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Sample records for exhalation

  1. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed.

  2. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  3. Comparison of select analytes in exhaled aerosol from e-cigarettes with exhaled smoke from a conventional cigarette and exhaled breaths.

    PubMed

    Long, Gerald A

    2014-10-27

    Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06%) of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session). The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session). These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air.

  4. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  5. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  6. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  7. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation... continuous rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance of demand apparatus shall not...

  8. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation... continuous rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance of demand apparatus shall not...

  9. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  10. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  11. Radon and Thoron exhalation rate map in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masahiro, Hosoda; Michikuni, Shimo; Kazuyuki, Minami; Kazutaka, Ejiri; Masato, Sugino; Masahide, Furukawa; Masahiro, Fukushi

    2008-08-07

    Measurements of radon and thoron exhalation rates have been done using the radon and thoron exhalation rate measuring instrument adopting the accumulation method. We obtained the 111 data in the 40 sites of the 14 prefectures in Japan. The arithmetic average value of the radon and thoron exhalation rates by all 111 data were obtained to be 8.6 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} and 0.80 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, respectively, and we have reported the radon and thoron exhalation rates in relation to the geological features. The relation between the exhalation rate and geology was shown that the exhalation rate had an increasing tendency in order of basic rock, neutral rock and acidic rock. We made the nationwide exhalation-rate map using the survey data of exhalation-rate of radon and thoron and the geological distribution map.

  12. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  13. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  14. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  15. Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    PubMed

    Yates, D H

    2001-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an evanescent atmospheric gas, has recently been discovered to be an important biological mediator in animals and humans. Nitric oxide plays a key role within the lung in the modulation of a wide variety of functions including pulmonary vascular tone, nonadrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmission and modification of the inflammatory response. Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and increased synthesis of NO and other highly reactive and toxic substances (reactive oxygen species). Pro- inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha and IL-1beta are secreted in asthma and result in inflammatory cell recruitment, but also induce calcium- and calmodulin-independent nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and perpetuate the inflammatory response within the airways. Nitric oxide is released by several pulmonary cells including epithelial cells, eosinophils and macrophages, and NO has been shown to be increased in conditions associated with airway inflammation, such as asthma and viral infections. Nitric oxide can be measured in the expired air of several species, and exhaled NO can now be rapidly and easily measured by the use of chemiluminescence analysers in humans. Exhaled NO is increased in steroid-naive asthmatic subjects and during an asthma exacerbation, although it returns to baseline levels with appropriate anti-inflammatory treatment, and such measurements have been proposed as a simple non-invasive method of measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Here the chemical and biological properties of NO are briefly discussed, followed by a summary of the methodological considerations relevant to the measurement of exhaled NO and its role in lung diseases including asthma. The origin of exhaled NO is considered, and brief mention made of other potential markers of airway inflammation or oxidant stress in exhaled breath.

  16. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  17. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  18. Exhaled breath condensate pH assays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Airway pH is central to the physiologic function and cellular biology of the airway. The causes of airway acidification include (1) hypopharyngeal gastric acid reflux with or without aspiration through the vocal cords, (2) inhalation of acid fog or gas (such as chlorine), and (3) intrinsic airway acidification caused by altered airway pH homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory disease processes. The recognition that relevant airway pH deviations occur in lung diseases is opening doors to new simple and inexpensive therapies. This recognition has resulted partly from the ability to use exhaled breath condensate as a window on airway acid-base balance.

  19. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M.; Lappas, Andreas S.; Tzortzi, Anna S.; Behrakis, Panagiotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice. PMID:26106641

  20. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  1. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  2. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Vitale, Carolina; Vatrella, Alessandro; Molino, Antonio; Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. PMID:27382340

  3. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  4. On the exhalation rate of radon by man

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of the exhalation rate of radon by man which may be relevant to its internal dosimetry and, therefore, to possible radiobiological consequences. Prolonged exposure of a person to radon results in a reservoir or radon dissolved in body fat and fluids. If the person then moves to an environment with a lower radon concentration, there is a net exhalation of radon and the initial exhalation rate depends on the radon concentration in the first environment. This is demonstrated for seven persons whose houses contained radon at concentrations varying from 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} to almost 1000 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. About one hour after leaving the house, the subjects' average exhalation rate of radon, expressed as the equivalent volume of house air per unit time, was 236 mL min{sup {minus}1}. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rahman, Naureen M; Abu Atiya, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for slate tiles and 42 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m(-2) d(-1), it would contribute only 18 Bq m(-3) to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  6. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  7. Regional diffusing capacity in normal lungs during a slow exhalation.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Nadel, J A

    1982-06-01

    From an analysis of carbon monoxide uptake and xenon-133 distribution after two bolus inhalations of these gases, we calculated regional diffusing capacity in the upper and lower volume halves of the lungs during the middle 60% of an exhaled vital capacity in five seated normal subjects. We found that the regional diffusing capacity of the upper half of the lungs was 11.6 +/- 4.2 (mean +/- SD) ml.min-1.Torr-1 and that the regional diffusing capacity of the lower half of the lungs was 24.4 +/- 2.4 ml.min-1.Torr-1 after 25% of the vital capacity had been exhaled. These values remained relatively constant as lung volume decreased from 25 to 75% of the exhaled vital capacity. Diffusing capacity in the upper half of the lungs ranged from 9.4 to 12.4 ml.min-1.Torr-1 during exhalation, and in the lower half of the lungs from 21.0 to 28.6 ml.min-1.Torr-1 during exhalation. These results suggest that total lung diffusing capacity remains relatively constant over this midrange of lung volumes and that this occurs because the regional diffusing capacities in both the upper and lower halves of the lungs remain relatively constant.

  8. Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air.

    PubMed

    Issarow, Chacha M; Mulder, Nicola; Wood, Robin

    2015-05-07

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a flexible mathematical model that predicts the risk of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis under steady state and non-steady state conditions by monitoring exhaled air by infectors in a confined space. In the development of this model, we used the rebreathed air accumulation rate concept to directly determine the average volume fraction of exhaled air in a given space. From a biological point of view, exhaled air by infectors contains airborne infectious particles that cause airborne infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in confined spaces. Since not all infectious particles can reach the target infection site, we took into account that the infectious particles that commence the infection are determined by respiratory deposition fraction, which is the probability of each infectious particle reaching the target infection site of the respiratory tracts and causing infection. Furthermore, we compute the quantity of carbon dioxide as a marker of exhaled air, which can be inhaled in the room with high likelihood of causing airborne infectious disease given the presence of infectors. We demonstrated mathematically and schematically the correlation between TB transmission probability and airborne infectious particle generation rate, ventilation rate, average volume fraction of exhaled air, TB prevalence and duration of exposure to infectors in a confined space.

  9. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  10. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  12. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  13. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  14. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  15. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  16. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  17. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  18. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  19. Hydrogen cyanide in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-06-01

    Mouth-exhaled hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations have previously been reported to originate from the oral cavity. However, a direct correlation between the HCN concentration in oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath has not been explicitly shown. In this study, we set up a new methodology to simultaneously measure HCN in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath. Our results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between stimulated oral fluid HCN and mouth-exhaled HCN (rs = 0.76, p < 0.001). This confirms that oral fluid is the main contributor to mouth-exhaled HCN. Furthermore, we observe that after the application of an oral disinfectant, both the stimulated oral fluid and mouth-exhaled HCN concentrations decrease. This implies that HCN production in the oral cavity is related to the bacterial and/or enzymatic activity.

  20. Influences of mixed expiratory sampling parameters on exhaled volatile organic compound concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thekedar, B; Oeh, U; Szymczak, W; Hoeschen, C; Paretzke, H G

    2011-03-01

    Breath gas analysis is a promising technology for medical applications. By identifying disease-specific biomarkers in the breath of patients, a non-invasive and easy method for early diagnosis or therapy monitoring can be developed. In order to achieve this goal, one essential prerequisite is the reproducibility of the method applied, i.e. the quantification of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The variability of breath gas VOC measurements can be affected by many factors. In this respect, sampling-specific parameters like flow rate and volume of exhalation, exhalation with or without breath holding, exhalation in single or multiple breathing and volume of air inhaled before breath gas exhalation can play a vital role. These factors affecting the measurements must be controlled by optimizing the sampling procedure. For such an optimization, it is important to know how exactly the different parameters affect the exhaled VOC concentrations. Therefore, a study has been undertaken in order to identify some effects of different breath sampling-specific parameters on the exhaled VOC profile using the mixed expired breath sampling technique. It was found that parameters such as filling the sampling bag with high or low flow rate of exhalation, with multiple or single exhalations, in different volumes of exhalation, with breath holding and under different surrounding air conditions significantly affect the concentrations of the exhaled VOCs. Therefore, the specific results of this work should be taken into account before planning new breath gas studies or developing new breath gas collection systems in order to minimize the number of artefacts affecting the concentration of exhaled VOCs.

  1. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

  2. Radon exhalation rates and gamma doses from ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R S; Aral, H; Peggie, J R

    1998-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the possible radiological hazard resulting from the use of zircon in glaze applied to tiles used in buildings. The 226Ra content of various stains and glazing compounds was measured using gamma spectroscopy and the 222Rn exhalation rates for these materials were measured using adsorption on activated charcoal. The radon exhalation rates were found to be close to or less than the minimum detectable values for the equipment used. This limit was much lower than the estimated exhalation rates, which were calculated assuming that the parameters controlling the emanation and diffusion of 222Rn in the materials studied were similar to those of soil. This implied that the 222Rn emanation coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for most of the materials studied were very much lower than expected. Measurements on zircon powders showed that the 222Rn emanation coefficient for zircon was much lower than that for soil, indicating that only a small fraction of the 222Rn produced by the decay of 226Ra was able to escape from the zircon grains. The estimated increase in radon concentration in room air and the estimated external gamma radiation dose resulting from the use of zircon glaze are both much lower than the relevant action level and dose limit.

  3. Measuring the exhaled breath of a manikin and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Xu, C; Nielsen, P V; Gong, G; Liu, L; Jensen, R L

    2015-04-01

    Due to scarcity of accurate information and available data of actual human breathing, this investigation focuses on characterizing the breathing dynamic process based on the measurement of healthy human subjects. The similarities and differences between one breathing thermal manikin and the human subjects, including geometry and breathing functions, were thoroughly studied. As expected, actual human breathing is more complicated than that of the manikin in terms of airflow fluctuations, individual differences, and exhaled flow directions. The simplification of manikin mouth structure could result in overestimated exhaled velocity and contaminant concentration. Furthermore, actual human breathing appears to be relatively stable and reproducible for an individual person in several conditions and is also accompanied by some uncertainties simultaneously. The averaged values are used to analyze the overall characteristics of actual human breathing. There are different characteristics of the exhaled breath between male and female subjects with or without wearing a nose clip. The experimental results obtained from the measurement of human subjects may be helpful for manikin specification or validation and accuracy assessment of CFD simulations.

  4. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P G Q; Galembeck, T M B; Bonotto, D M; Artur, A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of (222)Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the (222)Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit.

  5. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration upon acute exposure to moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, C; Stang, J; Thorsen, E; Stensrud, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess immediate changes in the partial pressure of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled gas (PE NO ) in healthy trained subjects who were acutely exposed to moderate altitude. One group of nine and another group of 20 healthy subjects were exposed to an ambient pressure of 728 hPa (546 mmHg) corresponding to an altitude of 2800 m for 5 and 90 min, respectively, in an altitude chamber. PE NO was measured offline by sampling exhaled gas in tight metal foil bags at 5, 30, 60, and 90 min. A correction for increased expiratory flow rate due to gas density effects at altitude was performed (PE NO corr). PE NO was significantly decreased by 13-16%, while the fraction of NO in exhaled gas (FE NO) was increased by 16-19% compared to sea level. There was no significant change in PE NO corr after exposure to altitude for 5, 30, 60, and 90 min. We conclude that there was no change in PENO upon arrival at altitude after correcting for gas density effects on expiratory flow rate. Corrections for altitude effects must be done before comparing measurements performed at different altitudes when using measurements of FENO to monitor athletes who have asthma during training at altitude.

  6. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  7. Measurements of radon exhalation rate in NORM used as consumer products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tokonami, Shinji

    2017-01-25

    Twenty-five beauty products known to contain natural radionuclides were collected, and their (222)Rn mass exhalation rates were measured. The effective doses to workers due to (222)Rn exhaled from these products were estimated. The (222)Rn mass exhalation rates of these products were below 177 μBq kg(-1) s(-1) and were almost identical to those of natural rocks in Japan. The maximum effective dose of (222)Rn exhaled from these products was 71 μSv y(-1).

  8. Dispersal of exhaled air and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, E; Nielsen, P V

    2002-09-01

    The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins. Numerical simulations support the experiments. Air exhaled through the mouth can lock in a thermally stratified layer, if the vertical temperature gradient in breathing zone height is sufficiently large. With exhalation through the nose, exhaled air flows to the upper part of the room. The exhalation flow from both nose and mouth is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person standing nearby. The stratification of exhaled air breaks down if there is physical movement in the room. As movement increases, the concentration distribution in the room will move towards a fully mixed situation. The protective effect of the boundary layer flow around the body of a moving person disappears at low speed, and is reduced for a seated person placed nearby due to horizontal air movements, which can also cause rebreathing of exhaled air for the seated person. The results indicate that the effect of the exhalation flow is no acute problem in most normal ventilation applications. However, exhalation and local effects caused by movement may be worth considering if one wishes to contain contaminants in certain areas, as in the case of tobacco smoking, in hospitals and clinics, or in certain industries.

  9. Optoacoustic Determination of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Exhaled Breath in Various Human Diseases*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, V. G.; Nikiforova, O. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    We determined the carbon dioxide concentrations in exhaled breath from healthy donors and patients with various diseases from the absorption spectra of test samples, recorded on a laser optoacoustic gas analyzer based on a CO2 laser. We observed that the carbon dioxide concentrations in exhaled breath from healthy donors is higher than in patients with various diseases.

  10. Mathematical and statistical approaches for interpreting biomarker compounds in exhaled human breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The various instrumental techniques, human studies, and diagnostic tests that produce data from samples of exhaled breath have one thing in common: they all need to be put into a context wherein a posed question can actually be answered. Exhaled breath contains numerous compoun...

  11. Fractal and Chaos Analysis for Dynamics of Radon Exhalation from Uranium Mill Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Xie, Yanshi

    2016-08-01

    Tailings from mining and milling of uranium ores potentially are large volumes of low-level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with uranium tailings is radon exhalation, which can significantly pose risks to environment and human health. In order to reduce these risks, it is essential to study the dynamical nature and underlying mechanism of radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings. This motivates the conduction of this study, which is based on the fractal and chaotic methods (e.g. calculating the Hurst exponent, Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension) and laboratory experiments of the radon exhalation rates. The experimental results show that the radon exhalation rate from uranium mill tailings is highly oscillated. In addition, the nonlinear analyses of the time series of radon exhalation rate demonstrate the following points: (1) the value of Hurst exponent much larger than 0.5 indicates non-random behavior of the radon time series; (2) the positive Lyapunov exponent and non-integer correlation dimension of the time series imply that the radon exhalation from uranium tailings is a chaotic dynamical process; (3) the required minimum number of variables should be five to describe the time evolution of radon exhalation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the internal factors, including heterogeneous distribution of radium, and randomness of radium decay, as well as the fractal characteristics of the tailings, can result in the chaotic evolution of radon exhalation from the tailings.

  12. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide is age-dependent in asthma.

    PubMed

    Avital, Avraham; Uwyyed, Kamal; Berkman, Neville; Bar-Yishay, Ephraim; Godfrey, Simon; Springer, Chaim

    2003-11-01

    We determined whether the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) level in asthmatics is age-dependent. Eighty-seven asthmatic patients aged 2-41 years were studied. Hyperreactivity to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was used to confirm asthma (Exhaled NO was measured in the younger group by the tidal breathing method (TBm) and in the older subjects by the slow vital capacity method (SVCm). TBm and SVCm were compared in 21 other subjects, and there was a significant correlation between the two values (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001). The equation of correlation between the two methods was eNOTBm = 0.78eNOSVCm - 0.51. Within asthmatic patients, we found a significant increase in eNO with age (P < 0.0001), while there was no significant difference in AMP reactivity (P = 0.35). We conclude that eNO in asthmatic patients is age-dependent, with lower values in young children.

  14. Screening for emphysema via exhaled volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, S M; Gietema, H A; Blanchet, L; Kruitwagen, C L J J; Munnik, P; van Klaveren, R J; Lammers, J W J; Buydens, L; Harren, F J M; Zanen, P

    2011-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema risk groups are well defined and screening allows for early identification of disease. The capability of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to detect emphysema, as found by computed tomography (CT) in current and former heavy smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial, was investigated. CT scans, pulmonary function tests and breath sample collections were obtained from 204 subjects. Breath samples were analyzed with a proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) to obtain VOC profiles listed as ions at various mass-to-charge ratios (m/z). Using bootstrapped stepwise forward logistic regression, we identified specific breath profiles as a potential tool for the diagnosis of emphysema, of airflow limitation or gas-exchange impairment. A marker for emphysema was found at m/z 87 (tentatively attributed to 2-methylbutanal). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of this marker to diagnose emphysema was 0.588 (95% CI 0.453-0.662). Mass-to-charge ratios m/z 52 (most likely chloramine) and m/z 135 (alkyl benzene) were linked to obstructive disease and m/z 122 (most probably alkyl homologs) to an impaired diffusion capacity. ROC areas were 0.646 (95% CI 0.562-0.730) and 0.671 (95% CI 0.524-0.710), respectively. In the screening setting, exhaled VOCs measured by PTR-MS constitute weak markers for emphysema, pulmonary obstruction and impaired diffusion capacity.

  15. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  16. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  17. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    PubMed

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  18. Exhalation behavior of four organic substrates and water absorbed by human skin.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Ken; Inai, Yoshihito; Hirabayashi, Tadamichi; Tsuda, Takao

    2002-07-01

    The simultaneous measurement of several volatile organic compounds and water released from the human skin can be achieved successfully by using a modified gas chromatographic system. After the thumb of each subject was dipped in aqueous solution containing acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol, and toluene, it was dried in the air. Then the thumb attached to the sampling probe for measuring the released gases. It is found that 90% of all these chemical substrates were desorbed after 20 min. The initial exhalation rate factor for each chemical substrate was determined in every subject. Correlation factors of the linear relationships between the initial exhalation rate for hydrophilic substrates (acetone and ethanol) and the total amount of water (TAW) released from the skin were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively. However, the rate of hydrophobic toluene was not dependent on the TAW. Therefore, the exhalation rate of substrates is greatly influenced by both their hydrophilicity and TAW. Additionally, an interesting personal specific character among the 6 subjects was observed on plotting the exhalation rate of organic substrates and water during the elapsed time. With the released water mostly due to insensible perspiration, the exhalation rate of all simultaneous organic substrates decreased monotonically over the elapsed time. On the contrary, when subjects sweated emotionally, the exhalation rate of organic substrates showed some variation, namely a higher of exhalation rate compared to the case of mostly due to insensible perspiration. Therefore, emotionally-induced sweating can enhance the release of organic substrates.

  19. Unsuitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of herpesviruses DNA in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristina; Bucca, Caterina; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Solidoro, Paolo; Rolla, Giovanni; Cavallo, Rossana

    2011-05-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is a non-invasive method for detecting a wide number of molecules as well as genomic DNA in the airways. No study investigated the detection of viral DNA in exhaled breath condensate, while only one study excluded its usefulness for detection of influenza virus RNA. In this study, the suitability of exhaled breath condensate for detecting herpesviruses infection or reactivation in the respiratory tract of lung transplant recipients was evaluated. Twenty-four matched samples (exhaled breath condensate, bronchoalveolar lavage, whole blood, transbronchial biopsy) were evaluated for the detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus (HHV-6 and -7), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA by real-time PCR. Eighteen bronchoalveolar lavages (75%), six whole blood samples (25%), and two transbronchial biopsies (8.3%) were positive for at least one herpesvirus. Only one exhaled breath condensate specimen was positive for HCMV DNA (and positive also in the bronchoalveolar lavage, with low viral load in both specimens); while no other patient, irrespective of the viral load in any specimen or the presence of clinical symptoms and signs, had a positive exhaled breath condensate. These findings seem to exclude the suitability of exhaled breath condensate for non-invasive detection of viral DNA in the respiratory tract of lung transplant recipients.

  20. Exhaled methyl nitrate as a noninvasive marker of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Novak, B. J.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Pontello, A.; Cooper, D. M.; Galassetti, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent technical advances allow detection of several hundred volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human exhaled air, many of which reflect unidentified endogenous pathways. Our group has previously estimated plasma glucose levels in healthy adults during a standard oral glucose tolerance test via exhaled VOC analysis. As a result of the metabolic characteristics of hyperglycemia in the diabetic (low insulin and increased free fatty acids and ketones), we hypothesized that different exhaled VOC profiles may be present in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) during spontaneous hyperglycemia. Exhaled methyl nitrate strongly correlated specifically with the acute, spontaneous hyperglycemia of T1DM children. Eighteen experiments were conducted among 10 T1DM children. Plasma glucose and exhaled gases were monitored during either constant euglycemia (n = 5) or initial hyperglycemia with gradual correction (n = 13); all subjects received i.v. insulin and glucose as needed. Gas analysis was performed on 1.9-liter breath samples via gas chromatography using electron capture, flame ionization, and mass selective detection. Among the ≈100 measured exhaled gases, the kinetic profile of exhaled methyl nitrate, commonly present in room air in the range of 5–10 parts per trillion, was most strongly statistically correlated with that of plasma glucose (P = 0.003–0.001). Indeed, the kinetic profiles of the two variables paralleled each other in 16 of 18 experiments, including repeat subjects who at different times displayed either euglycemia or hyperglycemia. PMID:17895380

  1. Production of carbon dioxide in a fattening pig house under field conditions. I. Exhalation by pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Hendriks, Jos; Coenegrachts, Jan; Vinckier, Christiaan

    Exhalation of carbon dioxide (CO 2) by pigs was investigated under field conditions in a mechanically ventilated commercial fattening house. The tranquil CO 2 exhalation rate (TCER) by pigs was defined and methodology was developed to study it. The experiments were conducted by moving groups of pigs in and out of one of the compartments in the house and comparing differences of measured CO 2 production rates. The measured TCERs ranged from 41.5 to 73.9 g CO 2 h -1 per pig for pigs from 32 to 105 kg. When pigs were very active, the CO 2 exhalation rate could be about 200% of the TCER but did not last for long time. A TCER mathematical model was developed based on 4 sets of experiments. It calculated the CO 2 exhalation by a pig at tranquil time as a function of its weight. Daily mean CO 2 exhalation rate (CER) by a pig was about 110% of the TCER. The TCER/CER model related the CO 2 exhalation to some aspects of pigs' behaviours and was the first reported model developed with direct measurement of CO 2 production rates. Five models of CO 2 exhalation in available literature were reviewed and the CER model was compared with them. There was a clear disparity among these models. The average CO 2 exhalation rate calculated with the "Ouwerkerk Model" was about three times as that obtained by the "Anderson Model" for pigs from 35 to 120 kg. The CER model produced the same CO 2 exhalation rate as the "Ouwerkerk Model" for a pig of 35 kg and a close rate to the "Klooster Model" for a pig of 85 kg.

  2. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  3. Dietary Nitrate Acutely and Markedly Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in a Cystic Fibrosis Case

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Kilbride, Emma; Greally, Peter; Elnazir, Basil

    2016-01-01

    Airway nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with bronchoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-infective roles. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lung condition associated with deceased exhaled NO. Strategies to increase exhaled NO in CF have yielded inconsistent results. A potential new method of increasing systemic NO involves ingestion of dietary, inorganic nitrate which is reduced to nitrite and NO. We present the case of a 12-year-old, athletic boy with CF who demonstrated acute but marked increases in exhaled NO following dietary nitrate consumption compared to placebo PMID:27630187

  4. Radium concentration and radon exhalation measurements using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, A.; Naqvi, A. H.; Srivastava, D. S.

    1995-12-01

    The “Track-Etch” technique using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors has been employed for measuring the radium content and radon exhalation rates of different types of building materials. Among the eight materials studied it was found that fine aggregates (Badarpur) show the greatest radon exhalation, whereas portland cement produces minimum values of radon exhalation. Experimentally-measured values of the “effective radium content” (in Bq kg-1) their “mass exhalation” rates (in Bq kg-1d-1) and “surface exhalation” rates (in Bq m-2d-1 ) are reported.

  5. Microbiota in Exhaled Breath Condensate and the Lung.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Laura; Wright, Steven; Tennant, Peter; Gill, Andrew C; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2017-04-07

    The lung microbiota is commonly sampled using relatively invasive bronchoscopic procedures. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection potentially offers a less invasive alternative for lung microbiota sampling. We compared lung microbiota samples retrieved by protected specimen brushings (PSB) and exhaled breath condensate collection. We also sought to assess whether aerosolised antibiotic treatment would influence the lung microbiota and whether EBC was sensitive enough to detect such changes.EBC was collected from 6 conscious sheep, and then from the same anaesthetised sheep during mechanical ventilation. Following the latter EBC collection, PSB samples were collected from separate sites within each sheep lung. On the subsequent day each sheep was then treated with nebulised colistimethate sodium. Two days after nebulisation, EBC and PSB samples were again collected. Bacterial DNA was quantified using 16S rRNA gene qPCR. The V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced using an Illumina Miseq. Quality control and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) clustering were performed within mothur.EBC contained significantly less bacterial DNA than PSB samples. EBC samples from anaesthetised animals clustered separately by their bacterial community compositions in comparison to PSB samples and 37 bacterial OTUs were identified which were differentially abundant between the two sample types. Despite only low concentrations of colistin being detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, PSB samples were found to differ by their bacterial compositions pre and post colistimethate sodium treatment. Our findings indicate that microbiota in EBC samples and PSB samples are not equivalent.Importance Sampling of the lung microbiota usually necessitates performing bronchoscopic procedures which involve a hospital visit for human participants and the use of trained staff. The inconvenience and perceived discomfort of participating in this kind of research may deter

  6. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  7. Exhaled breath analysis: The new interface between medicine and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath testing is becoming an increasingly important non-invasive diagnostic method that can be used in the evaluation of health and disease states in the lung and beyond. Potential advantages of breath tests over other conventional medical tests include their non-invasive nature, low cost, and safety. To advance in this area further, however, there has to be a close collaboration between technical experts and engineers who have devices looking for clinical application(s), the medical experts who have the clinical problems looking for a test/biomarker that can be helpful in diagnosis or monitoring, and industry/commercial experts who can build and commercialize the final product. PMID:20948990

  8. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Systemic Sclerosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kozij, Natalie K.; Silkoff, Philip E.; Thenganatt, John; Chakravorty, Shobha

    2017-01-01

    Background. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a potential biomarker to distinguish systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). We evaluated the discriminative validity, feasibility, methods of eNO measurement, and magnitude of differences across lung diseases, disease-subsets (SSc, systemic lupus erythematosus), and healthy-controls. Methods. Consecutive subjects in the UHN Pulmonary Hypertension Programme were recruited. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured at 50 mL/s intervals using chemiluminescent detection. Alveolar and conducting airway NO were partitioned using a two-compartment model of axial diffusion (CMAD) and the trumpet model of axial diffusion (TMAD). Results. Sixty subjects were evaluated. Using the CMAD model, control subjects had lower median (IQR) alveolar NO than all PAH subjects (2.0 (1.5, 2.5) versus 3.14 ppb (2.3, 4.0), p = 0.008). SSc-ILD had significantly lower median conducting airway NO compared to controls (1009.5 versus 1342.1 ml⁎ppb/s, p = 0.04). SSc-PAH had increased median (IQR) alveolar NO compared to controls (3.3 (3.0, 5.7) versus 2.0 ppb (1.5, 2.5), p = 0.01). SSc-PAH conducting airway NO inversely correlated with DLCO (r −0.88 (95% CI −0.99, −0.26)). Conclusion. We have demonstrated feasibility, identified that CMAD modeling is preferred in SSc, and reported the magnitude of differences across cases and controls. Our data supports discriminative validity of eNO in SSc lung disease. PMID:28293128

  9. Detection of cancer through exhaled breath: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krilaviciute, Agne; Heiss, Jonathan Alexander; Leja, Marcis; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Haick, Hossam; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely diagnosis of cancer represents a challenging task; in particular, there is a need for reliable non-invasive screening tools that could achieve high levels of adherence at virtually no risk in population-based screening. In this review, we summarize the current evidence of exhaled breath analysis for cancer detection using standard analysis techniques and electronic nose. Methods Relevant studies were identified searching Pubmed and Web of Science databases until April 30, 2015. Information on breath test performance, such as sensitivity and specificity, was extracted together with volatile compounds that were used to discriminate cancer patients from controls. Performance of different breath analysis techniques is provided for various cancers together with information on methodological issues, such as breath sampling protocol and validation of the results. Results Overall, 73 studies were included, where two-thirds of the studies were conducted on lung cancer. Good discrimination usually required a combination of multiple biomarkers, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or accuracy reached levels of 0.9 or higher in multiple studies. In 25% of the reported studies, classification models were built and validated on the same datasets. Huge variability was seen in different aspects among the studies. Conclusions Analyses of exhaled breath yielded promising results, although standardization of breath collection, sample storage and data handling remain critical issues. In order to foster breath analysis implementation into practice, larger studies should be implemented in true screening settings, paying particular attention to standardization in breath collection, consideration of covariates, and validation in independent population samples. PMID:26440312

  10. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore historical and newly emerging methods for the collection and analysis of exhaled breath for use in environmental exposure assessment studies. We will discuss their applicability and limitations with respect to environmental research. Particular em...

  12. Determination of methadone in exhaled breath condensate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Eriksen, Paul; Franck, Johan; Palmskog, Göran

    2011-04-01

    Within the field of toxicology exhaled breath is used as specimen only for determination of alcohol. However, it was recently discovered that when using sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methadone are detectable in exhaled breath following intake by drug addicts. We therefore undertook to develop a method for determination of methadone in exhaled breath condensate from patients undergoing methadonemaintenance treatment. Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 14 patients after intake of the daily methadone dose. The exhaled breath condensate was collected for 10 min using an Ecoscreen instrument. After extraction of any trapped methadone from the condensate by solid-phase extraction, the final extract was analyzed by a combined LC-MS-MS method. Recovery of methadone from breath condensate in the solid-phase extraction was 104%, no significant matrix effects were observed, and the quantification using methadone-d(3) as internal standard was accurate (10% bias) and precise (coefficient of variation 6.2%). Methadone was indisputably identified by means of the MS technique in exhaled breath condensate from all 14 patients. Identification was based on monitoring two product ions in selected reaction monitoring mode with correct relative ratio (± 20%) and correct retention time. Excretion rates ranged from 23.6 to 275 pg/min. No methadone was detected in five control subjects (< 2 pg/min). This finding confirms that methadone is present in exhaled breath from patients in methadone treatment. Collection of exhaled breath specimen is likely to be complementary to other matrices presently in use in testing for drugs-of-abuse.

  13. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isoflurane by measurement of isoflurane exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Tortosa, J A; Ibarra, I; Luna, A; Periago, J F

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between isoflurane environmental concentrations in operating rooms and the corresponding isoflurane concentration in the exhaled air of the operating personnel at the end of the exposure has been investigated. Isoflurane was retained in an adsorbent cartridge and after thermal desorption the concentration was estimated by gas chromatography. Significant correlation between environmental and exhaled air isoflurane concentrations allowed the establishment of a biological exposure index and biological exposure limits corresponding to proposed atmospheric threshold values.

  14. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1).

  15. Exhalation of (222)Rn from phosphogypsum piles located at the Southwest of Spain.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, C; Liger, E; Cañete, S; Pérez, M; Bolívar, J P

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product of the phosphoric acid production process and contains, generally, high activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. It is stored in piles formed over the last 40 years close to the town of Huelva (Southwest of Spain). The very broad expanse of the PG piles (about 1200 ha) produces a local, but unambiguous, radioactive impact to their surroundings. In 1992, the regional government of Andalusia restored an area of 400 ha by covering it with a 25-cm thick layer of natural soil and, currently, there is an additional zone of 400 ha in course of restoration (unrestored) and the same area of active PG stacks. Due to the high activity concentration of (226)Ra in active PG stacks (average 647 Bq kg(-1)), a significant exhalation of (222)Rn could be produced from the surface of the piles. Measurements have been made of (222)Rn exhalation from active PG stacks and from restored and unrestored zones. The (222)Rn exhalation from unrestored zones is half of that of the active PG stacks. Following restoration, the (222)Rn exhalation is approximately eight times lower than the active PG stacks. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (40)K, (232)Th) in the mentioned zones have been determined. This study was also conducted to determine the effect of (226)Ra activity concentration on the (222)Rn exhalation, and a good correlation was obtained between the (222)Rn exhalation and (226)Ra activity, porosity and density of soil.

  16. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)).

  17. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments.

    PubMed

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernández, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2010-03-03

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m(-3) in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m(-3) in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  18. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 μL hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-μL aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing.

  19. Quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, M. R.; Bakhirkin, Y. A.; Tittel, F. K.

    2006-11-01

    A nitric oxide (NO) sensor employing a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous-wave, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating at 5.47 μm (1828 cm-1) and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy was used to measure NO concentrations in exhaled breath. A minimum measurable concentration (3σ) of 3.6 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) of NO with a data-acquisition time of 4 s was demonstrated. Five prepared gas mixtures and 15 exhaled breath samples were measured with both the NO sensor and for intercomparison with a chemiluminescence-based NO analyzer and were found to be in agreement within 0.6 ppbv. Exhaled NO flow-independent parameters, which may provide diagnostic and therapeutic information in respiratory diseases where single-breath measurements are equivocal, were estimated from end-tidal NO concentration measurements collected at various flow rates. The results of this work indicate that a laser-based exhaled NO sensor can be used to measure exhaled nitric oxide at a range of exhalation flow rates to determine flow-independent parameters in human clinical trials.

  20. Low Levels of Exhaled Surfactant Protein A Associated With BOS After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Petrea A.; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Hammar, Oscar S.; Viklund, Emilia A.; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte R.; Larsson, Per J-W.; Riise, Gerdt C.; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no clinically available marker for early detection or monitoring of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main long-term complication after lung transplantation. Sampling and analysis of particles in exhaled air is a valid, noninvasive method for monitoring surfactant protein A (SP-A) and albumin in the distal airways. Methods We asked whether differences in composition of exhaled particles can be detected when comparing stable lung transplant recipients (LTRs) (n = 26) with LTRs who develop BOS (n = 7). A comparison between LTRs and a matching group of healthy controls (n = 33) was also conducted. Using a system developed in-house, particles were collected from exhaled air by the principal of inertial impaction before chemical analysis by immunoassays. Results Surfactant protein A in exhaled particles and the SP-A/albumin ratio were lower (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0001 respectively) in the BOS group compared to the BOS-free group. LTRs exhaled higher amount of particles (P < 0.0001) and had lower albumin content (P < 0.0001) than healthy controls. Conclusions We conclude that low levels of SP-A in exhaled particles are associated with increased risk of BOS in LTRs. The possibility that this noninvasive method can be used to predict BOS onset deserves further study with prospective and longitudinal approaches. PMID:27795995

  1. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.; Milyaev, Varerii A.

    2002-11-01

    The application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air in biomedical diagnostics is discussed. The principle of operation and the design of a laser analyser for studying the composition of exhaled air are described. The results of detection of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air, including clinical studies, which demonstrate the diagnostic possibilities of the method, are presented.

  2. Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J.; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater). Samples were collected from two sponge species, Ircinia campana and Spheciospongia vesparium, on a near-shore hard bottom reef in the Florida Keys. Metabolic profiles generated from untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that many more compounds were enhanced in the exhalent samples than in the inhalant samples. Targeted metabolomics analysis revealed differences in diversity and concentration of metabolites between exhalent and off reef seawater. For example, most of the nucleosides were enriched in the exhalent seawater, while the aromatic amino acids, caffeine and the nucleoside xanthosine were elevated in the off reef water samples. Although the metabolic profile of the exhalent seawater was unique, the impact of sponge metabolism on the overall reef DOM profile was spatially limited in our study. There were also no significant differences in the metabolic profiles of exhalent water between the two sponge species, potentially indicating that there is a characteristic DOM profile in the exhalent seawater of Caribbean sponges. Additional work is needed to determine whether the impact of sponge DOM is greater in habitats with higher sponge cover and diversity. This work provides the first insight into the molecular-level impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on reef DOM and

  3. Detection of pulmonary amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, M; Rechsteiner, T; Hofer, M; Boehler, A

    2013-12-01

    Amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is usually interpreted as an indication of oropharyngeal contamination despite the fact that amylase can be found in pulmonary excretions. The aim of this study was to recruit and refine an amylase assay in order to detect amylase activity in any EBC sample and to develop a method to identify EBC samples containing amylase of pulmonary origin. EBC was collected from 40 volunteers with an EcoScreen condenser. Amylase assays and methods to discriminate between oropharyngeal and pulmonary proteins were tested and developed using matched EBC and saliva samples. Our refined 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriosid (CNP-G3) assay was 40-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive commercial assay and allowed detection of amylase activity in 30 µl of EBC. We developed a dot-blot assay which allowed detection of salivary protein in saliva diluted up to 150 000-fold. By plotting amylase activity against staining intensity we identified a few EBC samples with high amylase activity which were aligned with diluted saliva. We believe that EBC samples aligned with diluted saliva contain amylase activity introduced during EBC collection and that all other EBC samples contain amylase activity of pulmonary origin and are basically free of oropharyngeal protein contamination.

  4. Exhaled nitric oxide in childhood asthma: a review.

    PubMed

    Pijnenburg, M W H; De Jongste, J C

    2008-02-01

    As an 'inflammometer', the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (Fe(NO)) is increasingly used in the management of paediatric asthma. Fe(NO) provides us with valuable, additional information regarding the nature of underlying airway inflammation, and complements lung function testing and measurement of airway hyper-reactivity. This review focuses on clinical applications of Fe(NO) in paediatric asthma. First, Fe(NO) provides us with a practical tool to aid in the diagnosis of asthma and distinguish patients who will benefit from inhaled corticosteroids from those who will not. Second, Fe(NO) is helpful in predicting exacerbations, and predicting successful steroid reduction or withdrawal. In atopic asthmatic children Fe(NO) is beneficial in adjusting steroid doses, discerning those patients who require additional therapy from those whose medication dose could feasibly be reduced. In pre-school children Fe(NO) may be of help in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms, and may potentially allow for better targeting and monitoring of anti-inflammatory treatment.

  5. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) zinc-lead-silver deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; Seal, Robert R.; Breit, George N.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-10-28

    This report draws on previous syntheses and basic research studies of sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposits to arrive at the defining criteria, both descriptive and genetic, for sedex-type deposits. Studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins have also been used to select defining criteria. The focus here is on the geologic characteristics of sedex deposit-hosting basins that contain greater than 10 million metric tons of zinc and lead. The enormous size of sedex deposits strongly suggests that basin-scale geologic processes are involved in their formation. It follows that mass balance constraints of basinal processes can provide a conceptual underpinning for the evaluation of potential ore-forming mechanisms and the identification of geologic indicators for ore potential in specific sedimentary basins. Empirical data and a genetic understanding of the physicochemical, geologic, and mass balance conditions required for each of these elements are used to establish a hierarchy of quantifiable geologic criteria that can be used in U.S. Geological Survey national assessments.  In addition, this report also provides a comprehensive evaluation of environmental considerations associated with the mining of sedex deposits.

  6. Increased metal concentrations in exhaled breath condensate of industrial welders.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Weiss, Tobias; Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Berresheim, Hans; Henry, Jana; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Harth, Volker; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of different devices on the metal concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and to prove whether working conditions in different welding companies result in diverse composition of metallic elements. The influence of two collection devices (ECoScreen, ECoScreen2) on detection of metallic elements in EBC was evaluated in 24 control subjects. Properties of ECoScreen and a frequent use can alter EBC metal content due to contamination from metallic components. ECoScreen2 turned out to be favourable for metal assessment. Concentrations of iron, nickel and chromium in EBC sampled with ECoScreen2 were compared between non-exposed controls and industrial welders. Metal concentrations in EBC were higher in 36 welders recruited from three companies. Exposure to welding fumes could be demonstrated predominantly for increased iron concentrations. Concentrations of iron and nickel differed by working conditions, but chromium could not be detected in EBC.

  7. Exhaled breath condensate – from an analytical point of view

    PubMed Central

    Dodig, Slavica; Čepelak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the goal of many researchers is analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as noninvasively obtained sample. A total quality in laboratory diagnostic processes in EBC analysis was investigated: pre-analytical (formation, collection, storage of EBC), analytical (sensitivity of applied methods, standardization) and post-analytical (interpretation of results) phases. EBC analysis is still used as a research tool. Limitations referred to pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases of EBC analysis are numerous, e.g. low concentrations of EBC constituents, single-analyte methods lack in sensitivity, and multi-analyte has not been fully explored, and reference values are not established. When all, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical requirements are met, EBC biomarkers as well as biomarker patterns can be selected and EBC analysis can hopefully be used in clinical practice, in both, the diagnosis and in the longitudinal follow-up of patients, resulting in better outcome of disease. PMID:24266297

  8. Use of exhaled air as an improved biomonitoring method to assess perchloroethylene short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cláudia M; Menezes, Helvécio C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2017-03-22

    This paper shows the use of exhaled air as a biomonitoring method to assess perchloroethylene (PERC) environmental and occupational exposure. A sensitive, fast, and solvent free analytical method was developed to determine PERC in ambient and exhaled air of individuals occupationally exposed. The developed method used cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) as the sampling technique, and a standard permeation method to simulation of air matrix. The analysis were conducted by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The methods were validated and were found to be precise, linear and sensitive for environmental and biological monitoring. The developed methods were applied to twenty-seven sampling points spread across Belo Horizonte city, Brazil, twenty four dry cleaners, an electroplating industry, a research laboratory, and an automotive paint preparation shop. The results of ambient air analyses ranging from 14.0 to 3205.0µgm(-3) with median concentration of 599.0µgm(-3). Furthermore, sampling of exhaled air of individuals occupationally exposed presented results ranging from 6.0 to 2635.0µgm(-3) with median concentration of 325.0µgm(-3). The strong correlation observed between ambient and exhaled air (r =0.930) demonstrates that exhaled air is a suitable biomarker for evaluating occupational exposure to PERC.

  9. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method.

  10. Diagnostic Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using a Novel Sub-Millimeter Spectroscopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Branco, Daniela R.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    As many as 3000 chemicals are reported to be found in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. Present state of the art techniques used for analysis of exhaled human breath include mass spectrometry based methods, infrared spectroscopic sensors, electro chemical sensors and semiconductor oxide based testers. Some of these techniques are commercially available but are somewhat limited in their specificity and exhibit fairly high probability of false alarm. Here, we present the results of our most recent study which demonstrated a novel application of a terahertz high resolutions spectroscopic technique to the analysis of exhaled human breath, focused on detection of ethanol in the exhaled breath of a person which consumed an alcoholic drink. This technique possesses nearly ``absolute'' specificity and we demonstrated its ability to uniquely identify ethanol, methanol, and acetone in human breath. This project is now complete and we are looking to extend this method of chemical analysis of exhaled human breath to a broader range of chemicals in an attempt to demonstrate its potential for biomedical diagnostic purposes.

  11. Influence of environmental concentrations of NO on the exhaled NO test.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Vino, L; Zanolla, L; Costella, S; Vicentini, L; Boner, A L

    1998-10-01

    Measurement of levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a noninvasive method for evaluating the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Some concern in the interpretation of results of such measurement may arise from possible interference by high environmental concentrations of NO inhaled by these patients. The aim of this study was to verify whether environmental concentrations of NO in the range from 0 to 150 ppb can influence levels of exhaled NO. We tested two groups of subjects. The first group, consisting of 16 subjects, was tested when environmental levels of NO were from 0 to 3 ppb and from 20 to 60 ppb, and exhaled NO mean ppb (+/- SEM) levels were 9.81 +/- 1.43 and 9.78 +/- 1.47 (p = ns) (mean +/- SEM), respectively. The second group, consisting of 30 subjects, was tested at ambient NO concentrations of 0 to 3 ppm, 80 to 100 ppm, and 120 to 150 ppb, and for 18 of these subjects who underwent testing under all three conditions investigated, the mean levels of exhaled NO were 9.23 +/- 1.51, 7.78 +/- 1.19, and 9.33 +/- 1.55 ppb (p = ns), respectively. The results of this study suggest that significantly different ambient levels of NO have no effect on levels of exhaled NO.

  12. 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate after experimental exposure to wood smoke in humans.

    PubMed

    Murgia, N; Barregard, L; Sallsten, G; Almstrand, A C; Montuschi, P; Ciabattoni, G; Olin, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wood smoke, a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, may cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress. In this study 8-isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine before and after experimental exposure to wood smoke. The results were compared with measurements of other biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirteen subjects were exposed first to clean air and then, after 1 week, to wood smoke in an exposure chamber during 4-hour sessions. Exhaled breath condensate, exhaled nitric oxide, blood and urine were sampled before and at various intervals after exposure to wood smoke and clean air. Exhaled breath condensate was examined for 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde (MDA), while exhaled air was examined for nitric oxide, serum for Clara cell protein (CC16) and urine for 8-isoprostane. 8-isoprostane in EBC did not increase after wood smoke exposure and its net change immediately after exposure was inversely correlated with net changes in MDA (r(s)= -0.57, p= 0.041) and serum CC16 (S-CC16) (r(p)= -0.64, p= 0.020) immediately after the exposure. No correlation was found between 8-isoprostane in urine and 8-isoprostane in EBC. In this study controlled wood smoke exposure in healthy subjects did not increase 8-isoprostane in EBC.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air: a source of error, a paradox and its resolution

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Stefan; Kronseder, Angelika; Karrasch, Stefan; Neff, Petra A.; Haaks, Matz; Koczulla, Andreas R.; Reinhold, Petra; Nowak, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2. Additionally, ambient H2O2 was recorded by an atmospheric measuring device (online fluorometric measurement). H2O2 concentration in AAC was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in EBC. AAC variations were concordant with the data from the atmospheric measuring instrument. In both subjects' groups, the inhalation filter reduced H2O2 values (p<0.01). Despite generally low levels in exhaled air, analysis by a mathematical model revealed a contribution from endogenous H2O2 production. The low H2O2 levels in exhaled air are explained by the reconditioning of H2O2-containing inhaled air in the airways. Inhaled H2O2 may be one factor in the heterogeneity and limited reproducibility of study results. A valid determination of endogenous H2O2 production requires inhalation filters. PMID:27730191

  14. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air: a source of error, a paradox and its resolution.

    PubMed

    Peters, Stefan; Kronseder, Angelika; Karrasch, Stefan; Neff, Petra A; Haaks, Matz; Koczulla, Andreas R; Reinhold, Petra; Nowak, Dennis; Jörres, Rudolf A

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2. Additionally, ambient H2O2 was recorded by an atmospheric measuring device (online fluorometric measurement). H2O2 concentration in AAC was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in EBC. AAC variations were concordant with the data from the atmospheric measuring instrument. In both subjects' groups, the inhalation filter reduced H2O2 values (p<0.01). Despite generally low levels in exhaled air, analysis by a mathematical model revealed a contribution from endogenous H2O2 production. The low H2O2 levels in exhaled air are explained by the reconditioning of H2O2-containing inhaled air in the airways. Inhaled H2O2 may be one factor in the heterogeneity and limited reproducibility of study results. A valid determination of endogenous H2O2 production requires inhalation filters.

  15. The Effect of Grain Size on Radon Exhalation Rate in Natural-dust and Stone-dust Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Raj; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    Radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contributes more than 50% of the total dose from the natural sources which is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In the present work the dependence of radon exhalation rate on the physical sample parameters of stone dust and natural dust were studied. The samples under study were first crushed, grinded, dried and then passed through sieves with different pore sizes to get samples of various grain sizes (μm). The average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 5.95±2.7 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 286±36 mBqm-2 hr-1 for stone dust, and the average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 9.02±5.37 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 360±67 mBqm-2 hr-1 for natural dust. The exhalation rate was found to increase with the increase in grain size of the sample. The obtained values of radon exhalation rate for all the samples are found to be under the radon exhalation rate limit reported worldwide.

