and the least-squares method. Eventually, we address some examples coming from optimal control and data completion, showing how relevant our contribution is in the knowledge of what happens for various ill-posed problems. The results we state bring a substantial improvement to the analysis of the regularization methods applied to the ill-posed quadratic optimization problems. Indeed, for the cost quadratic functions bounded from below the Lavrentiev method is just the Tikhonov regularization for the 'hidden least-squares' problem. As a straightforward result, Lavrentiev's regularization exhibits better regularization and convergence results than expected at first glance.

  18. "Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

  19. Behavior of Man in Health and Illness, Nursing 103A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Sandra I.

    A description is provided of a course, "Behavior of Man in Health and Illness," designed to introduce first-year undergraduate nursing students to the theories and concepts related to the health-illness continuum, the stress of illness, and coping theory. The description begins with an overview of course content, followed by information on the…

  20. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered.

  1. Does illness experience influence the recall of medical information?

    PubMed

    Krishnan, B; Glazebrook, C; Smyth, A

    1998-12-01

    Recall of a storyboard description of an unfamiliar illness was assessed in 66 healthy children and 40 children with chronic illness (cystic fibrosis or asthma). A significant interaction between verbal intelligence quotient and illness experience (p < 0.001) suggested that more able sick children may be resistant to learning new medical information.

  2. Chronically Ill Children in America: Background and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The report examines chronic illness in children and considers issues and recommendations for change in public policies and programs affecting chronically ill children and their families. The background chapter notes the significance of the problem, reviews 11 diseases that are representative of the severe chronic illnesses of childhood: juvenile…

  3. Concepts, Structures, and Goals: Redefining Ill-Definedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Collin; Ashley, Kevin D.; Pinkwart, Niels; Aleven, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider prior definitions of the terms "ill-defined domain" and "ill-defined problem". We then present alternate definitions that better support research at the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and Education. In our view both problems and domains are ill-defined when essential concepts, relations, or criteria are un- or…

  4. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  5. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  6. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  7. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  8. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  9. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  10. Psychological impact of illness intrusiveness in epilepsy - comparison of treatments.

    PubMed

    Poochikian-Sarkissian, Sonia; Sidani, Souraya; Wennberg, Richard A; Devins, Gerald M

    2008-03-01

    Chronic illnesses are associated with multiple stressors that compromise quality of life (QOL). Implicit in many of these is the concept of illness intrusiveness, the disruption of lifestyles and activities attributable to constraints imposed by chronic disease and its treatment. This study tested the illness intrusiveness theoretical framework in epilepsy and compared the impact of pharmacological and surgical treatments on illness intrusiveness and QOL. Cross-sectional data compared three epilepsy groups (N = 145): (a) 40 patients admitted for presurgical evaluation to an Epilepsy Monitoring Unit; (b) 52 patients treated pharmacologically; and (c) 53 post-surgical patients. Illness intrusiveness differed significantly across epilepsy patients with the differences primarily related to seizure control. Illness intrusiveness varied inversely with seizure control (p < .05). Seizure freedom, whether achieved by surgical or pharmacological treatments, was associated with maximal reduction of illness intrusiveness. Increased illness intrusiveness correlated significantly with decreased QOL and increased depressive symptoms. Perceived control over diverse life domains correlated positively with QOL and psychosocial outcomes. Path analysis supported the validity of the illness intrusiveness theoretical framework in epilepsy. Illness intrusiveness is an important determinant of the psychosocial impact of epilepsy and its treatment. Effective pharmacological or surgical treatment may reduce illness intrusiveness in epilepsy. Findings also offer encouragement that QOL in epilepsy, as in other chronic conditions, may be enhanced by multidisciplinary bio-psychosocial efforts. Health care providers should consider multifaceted interventions to reduce illness intrusiveness and, thereby, improve QOL.

  11. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  12. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second...

  13. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The Gulf...

  14. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The third...

  15. Probiotic use in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Baranwal, A

    2008-06-01

    Probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (FAO/WHO joint group). Their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. Probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of Lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri RC-14, GG, and L. plantarum 299v), Bifidobacterium (bifidum, longum, infantis), Streptococcus (thermophillus, lactis, fecalis), Saccharomyces boulardii etc. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria. These are normal inhabitant of human gut and colonize the colon better than others. Critical illness and its treatment create hostile environment in the gut and alters the micro flora favoring growth of pathogens. Therapy with probiotics is an effort to reduce or eliminate potential pathogens and toxins, to release nutrients, antioxidants, growth factors and coagulation factors, to stimulate gut motility and to modulate innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms via the normalization of altered gut flora. Scientific evidence shows that use of probiotics is effective in prevention and therapy of antibiotic associated diarrhea. However, available probiotics strains in currently used doses do not provide much needed early benefits, and need long-term administration to have clinically beneficial effects (viz, a reduction in rate of infection, severe sepsis, ICU stay, ventilation days and mortality) in critically ill surgical and trauma patients. Possibly, available strains do not adhere to intestinal mucosa early, or may require higher dose than what is used. Gap exists in our knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of different probiotics, most effective strains--single or multiple, cost effectiveness, risk-benefit potential, optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment etc. More

