Science.gov

Sample records for exhaust gas emission

  1. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  2. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  3. Exhaust gas emissions of a vortex breakdown stabilized combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, R. A.; Gouldin, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    Exhaust gas emission data are described for a swirl stabilized continuous combustor. The combustor consists of confined concentric jets with premixed fuel and air in the inner jet and air in the outer jet. Swirl may be induced in both inner and outer jets with the sense of rotation in the same or opposite directions (co-swirl and counter-swirl). The combustor limits NO emissions by lean operation without sacrificing CO and unburned hydrocarbon emission performance, when commercial-grade methane and air fired at one atmosphere without preheat are used. Relative swirl direction and magnitude are found to have significant effects on exhaust gas concentrations, exit temperatures, and combustor efficiencies. Counter-swirl gives a large recirculation zone, a short luminous combustion zone, and large slip velocities in the interjet shear layer. For maximum counter-swirl conditions, the efficiency is low.

  4. Parametric modeling of exhaust gas emission from natural gas fired gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bakken, L.E.; Skogly, L.

    1996-07-01

    Increased focus on air pollution from gas turbines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has resulted in taxes on CO{sub 2}. Statements made by the Norwegian authorities imply regulations and/or taxes on NO{sub x} emissions in the near future. The existing CO{sub 2} tax of NOK 0.82/Sm{sup 3} (US Dollars 0.12/Sm{sup 3}) and possible future tax on NO{sub x} are analyzed mainly with respect to operating and maintenance costs for the gas turbine. Depending on actual tax levels, the machine should be operated on full load/optimum thermal efficiency or part load to reduce specific exhaust emissions. Based on field measurements, exhaust emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, UHC, etc.) are established with respect to load and gas turbine performance, including performance degradation. Different NO{sub x} emission correlations are analyzed based on test results, and a proposed prediction model presented. The impact of machinery performance degradation on emission levels is particularly analyzed. Good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted NO{sub x} emissions from the proposed correlation. To achieve continuous exhaust emission control, the proposed NO{sub x} model is implemented to the on-line condition monitoring system on the Sleipner A platform, rather than introducing sensitive emission sensors in the exhaust gas stack. The on-line condition monitoring system forms an important tool in detecting machinery condition/degradation and air pollution, and achieving optimum energy conservation.

  5. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  6. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  7. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    He, Xin; Durrett, Russell P.

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  8. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  9. Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission/transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marran, David F.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Neira, Jorge; Markham, James R.; Rutka, Ronald; Strange, Richard R.

    2001-02-01

    12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high acoustical noise and vibration, considerable temperature swings in the ambient with engine operation), providing quantitative gas phase information. Measurements were made through the diameter of the engine's one meter exhaust plume, about 0.7 meters downstream of the engine exit plane. The sensor performed near simultaneous infrared transmission and infrared emission measurements through the centerline of the plume. Automated analysis of the emission and transmission spectra provided the temperature and concentration information needed for engine tuning and control that will ensure optimal engine operation and reduced emissions. As a demonstration of the utility and accuracy of the technique, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, water, and carbon dioxide were quantified in spite of significant variations in the exhaust gas temperature. At some conditions, unburned fuel, particulates (soot/fuel droplets), methane, ethylene and aldehydes were identified, but not yet quantified.

  10. The effect of EGR ratio on a spray combustion and emission[Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Hirokatsu; Ogiwara, Goro; Arai, Masataka

    1998-07-01

    It was widely known that preheating of primary air and EGR were effective to reduce NOx emission in a combustion system. Then the authors proposed the effective system of the external EGR for a spray combustion system such as a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, they tried to obtain various combustion characteristic related to the EGR effect. The EFR ratio was defined by the O{sub 2} concentrations of the EGR gas and the total inlet gas to which EGR gas was added. The combustion characteristics at 0% to 20% of the EGR ratio were measured to investigate the effect of the external EGR. The total inlet gas was the mixture, in which a fresh air was mixed with a hot burned gas recirculated externally. The O{sub 2} concentration in the total inlet gas decreased from 21% to 19%. The temperature of the total inlet gas increased from room temperature to about 110 C. The results showed that the combustion characteristics were improved by the EGR. At a high level of the EGR ratio, hot EGR gas promoted to vaporize the kerosene spray. This kerosene vapor and combustion air formed a homogeneous mixture gas which stabilized high intensity flame. It resulted flame stabilization in wide range of the EGR. Flame which was filled up fully in the combustion chamber was non-luminous flame like a gaseous fuel combustion. Also, the level of NO concentration in the exhaust gas was reduced. IN the flame of high EGR ratio, hot spots which caused NO formation in the flame were highly reduced. And the residence time in the combustion chamber was also reduced, because of the average sectional velocity increased with an increase of the recirculating gas flow in the system. So the maximum values of NO concentration in the combustion chamber were reduced in all cases of experimental conditions with EGR. The level of NO concentration in the exhaust gas was suppressed to about 60% compared with no EGR combustion states.