  16. Airway drug pharmacokinetics via analysis of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Esther, Charles R; Boucher, Richard C; Johnson, M Ross; Ansede, John H; Donn, Karl H; O'Riordan, Thomas G; Ghio, Andrew J; Hirsh, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Although the airway surface is the anatomic target for many lung disease therapies, measuring drug concentrations and activities on these surfaces poses considerable challenges. We tested whether mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) could be utilized to non-invasively measure airway drug pharmacokinetics and predicted pharmacological activities. Mass spectrometric methods were developed to detect a novel epithelial sodium channel blocker (GS-9411/P-680), two metabolites, a chemically related internal standard, plus naturally occurring solutes including urea as a dilution marker. These methods were then applied to EBC and serum collected from four (Floridian) sheep before, during and after inhalation of nebulized GS-9411/P-680. Electrolyte content of EBC and serum was also assessed as a potential pharmacodynamic marker of drug activity. Airway surface concentrations of drug, metabolites, and electrolytes were calculated from EBC measures using EBC:serum urea based dilution factors. GS-9411/P-680 and its metabolites were quantifiable in the sheep EBC, with peak airway concentrations between 1.9 and 3.4 μM measured 1 h after inhalation. In serum, only Metabolite #1 was quantifiable, with peak concentrations ∼60-fold lower than those in the airway (45 nM at 1 h). EBC electrolyte concentrations suggested a pharmacological effect; but this effect was not statistical significant. Analysis of EBC collected during an inhalation drug study provided a method for quantification of airway drug and metabolites via mass spectrometry. Application of this methodology could provide an important tool in development and testing of drugs for airways diseases.

  17. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Moura, C L; Artur, A C; Bonotto, D M; Guedes, S; Martinelli, C D

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for (40)K. Such data were used to estimate Ra(eq), H(ex) and I(γ), which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra(eq) and H(ex) in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces ~10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m(2)/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (=(226)Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  18. Social support as a predictor exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals across time.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Rosenfield, David; Smith, Noelle Bassi; Gorena, Tabitha L; Ritz, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Psychosocial factors such as social support and depression have long been associated with health outcomes. Elevated depressive symptoms are usually associated with worse health outcomes, whereas social support has been related to improvements in health. Nitric oxide levels are an important marker of both cardiovascular health and immune function. Research suggests that exhaled nitric oxide is affected by stress, negative affect, and depression; however, the effect of social support has not been previously explored. Thus, we sought to examine the association of social support, negative affect, and depression with exhaled nitric oxide in a group of 35 healthy individuals (10 males and 25 females) with a mean age of 20.5years across five weekly assessments. Results showed that changes in social support within individuals were positively associated with levels of exhaled nitric oxide independent of other psychosocial factors. Further exploration of the health implications of this positive relationship between airway nitric oxide and social support is necessary.

  19. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-15

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  20. Radon exhalation from sub-slab aggregate used in home construction in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lauren; Lee, Jaeyoung; Sadi, Baki; Chen, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes has been shown to result in an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The two largest contributors to indoor radon are radon in soil gas, formed from the rocks and soil surrounding the home, and building materials such as aggregate. This study measured the surface radon exhalation rates for 35 aggregate samples collected from producers across Canada. The radon exhalation rates ranged from 2.3 to 479.9 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with a mean of 80.7±112 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Using a simple, conservative analysis, the aggregate contribution to radon concentrations in an unfinished basement was determined. The maximum estimated radon concentration was 32.5±2.7 Bq m(-3), or ~16 % of the Canadian Radon Guideline. It can be concluded that under normal conditions radon exhalation from aggregate contributes very little to the total radon concentration in indoor air.

  1. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; El-Bahi, S M; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m2d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples.

  2. Application of thermal desorption to the biological monitoring of organic compounds in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Prado, C; Ibarra, I; Tortosa, J

    1993-12-24

    We have developed a thermal desorption-gas chromatographic method for the analysis of organic compounds in exhaled breath air, to be used in the biological monitoring of environmental exposure. The exhaled breath sampler is based on the concentration of compounds present in alveolar air in a solid sorbent material. Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl-ether), an inhaled anaesthetic used widely in surgery, and styrene, used in boat construction and the manufacture of fibreglass-reinforced plastics, are partially eliminated from the body in exhaled breath, samples of which can therefore be used to monitor biological exposure to these two organic compounds. Recoveries were tested in controlled atmospheres of isoflurane or styrene, with Chromosorb 106 or Tenax, respectively, as the adsorbent. We also investigated the influence of relative humidity, an important factor in breath sampling, on adsorption.

  3. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  4. Detection of ammonia in exhaled breath for clinical diagnosis- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafare, Mawahib; Dennis, J. O.; Md Khir, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents ammonia gas as a biomarker for different clinical conditions when it exceeds the normal concentration in the exhaled breath. In peculiar, detection of ammonia in human breath has the effort to investigate various practicabilities inclusive those comprising the kidneys, liver and bacterial infection of either the stomach or mouth. Laser spectroscopy, gas chromatography, photo-acoustic spectroscopy, chemical ionization, and chemical sensing are used to measure and detect ammonia gas from exhaled breath. These methods and techniques are discussed in terms of their response time and the minimum concentration detectable. Furthermore, the benefits and importance of these methods and their limitation and drawback are highlighted.

  5. The relationships among Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus exposure, exhaled nitric oxide, and exhaled breath condensate pH levels in atopic asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dah-Chin; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Syh-Jae; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated.A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)/spirometric measurements were taken and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected after sampling of the domestic environment.The highest Der p 1 concentrations were on the top of mattresses in the homes of recruited children. The floors of kitchens and living rooms had the highest Bla g 1 concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure of mattress, bedroom floor, and living room floor and eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children. The Der p 1 concentrations on the surfaces of mattress and bedroom floor were positively related to high eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children after adjusting for season. No association was found between Der p 1 exposure and EBC pH values in the recruited children.A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure and high eNO levels in atopic asthmatic children, especially in Der p 1 exposure of mattress and bedroom floor.

  6. The relationships among Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus exposure, exhaled nitric oxide, and exhaled breath condensate pH levels in atopic asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dah-Chin; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Syh-Jae; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated. A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)/spirometric measurements were taken and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected after sampling of the domestic environment. The highest Der p 1 concentrations were on the top of mattresses in the homes of recruited children. The floors of kitchens and living rooms had the highest Bla g 1 concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure of mattress, bedroom floor, and living room floor and eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children. The Der p 1 concentrations on the surfaces of mattress and bedroom floor were positively related to high eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children after adjusting for season. No association was found between Der p 1 exposure and EBC pH values in the recruited children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure and high eNO levels in atopic asthmatic children, especially in Der p 1 exposure of mattress and bedroom floor. PMID:27684812

  7. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis--a new tool for ionic analysis of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2012-12-07

    Exhaled breath condensate has been analyzed for its ionic content by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductometric detection. A simple device for collection of small volumes (100-200 μL) of exhaled breath condensate in less than 2 min was developed. A method for simultaneous determination of inorganic cations, inorganic anions and organic anions from the samples using dual-opposite end injection principle with a short fused silica capillary (35 cm, 50 μm I.D.) was developed. A background electrolyte composed of 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 2mM 18-crown-6 was used. The analysis time was less than 3 min with limits of detection reaching low μM levels for most of the anions and cations. It has been shown that changes of nitrite could be observed in acute inflammation of upper airways and in a person with diagnosed mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, while changes of other ions could also be observed. Lactate concentrations could also be monitored and about 4-fold increase of lactate concentration in exhaled breath condensate was determined following an exhaustive cycling exercise. The developed non-invasive sampling of exhaled breath condensate, followed by rapid capillary electrophoretic analysis, could be very useful in lung inflammatory disease screening as well as in monitoring fast metabolic processes such as lactate build-up and removal.

  9. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  10. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.1137 Section 84.1137 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. 84.1150 Section 84.1150 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  13. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Kina, S; Fujitani, T; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137 (arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m(-2) s(-1) and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, (238)U and (232)Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg(-1) dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg(-1) dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa.

  14. Exhaled breath metabolomics as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bos, Lieuwe D J; Weda, Hans; Wang, Yuanyue; Knobel, Hugo H; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J

    2014-07-01

    There is a need for biological markers of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Exhaled breath contains hundreds of metabolites in the gas phase, some of which reflect (patho)physiological processes. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of metabolites in exhaled breath as biomarkers of ARDS. Breath from ventilated intensive care unit patients (n=101) was analysed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry during the first day of admission. ARDS was defined by the Berlin definition. Training and temporal validation cohorts were used. 23 patients in the training cohort (n=53) had ARDS. Three breath metabolites, octane, acetaldehyde and 3-methylheptane, could discriminate between ARDS and controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.80. Temporal external validation (19 ARDS cases in a cohort of 48) resulted in an AUC of 0.78. Discrimination was insensitive to adjustment for severity of disease, a direct or indirect cause of ARDS, comorbidities, or ventilator settings. Combination with the lung injury prediction score increased the AUC to 0.91 and improved net reclassification by 1.17. Exhaled breath analysis showed good diagnostic accuracy for ARDS, which was externally validated. These data suggest that exhaled breath analysis could be used for the diagnostic assessment of ARDS.

  15. A REVIEW OF THE US EPA'S SINGLE BREATH CANISTER (SBC) METHOD FOR EXHALED VOLATILE ORGANIC BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled alveolar breath can provide a great deal of information about an individual?s health and previous exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotic materials. Because breath can be obtained noninvasively and its constituents directly reflect concentrations in the blood, its us...

  16. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and...

  17. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde as a matter of effect of exposure to airpollution in children with asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the adverse effects of oxidative stress related to air pollution is limited by the lack of biological markers of dose to the lungs. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) malondialdehyde as a biomarker of exposure to traffic-r...

  18. Influencing effect of heat-treatment on radon emanation and exhalation characteristic of red mud.

    PubMed

    Sas, Zoltán; Szántó, János; Kovács, János; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2015-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products is important for members of numerous industrial sectors. However, though the benefits of reuse are evident from an economical point of view, some compounds in these materials can have a negative effect on users' health. In this study, the radon emanation and exhalation features of red mud were surveyed using heat-treatment (100-1200 °C). As a result of the 1200°C-treated samples, massic radon exhalation capacity reduced from 75 ± 10 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) to 7 ± 4 mBq kg(-1) h(-1), approximately 10% of the initial exhalation rate. To find an explanation for internal structural changes, the porosity features of the heat-treated samples were also investigated. It was found that the cumulative pore volume reduced significantly in less than 100 nm, which can explain the reduced massic exhalation capacity in the high temperature treated range mentioned above. SEM snapshots were taken of the surfaces of the samples as visual evidence for superficial morphological changes. It was found that the surface of the high temperature treated samples had changed, proving the decrement of open pores on the surface.

  19. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  1. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  2. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  3. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  4. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  5. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  6. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel E; Beall, Cynthia M; Strohl, Kingman P; Mills, Phoebe S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator that plays a role in blood flow and oxygen delivery. Acute hypoxia down regulates NO synthesis, a response that may exacerbate hypoxic stress by decreasing blood flow. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that pulmonary NO decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia and that relatively low levels of NO at altitude are associated with greater stress as reflected in more symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). A sample of 47 healthy, adult, nonsmoking, sea-level residents provided measurements at sea level, at 2,800 m, and at 0-, 2-, and 3-h exposure times at 4,200 m altitude on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements were made of exhaled NO, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, heart rate, and reported symptoms of AMS. The partial pressure of NO concentration in exhaled breath decreased significantly from a sea level mean of 4.2 nmHg to 3.8 nmHg at 2,800 m and 3.4 nmHg at 4,200 m. NO concentration in exhaled breath did not change significantly over a 3-h exposure at 4,200 m and recovered to pre-exposure baseline upon return to sea level. There was no significant association between the level of NO exhaled and the number of self-reported symptoms of AMS during this brief exposure.

  8. [Exhaled nitric oxide in children: a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation].

    PubMed

    Cobos Barroso, Nicolás; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Sardón Prado, Olaia; Reverté Bover, Conrado; Gartner, Silvia; Korta Murua, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article is an academic review of the application in children of the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We outline the joint American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommendations for online measurement of FENO in both cooperating children and children unable to cooperate, offline measurement with uncontrolled exhalation flow rate, offline measurement with controlled exhalation flow rate using a dynamic flow restrictor, and offline measurement during tidal breathing in children unable to cooperate. This is followed by a review of the normal range of values for single-breath online measurements obtained with a chemiluminescence FENO analyzer (geometric mean, 9.7 parts per billion [ppb]; upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, 25.2 ppb). FENO values above 17 ppb have a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 80% for predicting asthma of an eosinophilic phenotype. We discuss the response of FENO values to anti-inflammatory treatment and the use of this marker in the management of asthma. Results obtained with chemiluminescence and portable electrochemical analyzers are compared. The portable devices offer the possibility--in children over 5 years of age--of accurate and universal monitoring of exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, an emerging marker of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma that facilitates diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of response to therapy.

  9. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  10. Measuring Compounds in Exhaled Air to Detect Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hattesohl, Akira; Lubbe, Dirk; Schmid, Severin; Tackenberg, Björn; Rieke, Jürgen; Maddula, Sasidhar; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Nell, Christoph; Boeselt, Tobias; Michelis, Joan; Alferink, Judith; Heneka, Michael; Oertel, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Vogelmeier, Claus; Dodel, Richard; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is diagnosed based upon medical history, neuropsychiatric examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, extensive laboratory analyses and cerebral imaging. Diagnosis is time consuming and labour intensive. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is mainly diagnosed on clinical grounds. Objective The primary aim of this study was to differentiate patients suffering from AD, PD and healthy controls by investigating exhaled air with the electronic nose technique. After demonstrating a difference between the three groups the secondary aim was the identification of specific substances responsible for the difference(s) using ion mobility spectroscopy. Thirdly we analysed whether amyloid beta (Aβ) in exhaled breath was causative for the observed differences between patients suffering from AD and healthy controls. Methods We employed novel pulmonary diagnostic tools (electronic nose device/ion-mobility spectrometry) for the identification of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, we analysed breath pattern differences in exhaled air of patients with AD, those with PD and healthy controls using the electronic nose device (eNose). Using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), we identified the compounds responsible for the observed differences in breath patterns. We applied ELISA technique to measure Aβ in exhaled breath condensates. Results The eNose was able to differentiate between AD, PD and HC correctly. Using IMS, we identified markers that could be used to differentiate healthy controls from patients with AD and PD with an accuracy of 94%. In addition, patients suffering from PD were identified with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Altogether, 3 AD patients out of 53 participants were misclassified. Although we found Aβ in exhaled breath condensate from both AD and healthy controls, no significant differences between groups were detected. Conclusion These data may open a new field in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease

  11. Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous VOCs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are byproducts of normal human metabolism and are present in exhaled breath and blood. Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and ...

  12. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  13. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis. PMID:27834896

  14. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-10

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  15. Post-operative elimination of sevoflurane anesthetic and hexafluoroisopropanol metabolite in exhaled breath: Pharmacokinetic models for assessing liver function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sevoflurane (SEV), a commonly used anesthetic agent for invasive surgery, is directly eliminated via exhaled breath and indirectly by metabolic conversion to inorganic fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), which is also eliminated in the breath. We studied the post-operativ...

  16. Measuring radon exhalation rate in two cycles avoiding the effects of back-diffusion and chamber leakage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Xiao, Detao

    2013-10-01

    This paper will present a simple method for measuring the radon exhalation rate from the medium surface in two cycles and also avoiding the effects of back-diffusion and chamber leakage. The method is based on a combination of the "accumulation chamber" technique and a radon monitor. The radon monitor performs the measurement of the radon concentration inside the accumulation chamber, and then the radon exhalation rate can be obtained by simple calculation. For reducing the systematic error and the statistical uncertainty, too short of total measurement time is not appropriate, and the first cycle time should be about 70 % of the total measurement. The radon exhalation rate from the medium surface obtained through this method is in good agreement with the reference value. This simple method can be applied to develop and improve the instruments for measuring radon exhalation rate.

  17. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-10-15

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  18. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump.

  19. The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate in children - clinical tools or scientific toys?

    PubMed

    van Mastrigt, E; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2015-07-01

    Current monitoring strategies for respiratory diseases are mainly based on clinical features, lung function and imaging. As airway inflammation is the hallmark of many respiratory diseases in childhood, noninvasive methods to assess the presence and severity of airway inflammation might be helpful in both diagnosing and monitoring paediatric respiratory diseases. At present, the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide is the only noninvasive method available to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate whether the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath (EB) and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is helpful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory diseases in children. An extensive literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PubMed on the analysis and applications of VOCs in EB and EBC in children. We retrieved 1165 papers, of which nine contained original data on VOCs in EB and 84 on biomarkers in EBC. These were included in this review. We give an overview of the clinical applications in childhood and summarize the methodological issues. Several VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC have the potential to distinguish patients from healthy controls and to monitor treatment responses. Lack of standardization of collection methods and analysis techniques hampers the introduction in clinical practice. The measurement of metabolomic profiles may have important advantages over detecting single markers. There is a lack of longitudinal studies and external validation to reveal whether EB and EBC analysis have added value in the diagnostic process and follow-up of children with respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the use of VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC as markers of inflammatory airway diseases in children is still a research tool and not validated for clinical use.

  20. Measurement of radon/thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in granite areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Sahoo, S K; Kavasi, N; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Uchida, S

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in different places in Hiroshima Prefecture were measured. Exhalation rates were measured using an accumulation chamber method. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 3 to 37 mBq m(-2) s(-1), while the thoron exhalation rate ranged from 40 to 3330 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The highest radon exhalation rate (37 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) and gamma-ray dose rate (92 nGy h(-1)) were found in the same city (Kure City). In Kure City, indoor radon and thoron concentrations were previously measured at nine selected houses using a radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). The indoor radon concentrations varied from 16 to 78 Bq m(-3), which was higher than the average value in Japan (15.5 Bq m(-3)). The indoor thoron concentration ranged from ND (not detected: below a detection limit of approximately 10 Bq m(-3)) to 314 Bq m(-3). The results suggest that radon exhalation rate from the ground is an influential factor for indoor radon concentration.

  1. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment.

  2. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  3. Modeling and experimental examination of water level effects on radon exhalation from fragmented uranium ore.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong-Jun; Dai, Xin-Tao; Ding, De-Xin; Zhao, Ya-Li

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical model of radon transport in fragmented uranium ore was established according to Fick's law and radon transfer theory in an air-water interface. The model was utilized to obtain an analytical solution for radon concentration in the air-water, two-phase system under steady state conditions, as well as a corresponding radon exhalation rate calculation formula. We also designed a one-dimensional experimental apparatus for simulating radon diffusion migration in the uranium ore with various water levels to verify the mathematical model. The predicted results were in close agreement with the measured results, suggesting that the proposed model can be readily used to determine radon concentrations and exhalation rates in fragmented uranium ore with varying water levels.

  4. Influence of the oropharyngeal microflora on the measurement of exhaled breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D G; O'Brien, J D; Hardie, J M

    1986-10-01

    We investigated the possible contribution made by oropharyngeal microfloral fermentation of ingested carbohydrate to the generation of the early, transient exhaled breath hydrogen rise seen after carbohydrate ingestion. Ten subjects ate or were sham fed carbohydrate-containing meals with and without prior chlorhexidine mouthwash during serial collection of exhaled breath and mouth hydrogen samples. Meal ingestion and sham feeding both induced significant (p less than 0.01) elevations of breath and mouth hydrogen that were virtually abolished by prior chlorhexidine mouthwash. In 7 subjects, delivery of the meal directly into the stomach via an orogastric tube did not cause a breath or mouth hydrogen rise. Oral contents incubated anaerobically in vitro with carbohydrate generated hydrogen that was again inhibited by chlorhexidine. These studies indicate that fermentation of ingested carbohydrate by oropharyngeal bacteria can contribute significantly to measured breath hydrogen values soon after meal ingestion, and may introduce avoidable error into the interpretation of serial breath hydrogen data.

  5. [Determination of proteomic and metabolic composition of exhaled breath condensate of newborns].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Chagovets, V V; Starodubtseva, N L; Ryndin, A Y; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Y I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Sukhikh, G T; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-01-01

    Here, the possibility of proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the composition of exhaled breath condensate of neonates with respiratory support. The developed method allows non-invasive collecting sufficient amount of the material for identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Samples were collected by using a condensing device that was incorporated into the ventilation system. The collected condensate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The isolated substances were identified with a use of databases for proteins and metabolites. As a result, a number of compounds that compose the exhaled breath condensate was determined and can be considered as possible biomarkers of newborn diseases or stage of development.

  6. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Minh, Timothy D C; Oliver, Stacy R; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2011-06-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ~100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects.

  7. Altered exhaled biomarker profiles in children during and after rhinovirus-induced wheeze.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, Marc P; Hashimoto, Simone; Schuurman, Annemarie C; van Driel, Janine S Repelaer; Adriaens, Nora; van Amelsfoort, Romy M; Snoeren, Tessa; Regenboog, Martine; Sprikkelman, Aline B; Haarman, Eric G; van Aalderen, Wim M C; Sterk, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Preschool rhinovirus-induced wheeze is associated with an increased risk of asthma. In adult asthma, exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) are associated with inflammatory activity. We therefore hypothesised that acute preschool wheeze is accompanied by a differential profile of exhaled VOC, which is maintained after resolution of symptoms in those children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze. We included 178 children (mean±sd age 22±9 months) from the EUROPA cohort comparing asymptomatic and wheezing children during respiratory symptoms and after recovery. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for rhinovirus by quantitative PCR. Breath was collected via a spacer and analysed using an electronic nose. Between-group discrimination was assessed by constructing a 1000-fold cross-validated receiver operating characteristic curve. Analyses were stratified by rhinovirus presence/absence. Wheezing children demonstrated a different VOC profile when compared with asymptomatic children (p<0.001), regardless of the presence (area under the curve (AUC) 0.77, 95% CI 0.07) or absence (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.05) of rhinovirus. After symptomatic recovery, discriminative accuracy was maintained in children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.06), whereas it dropped significantly in infants with non-rhinovirus-induced wheeze (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.06). Exhaled molecular profiles differ between preschool children with and without acute respiratory wheeze. This appears to be sustained in children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze after resolution of symptoms. Therefore, exhaled VOC may qualify as candidate biomarkers for early signs of asthma.

  8. Prediction of Asthma Exacerbations in Children by Innovative Exhaled Inflammatory Markers: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Dillys; Alonso, Ariel; Rijkers, Ger; Heynens, Jan; Rosias, Philippe; Muris, Jean; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background In asthma management guidelines the primary goal of treatment is asthma control. To date, asthma control, guided by symptoms and lung function, is not optimal in many children and adults. Direct monitoring of airway inflammation in exhaled breath may improve asthma control and reduce the number of exacerbations. Aim 1) To study the use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), in the prediction of asthma exacerbations in a pediatric population. 2) To study the predictive power of these exhaled inflammatory markers combined with clinical parameters. Methods 96 asthmatic children were included in this one-year prospective observational study, with clinical visits every 2 months. Between visits, daily symptom scores and lung function were recorded using a home monitor. During clinical visits, asthma control and FeNO were assessed. Furthermore, lung function measurements were performed and EBC was collected. Statistical analysis was performed using a test dataset and validation dataset for 1) conditionally specified models, receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves); 2) k-nearest neighbors algorithm. Results Three conditionally specified predictive models were constructed. Model 1 included inflammatory markers in EBC alone, model 2 included FeNO plus clinical characteristics and the ACQ score, and model 3 included all the predictors used in model 1 and 2. The area under the ROC-curves was estimated as 47%, 54% and 59% for models 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The k-nearest neighbors predictive algorithm, using the information of all the variables in model 3, produced correct predictions for 52% of the exacerbations in the validation dataset. Conclusion The predictive power of FeNO and inflammatory markers in EBC for prediction of an asthma exacerbation was low, even when combined with clinical characteristics and symptoms. Qualitative improvement of the chemical analysis of EBC may lead to a

  9. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  10. Design and evaluation of an exhaled breath sampler for biological monitoring of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Luna, A; Morente, A; Zambudio, A

    1992-04-01

    We designed a breath sampler based on a tube which collects the final portion of exhaled air. The passage of successive fractions through a layer of activated charcoal is controlled by a three-way valve. This system was validated in a controlled atmosphere of n-hexane and toluene at four concentrations between 12 and 110 mg m-3 and 12 and 115 mg m-3, respectively. Uptake volumes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.31 were tested at relative humidities of 46% and 98%. There were no significant differences in the recoveries obtained under any of the conditions tested. We confirmed the reproducibility between successive samples in volunteers and exposed workers, and found no significant differences between the different sampling conditions studied. Our system enriches the sample in an adsorbent cartridge by collecting successive fractions of end-exhaled breath from one or more exhalations until the amount required by the analytical method has been accumulated. It is portable, economical and highly operative in the field.

  11. Radon exhalation study of manganese clay residue and usability in brick production.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Tibor; Shahrokhi, Amin; Sas, Zoltán; Vigh, Tamás; Somlai, János

    2017-03-01

    The reuse of by-products and residue streams is an important topic due to environmental and financial aspects. Manganese clay is a residue of manganese ore processing and is generated in huge amounts. This residue may contain some radionuclides with elevated concentrations. In this study, the radon emanation features and the massic exhalation rate of the heat-treated manganese clay were determined with regard to brick production. From the manganese mud depository, 20 samples were collected and after homogenization radon exhalation characteristics were determined as a function of firing temperatures from 100 to 750 °C. The major naturally occurring radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th concentrations were 607 ± 34, 52 ± 6 and 40 ± 5 Bq kg(-1), respectively, comparable with normal clay samples. Similar to our previous studies a strong correlation was found between the internal structure and the radon emanation. The radon emanation coefficient decreased by ∼96% from 0.23 at 100 °C to 0.01 at 750 °C. The massic radon exhalation rate of samples fired at 750 °C reduced by 3% compared to samples fired at 100 °C. In light of the results, reusing of manganese clay as a brick additive is possible without any constraints.

  12. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    PubMed

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported.

  13. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  14. The effects of Aspergillus fumigatus challenge on exhaled and nasal NO levels.

    PubMed

    Stark, H J; Randell, J T; Hirvonen, M-R; Purokivi, M K; Roponen, M H; Tukiainen, H O

    2005-11-01

    Several studies have previously shown that exposure to indoor air microbes from moisture-damaged buildings can cause adverse health effects. Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the best-documented moulds causing health problems to those exposed. In this study, inhalation of a commercial A. fumigatus solution was assessed, to establish if it would have effects on fractional exhaled (FeNO) and nasal (FnNO) nitric oxide levels and on lung function. The results were compared with placebo challenge. A total of 28 subjects were divided into three study groups: group 1 had been exposed to occupational mould; group 2 consisted of atopic subjects; and group 3 was a control group. Some 3 h after A. fumigatus challenge, there was a considerable increase in FeNO, and a significant difference was observed between the A. fumigatus and placebo inhalations. The difference was seen in all study groups. No such differences were found in the levels of FnNO or nitrite in nasal lavage fluid. Subjects reported significantly more frequent respiratory tract symptoms after the A. fumigatus inhalation compared with placebo challenge. In conclusion, it was shown here that inhalation challenge of Aspergillus fumigatus elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. An increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide may serve as an indicator of respiratory inflammation of acute mould exposure.

  15. Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Frank; Schiller, Amanda; Ehehalt, Robert; Greule, Markus; Hartmann, Jan; Polag, Daniela

    2016-01-29

    Mammalian formation of methane (methanogenesis) is widely considered to occur exclusively by anaerobic microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately one third of humans, depending on colonization of the gut by methanogenic archaea, are considered methane producers based on the classification terminology of high and low emitters. In this study laser absorption spectroscopy was used to precisely measure concentrations and stable carbon isotope signatures of exhaled methane in breath samples from 112 volunteers with an age range from 1 to 80 years. Here we provide analytical evidence that volunteers exhaled methane levels were significantly above background (inhaled) air. Furthermore, stable carbon isotope values of the exhaled methane unambiguously confirmed that this gas was produced by all of the human subjects studied. Based on the emission and stable carbon isotope patterns of various age groups we hypothesize that next to microbial sources in the gastrointestinal tracts there might be other, as yet unidentified, processes involved in methane formation supporting the idea that humans might also produce methane endogenously in cells. Finally we suggest that stable isotope measurements of volatile organic compounds such as methane might become a useful tool in future medical research diagnostic programs.

  16. Air contamination with nitric oxide: effect on exhaled nitric oxide response.

    PubMed

    Therminarias, A; Flore, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Oddou, M F; Delaire, M; Grimbert, F

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the response of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration (ECNO) and quantity of exhaled NO over time (EVNO) in 10 healthy subjects breathing into five polyethylene bags, one in which synthetic air was free of NO and four in which NO was diluted to concentrations of 20 +/- 0.6, 49 +/- 0.8, 98 +/- 2, and 148 +/- 2 ppb, respectively. Each subject was connected to each bag for 10 min at random. Minute ventilation and ECNO were measured continuously, and EVNO was calculated continuously. ECNO and EVNO values were significantly higher for an inhaled NO concentration of 20 ppb than for NO-free air. Above 20 ppb, ECNO and EVNO increased linearly with inhaled NO concentration. It is reasonable to assume that a share of the quantity of inspired NO over time (InspVNO) because of air contamination by pollution is rejected by the ventilatory pathway. Insofar as InspVNO does not affect endogenous production or the metabolic fate of NO in the airway, this share may be estimated as being approximately one third of InspVNO, the remainder being taken by the endogenous pathway. Thus, air contamination by the NO resulting from pollution greatly increases the NO response in exhaled air.

  17. Assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile cancer biomarkers based on their physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Anton; Mochalski, Pawel; Ruzsanyi, Vera; Broza, Yoav Y; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    The current review provides an assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have been linked with cancer. Towards this end, we evaluate various physicochemical properties, such as ‘breath:air’ and ‘blood:fat’ partition coefficients, of 112 VOCs that have been suggested over the past decade as potential markers of cancer. With these data, we show that the cancer VOC concentrations in the blood and in the fat span over 12 and 8 orders of magnitude, respectively, in order to provide a specific counterpart concentration in the exhaled breath (e.g., 1 ppb). This finding suggests that these 112 different compounds have different storage compartments in the body and that their exhalation kinetics depends on one or a combination of the following factors: (i) the VOC concentrations in different parts of the body; (ii) the VOC synthesis and metabolism rates; (iii) the partition coefficients between tissue(s), blood and air; and (iv) the VOCs’ diffusion constants. Based on this analysis, we discuss how this knowledge allows modeling and simulating the behavior of a specific VOC under different sampling protocols (with and without exertion of effort). We end this review by a brief discussion on the potential role of these scenarios in screening and therapeutic monitoring of cancer. PMID:24566039

  18. Effect of gravity on lung exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogliaghi, S.; Krasney, J. A.; Pendergast, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and during exercise. Ten sedentary males were studied during exercise performed in air and WI. Nine subjects were studied at 1 and 2 Gz. Resting NO concentrations in exhaled air ([NO]) were 16.3 +/- 8.2 ppb (air). 15 +/- 8.2 ppb (WI) and 17.4 +/- 5 ppb (2 Gz). VNO (ppb/min) was calculated as [NO]VE and was unchanged at rest by either WI or 2 Gz. VNO increased linearly with Vo2, VE and fii during exercise in air, WI and at 2 Gz. These relationships did not differ among the experimental conditions. Therefore, changes in pulmonary blood flow failed to alter the output of NO exhaled from the lungs at rest or during exercise.

  19. Dependence of exhaled breath composition on exogenous factors, smoking habits and exposure to air pollutants*

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, P; Filipiak, A; Bajtarevic, A; Ager, C; Denz, H; Hilbe, W; Jamnig, H; Hackl, M; Dzien, A; Amann, A

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive disease monitoring on the basis of volatile breath markers is a very attractive but challenging task. Several hundreds of compounds have been detected in exhaled air using modern analytical techniques (e.g. proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and have even been linked to various diseases. However, the biochemical background for most of compounds detected in breath samples has not been elucidated; therefore, the obtained results should be interpreted with care to avoid false correlations. The major aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking on the composition of exhaled breath. Additionally, the potential origin of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is discussed focusing on diet, environmental exposure and biological pathways based on other’s studies. Profiles of VOCs detected in exhaled breath and inspired air samples of 115 subjects with addition of urine headspace derived from 50 volunteers are presented. Samples were analyzed with GC-MS after preconcentration on multibed sorption tubes in case of breath samples and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in the case of urine samples. Altogether 266 compounds were found in exhaled breath of at least 10% of the volunteers. From these, 162 compounds were identified by spectral library match and retention time (based on reference standards). It is shown that the composition of exhaled breath is considerably influenced by exposure to pollution and indoor-air contaminants and particularly by smoking. More than 80 organic compounds were found to be significantly related to smoking, the largest group comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons (29 dienes, 27 alkenes and 3 alkynes). On the basis of the presented results, we suggest that for the future understanding of breath data it will be necessary to carefully investigate the potential biological origin of volatiles, e.g., by means of analysis of tissues, isolated cell lines or other body fluids. In

  20. Non-invasive spatial visualization system of exhaled ethanol for real-time analysis of ALDH2 related alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ando, Eri; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hirokazu; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2011-09-21

    A novel imaging system of ethanol in exhaled breath induced by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-related alcohol metabolism has been developed. The system provides an image of ethanol distribution as chemiluminescence (CL) on an enzyme-immobilized support. The spatiotemporal change of CL generated by ethanol in exhaled breath after oral administration of ethanol was detected by employing an electron multiplier CCD (EM-CCD) camera, illustrated and analyzed. Prior to measurement of standard gaseous ethanol and ethanol in exhaled breath, the system was optimized by investigating the enzyme-immobilized supports, concentration of substrate and pH condition of Tris-HCl buffer solution. The ethanol skin patch test, a simple method as an indicator of ALDH2, was performed on healthy volunteers. Breath samples of 5 volunteers with ALDH2 (+) and 5 volunteers with ALDH2 (-) were used for exhaled ethanol analysis. Concentration-time profiles of exhaled ethanol obtained from all volunteers were analyzed over a period of 120 min after oral administration of ethanol (0.4 g per kg body weight) in the form of beer which contains 5% of alcohol. The results obtained from the system showed that the peaks of exhaled ethanol concentrations appeared at 30 min, which was considered as a rapid ethanol absorption phase following first-order kinetics. Exhaled ethanol concentrations of volunteers with ALDH2 (+) were lower than volunteers with ALDH2 (-) and the digestion of ethanol in volunteers with ALDH2 (+) was faster than in volunteers with ALDH2 (-). The eliminations were analyzed to follow zero-order kinetics with a rate constant for each group.

  1. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Cameron E; Akber, Riaz A; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Martin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably.

  2. Surfactant Protein A in Exhaled Endogenous Particles Is Decreased in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lärstad, Mona; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Per; Bake, Björn; Larsson, Sven; Ljungström, Evert; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled, endogenous particles are formed from the epithelial lining fluid in small airways, where surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in pulmonary host defense. Based on the knowledge that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) starts in the small airway epithelium, we hypothesized that chronic inflammation modulates peripheral exhaled particle SP-A and albumin levels. The main objective of this explorative study was to compare the SP-A and albumin contents in exhaled particles from patients with COPD and healthy subjects and to determine exhaled particle number concentrations. Methods Patients with stable COPD ranging from moderate to very severe (n = 13), and healthy non-smoking subjects (n = 12) were studied. Subjects performed repeated breath maneuvers allowing for airway closure and re-opening, and exhaled particles were optically counted and collected on a membrane using the novel PExA® instrument setup. Immunoassays were used to quantify SP-A and albumin. Results COPD patients exhibited significantly lower SP-A mass content of the exhaled particles (2.7 vs. 3.9 weight percent, p = 0.036) and lower particle number concentration (p<0.0001) than healthy subjects. Albumin mass contents were similar for both groups. Conclusions Decreased levels of SP-A may lead to impaired host defense functions of surfactant in the airways, contributing to increased susceptibility to COPD exacerbations. SP-A in exhaled particles from small airways may represent a promising non-invasive biomarker of disease in COPD patients. PMID:26656890

  3. Detecting Lung Diseases from Exhaled Aerosols: Non-Invasive Lung Diagnosis Using Fractal Analysis and SVM Classification

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhao, Weizhong; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Background Each lung structure exhales a unique pattern of aerosols, which can be used to detect and monitor lung diseases non-invasively. The challenges are accurately interpreting the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and quantitatively correlating them to the lung diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, we presented a paradigm of an exhaled aerosol test that addresses the above two challenges and is promising to detect the site and severity of lung diseases. This paradigm consists of two steps: image feature extraction using sub-regional fractal analysis and data classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the breath test in four asthmatic lung models. A high-fidelity image-CFD approach was employed to compute the exhaled aerosol patterns under different disease conditions. Findings By employing the 10-fold cross-validation method, we achieved 100% classification accuracy among four asthmatic models using an ideal 108-sample dataset and 99.1% accuracy using a more realistic 324-sample dataset. The fractal-SVM classifier has been shown to be robust, highly sensitive to structural variations, and inherently suitable for investigating aerosol-disease correlations. Conclusion For the first time, this study quantitatively linked the exhaled aerosol patterns with their underlying diseases and set the stage for the development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for non-invasive detection of obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:26422016

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADIUM CONTENT AND RADON EXHALATION RATE FROM SOIL SAMPLES USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNIQUES.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manjulata; Prasad, Mukesh; Joshi, Veena; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    Soil is the most important factor affecting the radon level in the human living environments. It depends not only on uranium and thorium contents but also on the physical and chemical properties of the soil. In this paper, the measurements of radium content and mass exhalation rate of radon from the soil samples collected from Uttarkashi area of Garhwal Himalaya are presented. The correlation between radium content and radon mass exhalation rate from soil has also been obtained. The radium was measured by gamma ray spectrometry, while the mass exhalation rate of radon has been determined by both active and passive methods. The radium activity in the soil of study area was found to vary from 45±7 to 285±29 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 99 Bq kg(-1) The radon mass exhalation rate was found to vary from 0.59 × 10(-5) to 2.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.4 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by passive technique and from 0.8 × 10(-5) to 3.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.5 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by active technique. The results suggest that the measured radium value is positively correlated with the radon mass exhalation rate measured with both the active and passive techniques.

  5. Development/verification of methods for measurement of exhaled breath and environmental e-vapor product aerosol.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Michael J; Wagner, Karl A; Gene Gilman, I; Beach, James B; Liu, Jianmin; Rostami, Ali A; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2017-04-01

    Concerns have been raised about the potential health effects of potential bystander exposure to exhaled aerosols from e-vapor products (EVPs). An exhaled breath collection system (EBS) was developed and analytical methods were verified for collection and analysis of exhaled breath from users of EVPs. Analytical methods were adapted and verified for collection of environmental air samples during EVP use in an exposure chamber. Analysis of constituents in exhaled breath focused on nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerin (because these are reported as the major constituents in EVPs) and selected carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde). Analysis of environmental samples included nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, 12 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 15 carbonyl compounds and 4 metals. The EBS and analytical methods used were found to be suitable for collection and analysis of the target constituents in exhaled breath. Environmental sampling for background levels of VOCs and carbonyl compounds found only acetone, acetaldehyde, benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, isoprene, methyl ethyl ketone, hexaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and toluene above the limit of quantification in some samples. None of the targeted metals were detected. Background levels of VOCs and carbonyl compounds were consistent with levels previously reported for ambient air.

  6. Application of end-exhaled breath monitoring to assess carbon monoxide exposures of wildland firefighters at prescribed burns.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Devaux, Isabelle; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke P

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February-March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  7. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  8. Development of a couple of methods for measuring radon exhalation from building materials commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Miró, C; Andrade, E; Reis, M; Madruga, M J

    2014-07-01

    Radon is considered to be the main contributor to the worldwide population exposure to natural sources of radiation and so a lot of efforts have been made in most countries to assess indoor radon concentrations. Radon exhales from the earth's surface and is part of the radioactive decay series of uranium, which is also present in building materials. In this work, measurements of radon exhalation rates in building materials commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula have been carried out by using two different methods: active and passive techniques. In the first technique, the radon exhalation rate was measured following the radon activity growth as a function of time, by using a continuous radon monitor. The second technique is based on integrated measurements by using solid-state nuclear track detectors and a Spark Counter reading equipment. The results obtained by both measuring methods were found to be consistent.

  9. Diagnosis by Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath from Lung Cancer Patients Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sakumura, Yuichi; Koyama, Yutaro; Tokutake, Hiroaki; Hida, Toyoaki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-02-04

    Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at very low concentrations (ppb level). We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs. We detected 68 VOCs as marker species using GC/MS analysis. We reduced the number of VOCs and used support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify the samples. We observed that a combination of five VOCs (CHN, methanol, CH₃CN, isoprene, 1-propanol) is sufficient for 89.0% screening accuracy, and hence, it can be used for the design and development of a desktop GC-sensor analysis system for lung cancer.

  10. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  11. Diagnosis by Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath from Lung Cancer Patients Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sakumura, Yuichi; Koyama, Yutaro; Tokutake, Hiroaki; Hida, Toyoaki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at very low concentrations (ppb level). We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs. We detected 68 VOCs as marker species using GC/MS analysis. We reduced the number of VOCs and used support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify the samples. We observed that a combination of five VOCs (CHN, methanol, CH3CN, isoprene, 1-propanol) is sufficient for 89.0% screening accuracy, and hence, it can be used for the design and development of a desktop GC-sensor analysis system for lung cancer. PMID:28165388

  12. Allergic asthma exhaled breath metabolome: a challenge for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, M; Perestrelo, R; Barros, A S; Bilelo, M J; Morête, A; Câmara, J S; Rocha, S M

    2012-09-07

    Allergic asthma represents an important public health issue, most common in the paediatric population, characterized by airway inflammation that may lead to changes in volatiles secreted via the lungs. Thus, exhaled breath has potential to be a matrix with relevant metabolomic information to characterize this disease. Progress in biochemistry, health sciences and related areas depends on instrumental advances, and a high throughput and sensitive equipment such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was considered. GC×GC-ToFMS application in the analysis of the exhaled breath of 32 children with allergic asthma, from which 10 had also allergic rhinitis, and 27 control children allowed the identification of several hundreds of compounds belonging to different chemical families. Multivariate analysis, using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis in tandem with Monte Carlo Cross Validation was performed to assess the predictive power and to help the interpretation of recovered compounds possibly linked to oxidative stress, inflammation processes or other cellular processes that may characterize asthma. The results suggest that the model is robust, considering the high classification rate, sensitivity, and specificity. A pattern of six compounds belonging to the alkanes characterized the asthmatic population: nonane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, decane, 3,6-dimethyldecane, dodecane, and tetradecane. To explore future clinical applications, and considering the future role of molecular-based methodologies, a compound set was established to rapid access of information from exhaled breath, reducing the time of data processing, and thus, becoming more expedite method for the clinical purposes.

  13. Influence of the porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate of concrete.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem; de Rooij, Mario

    2011-02-01

    The composition of 23 concrete mixtures was varied in five separate series to evaluate the influence of porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate. In each series, a range in porosities is obtained by varying (1) the amount of cement, (2) type of cement (Portland or blast furnace slag cement), (3) the amount of water at a fixed cement level, (4) addition of an air entraining agent, or (5) the amount of recycled aggregates. The porosities ranged from 1% to 16%. The ²²²Rn exhalation rate is normalized to the ²²⁶Ra activity concentration and expressed as the ²²²Rn release factor to eliminate the effect of differences in ²²⁶Ra activity concentrations among the various concrete mixtures. Since most ²²²Rn originates from the cement, a ²²²Rn release factor based on the amount of ²²⁶Ra introduced by the cements appeared to be more adequate. Although the methods to attain the porosities in the concrete mixtures differ widely, this cement-related factor corresponds well with the capillary porosity of the mixtures. Since the water-to-cement ratio of the fresh paste is a good indicator of the capillary porosity, this is the guiding factor in the fabrication of concretes low in ²²²Rn exhalation. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the less capillary pore area will be available from which ²²²Rn can emanate from the mineral matrix into the pore system. The good correlation between the cement-based ²²²Rn release factor and literature data on the internal capillary pore area support the results of this study.

  14. Comparison between exhaled and sputum oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, M.; Pignatti, P.; Manini, P.; Andreoli, R.; Goldoni, M.; Poppa, M.; Moscato, G.; Balbi, B.; Mutti, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare aldehyde levels resulting from lipid peroxidation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and induced sputum (IS) supernatant of subjects with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aldehydes (malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein, n-hexanal (C6), n-heptanal (C7), n-nonanal (C9), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE)) in both biological fluids were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MDA concentrations in sputum were 132.5 nM (82.5–268.8) and 23.7 nM (9–53.7) in EBC. Similarly, C6, C7 and C9 concentrations in IS were 1.5–4.7-fold higher than in EBC. Acrolein levels were 131.1 nM (55.6–264.6) in IS and 45.3 nM (14.4–127.1) in EBC. The concentrations of HNE and HHE in IS were not significantly different from the levels in EBC. Aldehyde levels in EBC did not show any correlation with aldehyde levels in IS or with differential sputum cellular count. In COPD, MDA in EBC, but not its IS counterpart, was negatively correlated with the severity of disease. In conclusion, the data presented here show that aldehydes can be detected in both exhaled breath condensate and supernatant of induced sputum, but that their relative concentrations are different and not correlated with each other. Therefore, with regard to lipid peroxidation products, exhaled breath condensate and induced sputum must be considered as independent techniques. PMID:15572547

  15. Relationship between decreased oxyhaemoglobin saturation and exhaled nitric oxide during exercise.

    PubMed

    Sheel, A W; Edwards, M R; McKenzie, D C

    2000-06-01

    Decreases in oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) are frequently observed in highly trained male endurance athletes during heavy work and has been termed exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH). Ventilation perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching and diffusion limitations are thought to be responsible. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, is present in the exhaled air of resting and exercising humans. Endogenously produced NO is thought to play a role in VA/Q matching and maintenance of low pulmonary vascular resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between exhaled NO and EIH. It was hypothesized that athletes with EIH would have lower NO levels compared with non-EIH athletes. Eighteen highly trained male cyclists (VO2max=67.7 +/- 5.2 mL kg-1 min-1, mean +/- SD) were divided into normal (NORM, n=12, SaO2= 93.9 +/- 0.8) or low (LOW, n=6, SaO2=90.3 +/- 1.0) group, based on significantly different peak exercise SaO2 values (P < 0.05). All other descriptive and physiological characteristics were similar between the groups. Subjects performed a ramped cycle test to exhaustion breathing NO-free gas. The concentration (CNO) and production rate (VNO) of NO were determined from mixed gas samples at rest and during exercise at 100, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 450 W using a chemiluminescent analyser. CNO remained unchanged from resting values in all subjects. VNO increased significantly during exercise in all subjects but was not different between LOW and NORM groups. The correlation between change in SaO2 and VNO from rest to maximal exercise was not significant (r=-0.12, P > 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that exhaled NO is not related to decreased SaO2 during heavy exercise in highly trained male cyclists.