  16. Magnetar Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Li, Xinyu

    2016-12-01

    We examine four candidate mechanisms that could explain the high surface temperatures of magnetars. (1) Heat flux from the liquid core heated by ambipolar diffusion. It could sustain the observed surface luminosity {{\\mathscr{L}}}s≈ {10}35 erg s-1 if core heating offsets neutrino cooling at a temperature {T}{core}\\gt 6× {10}8 K. This scenario is viable if the core magnetic field exceeds 1016 G and the heat-blanketing envelope of the magnetar has a light-element composition. However, we find that the lifetime of such a hot core should be shorter than the typical observed lifetime of magnetars. (2) Mechanical dissipation in the solid crust. This heating can be quasi-steady, powered by gradual (or frequent) crustal yielding to magnetic stresses. We show that it obeys a strong upper limit. As long as the crustal stresses are fostered by the field evolution in the core or Hall drift in the crust, mechanical heating is insufficient to sustain persistent {{\\mathscr{L}}}s≈ {10}35 erg s-1. The surface luminosity is increased in an alternative scenario of mechanical deformations triggered by external magnetospheric flares. (3) Ohmic dissipation in the crust, in volume or current sheets. This mechanism is inefficient because of the high conductivity of the crust. Only extreme magnetic configurations with crustal fields B\\gt {10}16 G varying on a 100 meter scale could provide {{\\mathscr{L}}}s≈ {10}35 erg s-1. (4) Bombardment of the stellar surface by particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. This mechanism produces hot spots on magnetars. Observations of transient magnetars show evidence of external heating.

  17. Treating nonthyroidal illness syndrome in the critically ill patient: still a matter of controversy.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Paliani, G; Annetta, M G; Pontecorvi, A; Antonelli, M

    2009-08-01

    The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a clinical condition of abnormal thyroid function tests observed in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine, with normal or low levels of thyroxine and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. It is still a matter of controversy whether the NTIS represents a protective adaptation of the organism to a stressful event or a maladaptive response to illness that needs correction. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in certain clinical situations, such as caloric restriction, cardiac disease, acute renal failure, brain-dead potential donors, and burn patients. Treating patients with NTIS seems not to be harmful, but there is no persuasive evidence that it is beneficial. The administration of hypothalamic releasing factors in patients with NTIS appears to be safe and effective in improving metabolism and restoring the anterior pituitary pulsatile secretion in the chronic phase of critical illness. However, also this promising strategy needs to be explored further. Anyhow, an extremely prudent approach is needed if treatment is given. Much of the data appearing in the literature on the treatment of NTIS encourage further randomized controlled trials on large number of patients. At present, however, we believe that there is no indication for treating thyroid hormone abnormalities in critically ill patients until convincing proof of efficacy and safety is provided.

  18. Assessing Hopelessness in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Development of the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2013-01-01

    Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended for use with terminally ill cancer patients. The 1st stage of measure development involved interviews with 13 palliative care experts and 30 terminally ill patients. Qualitative analysis of the patient interviews culminated in the development of a set of potential questionnaire items. In the 2nd study phase, we evaluated these preliminary items with a sample of 314 participants, using item response theory and classical test theory to identify optimal items and response format. These analyses generated an 8-item measure that we tested in a final study phase, using a 3rd sample (n = 228) to assess reliability and concurrent validity. These analyses demonstrated strong support for the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire providing greater explanatory power than existing measures of hopelessness and found little evidence that this assessment was confounded by illness-related variables (e.g., prognosis). In summary, these 3 studies suggest that this brief measure of hopelessness is particularly useful for palliative care settings. Further research is needed to assess the applicability of the measure to other populations and contexts. PMID:21443366

  19. Usefulness of a Perceived Exertion Scale for Monitoring Exercise Intensity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Aucoin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain physical fitness and health, exercise must be performed at a sufficient level of intensity. Exercise intensity can be monitored with rated perceived exertion (RPE) scales to promote safe and effective programming. The usefulness of the Children's OMNI Scale as a subjective measure of intensity for adults with intellectual…

  20. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively.