  11. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  12. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  13. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  14. Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

  15. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  16. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  17. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  18. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  19. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  20. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  1. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  2. Exhaust gas afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.J. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an exhaust gas afterburner device adapted for installation between an exhaust manifold and a corresponding portion of the engine block of an internal combustion engine. The device comprises: a spacer sandwiched between portions of two sheet metal members forming a gasket section of the device, the gasket section surrounding at least one exhaust gas port, a plenum section formed by remaining portions of the members, and wall sections defining passageways extending from the interior of the plenum section to the port and an air supply inlet on the plenum.

  3. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for exhaust emissions. 87.31... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from...

  4. Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

  5. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  6. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8... in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust...

  7. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  8. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  9. REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... below the applicable standards. See 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, for showing compliance with the standards... an electric hybrid vehicle. Where the highest useful life emissions occur between the end of useful... MOTOR VEHICLES Certifying Vehicle families § 1037.241 Demonstrating compliance with exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... below the applicable standards. See 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, for showing compliance with the standards... an electric hybrid vehicle. Where the highest useful life emissions occur between the end of useful... MOTOR VEHICLES Certifying Vehicle families § 1037.241 Demonstrating compliance with exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... below the applicable standards. See 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, for showing compliance with the standards... an electric hybrid vehicle. Where the highest useful life emissions occur between the end of useful... MOTOR VEHICLES Certifying Vehicle families § 1037.241 Demonstrating compliance with exhaust...

  13. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  14. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  15. Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Beck, H A; Niessner, R; Haisch, C

    2003-04-01

    Upcoming regulations for vehicle exhaust emission demand substantial reduction of particle emission in diesel exhaust. To achieve these emission levels, the car manufacturing industry is developing new combustion concepts and exhaust after-treatment techniques such as the use of catalysts and particle filters. Many of the state-of-the-art analytical instruments do not meet the required detection limits, in combination with a high temporal resolution necessary for engine optimization. This paper reports a new detection system and the first results of its application to on-line diesel exhaust soot measurements on a engine test bench (MAN diesel engine facility Nürnberg, Germany). The instrument is based on differential photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy of black carbon aerosol. It contains two identical PA cells, one for the measurement of the aerosol particles and one which analyses the particle-free gas. Thus, a potential cross-sensitivity to gaseous absorbers in the exhaust gas can be excluded. The PA cells were characterized in a laboratory set-up, with water vapor as reference gas and artificial soot generated by a spark discharge generator. The detection limit was found to be 2 microg m(-3) BC (for diesel soot) with a sampling rate of 3 Hz. The temporal response of the system was found to be in the order of 1 s. After full characterization of the cells, the system was transferred into a mobile 19"-rack. Characterization of the mobile sensor system under real-world conditions was performed during several measurement campaigns at an engine test bench for heavy-duty diesel engines. Results for the limit of detection, the time resolution, accuracy, repeatability, and robustness of the sensor system are very promising with regards to a routine application of the system in engine development. PMID:12733029

  16. The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

  17. A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

  18. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  19. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  20. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  1. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standards for exhaust emissions. 34.21 Section 34.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  2. 40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for exhaust emissions. 87.21 Section 87.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. Link to an amendment published...

  3. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  4. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  8. Effects of prevaporized fuel on exhaust emissions of an experimental gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Effects of fuel vaporization on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and smoke number were obtained in an experimental turbojet combustor segment. Two fuel injector types were used in which liquid ASTM A-1 jet fuel and vapor propane fuel were independently controlled to simulate varying degrees of vaporization. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet-air temperatures from 478 to 700 K (860 to 1260 R), pressures from 4 to 20 atmospheres, and combustor reference velocities from 15.3 to 27.4 m/sec (50 to 90 ft/sec). Converting from liquid to complete vapor fuel resulted in NOX reductions as much as 22 percent and smoke number reductions up to 51 percent.