  16. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation), 40 (normoventilation), and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation). As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A) ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B) ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation) was 11.5 (0.8) ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8) ppm during hyperventilation (p < 0.01) and increased to 11.9 (0.8) ppm during hypoventilation (p < 0.01). eCO changes were less pronounced than the correspondent etCO2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase). Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p < 0.01), while environmental CO levels did not affect eCO measurement. Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice PMID:20030802

  17. Exhaled flow monitoring can detect bronchial flap-valve obstruction in a mechanical lung model.

    PubMed

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R; Barker, S J

    1995-08-01

    Flap-valve obstruction to expiratory flow (V) in a major bronchus can result from inspissated secretions, blood, or foreign body. During inhalation, increasing airway caliber preserves inspired V past the obstruction; during exhalation, decreasing airway diameter causes airflow obstruction and even frank gas trapping. We reasoned that the resultant sequential, biphasic exhalation of the lungs would be best detected by measuring exhaled V versus time. Accordingly, we designed an airway obstruction element in a mechanical lung model to examine flap-valve bronchial obstruction. A mechanical lung simulator was ventilated with a pressure-limited flow generator, where f = 10/min, tidal volume = 850 mL, and respiratory compliance = 40 mL/cm H2O. Airway V (pneumotachometer) and pressure (P) were digitally sampled for 1 min. Then, the circumference of the diaphragm in a respiratory one-way valve was trimmed to generate unidirectional resistance to expiratory V. Measurement sequences were repeated after this flap-valve was interposed in the right "main-stem bronchus." Integration of airway V versus time generated changes in lung volume. During flap-valve obstruction of the right bronchus, the V-time plot revealed preservation of peak expired flow from the normal lung, followed by retarded and decreased flow from the obstructed right lung. Gas trapping of the obstructed lung occurred during conditions of decreased expiratory time and increased expiratory resistance. Airway P could not differentiate between bronchial and tracheal flap-valve obstruction because P decreased abruptly in both conditions. The flow-volume loop displayed less distinctive changes than the flow-time plot, in part because the flow-volume loop was data (flow) plotted against its time integral (volume), with loss of temporal data. In this mechanical lung model, we conclude that bronchial flap-valve obstruction was best detected by the flow-time plot, which could measure the sequential emptying of the

  18. Anodic alumina coating for extraction of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Zou, LiangYuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a facile and highly sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. For the purpose, a highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina coating was prepared by a two-step anodic oxidization method based on aluminum substrate. To have a good knowledge of the fiber, some features were characterized and the results indicate that the coating has several advantages, including excellent chemical and thermal stability, high mechanical strength, large surface area and good extraction performance. In addition, some parameters related to extraction efficiency were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the coating was used to quantitatively extract volatile organic compounds. Good linearity and wide linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9933 to 0.9999. The detection limits of benzene homologues, aldehydes and ketones were between 0.7 and 3.4 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (n=5) ranged from 1.8 to 15.0%. Satisfied recovery (89-115%) was obtained at two spiked concentration levels. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled vapor samples of lung cancer patients and the controls, and the results were statistically analyzed with Independent-Sample T Test. The proposed method exhibits some outstanding merits, including convenience, non-invasion, low cost and sensitivity. It provides a potential tool for rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath.

  19. Gene promoter methylation assayed in exhaled breath, with differences in smokers and lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need for new, noninvasive risk assessment tools for use in lung cancer population screening and prevention programs. Methods To investigate the technical feasibility of determining DNA methylation in exhaled breath condensate, we applied our previously-developed method for tag-adapted bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing (tBGS) for mapping of DNA methylation, and adapted it to exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from lung cancer cases and non-cancer controls. Promoter methylation patterns were analyzed in DAPK, RASSF1A and PAX5β promoters in EBC samples from 54 individuals, comprised of 37 controls [current- (n = 19), former- (n = 10), and never-smokers (n = 8)] and 17 lung cancer cases [current- (n = 5), former- (n = 11), and never-smokers (n = 1)]. Results We found: (1) Wide inter-individual variability in methylation density and spatial distribution for DAPK, PAX5β and RASSF1A. (2) Methylation patterns from paired exhaled breath condensate and mouth rinse specimens were completely divergent. (3) For smoking status, the methylation density of RASSF1A was statistically different (p = 0.0285); pair-wise comparisons showed that the former smokers had higher methylation density versus never smokers and current smokers (p = 0.019 and p = 0.031). For DAPK and PAX5β, there was no such significant smoking-related difference. Underlying lung disease did not impact on methylation density for this geneset. (4) In case-control comparisons, CpG at -63 of DAPK promoter and +52 of PAX5β promoter were significantly associated with lung cancer status (p = 0.0042 and 0.0093, respectively). After adjusting for multiple testing, both loci were of borderline significance (padj = 0.054 and 0.031). (5) The DAPK gene had a regional methylation pattern with two blocks (1)~-215~-113 and (2) -84 ~+26); while similar in block 1, there was a significant case-control difference in methylation density in block 2 (p = 0.045); (6)Tumor stage and histology did not impact on the

  20. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  1. The role of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and obesity in determining leptin in the exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, G E; Resta, O; Pergola, G De; Sabato, Roberto; Foschino Barbaro, M P

    2010-09-01

    Leptin plays a key role in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Leptin production in human airways has been previously evaluated by measuring leptin concentration in the exhaled breath condensate and in the induced sputum. The aim was to study leptin expression in the cells of induced sputum and in exhaled breath condensate of subjects with OSAS. Moreover, leptin concentrations in the blood were measured in the same groups of subjects. We enrolled four groups of patients: (1) obese patients with OSAS (OO); (2) non-obese patients with OSAS (NOO); (3) obese patients without OSAS (ONO); and (4) non-obese subjects without OSAS (C). Leptin expression was evaluated by immunocytochemistry in the sputum cells of the enrolled subjects. The concentrations of leptin in the exhaled breath condensate and plasma were measured by using a specific enzyme immunoassay. Leptin protein expression and the percentage of macrophages and neutrophils expressing leptin were higher in the induced sputum of OO, NOO and ONO patients than in C. Leptin concentrations in the exhaled breath condensate were significantly higher in OO patients (5.12 (3.8-6.6) ng ml(-1)) than in NOO (4.1 (3.9-5.2) ng ml(-1)) and ONO (4.2 (3.6-5.0) ng ml(-1)) patients. The concentration of leptin in plasma was significantly more elevated in OO (36 (24-65.9) ng ml(-1)) than in NOO (30.2 (12.4-51.4) ng ml(-1)), whereas it was not significantly different in ONO patients. This study showed that leptin in sputum and in the exhaled breath condensate is higher in obese patients with OSAS than in obese subjects without OSAS. Moreover, different mechanisms for determining leptin concentrations in the exhaled breath condensate and the blood are suggested.

  2. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  3. The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide is influenced by airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Togores, B; Bosch, M; Agustí, A G

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) is often estimated from measurements of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COexh). This study investigates whether the presence of airflow obstruction significantly alters the relationship between COexh and COHb. Eighty-one regular smokers were prospectively studied and divided in four groups according to the presence and severity of airflow obstruction (none, mild, moderate, severe). In each subject, the authors measured in this order: 1) arterial blood gases; 2) haemoglobin concentration and COHb (by co-oxymetry); 3) COexh; 4) lung volumes; and 5) forced spirometry. The size of the measurement error (deltaCO) was calculated from the difference between COHb and COexh. Neither the smoking history nor COexh were different in the four groups of subjects studied. In contrast, deltaCO increased in parallel to the degree of airflow obstruction. DeltaCO was >2% (a threshold value normally used in the clinic to separate smokers from nonsmokers) only in patients with severe airflow obstruction. A stepwise multivariate analysis showed that both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (percentage reference) and COHb contributed significantly (p<0.0001) to predict deltaCO. This study shows that the estimation of carboxyhaemoglobin from exhaled carbon monoxide measurements can be inaccurate in patients with severe airflow obstruction. In these patients, the direct measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin seems advisable in clinical practice.

  4. [Verification of exhaled air temperature and heat flux in respiratory diseases as useful biomarker].

    PubMed

    Ito, Wataru; Chihara, Junichi

    2008-12-01

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diffuse panbronchiolitis are syndromes associated with chronic airway inflammation. In the conventional definition of inflammation, local pyrexia at the site of inflammation should be observed. However, there are very few reports that have evaluated the "heat" in inflammatory respiratory diseases. We considered that the evaluation of allergic airway inflammation such as asthma might be possible by measuring the exhaled air temperature, and devised an original device that stabilizes the flow rate, which is a very important factor for the direct measurement of heat. Moreover, an expiratory heat flux meter, which can detect a change in air temperature more precisely and immediately, was also incorporated into our original device. As a result, we succeeded in the measurement and evaluation of the heat flux and air temperature in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients, and, further, the air temperature was straightforwardly evaluated by a portable spirometer including a temperature sensor. These findings suggest that the heat flux and temperature of exhaled air can be used to objectively monitor airway inflammation noninvasively, and assist in the diagnosis/monitoring of inflammatory respiratory diseases, including asthma.

  5. Exhaled air analysis using wideband wave number tuning range infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Penkova, Olga V.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2017-01-01

    The infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and the pattern-recognition-based approach for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on the basis of absorption spectra analysis of the patient's exhaled air are presented. The study involved lung cancer patients (N=9), patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N=12), and a control group of healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (N=11). The analysis of the measured absorption spectra was based at first on reduction of the dimension of the feature space using principal component analysis; thereafter, the dichotomous classification was carried out using the support vector machine. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) was used as the reference. The estimated mean value of the sensitivity of exhaled air sample analysis by the LPAS in dichotomous classification was not less than 90% and specificity was not less than 69%; the analogous results of analysis by GC-MS were 68% and 60%, respectively. Also, the approach to differential diagnostics based on the set of SVM classifiers usage is presented.

  6. Measurement of acetaldehyde in exhaled breath using a laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Pratyuma C.; Roller, Chad B.; Namjou, Khosrow; Jeffers, James D.; Faramarzalian, Ali; Salas, Rodolfo; McCann, Patrick J.

    2007-07-01

    A high-resolution liquid-nitrogen-free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system was used to perform real-time measurement of acetaldehyde concentrations in human exhaled breath following ingestion of an alcoholic beverage. Acetaldehyde absorption features were measured near 5.79 μm (1727 cm-1) using a IV-VI semiconductor laser, a 100 m long path optical gas cell, and second- harmonic detection coupled with wavelength modulation. Acetaldehyde levels were measured with a minimum detection limit of 80 ppb for 5 s integration time. The variations in exhaled acetaldehyde levels over time were analyzed prior to and following ingestion of two different amounts of white wine. A method to calibrate acetaldehyde measurements internally using water vapor absorption lines was investigated to eliminate the need for system calibration with gas standards. The potential of a TDLAS system to be used as a noninvasive clinical tool for measurements of large volatile compounds with possible applications in cancer detection is demonstrated.

  7. Feasibility of a new method to collect exhaled breath condensate in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Rosias, Philippe P R; Robroeks, Charlotte M; van de Kant, Kim D; Rijkers, Ger T; Zimmermann, Luc J; van Schayck, Constant P; Heynens, Jan W; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising non-invasive method to assess respiratory inflammation in adults and children with lung disease. Especially in pre-school children, condensate collection is hampered by long sampling times because of open-ended collection systems. We aimed to assess the feasibility of condensate collection in pre-school children using a closed glass condenser with breath recirculation system, which also collects the residual non-condensed exhaled breath, and subsequently recirculates it back into the condenser. Condensate was collected before and after breath recirculation in 70 non-sedated pre-school children with and without recurrent wheeze. Cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α) were measured in 50 μl samples using ultrasensitive multiplexed liquid bead array. The success rate of condensate collection increased from 64% (without recirculation) to 83% (after breath recirculation), and mean condensate volume from 214 to 465 μl respectively. Detection of cytokines was successful in 95-100% of samples. Cytokine concentrations before and after breath recirculation were not different (p > 0.232). In asthmatic children, only TNF-α concentrations were significantly decreased, compared to non-asthmatics. In pre-school children, the collection of EBC is feasible using a new closed glass condenser with breath recirculation system. This new method may help to assess - non-invasively - cytokine profiles in asthmatic and non-asthmatic pre-school children.

  8. A review of the USEPA's single breath canister (SBC) method for exhaled volatile organic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Andrew B; Pleil, Joachim D

    2002-01-01

    Exhaled alveolar breath can provide a great deal of information about an individual's health and previous exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotic materials. Because breath can be obtained non-invasively and its constituents directly reflect concentrations in the blood, its use has many potential applications in the field of biomarker research. This paper reviews the utility and application of the single breath canister (SBC) method of alveolar breath collection and analysis first developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the 1990s. This review covers the development of the SBC technique in the laboratory and its application in a range of field studies. Together these studies specifically show how the SBC method (and exhaled breath analysis in general) can be used to clearly demonstrate recent exposure to volatile organic compounds, to link particular activities to specific exposures, to determine compound-specific uptake and elimination kinetics, and to assess the relative importance of various routes of exposure (i.e. dermal, ingestion, inhalation) in multi-pathway scenarios. Specific investigations covered in this overview include an assessment of exposures related to the residential use of contaminated groundwater, exposures to gasoline and fuel additives at self-service gas stations, swimmers' exposures to trihalomethanes, and occupational exposures to jet fuel.

  9. Endogenous CO monitoring in exhalation with tunable diode lasers: applications to clinical and biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; D'yachenko, Alexander I.

    1999-07-01

    Middle IR tunable diode lasers were applied to studies of pulmonary excretion of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO). Variations of the CO content level in exhaled air of healthy nonsmokers were investigated for different environmental conditions with the applied laser technique. Correlation of the obtained data with atmospheric CO contamination and elevated oxygen content were studied as well as diurnal variations of the endogenous CO in exhalation was observed. Criteria for correct conditions of the endogenous CO detection in breath could be derive don this basis. Developed laser approach and methods were applied for the analysis of the excreted CO level in different diseases like bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia and hepatitis. Laser based close-to-real-time monitoring of the endogenous CO elimination with breath in the course of different dynamic tests was demonstrated to be informative in studies of blood oxygen transport and pH variations in tissues for different challenges tests in human physiology.

  10. Characterizations of particle size distribution of the droplets exhaled by sneeze.

    PubMed

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G; Huang, Q Y

    2013-11-06

    This work focuses on the size distribution of sneeze droplets exhaled immediately at mouth. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the experiment and 44 sneezes were measured by using a laser particle size analyser. Two types of distributions are observed: unimodal and bimodal. For each sneeze, the droplets exhaled at different time in the sneeze duration have the same distribution characteristics with good time stability. The volume-based size distributions of sneeze droplets can be represented by a lognormal distribution function, and the relationship between the distribution parameters and the physiological characteristics of the subjects are studied by using linear regression analysis. The geometric mean of the droplet size of all the subjects is 360.1 µm for unimodal distribution and 74.4 µm for bimodal distribution with geometric standard deviations of 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. For the two peaks of the bimodal distribution, the geometric mean (the geometric standard deviation) is 386.2 µm (1.8) for peak 1 and 72.0 µm (1.5) for peak 2. The influences of the measurement method, the limitations of the instrument, the evaporation effects of the droplets, the differences of biological dynamic mechanism and characteristics between sneeze and other respiratory activities are also discussed.

  11. Exhaled Metallic Elements and Serum Pneumoproteins in Asymptomatic Smokers and Patients With COPD or Asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Antonio; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Bernard, Alfred; Apostoli, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives The aim of this study was to characterize the elemental composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in order to identify new biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in COPD patients. Serum pneumoproteins were used as lung-specific biomarkers of effect. Design EBC was obtained from 50 healthy subjects, 30 healthy smokers, 30 asthmatics, and 50 patients with stable COPD, and was collected by cooling exhaled air. Trace elements and toxic metals in the samples were measured by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The serum pneumoproteins were immunoassayed. Results The EBC of COPD subjects had higher levels of such toxic elements as lead, cadmium, and aluminum, and lower levels of iron and copper, than that of the nonsmoking control subjects. There were no between-group differences in surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-B levels. Clara-cell protein and SP-D levels were negatively and positively influenced, respectively, by tobacco smoke. Conclusions Our results show that toxic metals and transition elements are detectable in the EBC of studied subjects. We propose new biomarkers of exposure as a means of assessing the target tissue dose of carcinogenic and pneumotoxic substances from tobacco smoke or polluted workplaces, and the use of the transition elements involved in redox systems of oxidative stress as disease biomarkers associated with effect or susceptibility. Together with biomarkers of effect, such as serum pneumoproteins, the elemental composition of EBC may be clinically useful in distinguishing similar diseases. PMID:16685021

  12. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Simona M; Kiss, Rudolf; Hekkert, Sacco te Lintel; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J M; Risby, Terence H; Marczin, Nandor

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (> 30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (> 10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene.

  13. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  14. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (<30 Da) with low proton affinity and collision-induced dissociation efficiency, which are usually poorly visible by conventional ion trap mass spectrometers. Long-term quantitative profiling of eNO by EESI-MS opens new possibilities for the research of human metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  15. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Hanh; Duong-Thi-Ly, Huong; Thom, Vu Thi; Pham-Thi-Hong, Nhung; Dinh, Long Doan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong; Craig, Timothy John; Duong-Quy, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam), were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT), and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years) were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05). FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004). Five of the 32 subjects (15.6%) had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP). In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05). The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment (17±8 ppb vs 26±25 ppb; P<0.05). Significant correlations between inhaled corticosteroid doses and FENO levels occurred at 1 and 3 months (r=0.415, P=0.007; r=0.396, P=0.010; respectively). There were no correlations between FENO levels, ACT, and daily use of salbutamol. After 3 months, asthma remained uncontrolled in 22.2% of children. Conclusion The measurement of FENO levels is a useful and feasible tool to predict clinical, biological, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. PMID

  16. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  17. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Jones, Andrew M.; Smith, David; Smyth, Alan R.; Southern, Kevin W.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa) infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range) age was 8.0 (5.0–12.2) years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI) of 0.19 (0.15–0.23) cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI) was 3.1 (2.6–3.6), which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection. PMID:27730156

  18. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  19. Use of exhaled breath condensate endpoints for examination of Body Mass Index as a susceptibility factor to diesel exhaust.

    EPA Science Inventory

    High and low Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk factor for effects (e.g., premature mortality) induced by exposure to common air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Diesel exhaust contributes to particulate matter levels. We examined lung responses using the exhaled bre...

  20. Long-term temporal variability of the radon-222 exhalation flux from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Doering, Che

    2016-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation flux densities from two different substrates of several metres thickness, waste rock and waste rock mixed with approximately 30% lateritic material, were measured over a period of five years in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Fourteen measurement campaigns using activated charcoal canisters (n > 1000) covered both dry and wet seasons and showed differences in seasonal and long term trends of the (222)Rn exhalation flux densities normalised to the (226)Ra activity concentrations of the substrate. Dry season (222)Rn exhalation was generally higher for the mixed substrate, due to the larger fraction of fines. Seasonality established within the first year of landform construction on the mixed substrate, due to the higher water holding capacity of the lateritic material. In contrast, waste rock only shows no seasonality until years four and five after construction, when average normalised dry season (222)Rn exhalation flux densities from waste rock increase to values (0.47 ± 0.06 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) similar to the mixed substrate (0.64 ± 0.08 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)), likely due to an increase in fines from rapid weathering of the schistose waste rock. Volumetric water content has been used to parametrize relative (222)Rn exhalation and we determined that wet season (222)Rn exhalation is about 40% of the dry season exhalation.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR RADON-THORON IN AIR AND EXHALATION FROM SOIL IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF WESTERN HARYANA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nisha; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sushil; Chauhan, R P

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of indoor radon and thoron is important because the inhalation of radon-thoron and their daughters contributes more than 50 % of the total dose from natural sources. One of the important parameters to find out the contribution of soil and building materials towards indoor radon is radon exhalation rates, which can be used for estimation of indoor radon levels. The indoor radon and thoron levels from the air and radon exhalation rates from soil samples collected from two districts (Hisar and Fatehabad) of Western Haryana are measured using pin-hole-based radon-thoron dosimeter and LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector by canister technique. The results show that the indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 11 to 112 and 11 to 80 Bq m(-3), while for Fatehabad district from 5 to 24 and 59 to 105 Bq m(-3), respectively, in summer season. In winter season, indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 15 to 43 and 32 to 102 Bq m(-3), while for Fatehabad district from 18 to 31 and 11 to 80 Bq m(-3), respectively. The indoor radon levels of 95 % locations lie well below the limit recommended by International Commission of Radiation Protection, 2011. The radon mass exhalation rate varied from 6 to 56 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples were lower than the worldwide average, i.e. 56 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) There exists a poor correlation between indoor radon and exhalation rates. More investigations of measurement of radionuclide contents from rock and stone of study area can improve the understanding.

  2. Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  3. A comparative study of the indoor radon level with the radon exhalation rate from soil in Alexandria city.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Zaher, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of the radiological risk related to the inhalation of radon and radon its progeny is based mainly on the integrated measurement of radon in both indoor and outdoor environments. The exhalation of radon from the earth's crust and building materials forms the main source of radon in the indoor environment. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of health risk assessment. In this comparative study, the indoor radon level, radium content, radon exhalation rate and concentration of soil radon are measured using the Can Technique. Soil samples were collected simultaneously from different geological formations of the same area for laboratory measurement of the radon exhalation rate. The radon exhalation rate was measured in the laboratory using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The indoor radon concentrations in this study area were found to vary from 44±9 to 132±31 Bq m(-3) with an average of 72±29 Bq m(-3). The seasonal variations of the indoor radon reveal the maximum values in the winter and in summer in different dwellings of Alexandria city. The annual effective dose varies from 0.75 to 2.2 mSv with an average value of 1.34 mSv. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary in the ranges 8.31-233.70×10(-3) Bq kg(-1) h(-1), 0.48-15.37 Bq m(-2) h(-1) with an average 47.97×10(-3) Bq kg(-1) h(-1), (3.14 Bq m(-2) h(-1)). The radium content in soil varies from 3.14 to 39.60 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 11.55 Bq kg(-1). The significance of this study is discussed in details from the point of view of radiation protection.

  4. Internal exposure from building materials exhaling (222)Rn and (220)Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content.

    PubMed

    Ujić, Predrag; Celiković, Igor; Kandić, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Durasević, Mirjana; Dragosavac, Dusan; Zunić, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    The main scope of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing radon and thoron exhalation measurements from building materials in the regulating frame. Currently (2009), such a regulation of this kind of exposure is not explicitly included in the Serbian regulating network. To this end, this work reports concentration measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials used in Serbia. Following detailed analysis, it was noticed that both internal exposures to radon and/or thoron exhaling from building materials may exceed external exposures to their precursors contained therein.

  5. Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during exercise assisted by noninvasive ventilation with plateau exhalation valve

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yong-er; Lin, Zhi-min; Hua, Dong-ming; Jiang, Ying; Huo, Ya-ting; Luo, Qun; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation with a plateau exhalation valve (PEV) is often used as an adjunct to exercise to achieve a physiologic training effect in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, during exercise, with the increase of exhalation flow and respiratory rate and limited capability of PEV to exhale gases out of the circuit, it is still unknown whether CO2 rebreathing occurs in COPD patients ventilated during exercise assisted by single-limb circuit with a PEV. A maximal symptom-limited cycle exercise test was performed while ventilated on pressure support (inspiratory:expiratory pressure 14:4 cmH2O) in 18 male patients with stable severe COPD (mean ± standard deviation, forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 29.5%±6.9% predicted). At rest and during exercise, breathing pattern, mean expiratory flow, mean expiratory flow of PEV, and the mean inspiratory fraction of CO2 (tidal fractional concentration of inspired CO2 [FiCO2]) reinsufflated from the circuit was measured for each breath. In comparison with rest, with the significant increase of mean expiratory flow (0.39±0.15 vs 0.82±0.27 L/s), fractional concentration of end-tidal CO2 (2.6%±0.7% vs 5.5%±0.6%), and the significant decrease of mean expiratory flow of PEV (0.41±0.02 vs 0.39±0.03 L/s), tidal FiCO2 significantly increased at peak exercise (0.48%±0.19% vs 1.8%±0.6%) in patients with stable severe COPD. The inflection point of obvious CO2 rebreathing was 0.67±0.09 L/s (95% confidence interval 0.60–0.73 L/s). Ventilated by a single-limb tubing with PEV caused CO2 rebreathing to COPD patients during exercise. Patients with mean expiratory flow >0.60–0.73 L/s may be predisposed to a higher risk of CO2 rebreathing. PMID:28144134

  6. Clinical application of exhaled nitric oxide measurement in pediatric lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non invasive method for assessing the inflammatory status of children with airway disease. Different ways to measure FeNO levels are currently available. The possibility of measuring FeNO levels in an office setting even in young children, and the commercial availability of portable devices, support the routine use of FeNO determination in the daily pediatric practice. Although many confounding factors may affect its measurement, FeNO is now widely used in the management of children with asthma, and seems to provide significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than lung function or bronchial challenge tests. The role of FeNO in airway infection (e.g. viral bronchiolitis and common acquired pneumonia), in bronchiectasis, or in cases with diffuse lung disease is less clear. This review focuses on the most recent advances and the current clinical applications of FeNO measurement in pediatric lung disease. PMID:23273317

  7. Investigation of human biomarkers in exhaled breath by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitras, D. C.; Giubileo, G.; Puiu, A.

    2005-06-01

    The paper underlines the importance of breath tests in medicine and the potential of laser techniques to measure in-vivo and in real time human biomarkers. The presence of trace amounts of gases or the metabolites of a precursor in exhaled air could be linked to kidney or liver malfunction, asthma, diabetes, cancer, ulcers or neurological disorders. The measurement of some human biomarkers (ethylene, ammonia), based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods, insure very high sensitivity and selectivity. The technical characteristics of this instrument were measured to determine the detection limits (sub-ppb for ethylene). The results of ethylene release following lipid peroxidation initiated by X-ray irradiation or ingestion of radioactive compounds are presented. The possibility to extend this technique for measurement of breath ammonia levels in patients with end-stage renal disease while they are undergoing hemodialysis is discussed.

  8. Detection of acetone in exhaled breath with the use of micropreconcentrator and a commercial gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoń, Dagmara; Rydosz, Artur; Domański, Krzysztof; Maziarz, Wojciech; Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents investigation results obtained with the measuring system enabling detection of acetone with concentrations lower than 1 ppm. In the experiment we used both conventional preconcentrators made from materials such as stainless steel and quartz tubes and a micropreconcentrator manufactured in MEMS technology. The active volume of all preconcentrators was equal to enable comparisons of their performance. As a gas detector at the output of the measurement system we used both commercial semiconductor gas sensor and a mass spectrometer for comparison purposes. The obtained results show that the measurement system with micropreconcentrator and a commercial gas sensor can be used for detection of low level acetone present in the air exhaled by diabetics.

  9. [Proteomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate for diagnosis of pathologies of the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Fedorchenko, K Yu; Ryabokon, A M; Starodubtseva, N L; Popov, I A; Zavialova, M G; Anaev, E C; Chuchalin, A G; Varfolomeev, S D; Nikolaev, E N

    2015-01-01

    Study of the proteomic composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), is a promising non-invasive method for the diagnosis of the respiratory tract diseases in patients. In this study the EBC proteomic composition of the 79 donors, including patients with different pathologies of the respiratory system has been investigated. Cytoskeletal keratins type II (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and cytoskeletal keratins the type I (9, 10, 14, 15, 16) were invariant for all samples. Analyzing the frequency of occurrence of proteins in different groups of examined patients, several categories of protein have been recognized: found in all pathologies (Dermcidin, Alpha-1-microglobulin, SHROOM3), found in several pathologies (CSTA, LCN1, JUP, PIP, TXN), and specific for a single pathology (PRDX1, Annexin A1/A2). The EBC analysis by HPLC-MS/MS can be used to identify potential protein markers characteristic for pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PRDX1) and pneumonia (Annexin A1/A2).

  10. Exhaled breath condensate analysis from intubated newborns by nano-HPLC coupled to high resolution MS.

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Starodubtseva, N L; Chagovets, V V; Ryndin, A Y; Burov, A A; Popov, I A; Bugrova, A E; Dautov, R A; Tokareva, A O; Podurovskaya, Y L; Ionov, O V; Frankevich, V E; Nikolaev, E N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-03-15

    Invasiveness of examination and therapy methods is a serious problem for intensive care and nursing of premature infants. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is the most attractive biofluid for non-invasive methods development in neonatology for monitoring the status of intubated infants. The aim of the study was to propose an approach for EBC sampling and analysis from mechanically ventilated neonates. EBC collection system with good reproducibility of sampling was demonstrated. Discovery-based proteomic and metabolomic studies were performed using nano-HPLC coupled to high resolution MS. Label-free semi-quantitative data were compared for intubated neonates with congenital pneumonia (12 infants) and left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (12 infants) in order to define disease-specific features. Totally 119 proteins and 164 metabolites were found. A number of proteins and metabolites that can act as potential biomarkers of respiratory diseases were proposed and require further validation.

  11. Exhaled NO: Determinants and Clinical Application in Children With Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Bin; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously released in the airways, and the fractional concentration of NO in exhaled breath (FeNO) is now recognized as a surrogate marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation that can be measured using a noninvasive technique suitable for young children. Although FeNO levels are affected by several factors, the most important clinical determinants of increased FeNO levels are atopy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. In addition, air pollution is an environmental determinant of FeNO that may contribute to the high prevalence of allergic disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanism for airway NO production, methods for measuring FeNO, and determinants of FeNO in children, including host and environmental factors such as air pollution. We also discuss the clinical utility of FeNO in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and further useful directions using FeNO measurement. PMID:26540497

  12. The use of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in pulmonary practice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kaiser G; Mottram, Carl

    2008-05-01

    The measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a convenient, noninvasive, point-of-service office test for airway inflammation. The first half of this practice management review presents the methodological, interpretative, and clinical applications of FeNO. The second half discusses practical management issues, including current and future technology, equipment specifications, US Food and Drug Administration regulations, cost, current procedural terminology coding, and reimbursement. The measurement of FeNO is helpful in the diagnosis of asthma. It is predictive of a response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Monitoring FeNO is useful in maintaining asthma control by allowing the assessment of adherence to medication and dose titration of ICSs. An elevated level of FeNO is predictive of asthma relapse following corticosteroid withdrawal especially in children. The advances in technology, ease of use, and clinical utility will lead to greater availability, acceptance, and routine application in the care of asthma.

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide in pediatrics: what is new for practice purposes and clinical research in children?

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Cattazzo, E; Tezza, G; Peroni, D G

    2012-06-01

    Fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) is universally considered an indirect marker of eosinophilic airways inflammation, playing an important role in the physiopathology of childhood asthma. Advances in technology and standardization have allowed a wider use of FeNO in clinical practice in children from the age of four years. FeNO measurements add a new dimension to the traditional clinical tools (symptoms scores, lung function tests) in the assessment of asthma. To date a number of studies have suggested a possible use of FeNO in early identification of exacerbation risk and in inhaled corticosteroids titration. The aim of this paper is to address practical issues of interest to paediatric clinicians who are attempting to use FeNO measurements as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood airway diseases.

  14. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  15. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children.

  16. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing.

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide as a tool in managing and monitoring difficult-to-treat asthma.

    PubMed

    Bukstein, Don; Luskin, Allan T; Brooks, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Most patients diagnosed with asthma maintain control reasonably well and do not experience asthma exacerbations; however, on average, 30% of patients achieve suboptimal control, have severe or difficult-to-treat asthma, and are relatively nonresponsive to the same medications that achieve and maintain asthma control for most patients. This small patient population of difficult-to-treat or severe asthma accounts for 80% of asthma medical costs. This study was designed to determine the potential U.S. payer cost savings resulting from an asthma specialist incorporating fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) as an asthma management or monitoring tool to guide treatment of difficult-to-treat asthma patients. We present an annual medical resource use scenario typical of a difficult-to-treat asthma patient as well as five hypothetical scenarios of annual medical resource use for a difficult-to-treat asthma patient being managed with regular FE(NO) measurements in addition to current standard asthma management guidelines. We used the most conservative estimate of the potential asthma cost savings when FE(NO) measurement is used for difficult-to-treat asthma. The most likely clinical scenario assumes a 5% reduction in hospitalization and emergency department costs only. The inclusion of FE(NO) measurements to the asthma management strategy would essentially reach parity with the current standard of care, despite the additional cost of FE(NO) MEASUREMENTS: Additional scenarios were examined, all showed cost and use reduction across all medical resource usage categories. Use of exhaled NO measurement to guide asthma management, maintenance, and control in difficult-to-treat asthma would almost certainly result in cost savings to the payer.

  18. Diagnosis and Classification of 17 Diseases from 1404 Subjects via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report on an artificially intelligent nanoarray based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles and a random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for noninvasive diagnosis and classification of a number of diseases from exhaled breath. The performance of this artificially intelligent nanoarray was clinically assessed on breath samples collected from 1404 subjects having one of 17 different disease conditions included in the study or having no evidence of any disease (healthy controls). Blind experiments showed that 86% accuracy could be achieved with the artificially intelligent nanoarray, allowing both detection and discrimination between the different disease conditions examined. Analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray also showed that each disease has its own unique breathprint, and that the presence of one disease would not screen out others. Cluster analysis showed a reasonable classification power of diseases from the same categories. The effect of confounding clinical and environmental factors on the performance of the nanoarray did not significantly alter the obtained results. The diagnosis and classification power of the nanoarray was also validated by an independent analytical technique, i.e., gas chromatography linked with mass spectrometry. This analysis found that 13 exhaled chemical species, called volatile organic compounds, are associated with certain diseases, and the composition of this assembly of volatile organic compounds differs from one disease to another. Overall, these findings could contribute to one of the most important criteria for successful health intervention in the modern era, viz. easy-to-use, inexpensive (affordable), and miniaturized tools that could also be used for personalized screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of a number of diseases, which can clearly be extended by further development. PMID:28000444

  19. NMR metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate of asthmatic patients at two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Motta, Andrea; Paris, Debora; D'Amato, Maria; Melck, Dominique; Calabrese, Cecilia; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna A; Corso, Gaetano; Sofia, Matteo; Maniscalco, Mauro

    2014-12-05

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is a noninvasive method to investigate lung diseases. EBC is usually collected with commercial/custom-made condensers, but the optimal condensing temperature is often unknown. As such, the physical and chemical properties of exhaled metabolites should be considered when setting the temperature, therefore requiring validation and standardization of the collecting procedure. EBC is frequently used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, which unambiguously recognizes different pulmonary pathological states. Here we applied NMR-based metabolomics to asthmatic and healthy EBC samples collected with two commercial condensers operating at -27.3 and -4.8 °C. Thirty-five mild asthmatic patients and 35 healthy subjects were included in the study, while blind validation was obtained from 20 asthmatic and 20 healthy different subjects not included in the primary analysis. We initially analyzed the samples separately and assessed the within-day, between-day, and technical repeatabilities. Next, samples were interchanged, and, finally, all samples were analyzed together, disregarding the condensing temperature. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis of NMR spectra correctly classified samples, without any influence from the temperature. Input variables were either integral bucket areas (spectral bucketing) or metabolite concentrations (targeted profiling). We always obtained strong regression models (95%), with high average-quality parameters for spectral profiling (R(2) = 0.84 and Q(2) = 0.78) and targeted profiling (R(2) = 0.91 and Q(2) = 0.87). In particular, although targeted profiling clustering is better than spectral profiling, all models reproduced the relative metabolite variations responsible for class differentiation. This warrants that cross comparisons are reliable and that NMR-based metabolomics could attenuate some specific problems linked to standardization of EBC collection.

  20. Exhaled Nitric Oxide, Lung Function, and Exacerbations in Wheezy Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Debley, Jason S.; Stamey, David C.; Cochrane, Elizabeth S.; Gama, Kim L.; Redding, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Background There are limited data assessing the relationship between fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and lung function or exacerbations in infants with recurrent wheezing. Objectives In a longitudinal pilot study of children < 2 years old we assessed whether baseline FENO was associated with lung function, bronchodilator responsiveness, changes in lung function, or subsequent exacerbations of wheezing. Methods Forced expiratory flows and volumes using the raised-volume rapid thoracic compression method were measured in 44 infants and toddlers (mean age 15.7 mos.) with recurrent wheezing. Single-breath exhaled nitric oxide (SB-eNO) was measured at 50 mL/sec. Lung function was again measured 6 months after enrollment. Results At enrollment FEV0.5, FEF25-75, and FEF75 z-scores for the cohort were significantly less than zero. There was no correlation between enrollment SB-eNO and enrollment lung function measures. SB-eNO was higher in infants with bronchodilator responsiveness (46.1 vs. 23.6 ppb, p<0.001), and was associated with a decline in FEV0.5 (r = -.54, P = 0.001), FEF25-75 (r = -0.6, P < 0.001), and FEF75 (r = -0.55, P = 0.001) over 6 months. A 10ppb increase in SB-eNO was associated with a 0.4 z-score decline in FEV0.5, a 0.4 z-score decline in FEF25-75, and a 0.42 z-score decline in FEF75. SB-eNO was superior to lung function and bronchodilator responsivenss in predicting subsequent wheezing treated with systemic steroids. Conclusions SB-eNO may predict changes in lung function and risk of future wheezing, and holds promise as a biomarker to predict asthma in wheezy infants and toddlers. PMID:20462633

  1. Diagnosis and Classification of 17 Diseases from 1404 Subjects via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, Morad K; Amal, Haitham; Jeries, Raneen; Broza, Yoav Y; Aboud, Manal; Gharra, Alaa; Ivgi, Hodaya; Khatib, Salam; Badarneh, Shifaa; Har-Shai, Lior; Glass-Marmor, Lea; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Miller, Ariel; Badarny, Samih; Winer, Raz; Finberg, John; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Perros, Frédéric; Montani, David; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Simonneau, Gérald; Nakhoul, Farid; Baram, Shira; Salim, Raed; Hakim, Marwan; Gruber, Maayan; Ronen, Ohad; Marshak, Tal; Doweck, Ilana; Nativ, Ofer; Bahouth, Zaher; Shi, Da-You; Zhang, Wei; Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Tao, Li; Liu, Hu; Karban, Amir; Koifman, Eduard; Rainis, Tova; Skapars, Roberts; Sivins, Armands; Ancans, Guntis; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Kikuste, Ilze; Lasina, Ieva; Tolmanis, Ivars; Johnson, Douglas; Millstone, Stuart Z; Fulton, Jennifer; Wells, John W; Wilf, Larry H; Humbert, Marc; Leja, Marcis; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam

    2017-01-24

    We report on an artificially intelligent nanoarray based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles and a random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for noninvasive diagnosis and classification of a number of diseases from exhaled breath. The performance of this artificially intelligent nanoarray was clinically assessed on breath samples collected from 1404 subjects having one of 17 different disease conditions included in the study or having no evidence of any disease (healthy controls). Blind experiments showed that 86% accuracy could be achieved with the artificially intelligent nanoarray, allowing both detection and discrimination between the different disease conditions examined. Analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray also showed that each disease has its own unique breathprint, and that the presence of one disease would not screen out others. Cluster analysis showed a reasonable classification power of diseases from the same categories. The effect of confounding clinical and environmental factors on the performance of the nanoarray did not significantly alter the obtained results. The diagnosis and classification power of the nanoarray was also validated by an independent analytical technique, i.e., gas chromatography linked with mass spectrometry. This analysis found that 13 exhaled chemical species, called volatile organic compounds, are associated with certain diseases, and the composition of this assembly of volatile organic compounds differs from one disease to another. Overall, these findings could contribute to one of the most important criteria for successful health intervention in the modern era, viz. easy-to-use, inexpensive (affordable), and miniaturized tools that could also be used for personalized screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of a number of diseases, which can clearly be extended by further development.

  2. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  3. Effect of Inhaled β2-Agonist on Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mostafa; Cowan, Jan; Gray, Andrew; Brockway, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at an expiratory flow of 50mL/s (FENO50) is a marker of airway inflammation, and high levels are associated with greater response to steroid treatment. In asthma, FENO50 increases with bronchodilation and decreases with bronchoconstriction, the latter potentially causing an underestimate of the degree of airway inflammation when asthma worsens. It is unknown whether the same effect occurs in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Likewise, it is not known whether changes in airway calibre in COPD patients alter flow-independent parameters describing pulmonary nitric oxide exchange, such as the maximal flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the proximal airway compartment (J’awNO) and the distal airway/alveolar concentration of NO (CANO). We recruited 24 patients with COPD and performed FENO analysis at multiple expiratory flows before and after treatment with inhaled β2-agonist bronchodilator therapy. For the 21 patients analysed, FENO50 rose from 17.1 (1.4) ppb (geometric mean (geometric SD)) at baseline, to 19.3 (1.3) ppb after bronchodilator therapy, an increase of 2.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.7–3.6; P = 0.005). There were non-significant changes in flow-independent NO parameters. The change in FENO50 correlated positively with the change in J’awNO (rs = 0.67, P < 0.001; rs = 0.62, P = 0.002 before and after correction for axial back-diffusion respectively) following bronchodilation. Inhaled bronchodilator therapy can increase exhaled nitric oxide measurements in COPD. The standardisation of inhaled bronchodilator therapy before FENO analysis in COPD patients should therefore be considered in both research and clinical settings. PMID:27258087

  4. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Exhaled-Breath Bioaerosol Collector for Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, James J.; Koutrakis, Petros; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Martins, Marco; Pantelic, Jovan; Milton, Donald K.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the aerosol mode for transmission of influenza is unknown. Understanding the role of aerosols is essential to developing public health interventions such as the use of surgical masks as a source control to prevent the release of infectious aerosols. Little information is available on the number and size of particles generated by infected persons, which is partly due to the limitations of conventional air samplers, which do not efficiently capture fine particles or maintain microorganism viability. We designed and built a new sampler, called the G-II, that collects exhaled breath particles that can be used in infectivity analyses. The G-II allows test subjects to perform various respiratory maneuvers (i.e. tidal breathing, coughing, and talking) and allows subjects to wear a mask or respirator during testing. A conventional slit impactor collects particles > 5.0 μm. Condensation of water vapor is used to grow remaining particles, including fine particles, to a size large enough to be efficiently collected by a 1.0 μm slit impactor and be deposited into a buffer-containing collector. We evaluated the G-II for fine particle collection efficiency with inert particle aerosols and evaluated infective virus collection using influenza A virus aerosols. Testing results showed greater than 85% collection efficiency for particles greater than 50nm and influenza virus collection comparable with a reference SKC BioSampler®. The new design will enable determination of exhaled infectious virus generation rate and evaluate control strategies such as wearing a surgical type mask to prevent the release of viruses from infected persons. PMID:23418400

  5. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Pako, Judit; Montvai, David; Kovacs, Dorottya; Koller, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-12-15

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a widely measured non-invasive marker of airway acidity. However, some methodological aspects have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on EBC pH in attempt to better standardize its measurement. Seventeen healthy subjects (24  ±  2 years, 6 men, 11 women) participated in the study. EBC collection and capillary blood glucose measurements were performed before as well as 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized OGTT test. The rate of respiratory droplet dilution and pH were evaluated in EBC. Blood glucose significantly increased at 30 min and maintained elevation after 60 and 120 min following OGTT. Compared to baseline (7.99  ±  0.25) EBC pH significantly decreased immediately after OGTT (7.41  ±  0.47); this drop sustained over 30 (7.44  ±  0.72) and 60 min (7.62  ±  0.44) without a significant difference at 120 min (7.78  ±  0.26). No change was observed in the rate of respiratory droplet dilution. There was no relationship between blood glucose and EBC pH values. Sugar intake may significantly decrease EBC pH. This effect needs to be considered when performing EBC pH studies. Further experiments are also warranted to investigate the effect of diet on other exhaled biomarkers.

  6. A method to simultaneously and continuously measure the 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates of soil in an open loop.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Xiao, Detao; Yuan, Hongzhi; Shan, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a process in which a radon monitor based on the electrostatic collection method is used to measure the (222)Rn and (220)Rn exhalation rates simultaneously and continuously employing a ventilation-type accumulation chamber. Generally, the radon exhalation rate can be measured by accumulation technique, but cannot be measured continuously. The advantage of this method using a ventilation-type accumulation chamber is that the radon exhalation rates can be measured continuously. Even though the environmental air is drawn into the chamber, the low atmospheric values of radon and thoron do not influence the measurement accuracy. The (222)Rn and (220)Rn exhalation rates error from the environmental air is less than 5% in this experiment.

  7. Assessment of the correlations between nicotine dependence, exhaled carbon monoxide levels and oral hygiene status: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    MOGA, MINODORA; BOSCA, ADINA BIANCA; BONDOR, COSMINA IOANA; ILEA, ARANKA; LUCACIU, ONDINE PATRICIA; IONEL, ANCA; MAN, MILENA ADINA; RAJNOVEANU, RUXANDRA MIOARA; CÂMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Cigarette smoking has negative effects on general health, including oral health. The aim of our study was to assess the correlations between nicotine dependence, exhaled carbon monoxide levels and oral hygiene status. Methods Smoker and non-smoker participants were enrolled in this observational study. The Fagerström test was used to classify nicotine dependences: low (score: 0–3), medium (score: 4–6) or high (score: 7–10). The oral hygiene status was classified according to the oral hygiene indices of plaque, calculus and gingival inflammation. Lastly, the exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured with a MicroSmokelyzer (Bedfont Scientific Ltd., Kent, United Kingdom). Results Sixty five participants (50 smokers in the study group and 15 non-smokers in the control group) were enrolled between 11th and 29th of January 2016. No statistical differences were observed between the study group and the control group in terms of age (mean age±SD 23.5±1.9 and 24.0±1.5, respectively) or gender (50% and 26.6%, respectively). A statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of plaque, (p=0.036), calculus (p=0.001) and gingival indices (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between the exhaled levels of carbon monoxide and the general Fagerström score (r=0.97, p<0.001) or the Fagerström score in smokers (r=0.93, p<0.001); a negative correlation was observed between the exhaled carbon monoxide levels and the number of tooth brushings daily (r=−0.41, p=0.001). The plaque index was statistically significantly associated with the exhaled carbon monoxide levels (p=0.008), general Fagerström score (p=0.016) and number of tooth brushings daily (p<0.001). The calculus and gingival indices were statistically significantly associated with the exhaled carbon monoxide levels (p<0.001), general Fagerström score (p<0.001) and score in smoker participants (p=0.029 and p=0.001, respectively) as well as the number of

  8. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  9. Exhaled breath condensate appears to be an unsuitable specimen type for the detection of influenza viruses with nucleic acid-based methods

    PubMed Central

    St. George, Kirsten; Fuschino, Meghan E.; Mokhiber, Katharine; Triner, Wayne; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is an airway-derived specimen type that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of asthma, cancer, and other disorders. The presence of human genomic DNA in this sample type has been proven, but there have been no reports on its utility for the detection of respiratory pathogens. The suitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of influenza virus was investigated, as an indication of its potential as a specimen type for respiratory pathogen discovery work. Matched exhaled condensates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 18 adult volunteers. Eleven cases were positive for influenza A virus, and one was positive for influenza B virus. All swab samples tested positive in real-time amplification assays, but only one exhaled condensate, an influenza A positive sample with a very high viral load, tested positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. Most of the positive nasopharyngeal swab samples inoculated for virus culture also tested positive, whereas influenza virus was not grown from any of the exhaled condensate specimens. It was concluded that influenza viruses are not readily detectable with culture or nucleic acid-based techniques in this sample type, and that exhaled breath condensate may not be suitable for respiratory pathogen investigations with molecular methods. PMID:19733195

  10. Exhaled breath condensate appears to be an unsuitable specimen type for the detection of influenza viruses with nucleic acid-based methods.

    PubMed

    St George, Kirsten; Fuschino, Meghan E; Mokhiber, Katharine; Triner, Wayne; Spivack, Simon D

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is an airway-derived specimen type that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of asthma, cancer, and other disorders. The presence of human genomic DNA in this sample type has been proven, but there have been no reports on its utility for the detection of respiratory pathogens. The suitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of influenza virus was investigated, as an indication of its potential as a specimen type for respiratory pathogen discovery work. Matched exhaled condensates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 18 adult volunteers. Eleven cases were positive for influenza A virus, and one was positive for influenza B virus. All swab samples tested positive in real-time amplification assays, but only one exhaled condensate, an influenza A positive sample with a very high viral load, tested positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. Most of the positive nasopharyngeal swab samples inoculated for virus culture also tested positive, whereas influenza virus was not grown from any of the exhaled condensate specimens. It was concluded that influenza viruses are not readily detectable with culture or nucleic acid-based techniques in this sample type, and that exhaled breath condensate may not be suitable for respiratory pathogen investigations with molecular methods.