  1. A comparison of the impacts of continuous and interval cycle exercise on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J; Ferron, John M

    2016-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were developed to assess exertion during exercise testing. However, assessments of RPE prior to and after exercise have become common and potentially important in understanding exercise behaviour. The purpose of this project was to compare RPE taken before, during and after interval and continuous exercise sessions. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women, body mass index = 24, VO2peak = 41 mL · kg · min(-1)) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test used to prescribe experimental trials: (1) moderate continuous (MC), (2) vigorous continuous (VC), (3) vigorous interval and (4) severe interval. All trials were 20 minutes in length and all intervals utilised 60-second segments and a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Predicted exertion was highest in the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Exertion increased from beginning to end in all trials (p < .05). Session RPE values were highest for the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Findings suggest that interval protocols produce perceptions of effort that are lower than VC exercise but similar to MC exercise. These results help describe the perceptions of effort associated with continuous and interval exercise and suggest that interval exercise can be performed with lower perceived work, which may encourage increased participation.

  2. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  3. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  4. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  5. Saving the Seneca Outdoor Recreation Program: A Case Study in Exerting Political Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Clare

    1998-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the process of exerting political influence in faculty's systematic efforts to save the outdoor recreation program at Seneca College (Ontario). A chart and explanatory list present a seven-stage plan for influencing political decision-making. (SAS)

  6. Observational assessment of forceful exertion and the perceived force demands of daily activities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and precision with which analysts observe and estimate the force produced as subjects performed exertions on a work simulator. Eight analysts observed 32 subjects and estimated force as a percent of subjects' maximum voluntary contraction (% MVC). Analysts exhibited bias toward the mean, as high force exertions (> 67% MVC) were underestimated (mean: 11.6% MVC) and low force exertions (<34% MVC) were overestimated (mean: 6.7% MVC). Average error for medium force exertions (34-67% MVC) was not statistically different from zero (2.1% MVC). For all force levels, precision of the estimate was very poor (standard deviation range: 16.2-20.7% MVC). Experience of the analyst in performing ergonomic analysis did not affect accuracy. A secondary objective of the study was to conduct a survey in which subjects identified activities of daily living they perceived as equivalent to controlled force levels. A total of 59 different activities ranging from minimal force required to near maximum were listed by at least 5% of the participants. This list may be used to assist health care practitioners and patients convey the force demands required of occupational tasks as well as for evaluating the diminished strength of the patient.

  7. Reliability of Heart Rate Responses at Given Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Cycling and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsanos, Christos S.; Moffatt, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven healthy men (M age = 27 years, SD = 4) completed three cycling and three walking trials in an alternating order. During each trial, participants were allowed, within 3 min, to adjust the work rate to correspond to given rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values according to the following order: RPE 11, 13, and 15. For cycling as well as…

  8. Humans and Monkeys Exert Metacognitive Control Based on Learning Difficulty in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Redford (2010) found that monkeys seemed to exert metacognitive control in a category-learning paradigm. Specifically, they selected more trials to view as the difficulty of the category-learning task increased. However, category-learning difficulty was determined by manipulating the family resemblance across the to-be-learned exemplars.…

  9. Cardio-Respiratory and Perceived Exertion Responses to Different Cranking Rates during Maximal Arm Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    This study compared cardio-respiratory and perceived exertion responses for four cranking rates (50, 60, 70 and 80 rpm) during a continuous maximal arm ergometry protocol in order to determine the most efficient cranking rate for maximal testing. Fifteen male volunteers from 18-30 years of age performed a continuous arm ergometry stress test in…

  10. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  11. Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  12. Fathers with mental illness: implications for clinicians and health services.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard J; Maharaj, O'Neil N; Fletcher Watson, Chloe H; May, Chris; Skeates, Nigel; Gruenert, Stefan

    2013-08-05

    A significant proportion of fathers living with their natural, adopted, step or foster children experience mental illness. Psychiatric illness among fathers can have a devastating impact on children's wellbeing, and even milder forms of paternal mental illness can have serious developmental effects on children. While several pathways linking paternal mental illness with poor child outcomes have been identified, fathers' impaired parenting is an important, potentially malleable factor. Clinicians can assist fathers with mental illness and their families by proactively inquiring about children and by exploring fathering-focused psychological support.

  13. Small business employers' views on hiring individuals with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hand, Carri; Tryssenaar, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the beliefs of small business employers regarding hiring individuals with mental illness. Fifty-eight participants completed mail-in questionnaires concerning beliefs and willingness to hire persons with mental illness. Employers were most concerned regarding the social and emotional skills of individuals with mental illness. Those employers who reported positive beliefs, had positive interactions with individuals with mental illness, or operated in public/social services, stated greater willingness to hire a person with mental illness. Methods to decrease stigma are discussed.