  11. The application of exhaled breath analysis in racing Thoroughbreds and the influence of high intensity exercise and ambient temperature on the concentration of carbon monoxide and pH in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Michael P; Love, Sandy; Sutton, David G M; Reardon, Richard J M; Hughes, Kristopher J

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of exhaled breath (EB) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are non-invasive modalities for assessing the lower airways but these methods have not been applied to Thoroughbred racehorses in training. The aims of this study were to determine whether EB and EBC could be obtained from Thoroughbred racehorses in the field and to investigate the effects of exercise per se and during different ambient temperatures and humidity on exhaled concentrations of nitric oxide (eNO), carbon monoxide (eCO) and EBC pH. EB and EBC samples were obtained from 28 Thoroughbred racehorses pre- and post-exercise during warm (n=23) and/or cold (n=19) ambient temperatures. eNO was detected in 19/84 EB samples. eCO was measured in 39/42 EB samples pre-exercise (median 1.3 ppm) and concentrations decreased significantly post-exercise (median 0.8 ppm, P<0.005) and were associated with ambient temperature. EBC pH was 4.51 ± 0.23 pre-exercise and increased significantly post-exercise (4.79 ± 0.59, P=0.003). The study documented the collection of EB and EBC from Thoroughbred racehorses in a field setting. Alterations in concentrations of volatile gases and EBC pH occurred in response to exercise, and were likely to have been influenced by environmental factors.

  12. On the calibration of a radon exhalation monitor based on the electrostatic collection method and accumulation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    The radon exhalation rate can be obtained quickly and easily from the evolution of radon concentration over time in the accumulation chamber. Radon monitoring based on the electrostatic collection method is not interfered with by (220)Rn. In this paper, we propose that the difference between radon and (218)Po concentrations in the measurement cell of this kind of radon exhalation monitor is the main system error, and it changes with time and different effective decay constants. Based on the results of simulation experiments, we propose that the calibration factor obtained from the suitable experiment cannot completely correct the system error, even if it is useful to reduce the measurement error. The better way for reducing measurement error is to use the new measurement model which we have proposed in recent years.

  13. Normal values for single exhalation diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood flow in sitting, supine positions, and during mild exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y C; Helms, M J; MacIntyre, N R

    1994-02-01

    Previous approaches to the measurements of pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (QC) utilized either the rebreathing or the single inhalation technique in conjunction with radioisotope gas and mass spectrometry. In the present study, we utilized a newly developed rapid infrared analyzer in conjunction with the slow single exhalation technique on 100 healthy volunteers to establish normal values for DL and QC under sitting, supine, and exercise conditions. The exercise level was determined by a target heart rate: HRex = ([HRmax - HRrest]/3) + HRrest. Prediction equations based on regressions on age, sex, height, or weight were then computed for sitting, supine, and exercise values. We found that mean DL and QC increased by approximately 12 percent and 8 percent, respectively, from sitting to supine posture, and by approximately 30 percent and 100 percent, respectively, from sitting (rest) to mild exercise. These results provided a database for further studies in the single exhalation method in various clinical settings.

  14. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  15. National survey on the natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate of building materials in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P; van Dijk, W; van der Graaf, E R; de Groot, T J H

    2006-09-01

    The present study reports on results of a nation-wide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra, Ra, Th, and K and for their Rn exhalation rate. The sampled materials consisted of gypsum products, aerated concrete, sand-lime and clay bricks, mortars and concrete, representing about 95% of the stony building materials used in the construction of Dutch homes. The laboratory analyses were performed according to two well-documented standard procedures, the interlaboratory reproducibility of which is found to be within 5% on average. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a porous inner wall brick to which fly ash was added. The second highest were clay bricks with average Ra and Ra levels around 40 Bq kg. Concrete and mortar show the highest exhalation rates with a fairly broad range of 1 to 13 microBq (kg s). Low natural radioactivity levels are associated with either natural gypsum (products) or gypsum from flue gas desulphurization units, and low exhalation rates with clay bricks. To evaluate the radiological impact the radioactivity concentrations in each sample were combined into a so-called dose factor, representing the absorbed dose rate in a room with a floor, walls and ceiling of 20 cm of the material in question. For that purpose, calculations with the computer codes MCNP, Marmer and MicroShield on the specific absorbed dose rates were incorporated in the paper. The results of these codes corresponded within 6% and average values were calculated at 0.90, 1.10, and 0.080 nGy h per Bq kg for the U series, the Th series, and K, respectively. Model calculations on the external dose rate, based on the incidence of the various building materials in 1,336 living rooms, are in accordance with measured data.

  16. Exhaled breath condensate: determination of non-volatile compounds and their potential for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. A review.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Foret, František

    2013-12-17

    Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The mechanisms by which the aerosols/droplets of non-volatile compounds are formed in the airways are discussed with methodological consequences for sampling. Dilution of respiratory droplets is a major problem for correct clinical interpretation of the measured data and there is an urgent need for standardization of EBC. This applies also for collection instrumentation and therefore various commercial and in-house built devices are described and compared with regard to their design, function and collection parameters. The analytical techniques and methods for determination of non-volatile compounds as potential markers of oxidative stress and lung inflammation are scrutinized with an emphasis on method suitability, sensitivity and appropriateness. The relevance of clinical findings for each group of possible non-volatile markers of selected pulmonary diseases and methodological recommendations with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration that is essential for future development into a fully validated clinical diagnostic tool are given.

  17. Caffeine, quercetin and alizarin stimulate the exhalation of metabolic products of [14C]-N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, K L; Sangari, R K; Bhardwaj, A

    2002-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant products belonging to different chemical classes namely alizarin, an anthraquinone, caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative and quercetin, a flavonol were studied for their effect on elimination of metabolites of [14C]-N-nitrosodiethylamine (14C-NDEA) through respiration in mice. Treatment with caffeine, quercetin and alizarin at doses of 200, 9 and 9 microg/ml respectively, in drinking water enhanced the exhalation of 14CO2, one of the major end products of NDEA metabolism. Radioactive CO2 exhaled in 60 min increased by 2, 1.61 and 1.4-folds in animals treated with caffeine, quercetin and alizarin for 8 weeks respectively. This increase in exhalation in caffeine-treated animals was achieved even in 2 weeks. These compounds had no adverse effects on the absorption of radioactive NDEA from the gut of the animals as shape and time of 14CO2 peak was similar in i.p. and orally administered [14C-NDEA]. Increased detoxification/elimination of the carcinogen could be one of the mechanisms for the anticarcinogenic properties of these phytochemicals in lung tumorigenesis induced by orally administered NDEA.

  18. A cross-sectional study of exhaled carbon monoxide as a biomarker of recent household air pollution exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison; Sanchez, Tiffany R.; Shahriar, Muhammad Hasan; Eunus, Mahbubul; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE Household air pollution causes 3.5 million deaths annually. Personal exposure assessments required for examining health associations are expensive and require technical expertise, limiting the quality of research in resource-poor settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the feasibility of exhaled carbon monoxide and its relationship to continuous personal carbon monoxide monitoring and markers of respiratory health in female cooks primarily cooking with biomass fuels in Araihazar, Bangladesh. METHODS & MEASURES For a 24-hour period, exhaled carboxyhemoglobin (eCOHb) % saturation was measured before and after each cooking episode while simultaneous 24-hour personal carbon monoxide monitoring was conducted. The Coburn-Forester-Kane (CFK) equation was used to convert continuous personal CO exposures to predicted COHb % saturation. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, airway inflammation measured by exhaled breath condensate pH, and lung function determined by spirometry. Spearman's correlation was used to examine the relationship between eCOHb and CKF-derived COHb, EBC pH, and lung function variables. eCOHb % saturation was dichotomized around the median and odds ratios calculated for each respiratory symptom. MAIN RESULTS Measurement of eCOHb % saturation is feasible in a resource-poor setting. eCOHb % saturation responds to cooking episodes and demonstrates consistency when measured at the same time point 24-hours later, suggesting that eCOHb may be a sensitive biomarker of recent HAP exposures. PMID:26457622

  19. A profile of volatile organic compounds in exhaled air as a potential non-invasive biomarker for liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Pijls, Kirsten E.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Dallinga, Jan W.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Koek, Ger H.; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis may prevent progression and development of complications. Liver biopsy is the current standard, but is invasive and associated with morbidity. We aimed to identify exhaled volatiles within a heterogeneous group of chronic liver disease (CLD) patients that discriminates those with compensated cirrhosis (CIR) from those without cirrhosis, and compare this with serological markers. Breath samples were collected from 87 CLD and 34 CIR patients. Volatiles in exhaled air were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Discriminant Analysis was performed to identify the optimal panel of serological markers and VOCs for classifying our patients using a random training set of 27 CIR and 27 CLD patients. Two randomly selected independent internal validation sets and permutation test were used to validate the model. 5 serological markers were found to distinguish CIR and CLD patients with a sensitivity of 0.71 and specificity of 0.84. A set of 11 volatiles discriminated CIR from CLD patients with sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.87. Combining both did not further improve accuracy. A specific exhaled volatile profile can predict the presence of compensated cirrhosis among CLD patients with a higher accuracy than serological markers and can aid in reducing liver biopsies. PMID:26822454

  20. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates in man-made tiles used as building materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, K; Hosoda, M; Suwankot, N; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    Man-made tiles frequently used in Japan were collected, and activity concentrations and radon ((222)Rn) exhalation rates in these tiles were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built using these tiles were also carried out. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the man-made tiles were 31-170, 35-110 and 260-980 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The (222)Rn exhalation rates in the tiles were 8.8-21 μBq m(-2) s(-1). The ranges of experimental activity concentrations and (222)Rn exhalation rates were almost identical to those of natural rocks used as typical building materials in Japan. The maximum value of effective dose to inhabitants living in houses built with the man-made tiles was 0.14 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the reference level range (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for abnormally high levels of natural background radiation published in the ICRP Publication 103.

  1. Particulate Oxidative Burden as a Predictor of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Maikawa, Caitlin L.; Weichenthal, Scott; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Smargiassi, Audrey; Evans, Greg; Liu, Ling; Goldberg, Mark S.; Pollitt, Krystal J. Godri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have provided strong evidence that fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) can exacerbate asthmatic symptoms in children. Pro-oxidant components of PM2.5 are capable of directly generating reactive oxygen species. Oxidative burden is used to describe the capacity of PM2.5 to generate reactive oxygen species in the lung. Objective: In this study we investigated the association between airway inflammation in asthmatic children and oxidative burden of PM2.5 personal exposure. Methods: Daily PM2.5 personal exposure samples (n = 249) of 62 asthmatic school-aged children in Montreal were collected over 10 consecutive days. The oxidative burden of PM2.5 samples was determined in vitro as the depletion of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (ascorbate and glutathione) from a synthetic model of the fluid lining the respiratory tract. Airway inflammation was measured daily as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Results: A positive association was identified between FeNO and glutathione-related oxidative burden exposure in the previous 24 hr (6.0% increase per interquartile range change in glutathione). Glutathione-related oxidative burden was further found to be positively associated with FeNO over 1-day lag and 2-day lag periods. Results further demonstrate that corticosteroid use may reduce the FeNO response to elevated glutathione-related oxidative burden exposure (no use, 15.8%; irregular use, 3.8%), whereas mold (22.1%), dust (10.6%), or fur (13.1%) allergies may increase FeNO in children with versus children without these allergies (11.5%). No association was found between PM2.5 mass or ascorbate-related oxidative burden and FeNO levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 with elevated glutathione-related oxidative burden was associated with increased FeNO. Citation: Maikawa CL, Weichenthal S, Wheeler AJ, Dobbin NA, Smargiassi A, Evans G, Liu L, Goldberg MS, Godri Pollitt KJ. 2016. Particulate oxidative burden

  2. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  3. Trichloroethene levels in human blood and exhaled breath from controlled inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pleil, J D; Fisher, J W; Lindstrom, A B

    1998-01-01

    The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of bloodborne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds, sampling and analysis of breath is preferred to direct measurement from blood samples because breath collection is noninvasive, potentially infectious waste is avoided, the sample supply is essentially limitless, and the measurement of gas-phase analytes is much simpler in a gas matrix rather than in a complex biological tissue such as blood. However, to assess the distribution of a contaminant in the body requires a reasonable estimate of the blood level. We have investigated the use of noninvasive breath measurements as a surrogate for blood measurements for (high) occupational levels of trichloroethene in a controlled exposure experiment. Subjects were placed in an exposure chamber for 24 hr; they were exposed to 100 parts per million by volume trichloroethene for the initial 4 hr and to purified air for the remaining 20 hr. Matched breath and blood samples were collected periodically during the experiment. We modeled the resulting concentration data with respect to their time course and assessed the blood/breath relationship during the exposure (uptake) period and during the postexposure (elimination) period. Estimates for peak blood levels, compartmental distribution, and time constants were calculated from breath data and compared to direct blood measurements to assess the validity of the breath measurement methodology. Blood/breath partition coefficients were studied during both uptake and elimination. At equilibrium conditions at the end of the exposure, we could predict actual blood levels using breath elimination curve calculations and a literature value partition coefficient with a mean ratio of calculated:measured of 0.98 and standard error

  4. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide concentration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongmei; Luo, Jinmei; Qiao, Yixian; Xiao, Yi; Huang, Rong; Zhong, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been proposed as a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. However, its value in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is still controversial. The authors aim to assess the difference in eNO levels between patients with OSA and controls by a meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE databases to collect relevant studies published from 1996 to 2016. Eligible studies that reported eNO levels in patients with OSA were included. STATA (version 12.0) was used for data analysis. Results: Two hundred eighty-four studies were reviewed for inclusion, with 16 studies pooled for analysis (16 studies for fractional exhaled nitric oxide [FENO], 5 for alveolar nitric oxide [CANO], and 4 for the maximum airway wall flux of nitric oxide [J′awNO]). The FENO levels were significantly higher in patients with OSA compared with that in the control groups (6.32 ppb, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.46–8.33, P < 0.001). Furthermore, FENO was significantly increased (4.00 ppb, 95% CI 1.74–6.27, P = 0.001) after overnight sleep in patients with OSA, but not in healthy controls. Additionally, long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy reduced FENO levels (−5.82 ppb, 95% CI −9.6 to −2.01, P < 0.001). However, the CANO (−0.01 ppb, 95% CI −1.66 to 1.64, P = 0.989) and J’awNO levels (220.32 pl/s, 95% CI −49.31 to 489.94, P = 0.109) were not significantly different between the OSA groups and non-OSA groups. Conclusion: The results of the meta-analysis suggest that OSA is significantly associated with airway inflammation and elevated FENO levels can be modified by long-term CPAP therapy. J’awNO and CANO levels were not significantly different between the OSA groups and control groups. PMID:28328850

  5. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  6. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential.

  7. Effects of the exposure to indoor cooking-generated particles on nitric oxide exhaled by women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, L.; Fuoco, F. C.; Marini, S.; Buonanno, G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study short-term respiratory effects due to the exposure to cooking-generated aerosols were assessed through a marker of airway inflammation (exhaled Nitric Oxide, eNO). The exposure of 43 non-atopic, non-smoking women in terms of particle number and surface area concentration was monitored during their normal cooking activities through hand-held aerosol monitors. Women using gas (n = 23) and electric (n = 20) stoves were considered in the survey. Surface area particle doses deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs (mm2) received by each woman were measured as well as their levels of eNO concentration. Associations between woman exposure to cooking-generated aerosol and short-term changes of eNO were found. In particular, women using electric stoves reported a statistically significant eNO reduction during the cooking sessions, whereas an increase in eNO was measured in women using gas stoves. The results support the potential link between short-term exposures to cooking-generated particles and women's respiratory inflammation responses.

  8. Extra intestinal influences on exhaled breath hydrogen measurements during the investigation of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D G; Binfield, P; De Belder, A; O'Brien, J; Warren, S; Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    During the clinical investigation of patients with gastrointestinal disease by exhaled breath hydrogen measurement, the occurrence of inexplicable variations in recorded hydrogen values led to a search for extra intestinal factors which were capable of adversely influencing breath hydrogen concentration and impairing the diagnostic accuracy of the test. Serial breath samples were collected from normal subjects under a variety of conditions which might occur during routine clinical study, including, hyperventilation, exercise, cigarette smoking, and carbohydrate ingestion. Breath hydrogen concentrations were consistently reduced by hyperventilation (p less than 0.01) and exercise (p less than 0.05). Cigarette smoking, in contrast, caused a marked rise in measured breath hydrogen (p less than 0.01), as did oral carbohydrate (p less than 0.05). Prior bactericidal mouthwash abolished this carbohydrate associated rise, suggesting that the hydrogen was the result of fermentation by oropharyngeal bacteria. Because, in all instances, the changes in breath hydrogen were of sufficient magnitude to interfere with data interpretation, it is recommended that these factors are eliminated, whenever possible, from conditions of study.

  9. Hydrogen sulphide in exhaled breath: a potential biomarker for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gourab Dutta; De, Anulekha; Som, Suman; Jana, Subhra; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Pradhan, Manik

    2016-05-10

    There is a pressing need to develop a novel early-detection strategy for the precise evolution of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The current method based on a hydrogen breath test (HBT) for the detection of SIBO is highly controversial. HBT has many limitations and drawbacks. It often fails to indentify SIBO when IBS individuals have 'non-hydrogen-producing' colonic bacteria. Here, we show that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in exhaled breath is distinctly altered for diarrhea-predominant IBS individuals with positive and negative SIBO by the activity of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria. Subsequently, by analyzing the excretion kinetics of breath H2S, we found a missing link between breath H2S and SIBO when HBT often fails to diagnose SIBO. Moreover, breath H2S can track the precise evolution of SIBO, even after the eradication of bacterial overgrowth. Our findings suggest that the changes in H2S in the bacterial environment may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIBO and the breath H2S as a potential biomarker for non-invasive, rapid and precise assessment of SIBO without the endoscopy-based microbial culture of jejunal aspirates, and thus may open new perspectives into the pathophysiology of SIBO in IBS subjects.

  10. Malondialdehyde in Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Marker of Oxidative Stress in Different Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, M. L.; Novelli, F.; Costa, F.; Malagrinò, L.; Melosini, L.; Bacci, E.; Cianchetti, S.; Dente, F. L.; Di Franco, A.; Vagaggini, B.; Paggiaro, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is a noninvasive method to investigate pulmonary oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde (MDA). Subjects and Methods. We measured MDA levels in EBC in a large number of patients (N = 194) with respiratory diseases: asthma (N = 64), bronchiectasis (BE, N = 19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, N = 73), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, N = 38). Fourteen healthy nonsmoking subjects were included as controls. Results. Excluding IPF subjects, MDA levels were significantly higher in all disease groups than in control group. MDA was significantly higher in COPD than asthmatic and BE subjects. Among asthmatics, corticosteroids-treated subjects had lower MDA levels than untreated subjects. COPD subjects showed an inverse correlation between MDA concentrations and FEV1% (rho:  −0.24, P < .05). Conclusions. EBC-MDA is increased in subjects with chronic airway disorders, particularly in COPD, and it is related to FEV1 reduction. PMID:21772668

  11. Evaluation of methodological and biological influences on the collection and composition of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, P; Jaeger, J; Schroeder, C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this inter-species comparison (calves and pigs) was to identify methodological and biological influences on the collection and composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). A total of 352 EBC samples were collected, whilst variables of ventilation were registered in parallel. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and pH were analysed in non-degassed EBC samples. The concentration of total protein in EBC was measured colorimetrically. In both species, lung function was evaluated before and after EBC collection. Statistical analyses were performed to study the effect of EBC collection on lung function and to identify the influence of ventilatory variables on the collection and composition of EBC. Collection of EBC did not affect lung function. Despite the volume of EBC collected per unit time being primarily dependent on ventilation per unit time, species-specific conditions during the EBC collection process resulted in different dependences of EBC collection from other variables of ventilation (i.e. maximal airflow during expiration or expired tidal volume kg-1 body weight). The concentration of protein ml(-1) EBC increased with the expired volume per min and with peak expiratory flow. Although the pCO2 in fresh EBC was significantly negatively dependent on the duration of collection, comparable pHs (5.6 - 6.2) were measured in EBC of both calves and pigs. The obtained data may help one standardize EBC collection in different species.

  12. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as collected in evacuated electropolished canisters.

    PubMed

    Pleil, J D; Lindstrom, A B

    1995-03-24

    A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (generally at 4-5% concentration), the second method measures the very volatile high-level endogenous compounds [e.g. acetone and isoprene at 500-1000 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), methanol, ethanol, dimethylsulfide at 2-10 ppbv], and the third method is designed to measure trace-level environmental contaminants and other endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (sub-ppbv) in breath. The canister-based sample format allows all three methods to be applied to each individual sample for complete constituent characterization. Application of these methods is shown to be useful in the following ways: analysis of CO2 levels indicates the approximate quantity of alveolar breath collected (as opposed to whole breath) in a sample; levels of major endogenous compounds are shown to be influenced by physical activities and subsequent recovery periods; and environmental exposures to xenobiotic VOCs can be characterized by assessment of post-exposure breath elimination curves. The instrumentation and methodology are described and example chromatograms and quantitative data plots demonstrating the utility of the methods are presented.

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide predicts control in patients with difficult-to-treat asthma.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Llano, L A; Carballada, F; Castro Añón, O; Pizarro, M; Golpe, R; Baloira, A; Vázquez Caruncho, M; Boquete, M

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of baseline exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)) to recognise individuals with difficult-to-treat asthma who have the potential to achieve control with a guideline-based stepwise strategy. 102 consecutive patients with suboptimal asthma control underwent stepwise increase in the treatment with maximal fluticasone/salmeterol combination dose for 1 month. Then, those who remained uncontrolled received oral corticosteroids for an additional month. With this approach, 53 patients (52%) gained control. Those who achieved control were more likely to have positive skin results (60.4% versus 34%; p = 0.01), positive bronchodilator test (57.1% versus 35.8%; p = 0.02) and peak expiratory flow variability > or =20% (71.1% versus 49.1%; p = 0.04). Conversely, depression was more frequent in those who remained uncontrolled (18.4 % versus 43.4 %; p = 0.01). An F(eNO) value > or =30 ppb demonstrated a sensitivity of 87.5% (95% CI 73.9-94.5%) and a specificity of 90.6% (95% CI 79.7-95.9%) for the identification of responsive asthmatics. The current results suggest that F(eNO) can identify patients with difficult-to-treat asthma and the potential to respond to high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or systemic steroids.

  14. Temperature changes in exhaled breath condensate collection devices affect observed acetone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Bryan R; Bhushan, Abhinav; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2008-09-01

    Chemical analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an emerging method to non-invasively identify and measure potential biomarkers of disease. Various EBC collection methods have been proposed, each with strengths and weaknesses. Recent evidence in the literature suggests that sample collection methodologies could introduce potential artifacts in biomarker measurements. In this study, we tested the effect of thermal changes during condensate collection on measured EBC chemical concentrations. Using both actively-cooled and passively-cooled devices, we measured distinct differences in the amount of condensate that can be collected over discrete time periods. We also found that concentrations of acetone varied with the thermal profile changes in the collection devices, in apparently identical EBC samples. Together, this evidence suggests that great care should be taken to standardize EBC collection methods, and that small deviations in the thermal properties of the collection devices could contribute to confounding EBC measurement artifacts. This has implications for the design and development of future portable breath analysis systems, especially miniature hand-held devices.

  15. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m-3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m-2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  16. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  17. Exhaled breath condensate pH is increased after moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Riediker, Michael; Danuser, Brigitta

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with inflammatory diseases has a decreased pH. This could make EBC-pH an interesting tool for studying work-related inflammatory processes, provided that normal work activities would not interfere with the results. We consequently tested whether EBC-pH was influenced by moderate exercise. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking subjects exercised for 30 min on a treadmill by walking at 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. Four EBC samples were obtained: one to learn the technique, one before exercise, one immediately after exercise, and one 60 min later. EBC-pH was significantly increased after exercise compared to before (mean of 8.27 vs. 8.20, p = 0.001). It remained significantly increased after 60 min (8.25, p = 0.02). The increase was strongest for the subjects with lowest pH. All pH measures were significantly correlated with each other. Light physical activity increases EBC-pH. The persistence of this increase after the end of the exercise poses a serious challenge if one wants to use this technique for health surveys or for diagnostic purposes. It could prevent the observation of a lowered EBC-pH that results from an inflammatory response.

  18. Multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in relation to exhaled nitric oxide in a population sample of children.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Tsai, H-J; Tu, Y-L; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Lai, S-H; Yeh, K-W; Huang, J-L

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) profile for 40 allergens using a novel microarray technique (BioIC) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in a population sample of 1321 children. Significant positive associations were found between FeNO and sensitization to mites (P < 0.001), animals (P = 0.001), cockroaches (P < 0.001), and foods (P = 0.042), and furthermore, between FeNO and the number of sensitizations (all P < 0.05) or the sum of specific IgE (all P ≤ 0.01) against the aforementioned allergen categories. Specifically, sensitization to the following allergens was significantly related to higher FeNO: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farina, Blomia tropicalis, cat, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach, codfish, crab, shrimp, and cheese (all P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, IgE sensitization to mites, pets, cockroaches, seafood, and cheese, respectively, is significantly associated with elevated FeNO levels in a dose-dependent fashion in children. Our results provide new evidence that sensitization to certain food allergens may contribute to prompt inflammation in the airways.

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J F M; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 110(-9)) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). F(E)NO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  20. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide for the management of asthma in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Harnan, Sue; Gomersall, Tim; Tappenden, Paul; Wong, Ruth; Pavord, Ian; Lawson, Rod; Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured in a clinical setting for the management of asthma in adults. 13 electronic databases were searched and studies were selected against predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using QUADAS-2. Class effect meta-analyses were performed. Six studies were included. Despite high levels of heterogeneity in multiple study characteristics, exploratory class effect meta-analyses were conducted. Four studies reported a wider definition of exacerbation rates (major or severe exacerbation) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.63–1.02). Two studies reported rates of severe exacerbations (requiring oral corticosteroid use) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.43–1.72). Inhaled corticosteroid use was reported by four studies, with a pooled standardised mean difference of −0.24 (95% CI −0.56–0.07). No statistically significant differences for health-related quality of life or asthma control were found. FeNO guided management showed no statistically significant benefit in terms of severe exacerbations or inhaled corticosteroid use, but showed a statistically significant reduction in exacerbations of any severity. However, further research is warranted to clearly define which management protocols (including cut-off points) offer best efficacy and which patient groups would benefit the most. PMID:26846832

  1. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2) or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane). However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease. PMID:19948050

  2. Interaction of Ambient Air Pollution With Asthma Medication on Exhaled Nitric Oxide Among Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Lehman, Erik B.; Duan, Yinkang; Craig, Timothy J.; Wilson, William E.; Liao, Duanping; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Bascom, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between ambient air pollution and asthma medication remains unclear. The authors compared airway inflammation response to air pollution among asthmatics. Increases of 10 ppb of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and of 10 μg/m3 of particulate matter < 10 micron in diameter (PM10) daily concentrations were associated with an increase in exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) of 0.13 ppb (95% confidence interval = 0.06, 0.19) and of 0.07 ppb (95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.12), respectively, in models adjusted for important covariates. The results show that the medication could not counteract airway inflammation effects of air pollution. Specifically, the patients on triamcinolone decreased the sensitivity to PM10 but increased the sensitivity to NO2. The patients on salmeterol were more vulnerable to both NO2 and PM10. This study indicates that the current pollution levels may still enhance airway inflammation among patients with persistent asthma even when they are on asthma medications. PMID:19864219

  3. Bymixer provides on-line calibration of measurement of CO2 volume exhaled per breath.

    PubMed

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of CO2 volume exhaled per breath (VCO2.br) can be determined during anesthesia by the multiplication and integration of tidal flow (V) and PCO2. During side-stream capnometry, PCO2 must be advanced in time by transport delay (TD), the time to suction gas through the sampling tube. During ventilation, TD can vary due to sample line connection internal volume or flow rate changes. To determine correct TD and measure accurate VCO2.br during actual ventilation. TD can be iteratively adjusted (TDADJ) until VCO2-br/tidal volume equals PCO2 measured in a mixed expired gas collection (PECO2) (J Appl. Physiol. 72:2029-2035, 1992). However. PECO2 is difficult to measure during anesthesia because CO2 is absorbed in the circle circuit. Accordingly, we implemented a bypass flow-mixing chamber device (bymixer) that was interposed in the expiration limb of the circle circuit and accurately measured PECO2 over a wide range of conditions of ventilation of a test lung-metabolic chamber (regression slope = 1.01: R2 = 0.99). The bymixer response (time constant) varied from 18.1 +/- 0.03 sec (12.5 l/min ventilation) to 66.7 +/- 0.9 sec (2.5 l/min). Bymixer PECO2 was used to correctly determine TDADJ (without interrupting respiration) to enable accurate measurement of VCO2.br over widely changing expiratory flow patterns.

  4. Relationship between serum arginase I and l-arginine or exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Keiki; Obase, Yasushi; Ito, Tatsuo; Fujimura, Masaki; Eguchi, Eri; Kubo, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between serum arginase I and serum l-arginine or fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) was evaluated cross-sectionally in asthmatic patients. No sex difference was observed in the serum mean levels of arginase I and l-arginine or FENO. Arginase I and FENO were higher in patients 60 or younger years than in those over 60 years. Asthmatic patients were divided into three groups: no steroid therapy, inhalation steroid therapy, and oral steroid therapy. Arginase I, FENO and high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significantly lower in the inhalation steroid therapy group than in the no steroid therapy group. Correlations were observed between arginase I and FENO, l-arginine, hs-CRP, WBC, and age, and also between FENO and IgE, WBC, and age. A logistic regression analysis revealed the positive association of arginase I with FENO, and the negative association of l-arginine. FENO was positively associated with arginase I and IgE. These results indicated that serum arginase I might influence serum levels of l-arginine and FENO, and that IgE might influence FENO in asthmatic patients.

  5. Protein profile of exhaled breath condensate determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Ho, Jenny; Gili, Elisa; Conte, Enrico; Sichili, Stefania; Vancheri, Carlo; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-02-01

    A method based on liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry coupled with electrophoretic separation, for determination and relative quantification of the protein composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), was developed. Application of the procedure to a sample of EBC, pooled from nine healthy subjects, resulted in the identification of 167 unique gene products, 113 of which not previously reported in EBC samples. The abundance of the protein identified was estimated by means of the exponentially modified protein abundance index protocol (emPAI). Cytokeratins were by far the most abundant proteins in EBC samples. Many of the identified proteins were associated with multiple cellular location with cytoplasm constituting the largest group. Cytosol, nucleus, membrane, cytoskeleton and extracellular were other abundantly represented locations. No amylase was detected, suggesting the absence of saliva protein contamination. The profile obtained represents the most comprehensive protein characterization of EBC so far reported and demonstrates that this approach provides a powerful tool for investigating the protein profile of EBC samples. Compared with analogous investigations, this study also shows that the protein profile of EBC is strongly affected by the sampling method adopted.

  6. Physiological variability in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and released from faeces due to nutrition and somatic growth in a standardized caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-05-14

    Physiological effects may change volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and may therefore act as confounding factors in the definition of VOCs as disease biomarkers. To evaluate the extent of physiological background variability, this study assessed the effects of feed composition and somatic growth on VOC patterns in a standardized large animal model. Fifteen clinically healthy goats were followed during their first year of life. VOCs present in the headspace over faeces, exhaled breath and ambient air inside the stable were repeatedly assessed in parallel with the concentrations of glucose, protein, and albumin in venous blood. VOCs were collected and analysed using solid-phase or needle-trap microextraction and gas chromatograpy together with mass spectroscopy. The concentrations of VOCs in exhaled breath and above faeces varied significantly with increasing age of the animals. The largest variations in volatiles detected in the headspace over faeces occurred with the change from milk feeding to plant-based diet. VOCs above faeces and in exhaled breath correlated significantly with blood components. Among VOCs exhaled, the strongest correlations were found between exhaled nonanal concentrations and blood concentrations of glucose and albumin. Results stress the importance of a profound knowledge of the physiological backgrounds of VOC composition before defining reliable and accurate marker sets for diagnostic purposes.

  7. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide among cement factory workers: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tungu, Alexander Mtemi; Bråtveit, Magne; Mamuya, Simon D; Moen, Bente E

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that dust exposure causes airway inflammation among cement factory workers. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms of this effect. We explored any associations between total dust exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) as a marker of airway eosinophilic inflammation among cement production workers in Tanzania. We also examined possible differences in FENO concentration between workers in different parts of the production line. Methodology We examined 127 cement workers and 28 controls from a mineral water factory. An electrochemistry-based NIOX MINO device was used to examine FENO concentration. Personal total dust was collected from the breathing zone of the study participants using 37 mm cellulose acetate filters placed in three-piece plastic cassettes. Interviews on workers’ background information were conducted in the Swahili language. Results We found equal concentrations of FENO among exposed workers and controls (geometric mean (GM)=16 ppb). The GM for total dust among the exposed workers and controls was 5.0 and 0.6 mg/m3, respectively. The FENO concentrations did not differ between the exposed workers with high (GM≥5 mg/m3) and low (GM<5 mg/m3) total dust exposure. There was no significant difference in FENO concentration between workers in the two main stages of the cement production process. Conclusions We did not find any difference in FENO concentration between dust-exposed cement workers and controls, and there were similar FENO concentrations among workers in the two main stages of cement production. PMID:23243102

  8. Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Boman, Peter; Björ, Bodil; Olin, Anna-Carin; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April–6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 μg/m3 (range 4.1–42.3), and that of O3 was 75.0 μg/m3 (range: 51.3–106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 μg/m3 (range: 4.7–31.3), NOx was 82.1 μg/m3 (range: 13.3–165.3), and NO was 65 μg/m3 (range: 8.7–138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0–14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4–14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children. PMID:27338437

  9. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5±0.4×10(9), 5.1±0.1×10(9), and 3.1±0.6×10(9) part. cm(-3) for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8×10(10), 5.2×10(10) and 2.3×10(10) particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2ppb, 2.7ppb and 2.8ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received.

  10. Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. . E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Philip, Binu K.; Palkar, Prajakta S.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Male Swiss Webster (SW) mice were given three dose levels of chloroform (150, 225, and 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage in aqueous vehicle for 30 days. Liver and kidney injury were measured by plasma ALT and BUN, respectively, and by histopathology. Tissue regeneration was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into hepato- and nephro-nuclear DNA and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. In addition, GSH and CYP2E1 in liver and kidney were assessed at selected time points. The levels of chloroform were measured in blood, liver, and kidney during the dosing regimen (1, 7, 14, and 30 days). Kidney injury was evident after 1 day with all three doses and sustained until 7 days followed by complete recovery. Mild to moderate liver injury was observed from 1 to 14 days with all three dose levels followed by gradual decrease. Significantly higher regenerative response was evident in liver and kidney at 7 days, but the response was robust in kidney, preventing progression of injury beyond first week of exposure. While the kidney regeneration reached basal levels by 21 days, moderate liver regeneration with two higher doses sustained through the end of the dosing regimen and 3 days after that. Following repeated exposure for 7, 14, and 30 days, the blood and tissue levels of chloroform were substantially lower with all three dose levels compared to the levels observed with single exposure. Increased exhalation of {sup 14}C-chloroform after repeated exposures explains the decreased chloroform levels in circulation and tissues. These results suggest that toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (tissue regeneration) contribute to the tolerance observed in SW mice to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Neither bioactivation nor

  11. The Influence of Living Near Roadways on Spirometry and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Elementary Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Wheeler, Amanda; Mahmud, Mamun; Frescura, Anna Maria; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Nethery, Elizabeth; Liu, Ling

    2008-01-01

    Background Living near major roadways has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how this relates to airway inflammation. Objective We assessed the effects of living near local residential roadways based on objective indicators of ventilatory function and airway inflammation. Methods We estimated ambient air pollution, resolved to the level of the child’s neighborhood, using a land-use regression model for children 9–11 years of age. We also summed the length of roadways found within a 200-m radius of each child’s neighborhood. We had measurements of both air pollution exposure and spirometry for 2,328 children, and also had measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) for 1,613 of these children. Results Each kilometer of local roadway within a 200-m radius of the home was associated with a 6.8% increase in eNO (p = 0.045). Each kilometer of any type of roadway (local, major, highway) was also associated with an increase in eNO of 10.1% (p = 0.002). Each microgram per cubic meter increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 3.9% increase in eNO (p = 0.058) and 0.70% decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) expressed as a percentage of predicted (p = 0.39). Associations between roadway density and both forced expired volume in 1 sec and FVC were negative but not statistically significant at p < 0.05. Conclusion Traffic from local neighborhood roadways may cause airway inflammation as indicated by eNO. This may be a more sensitive indicator of adverse air pollution effects than traditional measures of ventilatory function. PMID:18941589

  12. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide is a useful adjunctive modality for monitoring bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Venkatnarayan; Mohan, Anant; Madan, Karan; Hadda, Vijay; Khilnani, GC; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in monitoring asthma control. Materials and Methods: Steroid naïve nonsmoking asthmatics were recruited and followed for 6–8 weeks on standard treatment. Serial measurements of FeNO, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) variability, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), bronchodilator reversibility (BDR), and asthma control test (ACT) score were measured at baseline and after 6–8 weeks of treatment. Results: One hundred and fifty-one patients were recruited over an 18-month period. These comprised 79 males (52.3%) with mean (standard deviation) age of 34.2 (11.6). Mean (SD) FeNO levels at baseline and after therapy were 45.4 (35.9) and 38.4 (23.7) ppb, respectively (P = 0.01). Baseline FeNO correlated strongly with FEV1 (r = −0.78, P < 0.001), ACT score (r = −0.76, P < 0.001), PEFR variability (r = −0.74, P < 0.001), and moderately with BDR (r = 0.50, P < 0.001). After treatment with inhaled steroids, the correlation remained strong with ACT score (r = −0.68, P < 0.001) but weakened with PEFR variability (r = −0.34, P = 0.01) and FEV1 (r = −0.36, P = 0.01). Conclusions: FeNO may be useful as an adjunctive noninvasive modality to assess asthma control in both steroid naïve asthmatics and asthmatics on treatment. However, the suboptimal sensitivity and specificity may limit its utility as a point-of-care single monitoring tool. PMID:28360460

  13. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in infants during cow's milk food challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Carmelo; Hol, Jeroen; Kerkhof, Evelien; Elink Schuurman, Beatrix E E; Samsom, Janneke N; Hop, Wim; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; de Jongste, Johan C

    2008-08-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood. The golden standard for the diagnosis of CMA is a food challenge after a period of elimination. Increased levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) have been shown after bronchial allergen provocation. We evaluated whether FE(NO) may also be a predictor of a positive reaction during cow's milk challenge in infants. Forty-four infants [mean age (range): 4.2 (3.7-4.6) months] suspected of CMA underwent an open food challenge with cow's milk formula administered in ascending quantities, starting with 2 ml and then 6, 20, 60 and 200 ml until a clinical reaction occurred. Off-line FE(NO) samples were obtained during tidal breathing by means of a facemask covering infants' nose and mouth. FE(NO) was measured twice before the challenge (baseline), immediately before each new dose of milk and after a positive reaction or after the last dose of milk. Eleven children showed immediate positive clinical responses to cow's milk, whereas 13 infants presented only a late-type reaction. FE(NO) values before or after a positive reaction (either immediate or late) were not different from FE(NO) values at baseline. Baseline FE(NO) in infants with a positive reaction did not differ from FE(NO) in infants without a reaction at any time point. We conclude that FE(NO) values are not predictive and not related to the occurrence of a positive reaction during a cow's milk challenge in infants, suggesting that a positive reaction may not result from eosinophilic activation.

  14. MMP-8, MMP-9 and Neutrophil Elastase in Peripheral Blood and Exhaled Breath Condensate in COPD.

    PubMed

    Sng, JieHao Joshua; Prazakova, Silvie; Thomas, Paul S; Herbert, Cristan

    2017-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive and irreversible airflow limitation associated with chronic inflammation involving cytokines and metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-8, MMP-9 and neutrophil elastase (NE) are known to be implicated in COPD but the factors influencing activation and suppression remain unclear. This study aimed to compare MMP-8, MMP-9 and NE in the peripheral blood of COPD patients and controls and to likewise assess exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for these MMPs. Peripheral blood micro(mi)RNA139-5p levels, which may regulate MMPs in COPD, were also measured. Blood and EBC were collected from COPD patients (stable and during exacerbations) and healthy controls. Expression of mRNA for MMP-8, MMP-9, NE and miRNA-139-5p expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured using qRT-PCR. MMP-8, MMP-9 and NE protein in plasma as well as MMP-8 and MMP-9 protein in EBC were analysed by enzyme-linked immunoassays. PBMCs from COPD patients showed greater expression of mRNA for MMP-8 (p = 0.0004), MMP-9 (p = 0.0023) and NE (p = 0.0019). PBMC expression of mRNA for NE was significantly higher in COPD exacerbations compared to stable cases (p < 0.05). Expression of mRNA for MMP-9 and NE correlated negatively with spirometry in patients (p < 0.05). Plasma from COPD patients showed greater levels of protein for MMP-8 (p = 0.003), MMP-9 (p = 0.046) and NE (p = 0.018). MMP-8 protein levels were lower in the EBC of COPD patients (p < 0.0001). In PBMCs, enhanced expression of mRNA for MMP-9 and NE is associated with COPD and may correlate with disease severity and exacerbations.

  15. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide: comparison between portable devices and correlation with sputum eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Chull; Lee, Byung Jae

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the 2 different portable devices measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to see the correlation between FeNO and induced sputum eosinophil count (ISE). Forty consecutive subjects clinically suspected to have asthma underwent FeNO measurement by NIOX-MINO® and NObreath® concurrently. All also had induced sputum analysis, methacholine provocation test or bronchodilator response test, and spin prick test. Agreement between the 2 devices was evaluated. The correlation between FeNO and ISE was assessed, as well as the cut-off level of FeNO to identify ISE ≥3%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between FeNO levels measured by NIOX-MINO® (FeNO(NIOX-MINO)) and NObreath® (FeNO(NObreath)) was 0.972 with 95% confidence interval of 0.948-0.985. The 95% limits of agreement were -28.9 to 19.9 ppb. The correlation coefficient between ISE and FeNO(NIOX-MINO) was 0.733 (P<0.001), and 0.751 between ISE and FeNO(NObreath) (P<0.001). The ROC curve found that the FeNO(NIOXMINO) of 37.5 ppb and the FeNO(NObreath) of 36.5 ppb identified ISE ≥3% with 90% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, atopy, and the presence of asthma did not affect the FeNO level and its correlation with ISE. The NIOX-MINO ® and NObreath® agree with each other to a high degree. Both devices showed close correlation with ISE with similar cut-off value in identifying ISE ≥3%.

  16. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide: Comparison Between Portable Devices and Correlation With Sputum Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Jin-Young; Choi, Dong-Chull

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the 2 different portable devices measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to see the correlation between FeNO and induced sputum eosinophil count (ISE). Forty consecutive subjects clinically suspected to have asthma underwent FeNO measurement by NIOX-MINO® and NObreath® concurrently. All also had induced sputum analysis, methacholine provocation test or bronchodilator response test, and spin prick test. Agreement between the 2 devices was evaluated. The correlation between FeNO and ISE was assessed, as well as the cut-off level of FeNO to identify ISE ≥3%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between FeNO levels measured by NIOX-MINO® (FeNONIOX-MINO) and NObreath® (FeNONObreath) was 0.972 with 95% confidence interval of 0.948-0.985. The 95% limits of agreement were -28.9 to 19.9 ppb. The correlation coefficient between ISE and FeNONIOX-MINO was 0.733 (P<0.001), and 0.751 between ISE and FeNONObreath (P<0.001). The ROC curve found that the FeNONIOXMINO of 37.5 ppb and the FeNONObreath of 36.5 ppb identified ISE ≥3% with 90% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, atopy, and the presence of asthma did not affect the FeNO level and its correlation with ISE. The NIOX-MINO ® and NObreath® agree with each other to a high degree. Both devices showed close correlation with ISE with similar cut-off value in identifying ISE ≥3%. PMID:25749783

  17. Features of severe asthma in school-age children: Atopy and increased exhaled nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Teague, W. Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with severe asthma have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). The differentiating features of severe asthma in children are poorly defined. Objective To identify features of severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma in school-age children using noninvasive assessments of lung function, atopy, and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 75 children (median age, 10 years) with asthma underwent baseline characterization including spirometry and lung volume testing, methacholine bronchoprovocation, allergy evaluation, and offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). Twenty-eight were followed longitudinally over 6 months. Participants were assigned to the severe asthma subgroup if they required high-dose ICS plus 2 or more minor criteria. Results Children with severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma had more symptoms, greater airway obstruction, more gas trapping, and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Subjects with severe asthma also had higher concentrations of FENO and significantly greater sensitization to aeroallergens. With long-term study, both the reduction in FEV1 and increase in FENO persisted in the severe versus mild-to-moderate group. Furthermore, despite adjustments in ICS doses, the frequency of exacerbations was significantly higher in subjects with severe (83%) versus mild-to-moderate asthma (43%). Conclusion Severe asthma in childhood is characterized by poor symptom control despite high-dose ICS treatment and can be differentiated from mild-to-moderate asthma by measurement of lung function and FENO. Clinical implications Clinicians should suspect severe asthma in children with poor response to ICS, airway obstruction, and high FENO. PMID:17157650

  18. The effect of inhaled chromium on different exhaled breath condensate biomarkers among chrome-plating workers.

    PubMed

    Caglieri, Andrea; Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Andreoli, Roberta; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Chromium is corrosive, cytotoxic, and carcinogenic for humans and can induce acute and chronic lung tissue toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate Cr levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed to Cr(VI) and to assess their relationship with biochemical changes in the airways by analyzing EBC biomarkers of oxidative stress, namely, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). EBC samples were collected from 24 chrome-plating workers employed in a chrome-plating plant both before and after the Friday work shift and before the work shift on the following Monday. Cr-EBC levels increased from the beginning (5.3 microg/L) to the end of Friday (6.4 microg/L) but were considerably lower on Monday morning (2.8 microg/L). A similar trend was observed for H2O2-EBC levels (which increased from 0.36 microM to 0.59 microM on Friday and were 0.19 microM on Monday morning) and MDA-EBC levels (which increased from 8.2 nM to 9.7 nM on Friday and were 6.6 nM on Monday). Cr-EBC levels correlated with those of H2O2-EBC (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) and MDA-EBC (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), as well as with urinary Cr levels (r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that EBC is a suitable matrix that can be used to investigate both Cr levels and biomarkers of free radical production sampling the epithelial-lining fluid of workers exposed to Cr(VI).

  19. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers.Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively.The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC.Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI).

  20. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)–DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)–DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI). PMID:17047732

  1. The Effect of Inhaled Chromium on Different Exhaled Breath Condensate Biomarkers among Chrome-Plating Workers

    PubMed Central

    Caglieri, Andrea; Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Andreoli, Roberta; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is corrosive, cytotoxic, and carcinogenic for humans and can induce acute and chronic lung tissue toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate Cr levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed to Cr(VI) and to assess their relationship with biochemical changes in the airways by analyzing EBC biomarkers of oxidative stress, namely, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). EBC samples were collected from 24 chrome-plating workers employed in a chrome-plating plant both before and after the Friday work shift and before the work shift on the following Monday. Cr-EBC levels increased from the beginning (5.3 μg/L) to the end of Friday (6.4 μg/L) but were considerably lower on Monday morning (2.8 μg/L). A similar trend was observed for H2O2-EBC levels (which increased from 0.36 μM to 0.59 μM on Friday and were 0.19 μM on Monday morning) and MDA-EBC levels (which increased from 8.2 nM to 9.7 nM on Friday and were 6.6 nM on Monday). Cr-EBC levels correlated with those of H2O2-EBC (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) and MDA-EBC (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), as well as with urinary Cr levels (r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that EBC is a suitable matrix that can be used to investigate both Cr levels and biomarkers of free radical production sampling the epithelial-lining fluid of workers exposed to Cr(VI). PMID:16581543

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate Eicosanoid Levels Associate with Asthma and its Severity

    PubMed Central

    Kazani, Shamsah; Planaguma, Anna; Ono, Emiko; Bonini, Matteo; Zahid, Muhammad; Marigowda, Gautham; Wechsler, Michael E.; Levy, Bruce D.; Israel, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory leukotrienes may be important in the pathobiology of asthma and its severity. Objective To investigate whether exhaled breath condensate (EBC) lipoxin and leukotriene measurements can non-invasively characterize the asthmatic diathesis and its severity. Methods We measured lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels in EBC collected from asthmatics of different severities and from healthy controls. Results EBC LXA4 and LTB4 levels are elevated in asthmatics as compared to healthy controls (LXA4 31.40 vs. 2.41 pg/ml EBC respectively, p < 0.001; LTB4 45.62 vs. 3.82 pg/ml EBC, p < 0.001). While both eicosanoids are elevated in asthmatics, the ratio LXA4 to LTB4 decreases with increasing asthma severity. It is 41% lower in severe versus moderate asthmatics (0.52 vs. 0.88, p = 0.034). EBC LXA4 levels correlate with the degree of airflow obstruction measured by FEV1 (r = 0.28, p = 0.018). A cut-off value of 7 pg LXA4/ml EBC provides 90% sensitivity and 92% specificity for the diagnosis of asthma (AUC 0.96, p < 0.001). A cut-off value of 11 pg LTB4/ml EBC provides 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of asthma (AUC 1, p < 0.001). Conclusions Pro-resolving and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids are generated in airways of all asthmatics. The proportion of pro-resolving compounds declines with asthma severity. These findings support the role for EBC eicosanoid measurements in the non-invasive diagnosis of asthma and suggest that pro-resolving eicosanoid pathways are dys-regulated in severe asthma. PMID:23608729

  3. Particle Size Concentration Distribution and Influences on Exhaled Breath Particles in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Humans produce exhaled breath particles (EBPs) during various breath activities, such as normal breathing, coughing, talking, and sneezing. Airborne transmission risk exists when EBPs have attached pathogens. Until recently, few investigations had evaluated the size and concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients with different ventilation mode settings. This study thus broke new ground by not only evaluating the size concentration distributions of EBPs in mechanically ventilated patients, but also investigating the relationship between EBP level and positive expiratory end airway pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, and pneumonia. This investigation recruited mechanically ventilated patients, with and without pneumonia, aged 20 years old and above, from the respiratory intensive care unit of a medical center. Concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed with an optical particle analyzer. This study finds that EBP concentrations from mechanically ventilated patients during normal breathing were in the range 0.47–2,554.04 particles/breath (0.001–4.644 particles/mL). EBP concentrations did not differ significantly between the volume control and pressure control modes of the ventilation settings in the mechanically ventilated patients. The patient EBPs were sized below 5 µm, and 80% of them ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 µm. The EBPs concentrations in patients with high PEEP (> 5 cmH2O) clearly exceeded those in patients with low PEEP (≤ 5 cmH2O). Additionally, a significant negative association existed between pneumonia duration and EBPs concentration. However, tidal volume was not related to EBPs concentration. PMID:24475230

  4. Exhaled and arterial levels of endothelin-1 are increased and correlate with pulmonary systolic pressure in COPD with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Carratu, Pierluigi; Scoditti, Cristina; Maniscalco, Mauro; Seccia, Teresa Maria; Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Gadaleta, Felice; Cardone, Rosa Angela; Dragonieri, Silvano; Pierucci, Paola; Spanevello, Antonio; Resta, Onofrio

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Nitric Oxide (NO) are crucial mediators for establishing pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We tested the hypothesis that their imbalance might also occur in COPD patients with PAH. Methods The aims of the study were to measure exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and circulating levels of ET-1, as well as exhaled NO (FENO) levels by, respectively, a specific enzyme immunoassay kit, and by chemiluminescence analysis in 3 groups of subjects: COPD with PAH (12), COPD only (36), and healthy individuals (15). In order to evaluate pulmonary-artery systolic pressure (PaPs), all COPD patients underwent Echo-Doppler assessment. Results Significantly increased exhaled and circulating levels of ET-1 were found in COPD with PAH compared to both COPD (p < 0.0001) only, and healthy controls (p < 0.0001). In COPD with PAH, linear regression analysis showed good correlation between ET-1 in EBC and PaPs (r = 0.621; p = 0.031), and between arterial levels of ET-1 and PaPs (r = 0.648; p = 0.022), while arterial levels of ET-1 inversely correlated with FEV1%, (r = -0.59, p = 0.043), and PaPs negatively correlated to PaO2 (r = -0.618; p = 0.032). Significantly reduced levels of FENO were found in COPD associated with PAH, compared to COPD only (22.92 ± 11.38 vs.35.07 ± 17.53 ppb; p = 0.03). Thus, we observed an imbalanced output in the breath between ET-1 and NO, as expression of pulmonary endothelium and epithelium impairment, in COPD with PAH compared to COPD only. Whether this imbalance is an early cause or result of PAH due to COPD is still unknown and deserves further investigations. PMID:18822124

  5. Natural radioactivity, radon exhalation rates and indoor radon concentration of some granite samples used as construction material in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aykamis, Ahmet S; Turhan, Seref; Aysun Ugur, F; Baykan, Umut N; Kiliç, Ahmet M

    2013-11-01

    It is very important to determine the levels of the natural radioactivity in construction materials and radon exhalation rate from these materials for assessing potential exposure risks for the residents. The present study deals with 22 different granite samples employed as decoration stones in constructions in Turkey. The natural radioactivity in granite samples was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with an HPGe detector. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be in the range of 10-187, 16-354 and 104-1630 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radon surface exhalation rate and the radon mass exhalation rate estimated from the measured values of (226)Ra content and material properties varied from 1.3 to 24.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1) with a mean of 10.5±1.5 Bq m(-2) h(-1) and 0.03-0.64 Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with a mean of 0.27±0.04 Bq kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. Radon concentrations in the room caused from granite samples estimated using a mass balance equation varied from 23 to 461 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 196±27 Bq m(-3). Also the gamma index (Iγ), external indoor annual effective dose (Eγ) and annual effective dose due to the indoor radon exposure (ERn) were estimated as the average value of 1.1±0.1, 0.16±0.02 mSv and 5.0±0.7 mSv, respectively, for the granite samples.

  6. Quantifying heterogeneity in exposure—risk relationships using exhaled breath biomarkers for 1,3-butadiene exposures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas J; Bois, Frederic Y; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Brochot, Celine; Micallef, Sandrine; Kim, David; Kelsey, Karl T

    2015-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) have been extensively studied using both epidemiological and animal toxicology approaches. However, various data and knowledge gaps remain, one of which is an understanding of the human heterogeneity in BD dosimetry. The objective of our study was to better understand the role of individual variability in delivered tissue dose. We designed a study of laboratory exposures of a relatively large group of healthy human subjects. Subjects were then exposed to 2.0 ppm BD through a face mask for 20 min, followed by 40 min of breathing clean air. Exhaled breath concentrations of BD were measured at ten time points during and after exposure, and a three-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to quantify the kinetic behavior of BD. We implemented a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to fit the model to the experimental data, and used global sensitivity analysis techniques to examine the sensitivity of exhaled breath concentrations to PBPK model parameters. Uptake during exposure was strongly influenced by rebreathing of exhaled BD during exposure; inclusion of rebreathing in the model simulations resulted in a 21% increase in the amount of BD retained in the body. We found that uptake ranged from 38% to 77% across individuals. We measured considerable intra-individual variability from 11 subjects who underwent the testing twice. Most of this variation stemmed from phase I metabolism of BD, which varied by as much as a factor of 2.6 within individuals. Overall, we have sought to quantify the sources of inter- and intra-individual variabilities in the pharmacokinetic behavior of BD. The results of our research may impact the current framework for biomarker and pharmacokinetic studies by improving our understanding of the sources of heterogeneity in response to chemical exposures. PMID:21386179

  7. Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Cathy; Cathcart, Andy; Sutherland, Rona; Ward, Susan; McMillan, Lesley; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles; Skeldon, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    Exercise-induced oxidative stress (EIOS) refers to a condition where the balance of free radical production and antioxidant systems is disturbed during exercise in favour of pro-oxidant free radicals. Breath ethane is a product of free radical-mediated oxidation of cell membrane lipids and is considered to be a reliable marker of oxidative stress. The heatshock protein, haem oxygenase, is induced by oxidative stress and degrades haemoglobin to bilirubin, with concurrent production of carbon monoxide (CO). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximal exercise on exhaled ethane and CO in human, canine, and equine athletes. Human athletes (n = 8) performed a maximal exercise test on a treadmill, and canine (n = 12) and equine (n = 11) athletes exercised at gallop on a sand racetrack. Breath samples were taken at regular intervals during exercise in the human athletes, and immediately before and after exercise in the canine and equine athletes. Breath samples were stored in gas-impermeable bags for analysis of ethane by laser spectroscopy, and CO was measured directly using an electrochemical CO monitor. Maximal exercise was associated with significant increases in exhaled ethane in the human, equine, and canine athletes. Decreased concentrations of exhaled CO were detected after maximal exercise in the human athletes, but CO was rarely detectable in the canine and equine athletes. The ethane breath test allows non-invasive and real-time detection of oxidative stress, and this method will facilitate further investigation of the processes mediating EIOS in human and animal athletes.

  8. The quantification of carbon dioxide in humid air and exhaled breath by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik

    2009-05-01

    The reactions of carbon dioxide, CO(2), with the precursor ions used for selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, analyses, viz. H(3)O(+), NO(+) and O(2) (+), are so slow that the presence of CO(2) in exhaled breath has, until recently, not had to be accounted for in SIFT-MS analyses of breath. This has, however, to be accounted for in the analysis of acetaldehyde in breath, because an overlap occurs of the monohydrate of protonated acetaldehyde and the weakly bound adduct ion, H(3)O(+)CO(2), formed by the slow association reaction of the precursor ion H(3)O(+) with CO(2) molecules. The understanding of the kinetics of formation and the loss rates of the relevant ions gained from experimentation using the new generation of more sensitive SIFT-MS instruments now allows accurate quantification of CO(2) in breath using the level of the H(3)O(+)CO(2) adduct ion. However, this is complicated by the rapid reaction of H(3)O(+)CO(2) with water vapour molecules, H(2)O, that are in abundance in exhaled breath. Thus, a study has been carried out of the formation of this adduct ion by the slow three-body association reaction of H(3)O(+) with CO(2) and its rapid loss in the two-body reaction with H(2)O molecules. It is seen that the signal level of the H(3)O(+)CO(2) adduct ion is sensitively dependent on the humidity (H(2)O concentration) of the sample to be analysed and a functional form of this dependence has been obtained. This has resulted in an appropriate extension of the SIFT-MS software and kinetics library that allows accurate measurement of CO(2) levels in air samples, ranging from very low percentage levels (0.03% typical of tropospheric air) to the 6% level that is about the upper limit in exhaled breath. Thus, the level of CO(2) can be traced through single time exhalation cycles along with that of water vapour, also close to the 6% level, and of trace gas metabolites that are present at only a few parts-per-billion. This has added a further dimension to

  9. Genetic Variation of the Alpha Subunit of the Epithelial Na+ Channels Influences Exhaled Na+ in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Lupo, William T.; Wheatley, Courtney M.; Baker, Sarah E.; Cassuto, Nicholas A.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial Na+ Channels (ENaC) are located on alveolar cells and are important in β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated lung fluid clearance through the removal of Na+ from the alveolar airspace. Previous work has demonstrated that genetic variation of the alpha subunit of ENaC at amino acid 663 is important in channel function: cells with the genotype resulting in alanine at amino acid 663 (A663) demonstrate attenuated function when compared to genotypes with at least one allele encoding threonine (T663, AT/TT). We sought to determine the influence of genetic variation at position 663 of ENaC on exhaled Na+ in healthy humans. Exhaled Na+ was measured in 18 AA and 13 AT/TT subjects (age=27±8 vs. 30±10yrs., ht.=174±12 vs. 171±10cm., wt=68±12 vs. 73±14kg., BMI=22±3 vs. 25±4kg/m2, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively). Measurements were made at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90 minutes following the administration of a nebulized β2-agonist (albuterol sulfate, 2.5mg diluted in 3ml normal saline). The AA group had a higher baseline level of exhaled Na+ and a greater response to β2-agonist stimulation (baseline= 3.1±1.8 vs. 2.3±1.5mmol/l; 30min-post= 2.1±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.8mmol/l; 60min-post= 2.0±0.5 vs. 2.3±1.0mmol/l; 90min-post= 1.8±0.8 vs. 2.6±1.5mmol/l, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively, p<0.05). The results are consistent with the notion that genetic variation of ENaC influences β2-adrenergic receptor stimulated Na+ clearance in the lungs, as there was a significant reduction in exhaled Na+ over time in the AA group. PMID:21889619

  10. Exhaled hydrogen peroxide correlates with the release of reactive oxygen species by blood phagocytes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, U; Maria, L; Kasielski, M; Kaucka, S; Nowak, D

    2003-06-01

    Various cells including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, alveolar macrophages and type-II pneumocytes may be a source of exhaled hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in airways of humans. H2O2 can convert into hydroxyl radicals leading to peroxidative damage of airways structures and formation of volatile thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs). We tested whether exhalation of H2O2 and TBARs by healthy subjects depends on reactive oxygen species generation from blood phagocytes. The expired breath condensate (EBC) and blood specimens were collected from 41 healthy, never smoked subjects (mean age 20.7 +/- 0.8 years, 18 men, 23 women) and then the EBC concentration of H2O2 and TBARs and 2 x 10(-5) M fMLP-provoked whole blood chemiluminescence response was measured. The mean concentration of H2O2 and TBARs in EBC was 0.28 +/- 0.17 and 0.04 +/- 0.13 microM with ratio of positive readings reaching 36/41 and 4/41, respectively. The chemiluminescence response to n-formyl-methionyl-leveyl-phenylalanine stimulation was obtained in all cases and the following parameters were estimated: basal chemiluminescence (bCl); peak chemiluminescence (pCl); absolute light emission (aCl); and peaktime. H2O2 levels in EBC positively correlated (Spearmann test) with bCl (r=0.41, P<0.01), pCl (r=0.47, P<0.01), aCl (r=0.49, P<0.001), peaktime (r=0.52, P<0.001) in the whole group and with bCl (r=0.56, P<0.01), pCl (r=0.67, P<0.01), aCl (r=0.66, P<0.01) in men and with aCl (r=0.41, P<0.05) and peaktime (r=0.48, P<0.05) in women. No association between exhaled TBARs and blood phagocytes activity was found. These results indicate that H2O2 exhalation in healthy never smoked subjects depends on ability of blood phagocytes to generate reactive oxygen species.

  11. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Assessment of radium and radon exhalation rate in soil and building material samples using LR-115 plastic track detectors.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Badhan, Komal; Bala, Pankaj

    2013-04-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 TYPE-II) were used to determine the concentration of radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples collected from the different areas of Dharamshala,Himachal Pradesh (India) and in building material samples :" viz. cement, bricks and white marble collected from different locations of India. The radium concentration for the soil samples and building materials variedfrom 16.22Bqkg-1 to 25.44Bqkg-1 and 32.33 Bqkg-1 to 52.26Bqkg-1 with an average value of 22.03 Bqkg-1 and 39.12 Bqkg-1 respectively. The calculated average values of radon exhalation rate in terms of mass (E.) and area (E.) for soil samples and building material samples are (8.59mBqkg-1h-1 and 310.6 mBqm-1h-1) and (15.26mBqkg-1h-1and 551.6 mBqm-2h-1) respectively.

  13. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  14. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  15. Environmental Conditions Affect Exhalation of H3N2 Seasonal and Variant Influenza Viruses and Respiratory Droplet Transmission in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Kortney M.; Belser, Jessica A.; Veguilla, Vic; Zeng, Hui; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Maines, Taronna R.

    2015-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza virus infections in temperate climates and the role of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity in the transmission of influenza virus through the air are not well understood. Using ferrets housed at four different environmental conditions, we evaluated the respiratory droplet transmission of two influenza viruses (a seasonal H3N2 virus and an H3N2 variant virus, the etiologic virus of a swine to human summertime infection) and concurrently characterized the aerosol shedding profiles of infected animals. Comparisons were made among the different temperature and humidity conditions and between the two viruses to determine if the H3N2 variant virus exhibited enhanced capabilities that may have contributed to the infections occurring in the summer. We report here that although increased levels of H3N2 variant virus were found in ferret nasal wash and exhaled aerosol samples compared to the seasonal H3N2 virus, enhanced respiratory droplet transmission was not observed under any of the environmental settings. However, overall environmental conditions were shown to modulate the frequency of influenza virus transmission through the air. Transmission occurred most frequently at 23°C/30%RH, while the levels of infectious virus in aerosols exhaled by infected ferrets agree with these results. Improving our understanding of how environmental conditions affect influenza virus infectivity and transmission may reveal ways to better protect the public against influenza virus infections. PMID:25969995

  16. Relationships between adult asthma and oxidative stress markers and pH in exhaled breath condensate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldakheel, F M; Thomas, P S; Bourke, J E; Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Recently, interest has increased in the assessment of pH and airway oxidative stress markers. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and quantification of biomarkers in breath samples can potentially indicate lung disease activity and help in the study of airway inflammation, and asthma severity. Levels of oxidative stress markers in the EBC have been systematically evaluated in children with asthma; however, there is no such systematic review conducted for adult asthma. A systematic review of oxidative stress markers measured in EBC of adult asthma was conducted, and studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Concentrations of exhaled hydrogen ions, nitric oxide products, hydrogen peroxide and 8-isoprostanes were generally elevated and related to lower lung function tests in adults with asthma compared to healthy subjects. Assessment of EBC markers may be a noninvasive approach to evaluate airway inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity of asthma, and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment regimens. Longitudinal studies, using standardized analytical techniques for EBC collection, are required to establish reference values for the interpretation of EBC markers in the context of asthma.

  17. Radon exhalation from phosphogypsum building boards: symmetry constraints, impermeable boundary conditions and numerical simulation of a test case.

    PubMed

    Rabi, J A; da Silva, Nivaldo C

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of (222)Rn exhalation from phosphogypsum-bearing building material and its accumulation in indoor air is likely to rely on numerical simulation, particularly if transient effects, three-dimensional domains and convection are to be included and investigated. Yet, experimental data and analytical results are helpful (if not crucial) as far as validation is concerned. Having in mind computational code simplicity and in the light of a recent experimental and theoretical report on (222)Rn release from phosphogypsum boards for housing panels, this paper presents and discusses an alternative testing set-up and the corresponding boundary conditions, namely one side of the panel bounded by impermeable wall. Although this is a new facility to be tested, the resultant steady-state one-dimensional diffusion-dominant analytical solution is shown to match the counterpart deduced in the aforementioned previous report, despite it relaxes the constraint of symmetry about the phosphogypsum board centerline, which is inferred in that prior experimental scenario. In addition, numerical results are conducted for a diffusion-dominant two-dimensional time-varying test case concerning (222)Rn accumulation in a closed chamber having an exhaling phosphogypsum board tightly placed at one wall.

  18. Effects of immersion in cool water on lung-exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Krasney, J. A.; DeRoberts, D.; Farhi, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Lung nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to relax airway and vascular smooth muscle at rest and during exercise. As a cold environment is a common cause of respiratory distress, lung exhaled NO was measured during skin and core body cooling at rest and during a progressive cycle exercise. Ten healthy male subjects were immersed in water at a water temperature (Tw) which was thermal neutral (35 degrees C) at 30 degrees C Tw, at which only skin temperature is decreased; and at 20 degrees C Tw, at which the core temperature is decreased (0.05 degrees C). At rest, V(O), and V(E) increased while exhaled NO concentration [NO] and the rate of expiration of NO (V(NO)) decreased with decreased Tw. V(O2) and ventilation (V(E)) increased with workload (W) and the values at all Tw were not different, whereas, [NO] decreased with W and the values during exercise were progressively less at all Ws as Tw declined. These results indicate that lung NO output is reduced in a graded fashion during body cooling at rest and during exercise. This suggests that lower lung NO may contribute to airway obstruction in cold environments and NO may contribute to regulation of lung heat and water exchange.

  19. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  20. Co-occupant's exposure to exhaled pollutants with two types of personalized ventilation strategies under mixing and displacement ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Niu, J; Gao, N

    2013-04-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) system in conjunction with total ventilation system can provide cleaner inhaled air for the user. Concerns still exist about whether the normally protecting PV device, on the other hand, facilitates the dispersion of infectious agents generated by its user. In this article, two types of PV systems with upward supplied fresh air, namely a chair-based PV and one kind of desk-mounted PV systems, when combined with mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems, are investigated using simulation method with regard to their impacts on co-occupant's exposure to the exhaled droplet nuclei generated by the infected PV user. Simulation results of tracer gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 5, and 10 μm from exhaled air show that, when only the infected person uses a PV, the different PV air supplying directions present very different impacts on the co-occupant's intake under DV, while no apparent differences can be observed under MV. The findings demonstrate that better inhaled air quality can always be achieved under DV when the adopted PV system can deliver conditioned fresh air in the same direction with the mainly upward airflow patterns of DV.

  1. Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Barletta, Barbara; Yoonessi, Leila; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Randhawa, Inderpal; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Blake, Donald R.; Cooper, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and β2-agonists are the primary pharmacotherapies of asthma management. However, suboptimal medication compliance is common in asthmatics and is associated with increased morbidity. We hypothesized that exhaled breath measurements of the aerosol used in the inhaled medications might prove useful as surrogate marker for asthma medication compliance. To explore this, ten healthy controls were recruited and randomly assigned to inhaled corticosteroids (Flovent HFA) or short acting bronchodilators (Proventil HFA). Both inhalers contain HFA-134a as aerosol propellant. Exhaled breath sampling and pulmonary function tests were performed prior to the inhaler medication dispersion, immediately after inhalation, then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hours post administration. At baseline, mean (SD) levels of HFA-134a in the breath were 252 (156) pptv. Immediately after inhalation, HFA-134a breath levels increased to 300 X106 pptv and were still well above ambient levels 24 hours post administration. The calculated ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) did not change over time following inhaler administration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that breath HFA-134a levels can be used to assess inhaler medication compliance. It may also be used to evaluate how effectively the medicine is delivered. PMID:26155923

  2. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-12

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  3. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  4. Exhaled nitric oxide in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Stephen C.; Hummers, Laura K.; Shah, Ami A.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Lechtzin, Noah; Hassoun, Paul M.; Girgis, Reda E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fractional exhaled concentration of nitric oxide (FENO) has been shown to be reduced in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but has not been adequately studied in PAH associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We measured FENO at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s in 21 treatment-naive patients with SSc-associated PAH (SSc-PAH), 94 subjects with SSc without pulmonary involvement, and 84 healthy volunteers. Measurements of FENO at additional flow rates of 100, 150, and 250 mL/s were obtained to derive the flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters of maximal airway flux (J′awNO) and steady-state alveolar concentration (CANO). FENO at 50 mL/s was similar (P = 0.22) in the SSc-PAH group (19 ± 12 parts per billion [ppb]) compared with the SSc group (17 ± 12 ppb) and healthy control group (21 ± 11 ppb). No change was observed after 4 months of targeted PAH therapy in 14 SSc-PAH group patients (P = 0.9). J′awNO was modestly reduced in SSc group subjects without lung disease (1.2 ± 0.5 nl/s) compared with healthy controls (1.64 ± 0.9; P < 0.05) but was similar to that in the SSc-PAH group. CANO was elevated in individuals with SSc-PAH (4.8 ± 2.6 ppb) compared with controls with SSc (3.3 ± 1.4 ppb) and healthy subjects (2.6 ± 1.5 ppb; P < 0.001 for both). However, after adjustment for the diffusing capacity of CO, there was no significant difference in CANO between individuals with SSc-PAH and controls with SSc. We conclude that FENO is not useful for the diagnosis of PAH in SSc. Increased alveolar nitric oxide in SSc-PAH likely represents impaired diffusion into pulmonary capillary blood. PMID:28090297

  5. Methodological implications in pH standardization of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; Berresheim, H; Beine, A; Sucker, K; Brüning, T; Bünger, J

    2015-05-14

    The variable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide is one of the main confounding factors of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH measurements. There have been many attempts at identifying the optimal approach to displace CO2 as a way to gain reproducible and valid pH values in EBC samples. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation of pH and pCO2 in untreated, neat EBC samples and, after deaeration, to reevaluate the standardization of CO2 as a means to obtain valid pH values. A further aim was to evaluate the impact of deaeration on the acid-base balance in EBC samples. EBC was collected from seven female and 31 male subjects. The pH and pCO2 values immediately determined in untreated, neat EBC samples were strongly correlated (rp = -0.723, p <  0.0001). This correlation was not observed after deaeration with argon (rs = 0.264, p = 0.109). Based on a regression function for the pH/pCO2 relationship, the calculated pH at a pCO2 of 5.33 kPa was 6.07 (IQR 5.99, 6.20). No significant difference was observed between the pH measured in neat EBC samples and those calculated after deaeration with regression function and measured neat pCO2. Our data suggest that pCO2 is the most important confounder of pH measurement in EBC samples and, when adjusting for pCO2, the acid-base balance of EBC samples is not significantly influenced by the process of deaeration. Furthermore, measurement with a blood-gas analyzer and standardization of pH for pCO2 allows sensitive assaying of EBC samples. Therefore, this method provides a basis for detection of even small changes in airway pH due to inhalative exposure or respiratory disease.

  6. A meta-analysis of the association of exhaled carbon monoxide on asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shaoqing, Yu; Ruxin, Zhang; Yingjian, Chen; Jianqiu, Chen; Yanshen, Wang; Genhong, Li

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of exhaled CO (eCO) on the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) by means of reviewing published literature. The literatures published between January 1997 and December 2008 from the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) Database were obtained according to inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. CO levels of asthma and AR patients were compared with that of normal controls. HO-1(heme oxygenase-1) expression and effect of corticosteroids on eCO levels were also analyzed. Fifteen studies concerning asthma and four studies concerning AR were included in this analysis. Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (P < 0.0001), so a random-effects model was preferred. The meta-analysis revealed that asthmatic patients had significantly higher levels of eCO compared to normal controls. There was significant difference between asthma and control groups in terms of eCO (combined weighted mean difference (WMD) 1.33 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.95), P < 0.0001), and no significant difference between AR and control (combined WMD 0.93 (95% confidence interval -0.54 to 2.40), P = 0.22). HO-1 expression were also reviewed, asthma group produced greater expression of HO-1 than control group with significant difference (combined standardized mean difference (SMD) 2.98 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 4.84), P = 0.002). After corticosteroid therapy, significantly different levels of eCO were produced after corticosteroid therapy than did asthma group (combined WMD -1.23 (95% confidence interval -2.43 to -0.03), P = 0.04). The analysis reveals that eCO levels were significantly raised in asthma and it may attribute to high expression of HO-1, but there were no significantly high eCO levels between AR and control groups. Due to sensitivity to corticosteroid inhibition, eCO may be used as a practical marker to detect and monitor exacerbation of asthma.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide levels and lung function changes of underground coal miners in Newcastle, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Salter, Amy; Thomas, Paul; Leigh, James; Wang, He

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in combination with lung function as a marker of airway inflammation produced by coal mining exposure was determined presuming that workers exposed to airborne hazards would possess different concentrations of eNO and decreased lung function indices, relative to control subjects recruited from the same area. The effect of smoking was also considered. A study (exposed) group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 19-58 yr) was recruited from Newcastle coal mining companies with 86 male subjects (aged 20-64 yr) from the same area, but working outside of the coal mining location, serving as controls. The parameters examined were eNO, lung function, and variables derived from an interview-administered questionnaire survey. After adjustment for age, body weight, and smoking status, no significant differences between exposed coal mining workers and controls were found for various lung function parameters. However, the exposed group was shown to have significantly lower concentrations of eNO. In the exposed group, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV(1) (%) predicted were found to be significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of eNO were not significantly different between smoking and nonsmokers within the exposed group. The consideration of nonsmokers alone showed that eNO was significantly lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. The consideration of smokers alone found that eNO was significantly lower in exposed subjects. In the exposed group, no significant association was detected between eNO levels and underground work duration but a significant negative association was shown between eNO and age. Data suggest that exposure to airborne hazards in coal mining is not significantly associated with lung function changes but is correlated with decreased eNO concentrations in exposed workers. While underground work duration was not found to

  8. Non-invasive estimation of arterial blood pH using exhaled CO/CO2 analyser, microwave radar and infrared thermography for patients after massive haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hattori, H; Takase, B; Ishihara, M

    2006-01-01

    In order to conduct non-contact estimation of arterial blood pH after massive haemorrhage, we calculated the arterial pH based on linear-regression analysis of exhaled gas concentrations (CO and CO2) and vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and surface temperature) measured using non-contact methods in hypovolemic animals.

  9. A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O

    2015-09-04

    A method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes.

  10. A NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA BY EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY-PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the potential of exhaled breath analysis by Column Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) as a non invasive and sensitive approach to evaluate mesenteric ischemia in pigs.

    Domestic pigs (n=3) were anesthetized with Guaifenesin/ Fentanyl/ Ketamine/ Xylazine...

  11. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-02-06

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure vari-ations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagran-gian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respira-tions of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de-livery protocol.

  12. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de- livery protocol.

  13. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol. PMID:25767612

  14. Application of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of volatile organic compounds in end-exhaled breath samples.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Marín, P; Periago, J F

    2003-09-05

    Analysis of exhaled air is of particular interest as an indicator of health as well as a tool for the diagnosis of diseases. It is also a very attractive procedure for the biological control of the exposition to hazardous solvents. This kind of analysis presents numerous advantages over other methods, the most important being that it is not an invasive procedure and, therefore, it is well accepted and can be applied to a wide range of compounds. Furthermore, the analysis is simplified since the matrix is less complex that in the case of blood or urine. In spite of these obvious advantages and the good results obtained, analysis of exhaled air is not in daily use, probably due to the fact that there are no normalized systems of sampling, thus making the interpretation of the results difficult. In this paper, a method for the determination of tetrachloroethylene in exhaled air using solid-phase microextraction is presented. This method, which can be applied to other volatile organic compounds, was developed with special emphasis of end-exhaled breath sampling. The sample is collected in a glass tube whose ends are closed once the exhalation is finished. The tube has an orifice sealed with a septum through which the fiber is inserted. Then, the fiber is desorbed in the injector of a gas chromatograph and the analysis is accomplished using mass spectrometry for the identification and quantification of the components. The proposed system avoids the need of complex sampling equipment and allows analysis of the alveolar fraction. Additionally, the system is economical and easy to handle, thus facilitating the development of normalized methods and its routine use in field studies.

  15. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treatmore » the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 μm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.« less

  16. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 μm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.

  17. Exhaling a budesonide inhaler through the nose results in a significant reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray in patients having asthma with rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, W A

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid is used routinely in the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. Although inhaled corticosteroids in therapeutic doses are unlikely to result in systemic side effects, there is as yet skepticism about their routine and prolonged use. The aim of this study was to determine whether budesonide inhalation through a metered dose inhaler, when exhaled through the nose could result in a reduction in the dose requirement of budesonide metered nasal spray in patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis. This study was an open, parallel, comparative, crossover trial in which 49 young patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis were divided into two groups and administered either a combination of budesonide metered dose inhaler with a budesonide nasal spray or a budesonide inhaler alone, which was to be exhaled through the nose. Both groups were later crossed over and weekly symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates were monitored during each phase of the study. Finally, patients who volunteered from both groups were instructed to note the reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray while using a budesonide inhaler and exhaling it through the nose. The results of this study reveal that when a budesonide inhaler is exhaled through the nose, it results in an improvement in symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates, which were significantly less than those obtained in the group using both a budesonide nasal spray and a metered dose inhaler. In addition, exhaling budesonide through the nose results in a 40.1% reduction in the dose requirement of a budesonide nasal spray, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001).

  18. Nitric oxide production in the exhaled air of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in relation to HIV co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Idh, Jonna; Westman, Anna; Elias, Daniel; Moges, Feleke; Getachew, Assefa; Gelaw, Aschalew; Sundqvist, Tommy; Forslund, Tony; Alemu, Addis; Ayele, Belete; Diro, Ermias; Melese, Endalkachew; Wondmikun, Yared; Britton, Sven; Stendahl, Olle; Schön, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for host defense in rodents, but the role of NO during tuberculosis (TB) in man remains controversial. However, earlier observations that arginine supplementation facilitates anti-TB treatment, supports the hypothesis that NO is important in the host defense against TB. Local production of NO measured in fractional exhaled air (FeNO) in TB patients with and without HIV co-infection has not been reported previously. Thus, our aim was to investigate levels of FeNO in relation to clinical symptoms and urinary NO metabolites (uNO). Methods In a cross sectional study, FeNO and uNO were measured and clinical symptoms, chest x-ray, together with serum levels of arginine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) were evaluated in sputum smear positive TB patients (HIV+/TB, n = 36, HIV-/TB, n = 59), their household contacts (n = 17) and blood donors (n = 46) from Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. Results The proportion of HIV-/TB patients with an increased FeNO level (> 25 ppb) was significantly higher as compared to HIV+/TB patients, but HIV+/TB patients had significantly higher uNO than HIV-/TB patients. HIV+ and HIV-/TB patients both had lower levels of FeNO compared to blood donors and household contacts. The highest levels of both uNO and FeNO were found in household contacts. Less advanced findings on chest x-ray, as well as higher sedimentation rate were observed in HIV+/TB patients as compared to HIV-/TB patients. However, no significant correlation was found between FeNO and uNO, chest x-ray grading, clinical symptoms, TNF-alpha, IL-12, arginine levels or sedimentation rate. Conclusion In both HIV negative and HIV co infected TB patients, low levels of exhaled NO compared to blood donors and household were observed. Future studies are needed to confirm whether low levels of exhaled NO could be a risk factor in acquiring TB and the relative importance of NO in human TB. PMID:18950489

  19. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-04

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  20. The analysis of linear and monomethylalkanes in exhaled breath samples by GC×GC-FID and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hengerics Szabó, Alexandra; Podolec, Peter; Ferenczy, Viktória; Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Soják, Ladislav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Višňovský, Jozef; Bierhanzl, Václav; Čabala, Radomír; Amann, Anton

    2015-01-26

    A new arrangement of the INCAT (inside needle capillary adsorption trap) device with Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000 as sorbent materials was applied for sampling, preconcentration and injection of C6C19n-alkanes and their monomethyl analogs in exhaled breath samples. For the analysis both GC-MS/MS and GC×GC-FID techniques were used. Identification of the analytes was based on standards, measured retention indices and selective SRM transitions of the individual isomers. The GC-MS/MS detection limits were in the range from 2.1 pg for n-tetradecane to 86 pg for 5-methyloctadecane. The GC×GC-FID detection limits ranged from 19 pg for n-dodecane to 110 pg for 3-methyloctane.

  1. Study of exhaled breath condensate sample preparation for metabolomics analysis by LC-MS/MS in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Peralbo, M A; Calderón Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) requires an unavoidable sample preparation step because of the low concentration of its components, and potential cleanup for possible interferents. Sample preparation based on protein precipitation (PP), solid-phase extraction (SPE) by hydrophilic and lipophilic sorbents or lyophilization has demonstrated that the analytical sample from the last is largely the best because lyophilization allows reconstitution in a volume as small as required (preconcentration factors up to 80-times with respect to the original sample), thus doubling the number of detected compounds as compared with the other alternatives (47 versus 25). In addition, PP and/or SPE cleanup are unnecessary as no effect from the EBC components removed by these steps appears in the chromatograms. The total 49 EBC compounds tentatively identified and confirmed by MS/MS in this research include amino acids, fatty acids, fatty amides, fatty aldehydes, sphingoid bases, oxoanionic compounds, imidazoles, hydroxy acids and aliphatic acyclic acids.

  2. Academic exam stress and depressive mood are associated with reductions in exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Smith, Noelle B; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health.

  3. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-04-01

    A simple system to evaluate the 222Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m(-3)/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 degrees C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  4. Exhaled Interleukine-6 and 8-isoprostane in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effect of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys).

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Resta, O; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P; Spanevello, Antonio; Stefano, Antonio; Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Serviddio, Gaetano; Gramiccioni, Enzo

    2004-11-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an airways inflammation and by an enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of our study was to assess the inflammation and the oxidative stress in airways of COPD patients with acute exacerbation of disease and in stability. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of 6 months treatment with carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys) in COPD. We studied 30 mild acute COPD, 10 mild stable COPD and 15 healthy subjects. 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 were measured in their breath condensate through immunoassay. Significantly higher concentrations of exhaled 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 were found in acute COPD patients compared to stable COPD and healthy controls (21.8+/-5.1 vs. 13.2+/-2.0 vs. 4.7+/-1.8 pg/ml and 7.4+/-0.9 vs. 5.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.7+/-0.6 pg/ml, p<0.0001). COPD patients treated with SCMC-Lys showed a marked reduction of exhaled 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 (8.9+/-1.5 and 4.6+/-0.8 pg/ml, p<0.0001). These findings suggest that there is an increase of 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 concentrations in the breath condensate of COPD patients compared to healthy controls especially during acute exacerbations of the disease. Moreover, we showed an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of short-term administration of SCMC-Lys in COPD, suggesting the importance of a further placebo-controlled study that should evaluate the effects of this drug.

  5. Exhaled Breath Metabolomics for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Intubated and Mechanically-Ventilated Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Oort, Pouline M. P.; de Bruin, Sanne; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo H.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Bos, Lieuwe D.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia remains challenging. We hypothesized that analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath could be used to diagnose pneumonia or the presence of pathogens in the respiratory tract in intubated and mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. In this prospective, single-centre, cross-sectional cohort study breath from mechanically ventilated patients was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potentially relevant VOCs were selected with a p-value < 0.05 and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) above 0.7. These VOCs were used for principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). AUROC was used as a measure of accuracy. Ninety-three patients were included in the study. Twelve of 145 identified VOCs were significantly altered in patients with pneumonia compared to controls. In colonized patients, 52 VOCs were significantly different. Partial least square discriminant analysis classified patients with modest accuracy (AUROC: 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57–0.88) after leave-one-out cross-validation). For determining the colonization status of patients, the model had an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57–0.82) after leave-one-out cross-validation. To conclude, exhaled breath analysis can be used to discriminate pneumonia from controls with a modest to good accuracy. Furthermore breath profiling could be used to predict the presence and absence of pathogens in the respiratory tract. These findings need to be validated externally. PMID:28218729

  6. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  7. Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Suitable Matrix to Assess Lung Dose and Effects in Workers Exposed to Cobalt and Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; De Palma, Giuseppe; Manini, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Corradi, Massimo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a fluid formed by cooling exhaled air, can be used as a suitable matrix to assess target tissue dose and effects of inhaled cobalt and tungsten, using EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of pulmonary oxidative stress. Thirty-three workers exposed to Co and W in workshops producing either diamond tools or hard-metal mechanical parts participated in this study. Two EBC and urinary samples were collected: one before and one at the end of the work shift. Controls were selected among nonexposed workers. Co, W, and MDA in EBC were analyzed with analytical methods based on mass spectrometric reference techniques. In the EBC from controls, Co was detectable at ultratrace levels, whereas W was undetectable. In exposed workers, EBC Co ranged from a few to several hundred nanomoles per liter. Corresponding W levels ranged from undetectable to several tens of nanomoles per liter. A parallel trend was observed for much higher urinary levels. Both Co and W in biological media were higher at the end of the work shift in comparison with preexposure values. In EBC, MDA levels were increased depending on Co concentration and were enhanced by coexposure to W. Such a correlation between EBC MDA and both Co and W levels was not observed with urinary concentration of either element. These results suggest the potential usefulness of EBC to complete and integrate biomonitoring and health surveillance procedures among workers exposed to mixtures of transition elements and hard metals. PMID:15345342

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma: a meta-analysis of 4,691 participants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Qin, Wenzhe; Li, Lei; Wu, Qin; Wang, Youjuan

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common airway inflammation, but current methods for diagnosing it are poor. Here we meta-analyze the available evidence on the ability of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in asthma to serve as a diagnostic marker of asthma. We systematically searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases, published data on sensitivity, specificity and other measures of diagnostic accuracy of eNO in the diagnosis of asthma were meta-analyzed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by QUADAS-2 (quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy). Statistical analysis was performed by employing Meta-Disc 1.4 software and STATA. And the measures of accuracy of eNO in the diagnosis of asthma were pooled using random-effects models. A total of nineteen publications reporting twenty-one case-control studies were identified. Pooled results indicated that eNO showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.78 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.80), specificity was 0.74 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.76). PLR was 3.70 (95% CI 2.84 to 4.81) and NLR was 0.35 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.47). DOR was 11.37 (95% CI 7.54 to 17.13). Exhaled nitric oxide show insufficient sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing asthma, eNO measurements may be useful in combination with clinical manifestations and conventional tests such as pulmonary function tests, assessment of bronchodilator response and bronchial challenge tests. PMID:26309503

  9. STUDY OF RADON, THORON EXHALATION AND NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN COAL AND FLY ASH SAMPLES OF KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER PLANT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B K; Sapra, B K; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Electricity generation in India is largely dependent on coal-based thermal power plants, and increasing demand of energy raised the coal consumption in the power plants. In recent years, study of natural radioactivity content and radon/thoron exhalation from combustion of coal and its by-products has given considerable attention as they have been recognised as one of the important technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials. In the present study, radon, thoron exhalation rate and the radioactivity concentration of radionuclides in coal and fly ash samples collected from Kota Super Thermal Power Plant, Rajasthan, India have been measured and compared with data of natural soil samples. The results have been analysed and discussed.

  10. Low forced expiratory flow rates and forceful exhalation as a cause for arterial gas embolism during submarine escape training: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hartge, Francis J; Bennett, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old male U.S. Navy submariner suffered an arterial gas embolism during pressurized submarine escape training. Routine pretraining medical screening revealed no history of asthma, pneumothorax or recent respiratory infection. Pulmonary function testing and posterioranterior/lateral chest X-ray were normal. He forcefully exhaled at the start of his ascent and developed neurological abnormalities including lightheadedness with lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after surfacing. He fully recovered after a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6. This case represents the first report of an arterial gas embolism since the U.S. Navy resumed pressurized submarine escape training utilizing the Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment suit. We discuss possible contributing factors and propose that his AGE was caused by pulmonary barotrauma due to a combination of low forced expiratory flow rates and an overly forceful exhalation during his ascent.

  11. Applications of tunable diode laser spectroscopy for the detection of exhaled endogenous gases: CO, NH3, CH4, N20, and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.

    1996-04-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, carbon-dioxide, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal's exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparations of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and carbon-dioxide, NH3 and carbon- dioxide, or CO and nitrous oxide, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

  12. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate.

    PubMed

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Manjón, Guillermo

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its (226)Ra content and to the (222)Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of (222)Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km(2) from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged (226)Ra concentrations for the stack were 730+/-60 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). (222)Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m(-2)h(-1), but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with (226)Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  13. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  14. Electrospun polystyrene/graphene nanofiber film as a novel adsorbent of thin film microextraction for extraction of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Hongtao; Song, Dandan; Xu, Hui

    2015-06-09

    In the current study, we introduced a novel polystyrene/graphene (PS/G) composite nanofiber film for thin film microextraction (TFME) for the first time. The PS/G nanofiber film was fabricated on the surface of filter paper by a facile electrospinning method. The morphology and extraction performance of the resultant composite film were investigated systematically. The PS/G nanofiber film exhibited porous fibrous structure, large surface area and strong hydrophobicity. A new thin film microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (TFME-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of six aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates. The method showed high enrichment efficiency and fast analysis speed. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the analytes were in the range of 0.02-30 μmol L(-1) with correlation coefficients above 0.9938, and the recoveries were between 79.8% and 105.6% with the relative standard deviation values lower than 16.3% (n=5). The limits of quantification of six aldehydes ranged from 13.8 to 64.6 nmol L(-1). The established method was successfully applied for the quantification of aldehyde metabolites in exhaled breath condensates of lung cancer patients and healthy people. Taken together, the TFME-HPLC method provides a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, non-invasion approach for the analysis of linear aliphatic aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates.

  15. In situ measurements of radon levels in water and soil and exhalation rate in areas of Malwa belt of Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit S; Sabharwal, Arvind D

    2011-12-01

    Radon concentration levels in water and soil gas from 36 locations pertaining to some areas of Malwa region of Punjab have been measured on an in situ basis using a continuous active radon detector (AlphaGuard, Model - PQ 2000 PRO, Genitron instruments, Germany). Exhalation rate measurements have also been carried out at these places, using a closed-circuit technique. The radon concentrations in soil and water varied from 1.9 to 16.4 kBq m(-3) and 5.01 to 11.6 kBq m(-3), respectively. The exhalation rate (E (Rn)) ranged between 7.48 and 35.88 mBq m(-2) s(-1) with an average value of 18.17 mBq m(-2) s(-1). Annual dose rates have been calculated for water radon concentrations. The minimum to maximum values of dose rates were found to be 13.42-31.08 μSv y(-1). The recorded values of radon concentration in water are within the safe limit of 11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the US Environment Protection Agency [National Research Council, Risk Assessment of Radon in Drinking Water (Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1999)]. All measurements were made in similar climatic and environmental conditions to ensure minimal variations in meteorological parameters. An intermediate correlation coefficient (0.5) was observed between radon exhalation rates and soil gas values.