  14. Forsythoside A exerts antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia mice via inhibiting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuiling; Su, Hongchang; Wan, Hongye; Qin, Qingxia; Wu, Xuan; Kong, Xiangying; Lin, Na

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, playing major roles in thermoregulation. Forsythoside A (FT-A) is the most abundant phenylethanoid glycosides in Fructus Forsythiae, which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. However, how FT-A affects pyrexia and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we found that FT-A exerted apparent antipyretic effect through decreasing the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in a dose-dependent fashion on the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Interestingly, FT-A significantly downregulated TRPV1 expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Moreover, FT-A inhibited IL-8 and PGE2 secretions, and calcium influx in the HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells after stimulated with capsaicin, the specific TRPV1 agonist. Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that FT-A treatment rapidly inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in both yeast induced pyrexia mice and HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells. These results suggest that FT-A may serve as a potential antipyretic agent and the therapeutic action of Fructus Forsythiae on pyretic related disease is, in part, due to the FT-A activities. PMID:28123347

  15. Exertion and body discomfort perceived symptoms associated with carpentry tasks: an on-site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dimov, M; Bhattacharya, A; Lemasters, G; Atterbury, M; Greathouse, L; Ollila-Glenn, N

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how carpenters subjectively perceived the exertion level and body discomfort associated with their daily tasks. Two psychophysical instruments were utilized. The Borg Whole Body Physical Exertion Instrument, a measure of overall physical demand, and the Body Segment instrument (modified Bishop-Corlett Scale), a measure of body discomfort, were given to 73 carpenters at the end of a shift. Carpentry specialties evaluated included ceiling, drywall, formwork, finishing work, pile driving, fixtures, welding, and scaffolding. The mean Borg's exertion score for the subjects combining all specialties was 14.4 (+/-2.51 standard deviation), a score between "somewhat hard" and "hard." The perception of whole body physical exertion appeared to be a consequence of the specific task. There was no significant correlation between whole body physical exertion perception and age or the number of years as a carpenter. The findings from the body discomfort scale for the total group indicated that the three primary discomfort frequencies by body segment were mid-to-lower back (65.8%), knees (45.2%), and the neck (28.8%). The next highest discomfort rating by body segment (back, knee, right wrist, right leg/foot, and right shoulder) for those subjects in the top three job specialties represented (drywall, ceiling, and formwork; n = 38) resulted in significantly higher ratings for back (60.5%) than right leg/foot (34.2%) and right shoulder (31.6%). All other body segment ratings were not significantly different from one another using Tukey's studentized range test.

  16. Clinical characteristics associated with illness perception in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Astrid K; Robinson, Hilde S; Langeland, Eva; Larsen, Marie H; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Moum, Torbjørn

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of illness perception may aid the identification of groups of patients with a higher risk of coping poorly with the demands of their illness. This study aims to investigate associations between illness perception, clinical characteristics, patient knowledge, quality of life and subjective health in persons with psoriasis. The present study was based on cross-sectional data from patients awaiting climate therapy in Gran Canaria. We included 254 eligible patients (74%) who completed a questionnaire including the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Psoriasis Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Dermatological Life Quality Index. Disease severity was measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Several statistically significant associations between clinical characteristics, knowledge and various illness perception dimensions were found. Illness perception was also significantly related to disease-specific quality of life and subjective health. These findings contradict previous findings, which suggested that objective disease factors are not relevant to illness perception in psoriasis.

  17. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunkui; Wu, Limin; Ni, Fengming; Ji, Wei; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are frequent complications of severe illness that involve sensorimotor axons and skeletal muscles, respectively. Clinically, they manifest as limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy in isolation or combination increases intensive care unit morbidity via the inability or difficulty in weaning these patients off mechanical ventilation. Many patients continue to suffer from decreased exercise capacity and compromised quality of life for months to years after the acute event. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Clinical and ancillary test results should be carefully interpreted to differentiate critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy from similar weaknesses in this patient population. The present review is aimed at providing the latest knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy along with relevant clinical, diagnostic, differentiating, and treatment information for this debilitating neurological disease.

  18. Cardiovascular responses to heat stress in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reports have suggested that patients with heart diseases may be particularly vulnerable to heat injury. This review examines the effects of heat stress on cardiovascular and autonomic functions in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Laboratory investigations have shown that cutaneous vasodilator responses to heating are impaired in patients, whereas activation of skin sympathetic nerve activation is not attenuated in CHF as compared to controls. Attenuated cutaneous vasodilation may increase the risk of a heat related illness when CHF subjects are exposed to hyperthermic conditions. PMID:24599558

  19. Chromospheric heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    The solar chromosphere is identified with the atmosphere inside magnetic flux tubes. Between the temperature minimum and the 7000 K level, the chromosphere in the bright points of the quiet sun is heated by large-amplitude, long-period, compressive waves with periods mainly between 2 and 4 minutes. These waves do not observe the cutoff condition according to which acoustic waves with periods longer than 3 minutes do not propagate vertically in the upper solar photosphere. It is concluded that the long-period waves probably supply all the energy required for the heating of the bright points in the quiet solar chromosphere.

  20. HEAT GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1963-12-01

    Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)