  16. Study of nasal exhaled nitric oxide levels in diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in subjects with and without asthma

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Quy, Sy; Vu-Minh, Thuc; Hua-Huy, Thong; Tang-Thi-Thao, Tram; Le-Quang, Khiet; Tran-Thanh, Dinh; Doan-Thi-Quynh, Nhu; Le-Dong, Nhat-Nam; Craig, Timothy J; Dinh-Xuan, Anh-Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Background The measure of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in the airways is a useful tool to guide the diagnosis and titration of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma. However, its role in diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR), especially in subjects with asthma, is not well established. Objective To study the cutoff of nasal FENO in the diagnosis of subjects with AR and AR-asthma compared to age-matched subjects without AR or asthma and its correlations with the clinical and functional characteristics. Methods The study was cross sectional and descriptive. Subjects were grouped into control subjects, AR, and AR-asthma, based on the inclusion criteria. Exhaled NO (nasal FENO, bronchial FENO, and alveolar concentration of NO) was measured by multiple flow electro-luminescence device. Results Six hundred twenty-eight subjects were included: 217 control subjects (children: n=98, 10±4 years; adults: n=119, 50±16 years), 168 subjects with AR (children: n=54, 10±3 years; adults: n=114, 49±15 years), and 243 subjects with AR-asthma (children: n=115, 10±3 years; adults: n=128, 51±14 years). Nasal peak inspiratory flow and peak expiratory flow were lower in subjects with AR and AR-asthma than in control subjects (P<0.01 and P<0.01; and P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Nasal FENO levels were significantly higher in subjects with AR and AR-asthma than in control subjects (1614±629 and 1686±614 ppb vs 582±161 ppb; P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). In subjects with AR non-asthma, the cutoffs of nasal FENO for those diagnosed with AR were 775 ppb in children, 799 ppb in adults, and 799 in the general population (sensitivity: 92.68%, 92.63%, and 92.65%, respectively; specificity: 91.67%, 95.00%, and 96.87%, respectively). In subjects with AR-asthma, the cutoffs of nasal FENO were higher, especially in asthma children (1458 ppb; sensitivity: 72.97% and specificity: 95.83%). Conclusion Nasal FENO measurement is a useful technique for the diagnosis of AR

  17. A Common variant in RAB27A gene is associated with fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Nadif, Rachel; Thompson, Emma E.; Concas, Maria Pina; Kuldanek, Susan; Du, Gaixin; Brossard, Myriam; Lavielle, Nolwenn; Sarnowski, Chloé; Vaysse, Amaury; Dessen, Philippe; van der Valk, Ralf JP; Duijts, Liesbeth; Henderson, A John; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; de Jongste, Johan C; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Pin, Isabelle; Matran, Régis; Lathrop, Mark; Pirastu, Mario; Demenais, Florence; Ober, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and for responsiveness to corticosteroids in asthmatics. Objective We sought to identify in adults the genetic determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels and to assess whether environmental and disease-related factors influence these associations. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study of FeNO through meta-analysis of two independent discovery samples of European ancestry: the outbred EGEA study (French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, N=610 adults) and the Hutterites (N=601 adults), a founder population living on communal farms. Replication of main findings was assessed in adults from an isolated village in Sardinia (Talana study, N=450). We then investigated the influence of asthma, atopy and tobacco smoke exposure on these genetic associations and whether they were also associated with FeNO values in children of the EAGLE (EArly Genetics & Lifecourse Epidemiology, N=8,858) consortium. Results We detected a common variant in RAB27A (rs2444043) associated with FeNO that reached the genome-wide significant level (P=1.6×10−7) in the combined discovery and replication adult datasets. This SNP belongs to member of RAS oncogene family (RAB27A) and was associated with an expression quantitative trait locus for RAB27A in lymphoblastoid cell lines from asthmatics. A second suggestive locus (rs2194437, P=8.9×10−7) located nearby the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (SLC8A1) was mainly detected in atopic subjects and influenced by inhaled corticosteroid use. These two loci were not associated with childhood FeNO values. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance This study identified a common variant located in RAB27A gene influencing FeNO levels specifically in adults and with a biological relevance to the regulation of FeNO levels. This study provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying FeNO levels in

  18. Simulation of four-dimensional CT images from deformable registration between inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Miguet, Serge; Ginestet, Chantal

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We propose to simulate an artificial four-dimensional (4-D) CT image of the thorax during breathing. It is performed by deformable registration of two CT scans acquired at inhale and exhale breath-hold. Materials and methods: Breath-hold images were acquired with the ABC (Active Breathing Coordinator) system. Dense deformable registrations were performed. The method was a minimization of the sum of squared differences (SSD) using an approximated second-order gradient. Gaussian and linear-elastic vector field regularizations were compared. A new preprocessing step, called a priori lung density modification (APLDM), was proposed to take into account lung density changes due to inspiration. It consisted of modulating the lung densities in one image according to the densities in the other, in order to make them comparable. Simulated 4-D images were then built by vector field interpolation and image resampling of the two initial CT images. A variation in the lung density was taken into account to generate intermediate artificial CT images. The Jacobian of the deformation was used to compute voxel values in Hounsfield units. The accuracy of the deformable registration was assessed by the spatial correspondence of anatomic landmarks located by experts. Results: APLDM produced statistically significantly better results than the reference method (registration without APLDM preprocessing). The mean (and standard deviation) of distances between automatically found landmark positions and landmarks set by experts were 2.7(1.1) mm with APLDM, and 6.3(3.8) mm without. Interexpert variability was 2.3(1.2) mm. The differences between Gaussian and linear elastic regularizations were not statistically significant. In the second experiment using 4-D images, the mean difference between automatic and manual landmark positions for intermediate CT images was 2.6(2.0) mm. Conclusion: The generation of 4-D CT images by deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT images is

  19. Variation of radon concentrations in soil and groundwater and its correlation with radon exhalation rate from soil in Budhakedar, Garhwal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Ganesh; Prasad, Yogesh; Gusain, G. S.; Badoni, Manjari; Rana, J. M. S.; Ramola, R. C.

    2009-06-01

    Radon was measured in soil-gas and groundwater in the Budhakedar area of Tehri Garhwal, India in summer and winter to obtain the seasonal variation and its correlation with radon exhalation rate. The environmental surface gamma dose rate was also measured in the same area. The radon exhalation rate in the soil sample collected from different geological unit of Budhakedar area was measured using plastic track detector (LR-115 type II) technique. The variation in the radon concentration in soil-gas was found to vary from 1098 to 31,776 Bq.m-3 with an average of 7456 Bq.m-3 in summer season and 3501 to 42883 Bq.m-3 with an average of 17148 Bq.m-3 in winter season. In groundwater, it was found to vary from 8 to 3047 Bq.l-1 with an average value 510 Bq.l-1 in summer and 26 to 2311 Bq.l-1 with an average value 433 Bq.L-1 in winter. Surface gamma dose rate in the study area varied from 32.4 to 83.6 μR.h-1 with an overall mean of 58.7 μ-R.h-1 in summer and 34.6 to 79.3 μR.h-1 with an average value 58.2 μR.h-1 in winter. Radon exhalation rate from collected soil samples was found to vary from 0.1 × 10-5 to 5.7 × 10-5 Bq.kg-1.h-1 with an average of 1.5 × 10-5 Bq.kg-1.h-1 in summer season and 1.7 × 10-5 to 9.6 × 10-5 Bq.kg-1.h-1 with an average of 5.5 × 10-5 Bq.kg-1.h-1. A weak negative correlation was observed between radon exhalation rate from soil and radon concentration in the soil. Radon exhalation rate from the soil was also not found to be correlated with the gamma dose rate, while it shows a positive correlation with radon concentration in water in summer season. Inter-correlations among various parameters are discussed in detail.

  20. Monitoring the ionic content of exhaled breath condensate in various respiratory diseases by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kindlová, Dagmar; Pokojová, Eva; Plutinský, Marek; Doubková, Martina; Merta, Zdeněk; Binková, Ilona; Skřičková, Jana; Kubáň, Petr

    2015-05-06

    The analysis of an ionic profile of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection and double opposite end injection, is demonstrated. A miniature sampler made from a 2 ml syringe and an aluminium cooling cylinder was used for the fast collection of EBC (under one minute). Analysis of the collected EBC was performed in a 60 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 60 mM L-histidine background electrolyte with 30 µM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6, and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD  <1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD  <  7% (n = 7)) of 14 ions (inorganic anions, cations and organic acids) was obtained. It is demonstrated that the analysis of EBC samples obtained from patients with various respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, cystic fibrosis) is possible in less than five minutes and the ionic profile can be compared with the group of healthy individuals. The analysis of the ionic profile of EBC samples provides a set of data in which statistically significant differences among the groups of patients could be observed for several clinically relevant anions (nitrite, nitrate, acetate, lactate). The developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting and analyzing EBC, with future applicability in point-of-care diagnostics.

  1. Analysis of p16 gene mutations and their expression using exhaled breath condensate in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jian-Rong; Huang, Fen-Fen; Tao, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Feng; Tao, Yi-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mutational status of exons 1 and 2 of the p16 gene in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and determine the feasibility and clinical significance of applying EBC in the diagnosis of NSCLC. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were applied to detect exon 1 and 2 alterations of the p16 gene in EBC by comparing 58 samples from NSCLC patients and 30 from healthy controls. Of the 58 EBC samples from NSCLC patients, 54 were successfully tested and 8 cases of mutations were identified, of which 3 were in exon 1 and 5 in exon 2. The mutation rate was 14.81% (8/54). There were no p16 gene mutations in the 30 samples obtained from healthy controls. EBC p16 gene mutations exhibited no statistically significant differences according to gender, smoking history, pathological type, degree of differentiation and presence or absence of lymph node metastasis. The p16 gene mutation rate was proportional to the tumor stage (P<0.05). Therefore, the detection of the p16 gene mutation in EBC may be used as a novel molecular marker to assist in the diagnosis of NSCLC.

  2. Effect of exercise duration on pro-oxidants and pH in exhaled breath condensate in humans.

    PubMed

    Tuesta, M; Alvear, M; Carbonell, T; García, C; Guzmán-Venegas, R; Araneda, O F

    2016-06-01

    Exercise promotes pulmonary oxidative imbalance. In this regard, some evidence has been obtained from the study of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during urban races, in which the factors involved in the occurrence of this process are still not characterized. In this paper, under laboratory conditions, both the role of time of exercise on the generation of pro-oxidants (H2O2, NO2 (-)) and pH have been assessed in EBC of 16 under-trained subjects who completed three tests of cycloergometric exercise at low intensity (30 % of VO2 max) with a duration of 10, 30, and 90 min. Samples were obtained as follows: immediately before and at 80 min post exertion in each test. In the 90-min test, an increase in H2O2, NO2 (-) concentration in EBC at 80 min post exertion with no changes in the pH was observed. Total O2 consumption and total ventilation weakly correlated with the changes in H2O2 and NO2 (-). In conclusion, the concentration of pro-oxidants in the EBC depends on the duration of the exercise when it is performed at low intensity under laboratory conditions.

  3. Comparison of Ambient and Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources for Cystic Fibrosis Exhaled Breath Condensate Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaoling; Pérez, José J; Jones, Christina M; Monge, María Eugenia; McCarty, Nael A; Stecenko, Arlene A; Fernández, Facundo M

    2017-03-31

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The vast majority of the mortality is due to progressive lung disease. Targeted and untargeted CF breath metabolomics investigations via exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyses have the potential to expose metabolic alterations associated with CF pathology and aid in assessing the effectiveness of CF therapies. Here, transmission-mode direct analysis in real time traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS) was tested as a high-throughput alternative to conventional direct infusion (DI) electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods, and a critical comparison of the three ionization methods was conducted. EBC was chosen as the noninvasive surrogate for airway sampling over expectorated sputum as EBC can be collected in all CF subjects regardless of age and lung disease severity. When using pooled EBC collected from a healthy control, ESI detected the most metabolites, APCI a log order less, and TM-DART the least. TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS was used to profile metabolites in EBC samples from five healthy controls and four CF patients, finding that a panel of three discriminant EBC metabolites, some of which had been previously detected by other methods, differentiated these two classes with excellent cross-validated accuracy. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. (1)H NMR To Explore the Metabolome of Exhaled Breath Condensate in α1-Antitrypsin Deficient Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Cristina; Ciaramelli, Carlotta; Fumagalli, Marco; Bussei, Rita; Mazzoni, Valeria; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Stolk, Jan

    2016-12-02

    The metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide insights on both the pathology of pulmonary disorders and the response to therapy. This pilot study describes the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics to discriminate α1-antitrypsin deficient (AATD)-patients, who were diagnosed with moderate to severe emphysema, from healthy individuals. Comparative analysis of samples from these two homogeneous cohorts of individuals resulted in the generation of NMR profiles that were different from both a qualitative and a quantitative point-of-view. Among the identified metabolites that separated patients from controls, acetoin, propionate, acetate, and propane-1,2 diol were those presenting the biggest difference. Unambiguous confirmation that the two groups could be completely differentiated on the basis of their metabolite content came from the application of univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal PLS-DA). MetaboAnalyst 3.0 platform, used to define a relationship among metabolites, allowed us to observe that pyruvate metabolism is the most-involved pathway, most of metabolites being originated from pyruvate. These preliminary data suggest that NMR, with its ability to differentiate the metabolic fingerprint of EBC of AATD patients from that of healthy controls, has a potential "clinical applicability" in this area.

  5. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.

    PubMed

    Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Gardiner, Philip H E; Carolan, Vikki A

    2016-12-06

    The analytical method outlined in this feasibility study has been used to show that trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) can be detected and measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. EBC samples and urine samples were collected from a cohort of 58 workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds and 22 unexposed volunteers (control group). Levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were determined in EBC samples and total chromium levels were determined in urine samples. Pre and post working week samples for both EBC and urine were collected in tandem. Total chromium in urine samples was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in EBC samples used a hyphenated micro liquid chromatography (μLC) system coupled to an ICP-MS. Separation was achieved using an anion exchange micro-sized column. The results showed that the occupationally exposed workers had significantly higher levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in their EBC samples than the control group, as well as higher levels of total chromium in their urine samples. However, for the exposed workers no significant difference was found between pre and post working week EBC samples for either Cr(III) or Cr(VI). This study has established that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) can simultaneously be detected and measured in 'real' EBC samples and will help in understanding inhalation exposure.

  6. Improved B-spline image registration between exhale and inhale lung CT images based on intensity and gradient orientation information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Woo Hyun; Oh, Jihun; Yi, Jonghyon; Park, Yongsup; Cho, Hansu; Kim, Sukjin

    2016-03-01

    Registration of lung CT images acquired at different respiratory phases is clinically relevant in many applications, such as follow-up analysis, lung function analysis based on mechanical elasticity, or pulmonary airflow analysis, etc. In order to find accurate and reliable transformation for registration, a proper choice of dissimilarity measure is important. Even though various intensity-based measures have been introduced for precise registration, the registration performance may be limited since they mainly take intensity values into account without effectively considering useful spatial information. In this paper, we attempt to improve the non-rigid registration accuracy between exhale and inhale CT images of the lung, by proposing a new dissimilarity measure based on gradient orientation representing the spatial information in addition to vessel-weighted intensity and normalized intensity information. Since it is necessary to develop non-rigid registration that can account for large lung deformations, the B-spline free-form deformation (FFD) is adopted as the transformation model. The experimental tests for six clinical datasets show that the proposed method provides more accurate registration results than competitive registration methods.

  7. Specific Metabolome Profile of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Shock and Respiratory Failure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fermier, Brice; Blasco, Hélène; Godat, Emmanuel; Bocca, Cinzia; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Emond, Patrick; Andres, Christian R.; Laffon, Marc; Ferrandière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shock includes different pathophysiological mechanisms not fully understood and remains a challenge to manage. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may contain relevant biomarkers that could help us make an early diagnosis or better understand the metabolic perturbations resulting from this pathological situation. Objective: we aimed to establish the metabolomics signature of EBC from patients in shock with acute respiratory failure in a pilot study. Material and methods: We explored the metabolic signature of EBC in 12 patients with shock compared to 14 controls using LC-HRMS. We used a non-targeted approach, and we performed a multivariate analysis based on Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to differentiate between the two groups of patients. Results: We optimized the procedure of EBC collection and LC-HRMS detected more than 1000 ions in this fluid. The optimization of multivariate models led to an excellent model of differentiation for both groups (Q2 > 0.4) after inclusion of only 6 ions. Discussion and conclusion: We validated the procedure of EBC collection and we showed that the metabolome profile of EBC may be relevant in characterizing patients with shock. We performed well in distinguishing these patients from controls, and the identification of relevant compounds may be promising for ICC patients. PMID:27598216

  8. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction as an Add-On to ACQ-7 for Not Well Controlled Asthma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Vicente; Ramos-Barbón, David; Muñoz, Ana María; Fortuna, Ana María; Crespo, Astrid; Murio, Cristina; Palomino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), a noninvasive indicator of airway inflammation, remains controversial as a tool to assess asthma control. Guidelines currently limit asthma control assessment to symptom and spirometry based appraisals such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 (ACQ-7). We aimed at determining whether adding FeNO to ACQ-7 improves current asthma clinical control assessment, through enhanced detection of not well controlled asthma. Methods Asthmatic subjects, classified as not well controlled as per ACQ-7 on regular clinical practice, were included in a prospective, multicenter fashion, and had their maintenance treatment adjusted on visit 1. On follow-up (visit 2) four weeks later, the subjects were reevaluated as controlled or not well controlled using ACQ-7 versus a combination of FeNO and ACQ-7. Results Out of 381 subjects enrolled, 225 (59.1%) had not well controlled asthma on visit 2 as determined by ACQ-7, and 264 (69.3%) as per combined FeNO and ACQ-7. The combination of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased by 14.8% the detection of not well controlled asthma following maintenance therapy adjustment. Conclusions The addition of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased the detectability of not well controlled asthma upon adjustment of maintenance therapy. Adding a measure of airway inflammation to usual symptom and spirometry based scores increases the efficacy of current asthma clinical control assessment. PMID:24204742

  9. Exhaled Breath Condensate Detects Baseline Reductions in Chloride and Increases in Response to Albuterol in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Courtney M.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Cassuto, Nicholas A.; Foxx-Lupo, William T.; Daines, Cori L.; Morgan, Mary A.; Phan, Hanna; Snyder, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired ion regulation and dehydration is the primary pathophysiology in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. A potential application of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is to assess airway surface liquid ionic composition at baseline and in response to pharmacological therapy in CF. Our aims were to determine if EBC could detect differences in ion regulation between CF and healthy and measure the effect of the albuterol on EBC ions in these populations. Baseline EBC Cl−, DLCO and SpO2 were lower in CF (n = 16) compared to healthy participants (n = 16). EBC Cl− increased in CF subjects, while there was no change in DLCO or membrane conductance, but a decrease in pulmonary-capillary blood volume in both groups following albuterol. This resulted in an improvement in diffusion at the alveolar-capillary unit, and removal of the baseline difference in SpO2 by 90-minutes in CF subjects. These results demonstrate that EBC detects differences in ion regulation between healthy and CF individuals, and that albuterol mediates increases in Cl− in CF, suggesting that the benefits of albuterol extend beyond simple bronchodilation. PMID:24367235

  10. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes.

  11. Separately measuring radon and thoron concentrations exhaled from soil using AlphaGUARD and liquid scintillation counter methods.

    PubMed

    Yasuoka, Y; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Tokonami, S; Fukuhori, N; Janik, M

    2010-10-01

    It was shown that radon and thoron concentrations exhaled from soil were separately measured using the AlphaGUARD and liquid scintillation counter (LSC) methods. The thoron concentrations from the RAD 7 were used to create the conversion equation to calculate thoron levels with the AlphaGUARD. However, the conversion factor was found to depend on the air flow rate. When air containing thoron of ∼60 kBq m(-3) was fed to the scintillation cocktail, thoron and thoron progeny could not be measured with the LSC method. The radon concentration of about 10 kBq m(-3) was measured with three methods, first with the LSC method and then with two AlphaGUARDs (one in the diffusion mode and the other in the flow mode (0.5 l min(-1))). There were no significant differences between these results. Finally, it was shown that the radon and thoron concentrations in air could be measured with the AlphaGUARD and LSC methods.

  12. Fatty acid derivative, chemokine, and cytokine profiles in exhaled breath condensates can differentiate adult and children paucibacillary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Restrepo, Sergio Fabián; Caro, Ana Cecilia; García, Luis F; Peláez-Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto; Rojas, Mauricio

    2017-01-09

    The anti-mycobacterial immune response in adults and children with tuberculosis (TB), as well as the response in bacteriologically positive and negative patients, is different. However, knowledge of the immunological events occurring in the lungs in these clinical situations remains scarce. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples may be useful for studying the inflammatory environment of the lower airways in TB patients. The fatty acid, cytokine, and chemokine profiles in EBC from healthy adults; smear-positive and smear-negative adult patients; and healthy, asthmatic, and TB children were determined using gas chromatography and LUMINEX, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleate, were increased in TB adults and children compared with healthy individuals. Elevated levels of IL-17 were characteristic of paucibacillary patients (adults and children), whereas elevated MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) levels were characteristic of adult patients (smear-positive and smear-negative). The levels of all of the molecules were comparable to the controls after anti-TB treatment, suggesting that changes in the levels of the molecules detected in the EBC samples were the result of the active pulmonary TB. EBC samples may be an important tool for the detection of potential early biomarkers in the different clinical manifestations of pulmonary TB and a useful tool for the diagnosis of TB, particularly in children.

  13. Fractionation of families of major, minor, and trace metals across the melt-vapor interface in volcanic exhalations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Le Cloarec, M.-F.; Lambert, G.

    1994-01-01

    volcanic plumes, and Cd and Tl are enriched relative to the others. Indium is much more abundant in the plume of the hotspot volcano Kilauea than in the Etna plume (probably non-hotspot in character). It may be a useful indicator of the tapping of deep mantle zones, or could aid in the interpretation of reports of Pt group metals in exhalations from hot spot volcanoes. Indium in old glacial ice strata could help assess magnitude and variability of exhalations from hotspot volcanoes in past time. Strong melt-vapor fractionation of the alkali and alkaline earth metals may only be observed in plumes during quiescent degassing of volcanoes; when large amounts of ash or spatter (undifferentiated lava) enter the plume, its alkali and alkaline earth metal composition may approach that of the melt. Ratios among the chalcophile metals may not be much changed by addition of ash, because their concentrations in melt are so small, and masses of them in any plume may remain dominated by transfer across the melt-vapor interface. Radon daughter nuclides give information about state of volcanic activity at time of sampling. The precisely known origins, ultratrace detectability, decay systematics, and wide variations in volatility of these species provide information about residence times, degassing and travel histories, and identities of melt bodies in volcanic systems. ?? 1994.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide levels are elevated in persons with tetraplegia and comparable to that in mild asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Radulovic, Miroslav; Schilero, Gregory J; Wecht, Jill M; La Fountaine, Michael; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Bauman, William A

    2010-06-01

    The role of airway inflammation in mediating airflow obstruction in persons with chronic traumatic tetraplegia is unknown. Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) affords a validated noninvasive technique for gauging the airway inflammatory response in asthma, although it has never been assessed in persons with tetraplegia. This study was designed to determine the FeNO in individuals with chronic tetraplegia compared with that in patients with mild asthma and healthy able-bodied individuals. Nine subjects with chronic tetraplegia, seven subjects with mild asthma, and seven matched healthy able-bodied controls were included in this prospective, observational, pilot study. All subjects were nonsmokers and clinically stable at the time of study. Spirometry was performed on all participants at baseline. FENO was determined online by a commercially available closed circuit, chemiluminescence method, using a single-breath technique. Subjects with tetraplegia had significantly higher values of FeNO than controls (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 10.37 +/- 4.9 ppb; P < or = 0.01), as did subjects with asthma (20.23 +/- 4.64 ppb vs. 10.37 +/- 4.9 ppb, P < or = 0.001). There was no significant difference in FeNO between subjects with tetraplegia and those with asthma (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 20.23 +/- 4.64 ppb, P < or = 0.27). Individuals with chronic tetraplegia have FeNO levels that are comparable to that seen in mild asthmatics and higher than that in healthy able-bodied controls. The clinical relevance of this observation has yet to be determined.

  15. Sensitive and selective chemiluminescence assay for hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate using nanoparticle-based catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang; Gao, Miao

    2013-04-01

    The catalytic properties of cubiform Co3O4 nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3 nanorods, and NiO nanoparticles were studied using both microarray method and FI-CL method. These nanoarticles exhibit high specific catalytic effects on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution compared with other common catalysts. A reaction mechanism is described. It provides new insights into the application of nanoparticle materials. The CL method based on the use of the Co3O4 nanoparticles is ultrasensitive and particularly selective. Therefore, it was applied to the analysis of H2O2 which can be determined in the concentration range from 1.0 nM to 1000 nM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM. The relative standard deviation is 2.1% at 0.1 μM of H2O2 (for n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace quantities of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) where it is a mediator of oxidative stress and a promising biomarker for diagnosing. The assay requires a small sample and no incubation time, and has an analytical runtime of <1 min. It is timesaving and suitable for larger studies. The levels of H2O2 in EBC are found to be elevated in healthy subjects (average = 0.54 nM), rheum subjects (average = 0.24 nM), and feverish subjects (average = 0.16 nM). Our data suggested that the average H2O2 concentration of EBC from feverish subjects was significantly higher than healthy subjects and rheumatic subjects.

  16. Rest and exercise cardiac output and diffusing capacity assessed by a single slow exhalation of methane, acetylene, and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Ramage, J E; Coleman, R E; MacIntyre, N R

    1987-07-01

    To study rest and exercise pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) and diffusing capacity (DLexh) assessed by the rapid analysis of methane, acetylene, and carbon monoxide during a single, slow exhalation, we evaluated 36 subjects during first-pass radionuclide angiography (RNA). At rest (N = 36) and at exercise (N = 21) there was no difference in the respective measurements of cardiac output (Qc = 6.0 +/- 1.7 and CORNA = 6.9 +/- 2.5 at rest; Qc = 13.7 +/- 3.2 and CORNA = 14.5 +/- 4.1 at exercise, L/min, mean +/- SD, r = .80). Mild maldistribution of ventilation, as manifested by an increased phase 3 alveolar slope for methane (CH4 slope), did not significantly influence the results. CH4 slope and DLexh did increase significantly with exercise, while total lung capacity remained unchanged (CH4 slope: 6.2 +/- 5.0 vs 12.5 +/- 6.8% delta CH4/L, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001; Dsb: 27.7 +/- 9.2 vs 42.0 +/- 17.9 ml/min/mm Hg, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001; TLC: 5.47 +/- .20 vs 5.96 +/- 1.20 L, mean +/- SD). DLexh was related to CORNA (r = .68) and RNA stroke volume (r = .50). Qc was significantly less than CORNA in the subset of studies with valvular regurgitation (VHD) (N = 7). On the other hand, Qc was significantly greater than CORNA in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD) and severe wall motion abnormalities (N = 7). These differences may be attributed to regurgitant fractions in VHD, and the influence of wall motion abnormalities on the estimation of left ventricular volume by the area-length method in CAD. These two noninvasive methods compare well at rest and exercise in clinical subjects and may provide complementary information in certain cardiopulmonary diseases.

  17. Markers of lipid oxidative damage in the exhaled breath condensate of nano TiO2 production workers.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Zikova, Nadezda; Komarc, Martin; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makeš, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Navratil, Tomas; Turci, Francesco; Corazzari, Ingrid; Zakharov, Sergey; Bello, Dhimiter

    2017-02-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial. Animal studies have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Yet, human health data are scarce and quantitative risk assessments and biomonitoring of exposure are lacking. NanoTiO2 is classified by IARC as a group 2B, possible human carcinogen. In our earlier studies we documented an increase in markers of inflammation, as well as DNA and protein oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed nanoTiO2. This study focuses on biomarkers of lipid oxidation. Several established lipid oxidative markers (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenal, 8-isoProstaglandin F2α and aldehydes C6-C12) were studied in EBC and urine of 34 workers and 45 comparable controls. The median particle number concentration in the production line ranged from 1.98 × 10(4) to 2.32 × 10(4) particles/cm(3) with ∼80% of the particles <100 nm in diameter. Mass concentration varied between 0.40 and 0.65 mg/m(3). All 11 markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in production workers relative to the controls (p < 0.001). A significant dose-dependent association was found between exposure to TiO2 and markers of lipid oxidation in the EBC. These markers were not elevated in the urine samples. Lipid oxidation in the EBC of workers exposed to (nano)TiO2 complements our earlier findings on DNA and protein damage. These results are consistent with the oxidative stress hypothesis and suggest lung injury at the molecular level. Further studies should focus on clinical markers of potential disease progression. EBC has reemerged as a sensitive technique for noninvasive monitoring of workers exposed to engineered nanoparticles.

  18. The optimal exhaled concentration of sevoflurane for intubation without neuromuscular blockade using clinical bolus doses of remifentanil

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Eui-Kyoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Koh, Jae Chul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal exhaled sevoflurane concentration that produces adequate endotracheal intubation conditions when sevoflurane is combined with the different bolus doses of remifentanil used in clinical practice. Methods: The patients were randomized to 3 groups (groups 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0), receiving remifentanil bolus doses of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively. For each group, the concentration of sevoflurane used for each consecutive patient was increased or decreased using the “up-and-down” method based on the success or failure to achieve adequate conditions for intubation in the previous patient. The remifentanil bolus dose was administered 90 s before intubation and after the target sevoflurane concentration was achieved. Results: In groups 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, the effective concentration in 50% (EC50) of the sevoflurane concentration required to perform successful intubation was 3.0, 2.0, and 1.29 vol% and the effective concentration in 95% was 3.45, 2.91, and 1.89 vol%, respectively. When sevoflurane was administered for the induction, the increase in heart rate (HR) of group 1.0 was the highest among the groups. The highest number of adverse events occurred in group 2.0, including vocal cord rigidity, hypotension, and bradycardia. Discussion: The EC50 of the sevoflurane concentration was 3.0, 2.0, and 1.29 vol% when it was combined with a bolus dose of remifentanil of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively. Of the 3 different bolus doses of remifentanil, the dose of 1.5 μg/kg was least associated with changes in the HR/mean blood pressure during intubation without increasing adverse effects. PMID:28248887

  19. Positional Reproducibility of Pancreatic Tumors Under End-Exhalation Breath-Hold Conditions Using a Visual Feedback Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shibuya, Keiko; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To assess positional reproducibility of pancreatic tumors under end-exhalation (EE) breath-hold (BH) conditions with a visual feedback technique based on computed tomography (CT) images. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. All patients were placed in a supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. At the time of CT scan, they held their breath at EE with the aid of video goggles displaying their abdominal displacement. Each three-consecutive helical CT data set was acquired four times (sessions 1-4; session 1 corresponded to the time of CT simulation). The point of interest within or in proximity to a gross tumor volume was defined based on certain structural features. The positional variations in point of interest and margin size required to cover positional variations were assessed. Results: The means {+-} standard deviations (SDs) of intrafraction positional variations were 0.0 {+-} 1.1, 0.1 {+-} 1.2, and 0.1 {+-} 1.0 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively (p = 0.726). The means {+-} SDs of interfraction positional variations were 0.3 {+-} 2.0, 0.8 {+-} 1.8, and 0.3 {+-} 1.8 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively (p = 0.533). Population-based margin sizes required to cover 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations were 4.7, 5.3, and 4.9 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Conclusions: A margin size of 5 mm was needed to cover the 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations under EE-BH conditions, using this noninvasive approach to motion management for pancreatic tumors.

  20. Tracking the oxidative kinetics of carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids in the house sparrow using exhaled 13CO2.

    PubMed

    McCue, M D; Sivan, O; McWilliams, S R; Pinshow, B

    2010-03-01

    Clinicians commonly measure the (13)CO(2) in exhaled breath samples following administration of a metabolic tracer (breath testing) to diagnose certain infections and metabolic disorders. We believe that breath testing can become a powerful tool to investigate novel questions about the influence of ecological and physiological factors on the oxidative fates of exogenous nutrients. Here we examined several predictions regarding the oxidative kinetics of specific carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids in a dietary generalist, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). After administering postprandial birds with 20 mg of one of seven (13)C-labeled tracers, we measured rates of (13)CO(2) production every 15 min over 2 h. We found that sparrows oxidized exogenous amino acids far more rapidly than carbohydrates or fatty acids, and that different tracers belonging to the same class of physiological fuels had unique oxidative kinetics. Glycine had a mean maximum rate of oxidation (2021 nmol min(-1)) that was significantly higher than that of leucine (351 nmol min(-1)), supporting our prediction that nonessential amino acids are oxidized more rapidly than essential amino acids. Exogenous glucose and fructose were oxidized to a similar extent (5.9% of dose), but the time required to reach maximum rates of oxidation was longer for fructose. The maximum rates of oxidation were significantly higher when exogenous glucose was administered as an aqueous solution (122 nmol min(-1)), rather than as an oil suspension (93 nmol min(-1)), supporting our prediction that exogenous lipids negatively influence rates of exogenous glucose oxidation. Dietary fatty acids had the lowest maximum rates of oxidation (2-6 nmol min(-1)), and differed significantly in the extent to which each was oxidized, with 0.73%, 0.63% and 0.21% of palmitic, oleic and stearic acid tracers oxidized, respectively.

  1. Health assessment of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in granites used as building materials in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, M A; El-Samad, O; Rachidi, I

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) of gamma-emissions from radioactive nuclides, (238)U, (226)Ra, (214)Bi, (232)Th, (212)Pb and (40)K, contained in 28 granite types, used as building materials in indoors in Lebanon, were performed on the powdered granites. The concentration of the nuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, in the granites varied from below detection level (BDL) to 494 Bq kg(-1), BDL to 157.2 Bq kg(-1) and BDL to 1776 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (226)Ra concentration equivalents, C(Raeq), were obtained and ranged between 37 and 591 Bq kg(-1), with certain values above the allowed limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). Calculated annual gamma-absorbed dose in air, D(aR), varied from 17.7 to 274.5 (nGy h(-1)). Annual effective dose, E (mSv y(-1)), of gamma radiations related to the studied granites and absorbed by the inhabitants was evaluated. E (mSv y(-1)) ranged from 0.09 to 1.35 mSv y(-1). Some granite types produced E above the allowed limit of 1 mSv y(-1) set by ICRP. Values of (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, E(M) (mBq kg(-1)h(-1))(,) in granite powder were obtained using the CR-39 detector technique. Diffusion factors, f, in 23 granite types were calculated with f ranging between (0.1 ± 0.02)×10(-2) and (6.6 ± 1.01)×10(-2).

  2. Comparison of exhaled carbon monoxide levels among commuters and roadside vendors in an urban and a suburban population in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabzwari, Saniya R; Fatmi, Zafar

    2011-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the six criteria air pollutants related to urbanization and has a wide range of health effects. The study measured and compared the exhaled CO levels among commuters and roadside vendors in potentially heavy and low traffic volume areas of Karachi, a megacity in Pakistan. Saddar town [areas of M. A. Jinnah Road (Tibet Center, Denso Hall) and Empress Market] was selected to represent an area of high traffic volume and the suburban town of Gadap (Gadap and Gulshan-e-Maymar) was selected to represent an area of no or low traffic volume. The study compared the CO exposure of commuters and roadside vendors in high and low traffic volume in Karachi. CO exposure was measured in expired air using the breath analyzer module of Bacharach Monoxor-II, USA. A total of 326 individuals (115 commuters and 211 stationary roadside vendors) from Saddar town (n = 193) and Gadap town (n = 133) were selected. In addition, CO levels in ambient air in the same areas, using portable CO analyzer (Bacharach, Monoxor-II, USA), were measured. The mean ambient CO level at Saddar town was 15.6 (SE ± 2.6) ppm compared to 3.3 (SE ± 0.3) ppm at Gadap town. The mean CO level in expired air was significantly higher among nonsmokers at Saddar town (12.8 ± 0.5 ppm) compared to the nonsmokers at Gadap town (7.8 ± 0.4 ppm). The mean CO level in expired air among smokers was twice that of nonsmokers (21.6 vs. 10.6 ppm). CO in expired air was greater among high traffic volume commuters and roadside stationary population in Karachi, Pakistan. The population in Karachi is exposed to high concentration of air pollutants. These pollutants need to be characterized for health effects and interventions needs to be developed.

  3. Effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples on diagnostic accuracy of electronic nose analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Brinkman, P; Bos, L D J; Angelo, M D; Nijsen, T M E; Raabe, R; Knobel, H H; Vink, T J; Sterk, P J

    2013-03-01

    Many (multi-centre) breath-analysis studies require transport and storage of samples. We aimed to test the effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples for diagnostic accuracy of eNose and GC-MS analysis. As a reference standard for diagnostic accuracy, breath samples of asthmatic patients and healthy controls were analysed by three eNose devices. Samples were analysed by GC-MS and eNose after 1, 7 and 14 days of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes. The diagnostic accuracy for eNose and GC-MS after storage was compared to the reference standard. As a validation, the stability was assessed of 15 compounds known to be related to asthma, abundant in breath or related to sampling and analysis. The reference test discriminated asthma and healthy controls with a median AUC (range) of 0.77 (0.72-0.76). Similar accuracies were achieved at t1 (AUC eNose 0.78; GC-MS 0.84), t7 (AUC eNose 0.76; GC-MS 0.79) and t14 (AUC eNose 0.83; GC-MS 0.84). The GC-MS analysis of compounds showed an adequate stability for all 15 compounds during the 14 day period. Short-term transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of breath samples does not influence the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between asthma and health by eNose and GC-MS.

  4. Periostin in Exhaled Breath Condensate and in Serum of Asthmatic Patients: Relationship to Upper and Lower Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Makowska, Joanna S.; Pawełczyk, Małgorzata; Piechota-Polańczyk, Aleksandra; Kurowski, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Periostin is considered a biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation and have been associated with NSAID-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (NERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate periostin in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in serum of patients with various asthma phenotypes. Methods The study included 40 asthmatic patients (22 with NERD) and 17 healthy controls. All the procedures (questionnaire, spirometry, FeNO, nasal swabs, EBC collecting, and blood sampling) were performed on the same day. Periostin concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. Results Periostin was detected in EBC from 37 of 40 asthmatics and in 16 from 17 of controls. The concentration of periostin in EBC did not differ between the study groups and was not associated with NERD or asthma severity. However, the EBC periostin was significantly higher in asthmatics with CRS as compared to those without (3.1 vs 2 ng/mL, P=0.046). Patients with positive bacterial culture from nasal swabs had higher EBC periostin concentrations than those without (3.2 vs 2.1 ng/mL; P=0.046). The mean serum periostin level was higher in asthmatics with a 1-year history of exacerbation than in those without (3.2 vs 2.3 ng/mL, P=0.045). Asthmatics with skin manifestation of NSAIDs hypersensitivity had higher serum periostin levels as compared to those without (3.5 vs 2.3 ng/mL; P=0.03). Conclusions EBC periostin levels seem to reflect intensity of upper airway disease in asthmatics, while serum levels of periostin are associated with asthma activity (exacerbations or FeNO) or NERD subphenotypes. PMID:28102057

  5. Effect of age and eosinophil number on fractional exhaled nitric oxide level in non-asthmatic children in shanghai.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Chu, Jizhi; Sun, Li; Shen, Zhiqin; Liu, Yan; Peng, Qing; Gao, Xiwen

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level and potential factors in non-asthmatic children from Shanghai, China. From March to April 2012, the school-aged children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited. The FeNO levels of non-asthmatic children were detected by the Nano Coulomb nitric oxide analyzer. Questionnaires were recorded, including personal data, family illness history and daily habits. In addition, not only the number of leukocytes and eosinophils but also the level of hemoglobin in peripheral blood, were measured via the automated blood cell analyzer. All data were statistically analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software and the correlation of these potential factors with FeNO level was calculated via Kendall's rank correlation. A total of 132 healthy children (aging 6-13 years) were enrolled in Minhang District, Shanghai, China. The mean value of FeNO level was 15.05 ppb. The correlation analyses revealed that age (R=0.190, p=0.029) and eosinophil number (R=0.575, p=0.000) were significantly and positively correlated with FeNO levels. The FeNO levels of individuals aged 10-13 years was significantly higher than those of the individuals aged 6-9 years (22.65 ± 18.82 ppb vs. 15.28 ± 9.78 ppb, p<0.05). However, other potential factors were not significantly correlated with FeNO level. The FeNO levels in healthy school-aged children may reflect airway eosinophilic inflammation levels, and was affected by eosinophil count and age significantly.

  6. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277

  7. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  8. Isoprene in the Exhaled Breath is a Novel Biomarker for Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkhouri, Naim; Singh, Tavankit; Alsabbagh, Eyad; Guirguis, John; Chami, Tarek; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Grove, David; Lopez, Rocio; Dweik, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath can identify markers for alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the utility of breath VOCs measured by mass spectrometry to diagnose advanced fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Methods: Patients undergoing liver biopsy were recruited. Fibrosis was determined by an experienced pathologist (F0–4) and advanced fibrosis was defined as F3–4. Exhaled breath and plasma samples were collected on the same day of the biopsy. Selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used to analyze breath samples. Bonferroni correction was applied to decrease the false discovery rate. Results: In all, 61 patients were included with a mean age of 50.7±9.9 years and 57% were male. Twenty patients (33%) had advanced fibrosis (F3–4), 44% had chronic hepatitis C, 30% had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and 26% had other CLD. SIFT-MS analysis of exhaled breath revealed that patients with advanced fibrosis had significantly lower values of six compounds compared with those without advanced fibrosis, P value <0.002 for all. Isoprene was found to have the highest accuracy for the prediction of advanced fibrosis with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.855 (95% confidence interval: 0.762, 0.948). The median breath isoprene level in patients with F3–4 was 13.5[8.7, 24.7] p.p.b. compared with 40.4[26.2, 54.1] for those with F0–2, P value <0.001. Isoprene is an endogenous VOC that is a byproduct of cholesterol biosynthesis. Conclusions: Isoprene is a potential biomarker for advanced fibrosis that deserves further validation. PMID:26378385

  9. Using a chemiresistor-based alkane sensor to distinguish exhaled breaths of lung cancer patients from subjects with no lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiunn-Liang; Yong, Zheng-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Breath alkanes are reported to be able to discriminate lung cancer patients from healthy people. A simple chemiresistor-based sensor was designed to respond to alkanes by a change in resistance measured by a digital multimeter connected to the sensor. In preclinical experiments, the sensor response was found to have a strong positive linear relationship with alkane compounds and not responsive to water. This study aimed to determine the ability of the alkane sensor to distinguish the exhaled breaths of lung cancer patients from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and control subjects without lung cancer. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 12 treatment-naive patients with lung cancer, 12 ex- or current smokers with COPD and 13 never-smokers without lung disease were asked to exhale through a drinking straw into a prototype breath-in apparatus made from an empty 125 mL Vitagen® bottle with the chemiresistor sensor attached at its inside bottom to measure the sensor peak output (percentage change of baseline resistance measured before exhalation to peak resistance) and the time taken for the baseline resistance to reach peak resistance. Results Analysis of multivariate variance and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that the peak output and the time to peak values for the lung cancer patients were statistically different from that for both the COPD patients and the controls without lung disease, Pillai’s Trace =0.393, F=3.909, df = (4, 64), P=0.007. A 2.20% sensor peak output and a 90-s time to peak gave 83.3% sensitivity and 88% specificity in diagnosing lung cancer. Tobacco smoking did not affect the diagnostic accuracy of the sensor. Conclusions The alkane sensor could discriminate patients with lung cancer from COPD patients and people without lung disease. Its potential utility as a simple, cheap and non-invasive test for early lung cancer detection needs further studies. PMID:27867553

  10. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  11. Comparison of normal and dusty day impacts on fractional exhaled nitric oxide and lung function in healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Neisi, Abdolkazem; Vosoughi, Mehdi; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Takdastan, Afshin; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Hazrati, Sadegh; Shoshtari, Maryam Haddadzadeh; Mirr, Iman; Maleki, Heidar

    2017-03-29

    Children are the vulnerable group at risk of adverse health effects related to air pollution due to dust storm in Ahvaz. The purpose of this study was to compare the values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and lung functions as parameters of adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) in dusty and normal (non-dusty) days in elementary schoolchildren. The study was conducted among elementary school students in Ahvaz. The healthy elementary schoolchildren (N = 105) were selected from different districts for FENO and lung function sampling during the dusty and normal days. The values of PM10 and PM2.5 during dusty days were higher than during normal days. Mean values of FENO during the normal and dusty days were 14.23 and 20.3 ppb, respectively, and the difference between these values was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Lung function results showed a statistically significant difference between the mean values of forced vital capacity during the dusty and normal days (p < 0.05). The results revealed a significant difference both in the values of inflammatory biomarker and in the lung function tests in dusty and normal days. Based on our results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide could be a useful short-term biomarker of particulate pollution effect coupled with spirometry.

  12. Clinical trial on the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation is beneficial for our health at any point in life, both in healthy people and in people already suffering from a smoking-related disease. Any help to quit smoking can produce considerable benefits for Public Health. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-oximetry technique together with brief advice in smoking cessation, in terms of reduction of the number of cigarettes or in the variation of the motivation to quit smoking at month 12 compared with brief advice alone. Methods/Design Randomised, parallel, single-blind clinical trial in a primary health care setting in Majorca (Spain). Smokers in contemplation or pre-contemplation phase will be included in the study. Exclusion criteria: Smokers in preparation phase, subjects with a terminal illness or whose health status does not allow them to understand the study or complete the informed consent, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the control group (CG) or the intervention group (IG). The CG will receive brief advice, and the IG will receive brief advice together with a measurement of exhaled CO. There will be follow-up evaluations at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. 471 subjects will be needed per group in order to detect a difference between groups ≥ 5%. Primary outcome: sustained smoking cessation (at 6 and 12 months) confirmed by urine cotinine test. Secondary outcomes: point smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months both confirmed by urine cotinine analysis and self-reported, reduction in cigarette consumption, and variation in phase of smoking cessation. Discussion CO-oximetry is an inexpensive, non-invasive, fast technique that requires little technical training; making it a technique for risk assessment in smokers that can be easily applied in primary care and, if proven effective, could serve as a reinforcement aid in smoking cessation intervention activities. Trial Registration Current Controlled

  13. Exhaled breath condensate pH and ammonia in cystic fibrosis and response to treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Newport, Sharon; Amin, Nikhil; Dozor, Allen J

    2009-09-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH reflects the acid-base homeostasis of the airway lining fluid and is up to 3 log order lower in various inflammatory lung diseases including asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis (CF) than in normal controls. The aim of this study was to confirm this finding in CF and determine if there was a significant change in EBC pH after treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation. Ten subjects with CF and a pulmonary exacerbation, and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects were studied. EBC was collected at the onset of an acute pulmonary exacerbation and after treatment with intravenous antibiotics (median duration: 14 days (interquartile range, IQR): 12-14) when the exacerbation was considered resolved. The median age for CF patients was 15.9 years (IQR: 13-18.8), compared to 18 years (IQR: 15-24.8) for the control group, P = 0.242. All CF subjects had severe lung disease, median FEV(1) = 41.5% of predicted (IQR: 30.8-46.5%). Median EBC pH in CF subjects at the onset of a pulmonary exacerbation was 6.61 (IQR: 6.17-7.91) compared to median EBC pH of 8.14 (IQR: 7.45-9.08) in the control group, P < 0.02. Median EBC pH after resolution of an exacerbation was 7.02 (IQR: 5.8-8.64), not significantly different (P = 0.667) than during the acute exacerbation. EBC pH decreased in five subjects, increased in three subjects and there was no change in two subjects. There was no correlation between EBC pH and FEV(1) either before or after intravenous antibiotics. EBC ammonia, an important buffer of ASL, was also measured and similarly found to be lower than in normal controls. EBC pH is lower in CF than age-matched controls, and did not change consistently in response to treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation.

  14. The Woxi W-Sb-Au deposit in Hunan, South China: An example of Late Proterozoic sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Schulz, O.; Vavtar, F.; Liu, J. M.; Zheng, M. H.; Zheng, L.

    2012-09-01

    many SEDEX-type deposits and associated exhalites, implying similar mineralizing fluids for these deposits. Sulfides from the ore have negative and variable δ34S values (from -12.3‰ to -1.2‰), suggesting a dominant sulfur contribution of bacterial sulfate reduction. A syngenetic (SEDEX) model is thus proposed for the formation of the Woxi deposit. Convective seawater circulated through the sediment pile and episodically vented metalliferous hydrothermal fluids onto the sea floor. Each exhalative episode was preceded by a period dominated by chemical and turbiditic sedimentation (footwall alteration blanket), followed by a peak release of hot metalliferous brines (stratiform ores and associated stringers), and terminated by a waning influx of hydrothermal fluids accompanying burial by later turbidites (hanging-wall alteration blanket).

  15. Fractioned exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) is not a sufficiently reliable test for monitoring asthma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Liebhart, Jerzy; Pawłowicz, Robert; Kazimierczak, Anna; Marszalska, Hanna; Kraus-Filarska, Maria; Panaszek, Bernard; Dor-Wojnarowska, Anna

    2013-09-01

    It has been reported that fractioned exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) can be used for monitoring airway inflammation and for asthma management but conclusions drawn by different researchers are controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of FENO assessment for monitoring asthma during pregnancy. We monitored 72 pregnant asthmatics aged 18-38years (Me=29 years) who underwent monthly investigations including: the level of asthma control according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma), the occurrence of exacerbations, ACT (Asthma Control Test), as well as FENO and spirometry measurements. In 50 women, during all visits, asthma was well-controlled. In the remaining 22 women, asthma was periodically uncontrolled. FENO measured at the beginning of the study did not show significant correlation with retrospectively evaluated asthma severity (r=0.07; p=0.97). An analysis of data collected during all 254 visits showed that FENO correlated significantly but weakly with ACT scores (r=0.25; p=0.0004) and FEV1 (r=0.21; p=0.0014). FENO at consecutive visits in women with well-controlled asthma (N=50) showed large variability expressed by median coefficient of variation (CV)=32.0% (Min 2.4%, Max 121.9%). This concerned both: atopic and nonatopic groups (35.5%; and 26.7%, respectively). Large FENO variability (35.5%) was also found in a subgroup of women (N=11) with ACT=25 constantly throughout the study. FENO measured at visits when women temporarily lost control of asthma (N=22; 38 visits), showed an increasing tendency (64.2 ppb; 9.5 ppb-188.3 ppb), but did not differ significantly (p=0.13) from measurements taken at visits during which asthma was well-controlled (27.6 ppb; 6.2 ppb-103.4 ppb). The comparison of FENO in consecutive months of pregnancy in women who had well-controlled asthma did not show significant differences in FENO values during the time of observation. The assessment of asthma during pregnancy by means of monitoring FENO is of

  16. Relation between biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and internal exposure to metals from gas metal arc welding.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Weiss, Tobias; Lehnert, Martin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Kendzia, Benjamin; Harth, Volker; Henry, Jana; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Concerning possible harmful components of welding fumes, besides gases and quantitative aspects of the respirable welding fumes, particle-inherent metal toxicity has to be considered.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect markers leukotriene B4 (LTB4),prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane (8-Iso PGF2α) as well as the acid–base balance(pH) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 43 full-time gas metal arc welders (20 smokers) in relation to welding fume exposure. We observed different patterns of iron, chromium and nickel in respirable welding fumes and EBC. Welders with undetectable chromium in EBC(group A, n = 24) presented high iron and nickel concentrations. In this group, higher 8-isoPGF2α and LTB4 concentrations could be revealed compared to welders with detectable chromium and low levels of both iron and nickel in EBC (group B): 8-iso PGF2α443.3 pg mL−1 versus 247.2 pg mL−1; p = 0.001 and LTB4 30.5 pg mL−1 versus 17.3 pgmL−1; p = 0.016. EBC-pH was more acid in samples of group B (6.52 versus 6.82; p = 0.011).Overall, effect markers in welders were associated with iron concentrations in EBC according to smoking habits--non-smokers/smokers: LTB4 (rs = 0.48; p = 0.02/rs = 0.21; p = 0.37),PGE2 (rs = 0.15; p = 0.59/rs = 0.47; p = 0.07), 8-iso PGF2α (rs = 0.18; p = 0.54/rs = 0.59;p = 0.06). Sampling of EBC in occupational research provides a matrix for the simultaneous monitoring of metal exposure and effects on target level. Our results suggest irritative effects in the airways of healthy welders. Further studies are necessary to assess whether these individual results might be used to identify welders at elevated risk for developing a respiratory disease.

  17. Estimation of radon exhalation rate, natural radioactivity and radiation doses in fly ash samples from Durgapur thermal power plant, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mahur, A K; Kumar, Rajesh; Sengupta, D; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-08-01

    Coal and its by products often contain significant amounts of radionuclides, including uranium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon. Burning of coal and the subsequent emission to the atmosphere cause the re-distribution of toxic trace elements in the environment. Due to considerable economic and environmental importance and diverse uses, the collected fly ash has become a subject of worldwide interest in recent years. In the present study, radon exhalation rate and the activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclides in fly ash samples from Durgapur thermal power plant (WB) have been measured by "Sealed Can technique" using LR-115 type II detectors and a low level NaI (Tl) based gamma ray spectrometer, respectively. Radon exhalation rate varied from 360.0 to 470.0 mBq m(-2)h(-1) with an average value of 406.8 mBq m(-2)h(-1). Activity concentrations of (238)U ranged from 84.8 to 126.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 99.3Bqkg(-1), (232)Th ranged from 98.1 to 140.5 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 112.9 Bq kg(-1) and (40)K ranged from 267.1 to 364.9 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 308.9 Bq kg(-1). Radium equivalent activity obtained from activity concentrations is found to vary from 256.5 to 352.8 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 282.5 Bq kg(-1). Absorbed gamma dose rates due to the presence of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in fly ash samples vary in the range 115.3-158.5 nGy h(-1) with an average value of 126.4 nGy h(-1). While the external annual effective dose rate varies from 0.14 to 0.19 mSv y(-1) with an average value of 0.15 mSv y(-1), effective dose equivalent estimated from exhalation rate varies from 42.5 to 55.2 microSv y(-1) with an average value of 47.8 microSv y(-1). Values of external hazard index H(ex) for the fly ash samples studied in this work range from 0.69 to 0.96 with a mean value of 0.77.

  18. Keeping Fit: Inhale, Exhale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    This article describes yoga and stretching exercises that can quickly restore order and bring a sense of calm to the classroom. All the exercises described can be done sitting cross-legged on the floor or on a small exercise mat or carpet square. Just a few minutes of yoga in the morning, between classes, or in the afternoon can certainly help to…

  19. Contribution of exhaled nitric oxide measurement in airway inflammation assessment in asthma. A position paper from the French Speaking Respiratory Society.

    PubMed

    Dinh-Xuan, A T; Annesi-Maesano, I; Berger, P; Chambellan, A; Chanez, P; Chinet, T; Degano, B; Delclaux, C; Demange, V; Didier, A; Garcia, G; Magnan, A; Mahut, B; Roche, N

    2015-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is both a gas and a ubiquitous inter- and intracellular messenger with numerous physiological functions. As its synthesis is markedly increased during inflammatory processes, NO can be used as a surrogate marker of acute and/or chronic inflammation. It is possible to quantify fractional concentration of NO in exhaled breath (FENO) to detect airway inflammation, and thus improve the diagnosis of asthma by better characterizing asthmatic patients with eosinophilic bronchial inflammation, and eventually improve the management of targeted asthmatic patients. FENO measurement can therefore be viewed as a new, reproducible and easy to perform pulmonary function test. Measuring FENO is the only non-invasive pulmonary function test allowing (1) detecting, (2) quantifying and (3) monitoring changes in inflammatory processes during the course of various respiratory disorders, including corticosensitive asthma.

  20. Concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds in the air and drinking water of 350 residents of New Jersey compared with concentrations in their exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.; Pellizzari, E.; Hartwell, T.; Zelon, H.; Sparacino, C.; Perritt, R.; Whitmore, R.

    1986-08-01

    Twenty volatile organic compounds were measured in the personal air and drinking water of 350 New Jersey residents in the fall of 1981. Two consecutive 12-hour integrated personal air samples and two tap water samples were collected from each participant. At the end of the 24-hour monitoring period, each participant supplied a sample of exhaled breath. Simultaneous outdoor samples were collected in 100 residential locations in two cities. Eleven compounds were present much of the time in air, but only four (the trihalomethanes) in water; wide ranges of exposures (three to four orders of magnitude) were noted for most compounds. Ten of 11 compounds displayed significant correlations between air exposures and breath concentrations; the 11th (chloroform) was correlated with drinking water exposures. It was concluded that breath measurements are a feasible, cost-effective, and highly sensitive way to determine environmental and occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds.

  1. Concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds in the air and drinking water of 350 residents of New Jersey compared with concentrations in their exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L; Pellizzari, E; Hartwell, T; Zelon, H; Sparacino, C; Perritt, R; Whitmore, R

    1986-08-01

    Twenty volatile organic compounds were measured in the personal air and drinking water of 350 New Jersey residents in the fall of 1981. Two consecutive 12-hour integrated personal air samples and two tap water samples were collected from each participant. At the end of the 24-hour monitoring period, each participant supplied a sample of exhaled breath. Simultaneous outdoor samples were collected in 100 residential locations in two cities. Eleven compounds were present much of the time in air, but only four (the trihalomethanes) in water; wide ranges of exposures (three to four orders of magnitude) were noted for most compounds. Ten of 11 compounds displayed significant correlations between air exposures and breath concentrations; the 11th (chloroform) was correlated with drinking water exposures. It was concluded that breath measurements are a feasible, cost-effective, and highly sensitive way to determine environmental and occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds.

  2. Development of a method for metabolomic analysis of human exhaled breath condensate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-08-05

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. The main limitation in the analysis of EBC is the lack of standardized protocols to support validation studies. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human EBC by GC-TOF/MS in high resolution mode. Thus, sample preparation strategies as liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction were compared in terms of extraction coverage. Liquid-liquid extraction resulted to be the most suited sample preparation approach providing an average extraction efficiency of 77% for all compounds in a single extraction. Different normalization approaches were also compared to determine which strategy could be successfully used to obtain a normalized profile with the least variability among replicates of the same sample. Normalization to the total useful mass spectrometry signal (MSTUS) proved to be the most suited strategy for the analysis of EBC from healthy individuals (n = 50) reporting a within-day variability below 7% for the 51 identified compounds and a suited data distribution in terms of percentage of metabolites passing the Skewness and Kurtosis test for normality distribution. The composition of EBC was clearly dominated by the presence of fatty acids and derivatives such as methyl esters and amides, and volatile prenol lipids. Therefore, EBC offers the profile of both volatile and non-volatile components as compared to other similar biofluids such as exhaled breath vapor, which only provides the volatile profile. This human biofluid could be an alternative to others such as serum/plasma, urine or sputum to find potential markers with high value for subsequent development of screening models.

  3. Method validation and application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for drugs of abuse testing in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Lambert, Marjan Shafaati; Beck, Olof

    2015-03-15

    A mass spectrometric method for drugs of abuse testing in exhaled breath employing a sampling device collecting aerosol particles was developed and applied in routine use. Analytes covered were amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam and tetrahydrocannabinol. The method involved eluting drugs from the collection filter with methanol, quantification using deuterated analogs as internal standards, reversed phase chromatography with gradient elution, positive electrospray ionization and monitoring of two product ions per analyte in selected reaction monitoring mode. The measuring range was 6.0-1000pg/filter. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision expressed as the coefficient of variation was less than 7%. Influence from matrix was noted for most compounds but was compensated for the use of co-eluting internal standards. The LLOQ was 6.0pg/filter with intra-assay CV <5% and accuracy within 99-102% for all analytes. No chromatographic interference was observed in 20 negative control samples. The LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for measuring drugs in unknown samples collected for the purpose of drug testing. Among the 1096 analyzed samples analytical findings were made in breath in 39 cases (3.6%). Most frequently found substances were the following: amphetamine (25 cases) methamphetamine (10 cases), THC (8 cases), cocaine (4 cases), benzoylecgonine (2 cases) and diazepam (2 cases). In conclusion, a fully validated and robust screening method suitable for the routine measurement of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath with a simple procedure for specimen collection and sample preparation was successfully developed.

  4. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  5. Clinical Utility of Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) as a Biomarker to Predict Severity of Disease and Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid (ICS) in Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Vinodkumar; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Rajaram, Manju; Selvarajan, Sandhiya; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease diagnosed and is based on symptomatic history and Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT). Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) is exclusively a non-invasive biomarker of on-going eosinophilic airway inflammation which remains unpredictable only with PFTs. FeNO measurement is recommended in predicting asthma severity and Inhaled Corticosteroid (ICS) response but further research is required to understand its clinical utility and agreement with current recommendations in a specific population. Aim To estimate FeNO levels in Tamilian patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and to correlate with disease severity and ICS response. Materials and Methods The study was a prospective cohort with a single group of 102 persistent asthma patients under standard ICS regimen for 8 weeks (follow-up period). PFT and FeNO were measured using portable spirometry and chemiluminescence based exhaled breath analyser, at baseline and during follow-up visits. Based on PFT and FeNO parameters, the study population was sub-grouped with respect to asthma severity (as mild, moderate and moderately severe), FeNO cut-off (> or < 50ppb) and ICS response classification (good vs poor ICS responders). Results Significant decrease in mean FeNO levels were found in mild, moderate and moderately severe asthmatic groups following ICS treatment (90.15±27.36, 75.74±31.98 and 77.18±32.79 ppb) compared to similar baseline FeNO levels (103.03±34.08, 91.38±37.60 and 97.90±43.84 ppb) in all the above groups. Similarly, significant decrease in mean FeNO levels was found - FeNO>50ppb, good and poor ICS responders groups, in post- ICS treatment (89.63±24.04, 77.90±31.12 and 86.49±32.57 ppb) compared to baseline levels (110.183±1.23, 97.12±42.04 and 99.68±34.71 ppb). Conclusion The observed baseline FeNO values in all groups as stated above did not show significant difference to differentiate asthma severity or ICS

  6. Non-invasive lung cancer diagnosis by detection of GATA6 and NKX2-1 isoforms in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Aditi; Cordero, Julio; Dobersch, Stephanie; Romero-Olmedo, Addi J; Savai, Rajkumar; Bodner, Johannes; Chao, Cho-Ming; Fink, Ludger; Guzmán-Díaz, Ernesto; Singh, Indrabahadur; Dobreva, Gergana; Rapp, Ulf R; Günther, Stefan; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Bellusci, Saverio; Dammann, Reinhard H; Braun, Thomas; Seeger, Werner; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Tresch, Achim; Günther, Andreas; Barreto, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early LC diagnosis is crucial to reduce the high case fatality rate of this disease. In this case-control study, we developed an accurate LC diagnosis test using retrospectively collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues and prospectively collected exhaled breath condensates (EBCs). Following international guidelines for diagnostic methods with clinical application, reproducible standard operating procedures (SOP) were established for every step comprising our LC diagnosis method. We analyzed the expression of distinct mRNAs expressed from GATA6 and NKX2-1, key regulators of lung development. The Em/Ad expression ratios of GATA6 and NKX2-1 detected in EBCs were combined using linear kernel support vector machines (SVM) into the LC score, which can be used for LC detection. LC score-based diagnosis achieved a high performance in an independent validation cohort. We propose our method as a non-invasive, accurate, and low-price option to complement the success of computed tomography imaging (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) for LC diagnosis.

  7. Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill.

    PubMed

    Acat, Murat; Aydemir, Yusuf; Yazıcı, Onur; Turğut, Mahmut; Çörtük, Mustafa; Çakar, Murat; Yaşar, Zehra; Deniz, Sami; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. In this study, we aimed to compare the FeNO levels of three schools that have different distances from iron and steel industry zone for assessing the effects of heavy metals and air pollution on their respiratory health. Methods. Pulmonary function test and FeNO measurements were evaluated in 387 adolescents in three schools which have different distance from plant. Results. FeNO levels were significantly higher in School I (n = 142; 18.89 ± 12.3 ppb) and School II (n = 131; 17.68 ± 7.7 ppb) than School III (n = 114; 4.28 ± 3.9 ppb). Increased FeNO concentration was related to the distance of iron and steel industry zone in young adults. Conclusion. The FeNO concentrations in school children were inversely proportional to the distance from the steel mill. There are needed some studies that can evaluate the safe distance and legislation must consider these findings.

  8. Increase of pro-oxidants with no evidence of lipid peroxidation in exhaled breath condensate after a 10-km race in non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Urbina-Stagno, R; Tuesta, M; Haichelis, D; Alvear, M; Salazar, M P; García, C

    2014-03-01

    It is a well-established fact that exercise increases pro-oxidants and favors oxidative stress; however, this phenomenon has been poorly studied in human lungs. Pro-oxidative generation (H(2)O(2), NO(2) (-)), lipid peroxidation markers (MDA), and inflammation (pH) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) have been determined through data from 10 active subjects who ran 10 km; samples were obtained immediately before, at 20, and at 80 min post-exertion. In EBC, the concentration of H(2)O(2) at 80 min post-exertion was increased. NO(2) (-) concentration showed a tendency to increase at 80 min post-exertion, with no variations in MDA and pH. No variations of NO(2) (-) were found in plasma, while there was an increase of NO(2) (-) at 80 min post-exertion in the relation between EBC and plasma. NO(2) (-) in EBC did not correlate to plasmatic NO(2) (-), while it did correlate directly with H(2)O(2) in EBC, suggesting a localized origin for the exercise-related NO(2) (-) increase in EBC. MDA in plasma did not increase nor correlate with MDA in EBC. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise increases lung-originated pro-oxidants in non-athlete subjects with no evidence of early lipid peroxidation and changes in the pH value in EBC.

  9. Detection of cancer embryo antigen and endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate: A novel approach to investigate non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Liang; Lv, Xue-Dong; Ma, Hang; Chen, Jian-Rong; Huang, Jian-An

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of cancer embryo antigen (CEA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EBC samples were collected from 143 patients with NSCLC and 119 healthy individuals by using an EBC collector. The CEA and ET-1 levels in the EBC and serum were detected. The levels of CEA and ET-1 in the serum and EBC of the NSCLC group were higher compared with those of the healthy group. The level of CEA in the EBC of the adenocarcinoma group was higher compared with that in the squamous cell carcinoma group. The levels of CEA and ET-1 in the serum and EBC in stages III and IV were higher compared with those in stages I and II. The levels of CEA and ET-1 in the EBC were positively correlated with those in the serum, and furthermore, they exhibited high specificity and sensitivity. Thus, these parameters may be used to diagnose lung cancer. The detection of CEA and ET-1 in EBC may help the process of diagnosing and monitoring the progression of NSCLC.

  10. Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill

    PubMed Central

    Acat, Murat; Yazıcı, Onur; Turğut, Mahmut; Çakar, Murat; Yaşar, Zehra; Deniz, Sami; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. In this study, we aimed to compare the FeNO levels of three schools that have different distances from iron and steel industry zone for assessing the effects of heavy metals and air pollution on their respiratory health. Methods. Pulmonary function test and FeNO measurements were evaluated in 387 adolescents in three schools which have different distance from plant. Results. FeNO levels were significantly higher in School I (n = 142; 18.89 ± 12.3 ppb) and School II (n = 131; 17.68 ± 7.7 ppb) than School III (n = 114; 4.28 ± 3.9 ppb). Increased FeNO concentration was related to the distance of iron and steel industry zone in young adults. Conclusion. The FeNO concentrations in school children were inversely proportional to the distance from the steel mill. There are needed some studies that can evaluate the safe distance and legislation must consider these findings. PMID:28265181

  11. First report on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in exhaled breath compared to plasma and oral fluid after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Rosenborg, Staffan; Stenberg, Marta; Beck, Olof

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath (EB) is a promising matrix for bioanalysis of non-volatiles and has been routinely implemented for drugs of abuse analysis. Nothing is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and their metabolites in EB. Therefore, we used tramadol as a model drug. Twelve volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and repeated sampling of EB, plasma, and oral fluid (OF) was done for 48 h using a particle filter device for EB and the Quantisal-device for OF. Samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic correlations between matrices were investigated. The initial tramadol half-life in EB was shorter than in plasma but it reappeared in EB after 8-24 h. The ratio of O-desmethyltramadol to tramadol was considerably lower in EB and OF compared to plasma. This pilot study compared for the first time the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug and active metabolite in different biomatrices including EB and demonstrated its potential for bioanalysis.

  12. Noninvasive Recognition and Biomarkers of Early Allergic Asthma in Cats Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of NMR Spectra of Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Yan G.; Fotso, Martial; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma. By filtering out confounding variances, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS-DA greatly improved the separation of the healthy and early asthmatic states, attaining 94% specificity and 94% sensitivity in predictions. OSC enhancement of multi-level PLS-DA boosted the specificity of the prediction to 100%. OSC-PLS-DA of the normalized spectra suggest the most promising biomarkers of allergic asthma in cats to include increased acetone, metabolite(s) with overlapped NMR peaks near 5.8 ppm, and a hydroxyphenyl-containing metabolite, as well as decreased phthalate. Acetone is elevated in the EBC of 74% of the cats with early asthma. The noninvasive detection of early experimental asthma, biomarkers in EBC, and metabolic perturbation invite further investigation of the diagnostic potential in humans. PMID:27764146

  13. Exhaled CO2 Parameters as a Tool to Assess Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching during Neonatal Resuscitation in a Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott Shang-shun; Cheung, Po-Yin; O'Reilly, Megan; LaBossiere, Joseph; Lee, Tze-Fun; Cowan, Shaun; Bigam, David L.; Schmölzer, Georg Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), partial pressure of exhaled CO2 (PECO2), and volume of expired CO2 (VCO2) can be continuously monitored non-invasively to reflect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion status. Although ETCO2 ≥14mmHg has been shown to be associated with return of an adequate heart rate in neonatal resuscitation and quantifying the PECO2 has the potential to serve as an indicator of resuscitation quality, there is little information regarding capnometric measurement of PECO2 and ETCO2 in detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survivability in asphyxiated neonates receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods Seventeen newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented, and exposed to 45-minute normocapnic hypoxia followed by apnea to induce asphyxia. Protocolized resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Respiratory and hemodynamic parameters including ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, heart rate, cardiac output, and carotid artery flow were continuously measured and analyzed. Results There were no differences in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters between surviving and non-surviving piglets prior to CPR. Surviving piglets had significantly higher ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, cardiac index, and carotid artery flow values during CPR compared to non-surviving piglets. Conclusion Surviving piglets had significantly better respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during resuscitation compared to non-surviving piglets. In addition to optimizing resuscitation efforts, capnometry can assist by predicting outcomes of newborns requiring chest compressions. PMID:26766424

  14. Detection of cancer embryo antigen and endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate: A novel approach to investigate non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIN-LIANG; LV, XUE-DONG; MA, HANG; CHEN, JIAN-RONG; HUANG, JIAN-AN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of cancer embryo antigen (CEA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EBC samples were collected from 143 patients with NSCLC and 119 healthy individuals by using an EBC collector. The CEA and ET-1 levels in the EBC and serum were detected. The levels of CEA and ET-1 in the serum and EBC of the NSCLC group were higher compared with those of the healthy group. The level of CEA in the EBC of the adenocarcinoma group was higher compared with that in the squamous cell carcinoma group. The levels of CEA and ET-1 in the serum and EBC in stages III and IV were higher compared with those in stages I and II. The levels of CEA and ET-1 in the EBC were positively correlated with those in the serum, and furthermore, they exhibited high specificity and sensitivity. Thus, these parameters may be used to diagnose lung cancer. The detection of CEA and ET-1 in EBC may help the process of diagnosing and monitoring the progression of NSCLC. PMID:27330782

  15. Lung oxidative stress as related to exercise and altitude. Lipid peroxidation evidence in exhaled breath condensate: a possible predictor of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; García, C; Lagos, N; Quiroga, G; Cajigal, J; Salazar, M P; Behn, C

    2005-12-01

    Lung oxidative stress (OS) was explored in resting and in exercising subjects exposed to moderate and high altitude. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected under field conditions in male high-competition mountain bikers performing a maximal cycloergometric exercise at 670 m and at 2,160 m, as well as, in male soldiers climbing up to 6,125 m in Northern Chile. Malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in EBC and in serum samples. Hydrogen peroxide concentration [H(2)O(2)] was analysed in EBC according to the spectrophotometric FOX(2) assay. [MDA] in EBC of bikers did not change while exercising at 670 m, but increased from 30.0+/-8.0 to 50.0+/-11.0 nmol l(-1) (P<0.05) at 2,160 m. Concomitantly, [MDA] in serum and [H(2)O(2)] in EBC remained constant. On the other hand, in mountaineering soldiers, [H(2)O(2)] in EBC under resting conditions increased from 0.30+/-0.12 mumol l(-1) at 670 m to 1.14+/-0.29 mumol l(-1) immediately on return from the mountain. Three days later, [H(2)O(2)] in EBC (0.93 +/-0.23 mumol l(-1)) continued to be elevated (P<0.05). [MDA] in EBC increased from 71+/-16 nmol l(-1) at 670 m to 128+/-26 nmol l(-1) at 3,000 m (P<0.05). Changes of [H(2)O(2)] in EBC while ascending from 670 m up to 3,000 m inversely correlated with concomitant variations in HbO2 saturation (r=-0.48, P<0.05). AMS score evaluated at 5,000 m directly correlated with changes of [MDA] in EBC occurring while the subjects moved from 670 to 3,000 m (r=0.51, P<0.05). Lung OS may constitute a pathogenic factor in AMS.

  16. Exhaled volatile organic compounds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: cross sectional and nested short-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Diana; Carbognani, Paolo; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Balbi, Bruno; Bianchi, Luca; Rusca, Michele; Mutti, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Background Non-invasive diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying biomarkers of lung cancer are of great interest for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to set up a new method for identifying and quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air of patients with non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC), by comparing the levels with those obtained from healthy smokers and non-smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The VOC collection and analyses were repeated three weeks after the NSCLC patients underwent lung surgery. Methods The subjects' breath was collected in a Teflon® bulb that traps the last portion of single slow vital capacity. The 13 VOCs selected for this study were concentrated using a solid phase microextraction technique and subsequently analysed by means of gas cromatography/mass spectrometry. Results The levels of the selected VOCs ranged from 10-12 M for styrene to 10-9 M for isoprene. None of VOCs alone discriminated the study groups, and so it was not possible to identify one single chemical compound as a specific lung cancer biomarker. However, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that VOC profile can correctly classify about 80 % of cases. Only isoprene and decane levels significantly decreased after surgery. Conclusion As the combination of the 13 VOCs allowed the correct classification of the cases into groups, together with conventional diagnostic approaches, VOC analysis could be used as a complementary test for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Its possible use in the follow-up of operated patients cannot be recommended on the basis of the results of our short-term nested study. PMID:16018807

  17. Emulating exhalative chemistry: synthesis and structural characterization of ilinskite, Na[Cu5O2](SeO3)2Cl3, and its K-analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovrugin, Vadim M.; Siidra, Oleg I.; Colmont, Marie; Mentré, Olivier; Krivovichev, Sergey V.

    2015-08-01

    The K- and Na-synthetic analogues of the fumarolic mineral ilinskite have been synthesized by the chemical vapor transport (CVT) reactions method. The A[Cu5O2](SeO3)2Cl3 ( A + = K+, Na+) compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma: a = 18.1691(6) Å, b = 6.4483(2) Å, c = 10.5684(4) Å, V = 1238.19(7) Å3, R 1 = 0.018 for 1957 unique reflections with F > 4σ F for K[Cu5O2](SeO3)2Cl3 ( KI), and a = 17.7489(18) Å, b = 6.4412(6) Å, c = 10.4880(12) Å, V = 1199.0(2) Å3, R 1 = 0.049 for 1300 unique reflections with F > 4σ F for Na[Cu5O2](SeO3)2Cl3 ( NaI). The crystal structures of KI and NaI are based upon the [O2Cu5]6+ sheets consisting of corner-sharing (OCu4)6+ tetrahedra. The Na-for-K substitution results in the significant expansion of the interlayer space and changes in local coordination of some of the Cu2+ cations. The A + cation coordination changes from fivefold (for Na+) to ninefold (for K+). The CVT reactions method provides a unique opportunity to model physicochemical conditions existing in fumarolic environments and may be used not only to model exhalative processes, but also to predict possible mineral phases that may form in fumaroles. In particular, the K analogue of ilinskite is not known in nature, whereas it may well form from volcanic gases in a K-rich local geochemical environment.

  18. Relationship between Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level and Efficacy of Inhaled Corticosteroid in Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome Patients with Different Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level and the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) patients with different disease severity. A total of 127 ACOS patients with ACOS (case group) and 131 healthy people (control group) were enrolled in this study. Based on the severity of COPD, the ACOS patients were divided into: mild ACOS; moderate ACOS; severe ACOS; and extremely severe ACOS groups. We compared FeNO levels, pulmonary function parameters including percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to predicted value (FEV1%pred), ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (IC/TLC) and residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), arterial blood gas parameters, including PH, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), induced sputum eosinophil (EOS), plasma surfactant protein A (SP-A), plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), sputum myeloperoxidase (MPO), sputum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores. Compared with pre-treatment parameters, the FeNO levels, RV/TLC, PaCO2, total serum IgE, induced sputum EOS, plasma SP-A, sputum MPO, sputum NGAL, and CAT scores were significantly decreased after 6 months of ICS treatment, while FEV1%pred, FEV1/FVC, IC/TLC, PH, PaO2, plasma sRAGE, and ACT scores were significantly increased in ACOS patients with different disease severity after 6 months of ICS treatment. This finding suggests that the FeNO level may accurately predict the efficacy of ICS in the treatment of ACOS patients. PMID:28145647

  19. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). One Year of Clinical Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Mangini, Sandrigo; Issa, Victor S.; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M.; Bocchi, Edimar A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. Objectives To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. Results The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56–6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. Conclusions High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients. PMID:28030609

  20. Metabolic Signatures of Lung Cancer in Sputum and Exhaled Breath Condensate Detected by 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Naseer; Bezabeh, Tedros; Ijare, Omkar B.; Myers, Renelle; Alomran, Reem; Aliani, Michel; Nugent, Zoann; Banerji, Shantanu; Kim, Julian; Qing, Gefei; Bshouty, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10) and patients with benign respiratory conditions (n = 10). Both sputum and EBC samples were collected from 18 patients; 2 patients provided EBC samples only. 1H MR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. Sputum samples were further confirmed cytologically to distinguish between true sputum and saliva. RESULTS In the EBC samples, median concentrations of propionate, ethanol, acetate, and acetone were higher in lung cancer patients compared to the patients with benign conditions. Median concentration of methanol was lower in lung cancer patients (0.028 mM) than in patients with benign conditions (0.067 mM; P = 0.028). In the combined sputum and saliva and the cytologically confirmed sputum samples, median concentrations of N-acetyl sugars, glycoprotein, propionate, lysine, acetate, and formate were lower in the lung cancer patients than in patients with benign conditions. Glucose was found to be consistently absent in the combined sputum and saliva samples (88%) as well as in the cytologically confirmed sputum samples (86%) of lung cancer patients. CONCLUSION Absence of glucose in sputum and lower concentrations of methanol in EBC of lung cancer patients discerned by 1H MRS may serve as metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrence. PMID:27891048

  1. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Christopher; Mac Parthaláin, Neil; Syed, Yasir; Deganello, Davide; Claypole, Timothy; Lewis, Keir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples) for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used). Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly). Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination. PMID:24957028

  2. Nanoscale PdO Catalyst Functionalized Co3O4 Hollow Nanocages Using MOF Templates for Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Koo, Won-Tae; Yu, Sunmoon; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-03-08

    The increase of surface area and the functionalization of catalyst are crucial to development of high-performance semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) based chemiresistive gas sensors. Herein, nanoscale catalyst loaded Co3O4 hollow nanocages (HNCs) by using metal-organic framework (MOF) templates have been developed as a new sensing platform. Nanoscale Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were easily loaded on the cavity of Co based zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-67). The porous structure of ZIF-67 can restrict the size of Pd NPs (2-3 nm) and separate Pd NPs from each other. Subsequently, the calcination of Pd loaded ZIF-67 produced the catalytic PdO NPs functionalized Co3O4 HNCs (PdO-Co3O4 HNCs). The ultrasmall PdO NPs (3-4 nm) are well-distributed in the wall of Co3O4 HNCs, the unique structure of which can provide high surface area and high catalytic activity. As a result, the PdO-Co3O4 HNCs exhibited improved acetone sensing response (Rgas/Rair = 2.51-5 ppm) compared to PdO-Co3O4 powders (Rgas/Rair = 1.98), Co3O4 HNCs (Rgas/Rair = 1.96), and Co3O4 powders (Rgas/Rair = 1.45). In addition, the PdO-Co3O4 HNCs showed high acetone selectivity against other interfering gases. Moreover, the sensor array clearly distinguished simulated exhaled breath of diabetics from healthy people's breath. These results confirmed the novel synthesis of MOF templated nanoscale catalyst loaded SMO HNCs for high performance gas sensors.

  3. Chromium in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), erythrocytes, plasma and urine in the biomonitoring of chrome-plating workers exposed to soluble Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; De Palma, Giuseppe; Acampa, Olga; Gergelova, Petra; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) levels measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC-Cr) and urine (Cr-U) at the beginning and end of working shifts were related to those measured in erythrocytes (Cr-RBC) and plasma in 14 non-smoking male chrome-plating workers exposed to Cr(VI) in soluble aerosol form who did not report any significant current or past respiratory disease. Cr-U mainly correlated with Cr-P (Cr in plasma) at the end of the working shift (r(2) = 0.59, p < 0.01), whereas Cr-RBC correlated with EBC-Cr (r(2) = 0.32, p < 0.05); at the beginning of the shift, the only significant correlation was between Cr-U and Cr-RBC (r(2) = 0.74, p < 0.01). The clearance of Cr(iii) arising from Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, thus making Cr-U and Cr-P ideal biomarkers of the most recent exposure, whereas Cr-RBC may represent the fraction of Cr(VI) that reaches the bloodstream in non-reduced form and therefore depends on the airway inhaled dose represented by EBC-Cr. Cr-RBC clearance is slower and not only involves the free diffusion of Cr(iii) from RBC to plasma, but probably also involves more complicated kinetic phenomena involving other tissues and organs, which may explain the correlation between Cr-RBC and Cr-U and the lack of correlation Cr-RBC and Cr-P at least 36 h after the last exposure. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the idea that measuring Cr in EBC can significantly contribute to traditional biomonitoring by providing specific information at the target organ level and integrating our knowledge of Cr toxicokinetics.

  4. Melatonin improves sleep and reduces nitrite in the exhaled breath condensate in cystic fibrosis--a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Silva, Claudia; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; Cunha, Geanne Matos Andrade; Nunes, Deuzilane Muniz; Medeiros, Camila Andrade Mendes; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic progressive disorder characterized by repeated episodes of respiratory infection. Impaired sleep is common in CF leading to reduced quality of life. Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has an important function in the synchronization of circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, and has been shown to possess significant anti-oxidant properties. To evaluate the effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep and inflammation and oxidative stress markers in CF, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study initially involving 20 patients with CF was conducted. One individual failed to conclude the study. All subjects were clinically stable when studied and without recent infectious exacerbation or hospitalization in the last 30 days. Groups were randomized for placebo (n = 10; mean age 12.1 +/- 6.0) or 3 mg melatonin (n = 9; mean age 16.6 +/- 8.26) for 21 days. Actigraphy was performed for 6 days before the start of medication and in the third week (days 14-20) of treatment. Isoprostane and nitrite levels were determined in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) at baseline (day 0) and after treatment (day 21). Melatonin improved sleep efficiency (P = 0.01) and tended to improve sleep latency (P = 0.08). Melatonin reduced EBC nitrite (P = 0.01) but not isoprostane. In summary, melatonin administration reduces nitrite levels in EBC and improves sleep measures in clinically stable CF patients. The failure of melatonin to reduce isoprostane levels may have been a result of the low dose of melatonin used as a treatment.

  5. Determination of patterns of biologically relevant aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate of healthy subjects by liquid chromatography/atmospheric chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Roberta; Manini, Paola; Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of several classes of aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was developed using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS). EBC is a biological matrix obtained by a relatively new, simple and noninvasive technique and provides an indirect assessment of pulmonary status. The measurement of aldehydes in EBC represents a biomarker of the effect of oxidative stress caused by smoke, disease, or strong oxidants like ozone. Malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein, α,β-unsaturated hydroxylated aldehydes [namely 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)], and saturated aldehydes (n-hexanal, n-heptanal and n-nonanal) were measured in EBC after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes was obtained in positiveion mode for MDA, and in negativeion mode for acrolein, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, and saturated aldehydes. DNPH derivatives were separated on a C18 column using variable proportions of 20 mM aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Linearity was established over 4–5 orders of magnitude and limits of detection were in the 0.3–1.0 nM range. Intra-day and inter-day precision were in the 1.3–9.9% range for all the compounds. MDA, acrolein and n-alkanals were detectable in all EBC samples, whereas the highly reactive 4-HHE and 4-HNE were found in only a few samples. Statistically significant higher concentrations of MDA, acrolein and n-hexanal were found in EBC from smokers. PMID:12661015

  6. Endogenous Levels of Five Fatty Acid Metabolites in Exhaled Breath Condensate to Monitor Asthma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Hegedus, Christine M.; Bhushan, Abhinav; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Davis, Cristina E.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Airway inflammation characterizing asthma and other airway diseases may be monitored through biomarker analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). In an attempt to discover novel EBC biomarkers, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used to analyze EBC from ten control non-asthmatics and one asthmatic individual for five fatty acid metabolites: 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (9,12,13-TriHOME), 9,10,13-TriHOME, 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME), 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), and 12(13)-epoxyoctadecenoic acid (12(13)-EpOME). The method was shown to be sensitive, with an on-column limit of quatitation (LOQ) in the pg range (corresponding to pM concentrations in EBC), and linear over several orders of magnitude for each analyte in the calibrated range. Analysis of EBC spiked with the five fatty acid metabolites was within 81%–119% with only a few exceptions. Endogenous levels in EBC exhibited intra- and inter-assay precision of 10%–22%, and 12%–36%, respectively. EBC from the healthy subjects contained average analyte levels between 15 and 180 pM with 12-HETE present above the LOQ in only one of the subjects at a concentration of 240 pM. Exposure of the asthmatic subject to allergen led to increased EBC concentrations of 9,12,13-TriHOME, 9,10,13-TriHOME, 12,13-DiHOME, and 12(13)-EpOME when compared to levels in EBC collected prior to allergen exposure (range =40–510 pM). 12,13-DiHOME was significantly increased (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). In conclusion, we have developed a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis of five fatty acid metabolites in EBC, which are potential biomarkers for asthma monitoring and diagnosis. PMID:21103452

  7. Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university--Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang-Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Md Said, Salmiah; Than, Leslie Thian-Lung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-12-01

    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen.

  8. Helicopter AFMAG (ZTEM) EM and magnetic results over sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits at Howard's Pass in Selwyn Basin, Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Latrous, Ali; Zhao, Shengkai; Bournas, Nasreddine; Plastow, Geoffrey C.; Xue, Gabriel Guang

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a regional scale 24,675 line-km survey covering a 25,000 km2 area (1 km line spacing) was flown in the Selwyn Basin. The survey footprint straddles east-central Yukon and overlaps into the western North-west Territories. In March 2013, Yukon Geological Survey purchased the survey data and, in November 2013, released the data publicly. The Selwyn Basin area is prospective for sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX)-style Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation and the z-axis tipper electromagnetic (ZTEM) survey data provide insights into regional structures and plutons in the region. The survey overflew the Howard's Pass SEDEX deposits at the south-eastern edge of the Selwyn Basin survey area that hosts a ~250 million tonne resource with ~4.5% Zn and ~1.5% Pb. Airborne geophysics has not been extensively used in SEDEX exploration of the Selwyn Basin and the ZTEM survey is one of the few publicly available airborne audio-frequency magnetic (AFMAG) EM-magnetic datasets that offer the opportunity to study the deposit response at Howard's Pass in close detail. Rock physical properties indicate that the lowest resistivities are associated with the Road River Group that contains the Pb-Zn mineralised horizon at Howard's Pass, but also include graphitic shales in the same formation. Major NW-SE to ESE and minor NNW-SSE linear conductive trends correlate with known regional geologic, structural and inferred mineral trends that were previously not visible in magnetic results. At the deposit scale, a thin NW-SE trending conductive lineament extends along the > 37-km-long `Zinc Corridor' horizon at Howard's Pass, but must include both the Pb-Zn sulphide mineralisation deposit horizon as well as the surrounding graphitic black shales. 2D and 3D ZTEM inversions reveal zones of enhanced conductivity along strike and at depth that appear to correlate with the clustering of Pb-Zn deposits, which had not been previously noticed.

  9. Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with asthma in relation to volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and ambient air.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Hu, Ye; Pellizzari, Edo D

    2003-09-01

    Indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been associated with asthma, but there is little epidemiologic work on ambient exposures, and no data on relationships between respiratory health and exhaled breath VOCs, which is a biomarker of VOC exposure. We recruited 26 Hispanic children with mild asthma in a Los Angeles community with high VOC levels near major freeways and trucking routes. Two dropped out, three had invalid peak expiratory flow (PEF) or breath VOC data, leaving 21. Children filled out symptom diaries and performed PEF maneuvers daily, November 1999-January 2000. We aimed to collect breath VOC samples on asthma episode and baseline symptom-free days, but six subjects only gave samples on symptom-free days. We analyzed 106 breath samples by GC-MS. Eight VOCs were quantifiable in >75% of breath samples (benzene, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene). Generalized estimating equation and mixed linear regression models for VOC exposure-response relationships controlled for temperature and respiratory infections. We found marginally positive associations between bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms and same day breath concentrations of benzene [odds ratio (OR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80, 5.11] but not other breath VOCs. Ambient petroleum-related VOCs measured on the same person-days as breath VOCs showed notably stronger associations with symptoms, including toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and benzene (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.64, 21.4). On breath sample days, symptoms were also associated with 1-h ambient NO(2), OR 8.13 (1.52, 43.4), and SO(2), OR 2.36 (1.16, 4.81). Consistent inverse relationships were found between evening PEF and the same ambient VOCs, NO(2), and SO(2). There were no associations with O(3). Given the high traffic density of the region, stronger associations for ambient than for breath VOCs suggest that ambient VOC measurements were better markers for daily

  10. Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate Are Not Predictive for Pulmonary Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Results of a One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van Horck, Marieke; Alonso, Ariel; Wesseling, Geertjan; de Winter—de Groot, Karin; van Aalderen, Wim; Hendriks, Han; Winkens, Bjorn; Rijkers, Ger; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronically inflamed airways, and inflammation even increases during pulmonary exacerbations. These adverse events have an important influence on the well-being, quality of life, and lung function of patients with CF. Prediction of exacerbations by inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) combined with early treatment may prevent these pulmonary exacerbations and may improve the prognosis. Aim To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a set of inflammatory markers in EBC to predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF. Methods In this one-year prospective observational study, 49 children with CF were included. During study visits with an interval of 2 months, a symptom questionnaire was completed, EBC was collected, and lung function measurements were performed. The acidity of EBC was measured directly after collection. Inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were measured using high sensitivity bead based flow immunoassays. Pulmonary exacerbations were recorded during the study and were defined in two ways. The predictive power of inflammatory markers and the other covariates was assessed using conditionally specified models and a receiver operating characteristic curve (SAS version 9.2). In addition, k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm was applied (SAS version 9.2). Results Sixty-five percent of the children had one or more exacerbations during the study. The conditionally specified models showed an overall correct prediction rate of 55%. The area under the curve (AUC) was equal to 0.62. The results obtained with the KNN algorithm were very similar. Conclusion Although there is some evidence indicating that the predictors outperform random guessing, the general diagnostic accuracy of EBC acidity and the EBC inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MIF is low. At present it is not possible to

  11. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in asthma–COPD overlap syndrome: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Tadahiro; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies propose TH2-mediated inflammation in patients with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, little is known about whether fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) differs between patients with ACOS and those with COPD alone. To address this knowledge gap, a nationally representative sample was analyzed to determine the difference in FeNO levels between patients with ACOS and those with COPD alone in the US population. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 through 2012. All subjects aged ≥40 years with COPD were identified. ACOS was defined as self-reported wheezing in past 12 months plus bronchodilator response (forced expiratory volume increase of >200 mL and >12%) or self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma. Results A total of 197 subjects with COPD were identified in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of these, 23% met the criteria of ACOS. The FeNO level was higher in subjects with ACOS compared with those with COPD alone in both unadjusted (mean 21.2 ppb vs 13.0 ppb; difference, 8.2 [95% CI, 0.2 to 16.2]; P=0.045) and adjusted (difference, 8.2 [95% CI, 0.9 to 15.5]; P=0.03) analyses. Although there was no significant difference among current smokers, the FeNO level was significantly higher in non-current smokers with ACOS than nonsmokers with COPD alone (mean 31.9 ppb vs 20.3 ppb; adjusted difference, 20.5 [95% CI, 4.4 to 36.6]; P=0.02). In a sensitivity analysis using an alternative definition of ACOS, the results did not change materially. The diagnostic value of FeNO to discriminate ACOS from COPD alone was not sufficient, with the area under the curve of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.72). Conclusion By using nationally representative US data, it was found that 23% of COPD subjects met the ACOS criteria and also that the FeNO level was higher in subjects with ACOS compared with those with

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Abiotic methane flux from the Chimaera seep and Tekirova ophiolites (Turkey): Understanding gas exhalation from low temperature serpentinization and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Hosgörmez, Hakan

    2011-10-01

    The emission of abiotic methane (CH 4) into the atmosphere from low temperature serpentinization in ophiolitic rocks is documented to date only in four countries, the Philippines, Oman, New Zealand, and Turkey. Serpentinization produces large amounts of hydrogen (H 2) which in theory may react with CO 2 or CO to form hydrocarbons (Fischer-Tropsch Type synthesis, FTT). Similar mechanisms have been invoked to explain the CH 4 detected on Mars, so that understanding flux and exhalation modality of ophiolitic gas on Earth may contribute to decipher the potential degassing on Mars. This work reports the first direct measurements of gas (CH 4, CO 2) flux ever done on onshore ophiolites with present-day serpentinization. We investigated the Tekirova ophiolites at Çirali, in Turkey, hosting the Chimaera seep, a system of gas vents issuing from fractures in a 5000 m 2 wide ophiolite outcrop. At this site at least 150-190 t of CH 4 is annually released into the atmosphere. The molecular and isotopic compositions of C 1-C 5 alkanes, CO 2, and N 2 combined with source rock maturity data and thermogenic gas formation modelling suggested a dominant abiotic component (~ 80-90%) mixed with thermogenic gas. Abiotic H 2-rich gas is likely formed at temperatures below 50 °C, suggested by the low deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio of H 2 (δD H2: - 720‰), consistent with the low geothermal gradient of the area. Abiotic gas synthesis must be very fast and effective in continuously producing an amount of gas equivalent to the long-lasting (> 2 millennia) emission of > 100 t CH 4 yr - 1 , otherwise pressurised gas accumulation must exist. Over the same ophiolitic formation, 3 km away from Chimaera, we detected an invisible microseepage of abiotic CH 4 with fluxes from 0.07 to 1 g m - 2 d - 1 . On Mars similar fluxes could be able to sustain the CH 4 plume apparently recognised in the Northern Summer 2003 (10 4 or 10 5 t yr - 1 ) over the wide olivine bedrock and outcrops of hydrated

  14. A respiration-metabolism chamber system and a GC-MS method developed for studying exhalation of perfluorobutane in rats after intravenous injection of the ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoid.

    PubMed

    Uran, Steinar; Landmark, Kristin; Normann, Per Trygve; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Toft, Kim Gunnar; Skotland, Tore

    2005-09-15

    Sonazoid is a new contrast agent for ultrasound imaging comprising an aqueous suspension of lipid-stabilised perfluorobutane (PFB) gas microbubbles. A respiration-metabolism chamber system was developed to collect exhaled air following intravenous administration of Sonazoid to rats. Analysis of PFB in the exhaled rat air was performed using a modified version of an earlier published method for blood samples, i.e. an automatic headspace gas chromatographic mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method using electron impact ionisation. The calibration standards were PFB diluted in air (2.5-1800 pg/ml). Perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as an internal standard and the MS detector was set to single ion monitoring of the base fragment ions of PFB (m/z 69 and 119) and PFP (m/z 69). The calibration curve, made by plotting the peak area ratios of PFB (m/z 69) to PFP (m/z 69) against the theoretical concentration of PFB, was fitted to a linear equation with weighting 1/y2 and found to be reproducible. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2.5 pg PFB/ml. The between-day variation of the method was below 2.6% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and the within-day variation of the method was below 6.4% R.S.D. The accuracy of the method was evaluated and showed a relative error less than 5.2%. PFB was found to be stable for 14 days when stored in Tedlar sample bags at room temperature. An even lower detection limit may be obtained by using the more time-consuming process of solid-phase micro extraction; thus, by concentrating PFB on carboxen-PDMS fibres an LLOQ of 0.5 pg PFB/ml was obtained. When five rats were given an i.v. bolus injection of Sonazoid at a dose of 8 microl microbubbles/kg a mean recovery of 96% (range, 81-110%) was found during 24 h; more than 50% was exhaled during the first 30 min after injection.

  15. Gaia's breath - Global methane exhalations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rogers, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is the most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas and thus has implications for global climate change. The current atmospheric CH4 budget, however, does not take into account geologically-sourced CH4 seepage. Geological sources of CH4 include natural macro- and micro-seeps, mud volcanoes, and other miscellaneous sources such as gas hydrates, magmatic volcanoes, geothermal regions, and mid-ocean ridges. Macro-seeps contribute ???25 Tg (teragrams) CH4/yr to the atmosphere, whereas, micro-seepage contributes perhaps 7 Tg CH4/yr. Mud volcanoes emit ???5 Tg CH4/yr, and miscellaneous sources emit ???8 Tg CH4/yr to the atmosphere. Thus, the total contribution to the atmosphere from geological sources is estimated to be 45 Tg CH4/yr, which is significant to the atmospheric organic carbon cycle and should be included in any global inventory of atmospheric CH4. We argue that the atmospheric CH4 global inventory of the Interplanetary Panel on Climate Change must be adjusted in order to incorporate geologically-sourced CH4 from naturally occurring seepage.

  16. Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

  17. Alcohol Detection in Exhaled Air by NDIR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitsuka, Norio; Yonemura, Masatoshi; Sakakibara, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Toshiyuki; Wakita, Toshihiro

    In recent years, the increase in traffic accidents associated with drunk driving has become a serious social issue. Therefore, there is a need for an in-vehicle system that can detect the fact that the driver is under the influence of alcohol. We thought a method for alcohol detection in the breath of the driver, based on a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, is suitable for this system. Since alcohol content in the driver's breath is significantly diluted at the sensor device, it is necessary that the sensor is highly sensitive to detect diluted alcohol. A quantum cascade laser was used to produce highly intense infrared light source. An infrared hollow fiber used in medical treatment was utilized as a gas absorption cell. Since the core of the fiber is hollow, gas is introduced for analyzer. The flexibility of the fiber allowed it to be looped so that 2 m fiber in length could be formed into a compact coil of 29 cm in diameter. It was clarified that the light intensity change of light output from the hollow fiber with ethanol density, and rarefied ethanol as small as 1 ppm in density was detected.

  18. Measurement of nitric oxide in human exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.M.; Spicer, C.W.; Ollison, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    This project was initiated to confirm the reliability of nitric oxide (NO) measurement in the breath matrix, using two different analytical techniques - ozone and luminol chemiluminescence - and to corroborate literature reports of elevated breath NO values. To measure peak oral and nasal NO levels, subjects performed slow vital capacity and breath holding maneuvers directly into the monitors through the mouth and the nose, respectively. Additional measurements were made using normal breathing techniques. Initial interferent tests indicate that measured NO signals are real and are not confounded by measurement artifacts. Similar results were obtained using the two independent analytical methods in dry or humid air. The NO signal was unaffected by maximum concentrations of potential breath interferents, such as sulfur compounds and alkenes. The measured breath NO concentrations were greater than typical room air levels and differed significantly with the breathing technique used. During these tests room air averaged 4-5 ppb NO. Peak oral NO levels were 4.3 {+-} 1.5 ppb during a slow vital capacity maneuver and 8.0 {+-} 5.0 ppb during a breath holding maneuver. By contrast, higher peak nasal NO levels were measured for both slow vital capacity (17.8 {+-} 7.8 ppb) and breath holding maneuvers (45.4 {+-} 29.5 ppb).

  19. Geologic Criteria for the Assessment of Sedimentary Exhalative (Sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Sedex deposits account for more than 50 percent of the world's zinc and lead reserves and furnish more than 25 percent of the world's production of these two metals. This report draws on previous syntheses as well as on topical studies of deposits in sedex basins to determine the characteristics and processes that produced sedex deposits. This analysis also uses studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins and mass balance constraints to identify the hydrothermal processes that are required to produce sedex deposits. This report demonstrates how a genetic model can be translated into geologic criteria that can be used in the U.S. Geological Survey National Assessments for sedex zinc-lead-silver deposits to define permissive tracts, assess the relative prospectivity of permissive tracts, and map favorability within permissive tracts.

  20. Geochemical investigations of submarine volcanic exhalations to the east of Panarea, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, F.; Nuccio, P. M.

    1991-05-01

    Results are presented on scubadiving investigations carried out on thermal manifestations in the area of Panarea (Aeolian Islands). The area investigated falls inside a caldera which extends from the main island to the group of islets located to the northeast. The distribution of the gaseous manifestations is regulated by the NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S regional tectonic directrices, through which the more recent basic magma intruded, giving rise to dikes and pillow lavas. fO 2-temperature relation of the gases sampled in the investigated area was calculated to be: log fO2 = 11-24,593/ T which indicates that a buffering mechanism acted on the gases as they cooled down during their ascent. The high 3He/ 4He ratio (6 × 10 -6) and the δ13C = -3.2%. (PDB), suggest the presence of a magmatic component in the gas feeding the investigated manifestations. The above relations and the almost constant high He/N 2 ratio suggest that all the fumaroles are fed by the same deep hot fluids. On the basis of both the chemical characters of the fluids and the geothermo-barometric data, a deep geothermal body, having a temperature of about 240°C, is recognized. Two other shallower thermal aquifers, with a temperature of 170-210°C, are identified. A circulation pattern of the geothermal fluids is also proposed. On the basis of calculations regarding the convective energy released by the geothermal system of Panarea, and the magmatic mass responsible for the positive gravimetric anomaly of the area, it was estimated that the last volcanic activity took place less then 10,000 years ago.

  1. Radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings: experimental validation of a 1-D model.

    PubMed

    Ferry, C; Richon, P; Beneito, A; Robé, M C

    2001-01-01

    TRACI, a model based on the physical mechanisms governing the migration of radon in unsaturated soils, has been developed to evaluate the radon flux density at the surface of uranium mill tailings. To check the validity of the TRACI model and the effectiveness of cover layers, an in situ study was launched in 1997 with the French uranium mining company, COGEMA. The study consisted of continuous measurements of moisture content, suction, radon concentration at various depths inside a UMT cover, and flux density at its surface. An initial analysis has shown that radon concentration and flux density, as calculated with a steady-state diffusion model using monthly averaged moisture contents, are in good agreement with measured monthly averaged concentrations and flux densities.

  2. Exhaled Breath Analysis for the Monitoring of Elderly COPD Patients Health-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Chiurco, Domenica; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2011-09-01

    This pilot study assesses how effectively a gas sensors array can follow the evolution of elderly patients with COPD, the most common chronic respiratory disease. In particular, reproducibility of breath analysis (calculated for each subject along three weekly measurements) resulted comparable to spirometry, except for a larger spread for breath analysis, whose patterns was significantly correlated with other heath status parameters (such as eosinophiles and Barthel index).

  3. Relationship between exhaled NO, respiratory symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and blood eosinophilia in school children

    PubMed Central

    Steerenberg, P; Janssen, N; de Meer, G; Fischer, P; Nierkens, S; van Loveren, H; Opperhuizen, A; Brunekreef, B; van Amsterdam, J G C

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Levels of eNO in a sample of 450 children aged 7–12 years out of a total sample of 2504 school children living in different urban areas near motorways were determined. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between eNO, impairment of lung function (PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and blood eosinophilia in children with and without atopy as assessed by skin prick testing. Results: Regression analysis showed that wheezing and nasal discharge and conjunctivitis that had occurred during the previous 12 months were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.48 and 1.41, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. Similarly, BHR and the number of blood eosinophils per ml were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.55 and 2.29, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. The lung function indices PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF were not associated with eNO levels. Conclusions: In addition to conventional lung function tests and symptom questionnaires, eNO is a suitable measure of airway inflammation and its application may reinforce the power of epidemiological surveys on respiratory health. PMID:12612304

  4. Experimental measurement of breath exit velocity and expirated bloodstain patterns produced under different exhalation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, P H; Laffra, A M; Hoogendorp, N K; Taylor, M C; Jermy, M C

    2017-02-02

    In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the factors which determine the characteristics of expirated bloodstain patterns, the mechanism of formation of airborne droplets was studied. Hot wire anemometry measured air velocity, 25 mm from the lips, for 31 individuals spitting, coughing and blowing. Expirated stains were produced by the same mechanisms performed by one individual with different volumes of a synthetic blood substitute in their mouth. The atomization of the liquid at the lips was captured with high-speed video, and the resulting stain patterns were captured on paper targets. Peak air velocities varied for blowing (6 to 64 m/s), spitting (1 to 64 m/s) and coughing (1 to 47 m/s), with mean values of 12 m/s (blowing), 7 m/s (spitting) and 4 m/s (coughing). There was a large (55-65%) variation between individuals in air velocity produced, as well as variation between trials for a single individual (25-35%). Spitting and blowing involved similar lip shapes. Blowing had a longer duration of airflow, though it is not the duration but the peak velocity at the beginning of the air motion which appears to control the atomization of blood in the mouth and thus stain formation. Spitting could project quantities of drops at least 1600 mm. Coughing had a shorter range of near 500 mm, with a few droplets travelling further. All mechanisms could spread drops over an angle >45°. Spitting was the most effective for projecting drops of blood from the mouth, due to its combination of chest motion and mouth shape producing strong air velocities. No unique method was found of inferring the physical action (spitting, coughing or blowing) from characteristics of the pattern, except possibly distance travelled. Diameter range in expirated bloodstains varied from very small (<1 mm) in a dense formation to several millimetres. No unique method was found of discriminating expirated patterns from gunshot or impact patterns on stain shape alone. Only 20% of the expirated patterns produced in this study contained identifiable bubble rings or beaded stains.

  5. Inhale, exhale, e-mail: tips for effectively handling e-mail.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Today's world is all about speed and gathering information, superficial or otherwise. E-mail, computers and technological devices, all of which are designed to make us more productive and efficient, can use us up, spit us out, and leave us feeling inferior, ineffective, frustrated, and stressed out. Learn how to get control of your e-mail.

  6. VOLATILE POLAR METABOLITES IN EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE (EBC): COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and be expressed as a change in the patterns of polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) present in biological fluids. We explore the measurement of volatile endogenous bioma...

  7. NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

  8. Volatile Organic Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath as a Rapid, Prodromal, Diagnosis of Bioagent Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    Note that although some of the diseases are associated with the mouth or lungs, other diseases, such as diabetes, schizophrenia , or breast cancer...myocardial infarction Pentane 18 Breast cancer Pentanes 19 Schizophrenia Pentane and carbon disulfide 20 Trimethylaminuria Trimethylamine 21 Ovulation...patients with schizophrenia [published erratum appears in J Clin Pathol 1994 Sep;47(9):870],” J Clin Pathol 46, 861-4 (1993). 21. Personal

  9. EXHALED HUMAN BREATH MEASUREMENT OF JET FUEL CONSTITUENTS: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INHALATION AND DERMAL EXPOSURE ROUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to anecdotal reports, perceived health issues, and widespread complaints, the U.S. military launched an investigation into the occupational and environmental human exposure to jet fuel. The work described in the presentation assesses the correlation between two breat...

  10. Design of PolyMUMPS device for diabetes screening via acetone vapor detection in exhaled breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabih, Almur A. S.; Dennis, J. O.; Khir, M. H. Md; Ahmed, Mawahib Gafare; Mian, Muhammad Umer

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs due to deficiency or improper use of insulin by body tissues. It is currently diagnosed invasively by measuring blood glucose. This paper reports modelling and simulation of a PolyMUMPS device proposed for a non-invasive screening of diabetes. The device is electromagnetically driven at its resonance frequency using Lorenz force, while the output is detected by capacitive means. The resonance frequency of the first mode was obtained by CoventorWare software and it was found to be 18.552 kHz compared to its modelled value of 17.211 kHz, within an error of 7.2 %. Maximum displacement of 8.35 µm and capacitance of 29.57 fF were obtained when the device was driven by applying 15 mA current and 50 mT magnetic field.

  11. Radon exhalation rates from building materials using electret ion chamber radon monitors in accumulators.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Stieff, Frederick

    2009-08-01

    An electret ion chamber (EIC) radon monitor in a sealed accumulator measures the integrated average radon concentration at the end of the accumulation duration. Theoretical equations have been derived to relate such radon concentrations (Bq m(-3) ) to the radon emanation rate (Bq d(-1)) from building materials enclosed in the accumulator. As an illustration, a 4-L sealable glass jar has been used as an accumulator to calculate the radon emanation rate from different granite samples. The radon emanation rate was converted into radon flux (Bq mm(-2) d(-1)) by dividing the emanation rate by surface area of the sample. Fluxes measured on typical, commercially available granites ranged from 20-30 Bq m(-2) d(-1). These results are similar to the results reported in the literature. The lower limit of detection for a 2-d measurement works out to be 7 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Equations derived can also be used for other sealable accumulators and other integrating detectors, such as alpha track detectors.

  12. Waiting to Exhale: African American Women and Adult Learning Through Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Elice E.

    Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…

  13. Human Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) Media: Implementation of Automated Quanterix SIMOA Immunochemistry Instrumentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for observing biological pathways leading to disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for cytokines are typically labor intensive and lack sensitivity at sub pg/ml concentrations. Here we report on emerging tec...

  14. [Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in monitoring and therapeutic management of asthma].

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno; Costa, Patrício; Afonso, Ariana; Machado, Vânia; Moreira, Carla; Gonçalves, Augusta; Gonçalves, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A asma é uma doença respiratória crónica caracterizada pela hiper-reactividade e inflamação brônquica. A inflamação brônquica destes doentes pode ser monitorizada através da medição da fração exalada de óxido nítrico. Este estudo tem por objetivo determinar a associação do valor da fração exalada de óxido nítrico com o débito expiratório máximo instantâneo e com o controlo da asma determinado pela Classificação da Iniciativa Global para a Asma.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional, analítico e transversal de crianças com asma, 6-12 anos, seguidas na Consulta Externa de Patologia Respiratória do Hospital de Braga. Informação sociodemográfica e clínica colhida através de um questionário. Determinado o valor da fração exalada de óxido nítrico, através do analisador portátil Niox Mino®, e do débito expiratório máximo instantâneo,através do debitómetro.Resultados: A amostra é constituída por 101 crianças asmáticas, 63 (62,4%) do sexo masculino e 38 (37,6%) do sexo feminino. A idade média dos participantes na amostra é de 9,18 (1,99) anos. A regressão logística, realizada com o valor de cutoff obtido pela curva de ROC, revelou que a fração exalada de óxido nítrico tem um efeito estatisticamente significativo (bNíveis do FENO = 0,85; χ2Wald (1) = 8,71; OR = 2,33; p = 0,003) sobre a probabilidade de mudar de nível de controlo da asma. Por cada nível de fração exalada de óxido nítrico incrementado o odds de passar a não controlada é 2,33 vezes superior.Discussão e Conclusão: A probabilidade de uma criança asmática mudar o seu nível de controlo da asma, de ‘controlada’ para ‘parcialmente controlada/não controlada’, tendo em consideração uma alteração no seu nível da fração exalada de óxido nítrico, aumenta 133%.

  15. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators...

  3. Immunochemistry for high-throughput screening of human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) media: implementation of automated quanterix SIMOA instrumentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for indicating biological pathways leading towards disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are labor intensive and lack sensitivity at low-level concentrations. Here we report on emerging technology implementing f...

  4. Evaluation of the effect of a cover layer on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings: transient radon flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Cécile; Richon, Patrick; Beneito, Alain; Robé, Marie-Christine

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study concerning the transport of 222Rn in uranium mill tailings (UMTs) and in the cover layer was launched in 1997 with the participation of the French uranium mining company (COGEMA). Evaluation of the cover layer's effectiveness in reducing 222Rn flux emanating from UMTs was one of its objectives. In the first phase, the 222Rn flux densities were measured regularly on a UMT layer. In the second phase, the UMT was covered with a one-meter layer of compacted material consisting of crushed waste rock derived from mining activities. Radon-222 flux was then measured at the surface of this cover layer. Observations were compared with radon flux calculated using TRACI, a model for vertical water and gas flow and radon transport. The results show that the calculations bear a fair resemblance to the observations in both cases. They also show that the effectiveness of the cover layer calculated with TRACI, using the thickness and textural properties of the cover material, is very close to the measured effectiveness.

  5. Project Exhale: preliminary evaluation of a tailored smoking cessation treatment for HIV-positive African American smokers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; Conrad, Megan; Kuhns, Lisa; Vargas, Maria; King, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers. Eligible smokers were enrolled in a seven-session group-based treatment combined with nicotine patch. The mean age of participants was M=46 years. The majority were daily smokers (71%), smoked a mentholated brand (80%), and averaged 8.6 (standard deviation [SD]=8.1) cigarettes per day. Baseline nicotine dependency scores (M=5.8) indicated a moderate to high degree of physical dependence. Of the 31 participants enrolled, the majority completed treatment (≥3 sessions; 68%), 1-month follow-up (74%), and 3-month follow-up (87%) interviews. Program acceptability scores were strong. However, adherence to the patch was low, with 39% reporting daily patch use. The majority of participants (80%, n=24) made a quit attempt. Furthermore, over the course of the intervention, smoking urge, cigarettes smoked, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and depression scores all significantly decreased. Follow-up quit rates at 1 and 3 months ranged from 6% to 24%, with treatment completers having better outcomes. This first of its kind intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers was feasible, acceptable, and showed benefit for reducing smoking behaviors and depression scores. Smoking cessation outcomes were on par with other similar programs. A larger trial is needed to address limitations and to confirm benefits.

  6. Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

  7. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Pellizzari, E; Hartwell, T; Rosenzweig, M; Erickson, M; Sparacino, C; Zelon, H

    1984-10-01

    A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for nine volunteers in Bayonne and Elizabeth, New Jersey, and for three volunteers in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina during three 3-day visits over the 6-month period. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects on each visit. Composite food samples were collected in each locality. Sampling and analytical methods for air, water, food, and breath were evaluated and found generally capable of detecting concentrations as low as 1 microgram/m3 in air and breath, and 1 ng/g in water and food. About 230 personal air samples, 170 drinking water samples, 66 breath samples, and 4 food samples (16 composites) were analyzed for the target chemicals. Ten compounds were present in air and eight were transmitted mainly through that medium. The two target trihalomethanes (chloroform and bromodichloromethane) were predominantly transmitted through water and beverages. Food appeared to be a minor route of exposure, except possibly for trichloroethylene in margarine. Seven compounds were present in more than half of the breath samples. Diurnal and seasonal variations were noted in air and water concentrations of some compounds, with summer levels generally higher. For some chemicals, weekday air exposures were significantly higher than weekend exposures. Some, but not all, of the potentially occupationally exposed individuals had significantly higher workplace exposures to several chemicals. Distributions of air exposures were closer to log normal than normal for most chemicals. Several chemicals were highly correlated with each other in personal air samples, indicating possible common sources of exposure.

  8. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Pellizzari, E.; Hartwell, T.; Rosenzweig, M.; Erickson, M.; Sparacino, C.; Zelon, H.

    1984-10-01

    A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for volunteers in New Jersey and North Carolina. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects. About 230 personal air samples, 170 drinking water samples, 66 breath samples, and 4 food samples (16 composites) were analyzed for the target chemicals. Ten compounds were present in air and eight were transmitted mainly through that medium. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane were predominantly transmitted through water and beverages. Food appeared to be a miner route of exposure, except possibly for trichloroethylene in margarine. Seven compounds were present in more than half of the breath samples. Diurnal and seasonal variations were noted in air and water concentrations of some compounds. Some, but not all, of the potentially occupationally exposed individuals had significantly higher workplace exposures to several chemicals. Distributions of air exposures were closer to log normal than normal for most chemicals. Several chemicals were highly correlated with each other in personal air samples, indicating possible common sources of exposures. Compounds detected included benzene, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogens and vinyl chloride.

  9. Deep CO2 soil inhalation / exhalation induced by synoptic pressure changes and atmospheric tides in a carbonated semiarid steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Kowalski, A. S.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Priego, O.; Domingo, F.

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of all the mechanisms and processes involved in soil CO2 emissions is essential to close the global carbon cycle. Apart from molecular diffusion, the main physical component of such CO2 exchange is soil ventilation. Advective CO2 transport, through soil or snow, has been correlated with the wind speed, friction velocity or pressure (p). Here we examine variations in subterranean CO2 molar fractions (χc) over two years within a vertical profile (1.5 m) in a semiarid ecosystem, as influenced by short-timescale p changes. Analyses to determine the factors involved in the variations in subterranean χc were differentiated between the growing period and the dry period. In both periods it was found that variations in deep χc (0.5-1.5 m) were due predominantly to static p variations and not to wind or biological influences. Within a few hours, the deep χc can vary by fourfold, showing a pattern with two cycles per day, due to p oscillations caused by atmospheric tides. By contrast, shallow χc (0.15 m) generally has one cycle per day as influenced by biological factors like soil water content and temperature in both periods, while the wind was an important factor in shallow χc variations only during the dry period. Evidence of emissions was registered in the atmospheric boundary layer by eddy covariance during synoptic pressure changes when subterranean CO2 was released; days with rising barometric pressure - when air accumulated belowground, including soil-respired CO2 - showed greater ecosystem uptake than days with falling pressure. Future assessments of the net ecosystem carbon balance should not rely exclusively on Fick's law to calculate soil CO2 effluxes from profile data.

  10. [Photoacoustic spectroscopy evaluation of the impact of smoking on the composition of exhaled air in patients with bronchopulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Bukreeva, E B; Bulanova, A A; Kistenev, Yu V; Nikiforova, O Yu

    2017-01-01

    Цель исследования. Изучить влияние курения на воздух, выдыхаемый больными хронической обструктивной болезнью легких (ХОБЛ) и бронхиальной астмой (БА), с применением оптико-акустической спектроскопии. Материалы и методы. Проведен анализ спектров поглощения выдыхаемого воздуха (СПВВ) у здоровых добровольцев и больных ХОБЛ и БА с помощью лазерного оптико-акустического газоанализатора ILPA-1 на основе CO2-лазера. Для оценки результатов использовали методику, основанную на вычислении интегральной оценки (ИО) состояния объекта. Результаты. Сравнение ИО СПВВ больных ХОБЛ и некурящих здоровых лиц показало, что в диапазоне длин волн, соответствующем ветви 10R генерации CO2-лазера, регистрируются спектры соединений, образование которых связано с курением. Кроме того, получены данные об отличии выдыхаемого воздуха больных БА от выдыхаемого воздуха как курящих, так и некурящих здоровых лиц. На основе расчетов получены пороговые значения ИО СПВВ в диапазоне длин волн, соответствующем ветви 10P генерации CO2-лазера, которые позволяют отличать некурящих здоровых лиц от больных БА и ХОБЛ в 94 и 89% случаев соответственно. Заключение. Подтверждено, что курение существенно влияет на состав воздуха, выдыхаемого здоровыми лицами. Показано, что использование референтной группы, сформированной из некурящих здоровых лиц, позволяет повысить точность при выявлении ХОБЛ и БА методом оптико-акустической спектроскопии. При дальнейшей разработке данного направления открываются перспективы получения нового метода для диагностики ХОБЛ и БА.

  11. An integrated micro-volume fiber-optic sensor for oxygen determination in exhaled breath based on iridium(III) complexes immobilized in fluorinated xerogels.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Ye, Zhongbin; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Yuanqiang; Chen, Chen; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-03-21

    A novel integrated fiber-optic sensor with micro detection volume is developed and evaluated for O(2) determination on a breath-by-breath basis in human health monitoring applications. The sensing element was fabricated by dip-coating an uncladded optical fiber with [Ir(piq)(2)(acac)]-doped hybrid fluorinated ORMOSIL (organically modified silicate) film, which was prepared from 3,3,3-trifluoropropyltrimethoxysilane (TFP-TriMOS) and n-propyltrimethoxysilane (n-propyl-TriMOS). The sensor was then constructed by inserting the prepared optical fiber into a transparent capillary. A microchannel formed between the optical fiber and the capillary inner wall acted as a flow cell for the sample flowing through. The evanescent wave (EW) field produced on the fiber core surface can excite the O(2)-sensitive fluorophores of [Ir(piq)(2)(acac)] to produce emission fluorescence. O(2) can be sensed by its quenching effect on the emission fluorescence intensity. Spectroscopic properties have been characterized by FTIR and fluorescence measurements. Stern-Volmer and Demas models were both employed to analyse the sensor sensitivity, which is 13.0 with the LOD = 0.009% (3σ) and the response time is about 1 s. By integrating the sensing and detection elements on the optical fiber, the novel configuration showed advantages of easy fabrication and low cost. Parameters of sensitivity, response time, repeatability, humidity effect and temperature effect were discussed in detail. The proposed sensor showed potential for practical in-breath O(2) analysis application due to its advantages of easy fabrication, low cost, fast response, excellent hydrophobicity, negligible temperature interference and suitable sensitivity.

  12. Manganese mineralization in andesites of Brestovačka Banja, Serbia: evidence of sea-floor exhalations in the Timok Magmatic Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pačevski, Aleksandar; Cvetković, Vladica; Šarić, Kristina; Banješević, Miodrag; Hoefer, Heidi Eva; Kremenović, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    Andesites near Brestovačka Banja belong to the Late Cretaceous Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC), which hosts the world-class Bor metallogenic zone including numerous porphyry-copper and epithermal deposits. Two main volcanic phases are recognized in the TMC. The newly discovered Mn mineralization reported here is associated with the second volcanic phase of Turonian-Campanian age. Manganese mineralization containing 58 % MnO on average, occurs as black veins, lumps and nests filling cracks and cavities within an autoclastic andesite, which was deposited in a subaqueous environment. This rock also contains minor Fe mineralization, which is contemporaneous with the manganese mineralization. Manganese mineralization predominantly consists of Mn-Ca silicates (macfallite, pumpellyite-Mn, orientite, bustamite) and Mn oxides (pyrolusite, manganite). Micrometer-scale mineral intergrowths and locally preserved botryoidal and colloform textures are characteristic features of this uncommon mineral assemblage. The features could indicate that the mineralization was formed by deposition from a primary colloidal assemblage and is of sub-marine hydrothermal origin. Orientite is the only Mn mineral with grain size reaching several tenths of micrometers and showing prismatic crystal habit. Scarce to rare associated minerals are hollandite, crednerite, an unknown REE mineral, powellite, pyrite, barite and galena, in decreasing abundance. Trace element analyses of the Mn mineralization show different element contents and REE patterns compared to those of the volcanic host-rock. Manganese mineralization shows relatively high contents of Cu - 1784 ppm, Mo - 20 ppm and As - 268 ppm. These elements are commonly enriched in the Cu deposits of the Bor zone and their relatively high contents in the studied Mn crusts indicate sea-floor hydrothermal vents as a source of the metals.

  13. Evaluation of the (14)C-urea breath test using indigenously produced (14)C-urea capsules and a modified technique for trapping exhaled breath: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bijaynath P; Nistala, Srinivas; Patil, Sanjay P; Kalgutkar, Deepak P; Jaychandran, Narath; Chander, Harish; Basu, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    The carbon urea breath test ((14)C-UBT) is a noninvasive technique used to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of indigenously produced (14)C-UBT capsules by the Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, India. Thirty consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms were included in the study. After ingestion of capsules, breath samples were collected in a CO2-trapping solution to which a scintillation cocktail was added. After 24 h, the whole sample was counted in a liquid scintillation counter along with a standard of (14)C. The number of disintegrations of (14)C per minute in the breath sample was calculated. The results were compared with histopathological reports. Of 30 patients, 19 were positive and 11 were negative on (14)C-UBT. Histopathological reports confirmed 27 cases as positive and three as negative for H. pylori. Thus, the results of (14)C-UBT were concordant with histopathological results in 22/30 (73.3%) cases. Considering histopathology as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of (14)C-UBT using indigenously produced capsules were found to be 70.33, 100, and 100%, respectively. On critical analysis of the discordant results, we observed that six patients had undergone H. pylori eradication therapy exactly 4 weeks before the test. When these six patients were excluded from the analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were found to be 90.05, 100, and 100%, respectively, which compared well with the values obtained using the standard procedure. The study demonstrates adequate efficacy of the indigenous methodology in newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with acid peptic disorders. The analyses of the results indicate that the test should be preferably employed after the recommended period of 1 month following completion of eradication therapy.

  14. EXHALED NITRIC OXIDE IS ASSOCIATED WITH OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM2.5 IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA IN A PANEL STUDY. (R827355C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-07-06

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration.

  16. Radon (222Rn) level variations on a regional scale: influence of the basement trace element (U, Th) geochemistry on radon exhalation rates.

    PubMed

    Ielsch, G; Thiéblemont, D; Labed, V; Richon, P; Tymen, G; Ferry, C; Robé, M C; Baubron, J C; Béchennec, F

    2001-01-01

    The approach proposed in this study provides insight into the influence of the basement geochemistry on the spatial distribution of radon (222Rn) levels both at the soil/atmosphere interface and in the atmosphere. We combine different types of in situ radon measurements and a geochemical classification of the lithologies, based on 1/50,000 geological maps, and on their trace element (U, Th) contents. The advantages of this approach are validated by a survey of a stable basement area of Hercynian age, located in South Brittany (western France) and characterized by metamorphic rocks and granitoids displaying a wide range of uranium contents. The radon source-term of the lithologies, their uranium content, is most likely to be the primary parameter which controls the radon concentrations in the outdoor environment. Indeed, the highest radon levels (> or = 100 Bq m-3 in the atmosphere, > or = 100 mBq m-2 s-1 at the surface of the soil) are mostly observed on lithologies whose mean uranium content can exceed 8 ppm and which correspond to peraluminous leucogranites or metagranitoids derived from uraniferous granitoids.

  17. Is It Possible to Predict Pulmonary Complications and Mortality in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients from Pre-Transplantation Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels?

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Nurdan; Yıldırım, Fatma; Aydoğdu, Müge; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Yeğin, Zeynep Arzu; Özkurt, Zübeyde Nur; Suyanı, Elif; Kıvılcım Oğuzülgen, İpek; Türköz Sucak, Gülsan

    2016-03-05

    Amaç: Hematopoetik kök hücre nakli (HKHN) hastalarında, nakil öncesi kemoterapi/radyoterapi etkisi ile oluşan serbest oksijen radikalleri ve reaktif oksijen türevleri pek çok nakil ilişkili erken ve geç pulmoner ve nonpulmoner komplikasyonun oluşmasında rol oynamaktadır. Ekshale nitrik oksit (NO) düzeyindeki artışın hava yollarındaki oksidatif stresi ve enflamasyonu yansıttığı ileri sürülmektedir. Bu prospektif çalışmada amacımız HKHN hastalarında nakil öncesi bakılan ekshale NO düzeylerinin nakil sonrası gelişen pulmoner komplikasyonlar ve sağkalım üzerine etkisinin araştırılması idi. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Ekim 2009-Temmuz 2011 tarihleri arasında HKHN uygulanan hastalar prospektif olarak çalışmaya alındılar. Nakil öncesi ekshalasyon havasında NO ölçümleri NIOX MINO® cihazı ile yapıldı. Bütün hastalar transplantasyon sonrası prospektif olarak anemnez, fizik muayene, akciğer filmi ve solunum fonksiyon testleri ile pulmoner komplikasyon açısından takip edildi. Bulgular: Çalışmaya yaş ortalamaları 45±13 yıl olan 40’ı (71%) erkek toplam 56 hasta (33 otolog, 23 allojeneik) dahil edildi. Nakil öncesi ekshale NO düzeyi tüm grupta 24±13 ppb (ortalama ± standart sapma) (median: 22; minimum-maksimum: 5-75) bulundu. Allojeneik HKHN uygulanan hastalarda ekshale NO düzeyi 19±6 ppm; otolog nakil uygulananlarda 27±15 ppm olarak bulundu (p=0,042). Nakil öncesi uygulanan kemoterapi ve radyoterapi rejimleri ile bazal NO düzeyleri arasında anlamlı korelasyon bulunmadı (p>0,05). Nakil sonrası pulmoner toksisite 12 (%21) hastada saptandı. Bazal NO değeri ile pulmoner toksisite arasında anlamlı ilişki saptanmadı. Tüm çalışma grubunda sağkalım oranı %70 olarak bulundu. Nakil öncesi ekshale NO düzeyinin sağ kalım üzerinde etkisinin olmadığı görüldü (eksitus grubunda 19±7 ppm, taburcu grubunda 26±15 ppm, p=0,114). Sonuç: HKHN hastalarında nakil öncesi ekshale NO ölçümü nakil sonrası pulmoner komplikasyon gelişimini ve mortaliteyi öngörmede kullanılabilir gözükmemektedir.

  18. 42 CFR 84.300 - Closed-circuit escape respirator; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exhaled carbon dioxide from the breathing circuit, or a chemical that both provides a source of oxygen and removes exhaled carbon dioxide. Users re-breathe their exhalations after the oxygen and carbon dioxide... settings in emergencies to enable users to escape from atmospheres that can be immediately dangerous...

  19. 42 CFR 84.300 - Closed-circuit escape respirator; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exhaled carbon dioxide from the breathing circuit, or a chemical that both provides a source of oxygen and removes exhaled carbon dioxide. Users re-breathe their exhalations after the oxygen and carbon dioxide... settings in emergencies to enable users to escape from atmospheres that can be immediately dangerous...

  20. 42 CFR 84.300 - Closed-circuit escape respirator; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exhaled carbon dioxide from the breathing circuit, or a chemical that both provides a source of oxygen and removes exhaled carbon dioxide. Users re-breathe their exhalations after the oxygen and carbon dioxide... settings in emergencies to enable users to escape from atmospheres that can be immediately dangerous...

  1. CONTROLLED METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) EXPOSURE TO HUMANS THROUGH DERMAL, INGESTION, AND INHALATION ROUTES AND THE RESULTANT BIOMARKER TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) AS MEASURED IN EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. In September 1997 during SCOS97 a series of 3-h canister samples of ambient air were collected at the Azusa air monitoring station during morning and afternoon periods. ...

  2. Dosimetric comparison of lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment plans using averaged computed tomography and end-exhalation computed tomography images: Evaluation of the effect of different dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods.

    PubMed

    Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Nakamura, Akira; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively evaluate differences in dose distributions calculated using various computed tomography (CT) datasets, dose-calculation algorithms, and prescription methods in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage lung cancer. Data on 29 patients with early-stage lung cancer treated with SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Averaged CT (Ave-CT) and expiratory CT (Ex-CT) images were reconstructed for each patient using 4-dimensional CT data. Dose distributions were initially calculated using the Ave-CT images and recalculated (in the same monitor units [MUs]) by employing Ex-CT images with the same beam arrangements. The dose-volume parameters, including D95, D90, D50, and D2 of the planning target volume (PTV), were compared between the 2 image sets. To explore the influence of dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods on the differences in dose distributions evident between Ave-CT and Ex-CT images, we calculated dose distributions using the following 3 different algorithms: x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), Acuros XB (AXB), and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). We also used 2 different dose-prescription methods; the isocenter prescription and the PTV periphery prescription methods. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data were within 3 percentage points (%pts) employing the isocenter prescription method, and within 1.5%pts using the PTV periphery prescription method, irrespective of which of the 3 algorithms (XVMC, AXB, and AAA) was employed. The frequencies of dose-volume parameters differing by >1%pt when the XVMC and AXB were used were greater than those associated with the use of the AAA, regardless of the dose-prescription method employed. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data on patients who underwent lung SBRT were within 3%pts, regardless of the dose-calculation algorithm or the dose-prescription method employed.

  3. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  4. U.S.N. Procedures for Testing the Breathing Characteristics of Open Circuit Scuba Regulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-11

    The appropriate sections of MIL-R-24l69A (single-hose SCUBA requlators) are reproduced below: 3.19 Mechanical peak inhalation and exhalation...pressures. - The demand regulator assembly shall exhibit, at a maximum, the values of peak inhalation and exhalation pressures of figure 2 (reproduced as...Mechanical peak inhalation and exhalation pressure test. - The suitability of t e preproduction u-nits for swimming to 201 feet in sea water shall be

  5. Gas analysis in medicine: New developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenov, K. G.; Miroshnichnko, I. B.; Kostykova, N. Yu.; Kolker, D. B.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Starikova, M. K.; Mishin, P. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this article we discuss the method of early diagnosis of bronchopulmonary diseases based on the analysis of absorption spectra of biomarkers in the human exhaled air. For the analysis of absorption spectra of human exhaled air gas analyzer based on laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was designed. A method for analysis of exhaled air samples from patients with lung cancer in comparison with the target and comparison group by LPAS was developed. This work is promising for screening of lung cancer.

  6. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Thalakkotur Lazar; Pownraj, Prabhahari; Abdulla, Sukhananazerin; Pullithadathil, Biji

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques. PMID:26854142

  7. 77 FR 14167 - Approval Tests and Standards for Closed-Circuit Escape Respirators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... & Metabolic Simulator 2. Carbon Dioxide 3. Oxygen 4. Peak Breathing Pressures 5. Wet-Bulb Temperature L... employ either compressed oxygen with a chemical system for removing exhaled carbon dioxide from the breathing circuit, or a chemical that both provides a source of oxygen and removes exhaled carbon...

  8. Metabolic rate meter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. I.; Ruderman, I. W. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic metabolic rate of a human or animal. The ratio of the exhaled carbon dioxide to a known amount of C(13)02 introduced into the exhalation is determined by mass spectrometry. This provides an instantaneous measurement of the carbon dioxide generated.

  9. Radon emanation from concrete and the influence of using flyash in cement.

    PubMed

    van der Lugt, G; Scholten, L C

    1985-10-01

    In the Netherlands both Portland cement and blast furnace cement (slags from blast furnaces with about 30% Portland cement) are used for concrete. Radon exhalation measurements were carried out on concrete blocks made with these two types of cement and blocks with 15, 25 and 35% of the cement substituted by three different types of flyash. The results show that substituting part of the cement by flyash has no drastic effect on the exhalation rate. For concrete with Portland cement the exhalation rate decreases using flyash with an average radium content. With blast furnace cement a slight increase may be expected. The exhalation of concrete is greater than the sum of the exhalation values of the constituting components. The water in the pores of the concrete plays an essential role in the emanation process.

  10. Flow Dynamics of a smart pump: Mytilus Galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Karem; Uslu, Fazil; Biofluids; Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Team

    2016-11-01

    Hydrodynamic performance of marine mussel, Mytilus Galloprovincialis, is studied by the time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). We evaluated inhalant flow, exhalant jet flow, pumping performances, and flow control capabilities of the mussels quantitatively. Inhalant flow structures of mussels are measured at the coronal plane first-time in literature. Nutrient fluid is convected into the mussel by three-dimensional sink type flow that is different than exhalant jet flow. Inhalant velocity reaches its highest magnitude inside of the mussel mantle while accelerating outward the mussel. We calculated pressure gradient at the coronal plane where three-dimensional sink type inhalant flow is observed. As inhalant flow approaches mussel shell tip, suction force generated by the inhalant flow increases. Likewise, unique exhalant jet flow regimes are studied for 17 mussels. Mussels can control their exhalant jet flow structure from single potential core region to double one or vice versa. Peak exhalant jet velocity generated by the mussels changes between 2.77 cm/s and 11.1 cm/s as a function of mussel cavity volume. Hydrodynamic dissipation at sagittal plane is calculated to evaluate whether there is any interference between inhalant sink flow and exhalant jet flow or not. Results showed an efficient synchronized pumping mechanism. This pumping mechanism can feature flow-turning angle, the angle between inhalant and exhalant jet flow, 90°with standard deviation of 16°.

  11. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2013-01-01

    Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future. PMID:24151617

  12. Screening of patients with bronchopulmonary diseases using methods of infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kistenev, Yury V; Karapuzikov, Alexander I; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Yu; Starikova, Marina K; Boyko, Andrey A; Bukreeva, Ekaterina B; Bulanova, Anna A; Kolker, Dmitry B; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Zenov, Konstantin G; Karapuzikov, Alexey A

    2015-06-01

    A human exhaled air analysis by means of infrared (IR) laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is presented. Eleven healthy nonsmoking volunteers (control group) and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, target group) were involved in the study. The principal component analysis method was used to select the most informative ranges of the absorption spectra of patients' exhaled air in terms of the separation of the studied groups. It is shown that the data of the profiles of exhaled air absorption spectrum in the informative ranges allow identifying COPD patients in comparison to the control group.

  13. Screening of patients with bronchopulmonary diseases using methods of infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Karapuzikov, Alexander I.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Yu.; Starikova, Marina K.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kolker, Dmitry B.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Zenov, Konstantin G.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2015-06-01

    A human exhaled air analysis by means of infrared (IR) laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is presented. Eleven healthy nonsmoking volunteers (control group) and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, target group) were involved in the study. The principal component analysis method was used to select the most informative ranges of the absorption spectra of patients' exhaled air in terms of the separation of the studied groups. It is shown that the data of the profiles of exhaled air absorption spectrum in the informative ranges allow identifying COPD patients in comparison to the control group.

  14. Ivsite, Na3H(SO4)2, a new mineral from volcanic exhalations of fumaroles of the Fissure Tolbachik Eruption of the 50th Anniversary of the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, S. K.; Karpov, G. A.; Shablinskii, A. P.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Vergasova, L. P.; Antonov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Fine-granular (<0.1 mm) flattened colorless transparent crystals of ivsite form white aggregates. The empirical formula (Na2.793Cu0.056)2.849HS2.016O8 is close to the ideal Na3H(SO4)2. The structure was refined up to R = 0.040. Ivsite has a monoclinic symmetry, P21/ c, a = 8.655(1) Å, b = 9.652(1) Å, c = 9.147(1) Å, β = 108.76(1)°, V = 723.61(1) Å3, Z = 4. Na atoms occur at six- and seven-fold sites (NaO6 and NaO7); S atoms, in isolated SO4 tetrahedrons; these polyhedrons form a three-dimensional framework. The diagnostic lines of powder diffraction patterns ( d[Å]- I- hkl) are 4.010-53-12-1, 3.949-87-012, 3.768-100-210, 3.610-21-20-2, 3.022-22-031, 2.891-42-22-2, 2.764-49-31-1, and 2.732-70-13-1.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body and carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream to be exhaled. In ACD/ ... and location impede the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Other abnormalities of the blood vessels in the ...

  16. What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaled air into your bloodstream and pass carbon dioxide (a waste product from the body) into the ... exhale. Taking in oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide are your lungs’ main functions. A thin lining ...

  17. The Influences of Exposure Pattern and Duration on Elimination Kinetics and Exposure Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene in Humans. Yeh-Chung Chien

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The current investigation was designed and conducted to examine the body kinetic behaviors by means of breath analysis under various exposure conditions to test the validity of using exhaled breath as a biological marker of exposure.

  18. Clinical breath analysis: Discriminating between human endogenous compounds and exogenous (environmental) chemical confounders

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath originate from current or previous environmental exposures (exogenous compounds) and internal metabolic anabolic and catabolic) production (endogenous compounds). The origins of certain VOCs in breath presumed to be endogenous ...

  19. Recycling of 3He from lung magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Z; Grossmann, T; Gueldner, M; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Otten, E W; Rudersdorf, D; Surkau, R; Wolf, U

    2012-06-01

    We have developed the means to recycle (3) He exhaled by patients after imaging the lungs using magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized (3) He. The exhaled gas is collected in a helium leak proof bag and further compressed into a steel bottle. The collected gas contains about 1-2% of (3) He, depending on the amount administered and the number of breaths collected to wash out the (3) He gas from the lungs. (3) He is separated from the exhaled air using zeolite molecular sieve adsorbent at 77 K followed by a cold head at 8 K. Residual gaseous impurities are finally absorbed by a commercial nonevaporative getter. The recycled (3) He gas features high purity, which is required for repolarization by metastability exchange optical pumping. At present, we achieve a collection efficiency of 80-84% for exhaled gas from healthy volunteers and cryogenic separation efficiency of 95%.

  20. ENHANCED CONCENTRATION AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER SOLUABLE ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BREATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled human breath analysis has become a standard technique for assessing exposure to exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trihalomethanes from water chlorination; aromatics, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates from fuels usage; and various chlorinated solvents from i...

  1. Carbon dioxide concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. F.; Huebscher, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Passed exhaled air through electrochemical cell containing alkali metal carbonate aqueous solution, and utilizes platinized electrodes causing reaction of oxygen at cathode with water in electrolyte, producing hydroxyl ions which react with carbon dioxide to form carbonate ions.

  2. Aging changes in the lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004011.htm Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: surfactant dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy. Without normal surfactant, the tissue surrounding the air sacs in the lungs (the alveoli ) sticks together (because of a force called surface tension) after exhalation, causing the alveoli ...

  4. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services National Institutes of Health Creating Biomedical Technologies to Improve Health En Español | Site Map | Staff ... of daily experience using the sip-and-puff technology, which requires inhaling and exhaling through a straw ...

  5. Bronchiolitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cold: stuff nose and congestion runny nose cough fever These symptoms last a day or two and are followed by worsening of the cough and wheezing (high-pitched whistling noises when exhaling). ...

  6. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  7. Gas exchange

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... during exhalation. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the ... share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory ...

  8. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... through pores (tiny holes) in the skin. Water vapor and carbon dioxide are exhaled (breathed out) from ... receive enough water, the kidneys also regulate blood pressure and the level of vital salts in the ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... secondhand smoke? a) Exhaled toxic cloud b) Environmental tobacco smoke c) Passive smoke d) Involuntary smoking 6. Which of the following chemicals does secondhand smoke contain? a) Ammonia b) Arsenic c) Cyanide d) Formaldehyde e) All of the above f) ...

  10. Noninvasive respiratory monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nochomovitz, M.L.; Cherniack, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Transcutaneous Monitoring of Respiratory Gases; Computed Tomography of the Chest; Measurement and Monitoring of Exhaled Carbon Dioxide; Oximetry; and Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Chest Wall and Pleura.

  11. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... one-way valves to prevent the patient from rebreathing previously exhaled gases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5870 - Nonrebreathing valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A nonrebreathing valve is a one-way valve that directs breathing gas flow to the patient and vents exhaled gases into the atmosphere. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  13. In-vivo measurement of lithium in the brain and other organs

    DOEpatents

    Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.; LoMonte, A.F.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1983-08-26

    An in-vivo method of measurement of the amount of lithium present in tissue and organs of breathing animals is described. The basis for the technique is the lithium-1 neutron interaction - /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)T. The lithium is irradiated with thermal neutrons to produce tritium atoms. The tritium diffuses into the tissues and is exhaled. By measuring the amount of tritium exhaled, the lithium concentration in the irradiated zone is determined.

  14. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  15. Breath condensate nitrite correlates with hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Christian; Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Kuhn, Hartmut; Hoheisel, Gerhard; Gillissen, Adrian; Sack, Ulrich; Wirtz, Hubert

    2007-11-01

    Estimating the degree of pulmonary hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not always straight forward. Standard pulmonary function tests provide only a crude estimate of this important aspect of COPD. In addition, good patient cooperation cannot always be achieved and therefore adds to the uncertainties with regard to the extent of hyperinflation of the lung. The aim of this investigation was to characterize exhaled breath condensate nitrite in volunteers, healthy smokers, and stable COPD (GOLD-stages 0-4) and to compare this parameter with inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate and with lung function in order to test the hypothesis that elevated exhaled breath condensate nitrite reflects hyperinflation in COPD. We found a logarithmic correlation of exhaled breath condensate nitrite to residual volume (r=0.75, p<0.0001), total lung capacity (r=0.51, p<0.0001), and thoracic gas volume (r=0.71, p<0.0001) but no correlation of exhaled breath condensate nitrite concentrations with levels of inflammatory cytokines in exhaled breath condensate (interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). Analysis of COPD subgroups revealed a logarithmic correlation of EBC nitrite to residual volume, total lung capacity, and intrathoracic gas volume exclusively for patients characterized by GOLD classes 2, and higher. Our results confirm a relation of exhaled breath condensate nitrite levels and hyperinflation measured by conventional pulmonary function tests. Investigations using isolated lung models and cells stretched in culture also provide insight into this relation. Exhaled breath condensate nitrite may be a biochemical indicator of pulmonary overdistension.

  16. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and endogenous carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Tachikawa, Ryo; Hamada, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Minami, Takuma; Inouchi, Morito; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) levels are recognized as a surrogate marker for activity of heme oxygenase-1, which is induced by various factors, including hypoxia and oxidative stress. Few reports have evaluated endogenous CO in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether OSA more greatly affects exhaled or blood CO is not known. Sixty-nine patients with suspected OSA were prospectively included in this study. Exhaled and blood CO were evaluated at night and morning. Blood and exhaled CO levels were well correlated both at night and morning (r = 0.52, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.61, P < 0.0001, respectively). Although exhaled CO levels both at night and morning significantly correlated with total sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation < 90% (ρ = 0.41, P = 0.0005 and ρ = 0.27, P = 0.024, respectively), blood CO levels did not correlate with any sleep parameter. Seventeen patients with an apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 (control group) were compared with 52 patients with AHI ≥ 15 (OSA group). Exhaled CO levels at night in the OSA group were significantly higher than in the control group (3.64 ± 1.2 vs. 2.99 ± 0.70 ppm, P < 0.05). Exhaled CO levels at night decreased after 3 mo of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in OSA patients (n = 36; P = 0.016) to become nearly the same level as in the control group (P = 0.21). Blood CO levels did not significantly change after CPAP therapy. Exhaled CO was positively related to hypoxia during sleep in OSA patients, but blood CO was not. Exhaled CO might better correlate with oxidative stress associated with OSA than blood CO.

  17. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect prote