  9. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled engines and particulate emissions from all engines. 86.1310-2007 Section 86.1310-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. (a) Fleet average NMOG standards and compliance. (1) Each manufacturer...

  12. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  13. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on emissions from a flame-tube combustor using Liquid Jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of uncooled exhaust gas recirculation as an inert diluent on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2) and on combustion efficiency were investigated. Ratios of recirculated combustion products to inlet airflow were varied from 10 to 80 percent by using an inlet air ejector nozzle. Liquid Jet A fuel was used. The flame-tube combustor was 10.2 cm in diameter. It was operated with and without a flameholder present. The combustor pressure was maintained constant at 0.5 MPa. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.3 to 1.0. The inlet air temperature was varied from 590 to 800 K, and the reference velocity from 10 to 30 m/sec. Increasing the percent recirculation from 10 to 25 had the following effects: (1) the peak NOx emission was decreased by 37 percent, from 8 to 5 g NO2/kg fuel, at an inlet air temperature of 590 K and a reference velocity of 15 m/sec; (2) the combustion efficiency was increased, particularly at the higher equivalence ratios; and (3) for a high combustion efficiency of greater than 99.5 percent, the range of operation of the combustor was nearly doubled in terms of equivalence ratio. Increasing the recirculation from 25 to 50 percent did not change the emissions significantly.

  14. Reduction of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas emission components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.; Huettenberger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further reduction of noxious and climate-influencing emissions. To prove the effectiveness of the emission reduction the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

  17. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  18. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  19. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  20. Exhaustion, a guide to transportation emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This publication contains a series of fact sheets on the environmental impact of the automobile, addressing the issues of vehicle exhaust and its impact, alternative and cleaner fuels, and alternative forms of transportation. The sheets are intended to serve as background information and reference material. Specific topics of the sheets include: Components of car exhaust and other automobile-related emissions; air quality in Canada; smog; climate change and the greenhouse effect; acid rain; stratospheric ozone depletion; hazardous air pollutants and the automobile; health impacts; modifications and improvements to diesel fuels; reformulated gasoline; alternative fuels such as propane, ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen, and methanol; emissions standards and controls; inspection and maintenance programs; transportation demand management; driving behavior and the environment; and indirect costs of the automobile.

  1. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  2. Exhaust gas clean up process

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1989-04-11

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt.

  3. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  4. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  5. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  6. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  7. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  8. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  9. Role of average speed in N₂O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?

    PubMed

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

    2012-05-15

    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

  10. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  11. Device for removing particulates in exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinsei, K.; Takada, H.

    1986-11-18

    A device is described for removing particulates from a flow of exhaust has exhausted from a diesel engine before the flow of exhaust gas is exhausted to the outside atmosphere, comprising: a particulate filter having a filter inlet; a regenerative burner for producing combustion gas, having a burner outlet, the regenerating burner including a housing having a first closed end and a second open end and defining a combustion chamber therein. An injection nozzle is disposed at the closed end to inject a fuel and air mixture into the combustion chamber, and an ignition plug is disposed at the closed end to be adjacent to the injection nozzle; and means, including only one exhaust gas conduit connected to the filter inlet for directing the flow of exhaust gas thereto, for concurrently directing the flow of exhaust gas, and all of the combustion gas produced by the regenerating burner from the burner outlet into the filter through the exhaust gas conduit and the filter inlet.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in diesel exhaust using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with programmed temperature vaporization and large volume injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira de Souza, Carolina; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2015-02-01

    Diesel engines are significant sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAHs) in urban atmospheres. These compounds are widely known for their carcinogenic potential and mutagenic properties. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of 16 priorities PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with programmable temperature vaporizer large volume injection (PTV-LVI), which allowed to be obtained detection limits below 2.0 ng mL-1. This method was evaluated in samples from stratified particulate matter and gas phase from the emissions of diesel vehicle employing diesel commercial S10 (sulfur 10 mg L-1) and B5 (biodiesel 5% v/v). A sampling system that does not employ exhaust products dilution was used to evaluate the PAHs gas-particle partition. Six PAHs were identified in extracts and gas-phase PAHs took percentage of 80% in the total PAHs emissions. The sampling system without dilution not caused a strong nucleation/condensation of the most volatile PAHs. PAHs size-particle distribution was found in higher levels in the accumulation mode.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.1509 Section 86.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  14. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  15. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  16. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  17. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures. PMID:15901550

  18. EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

  19. Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilbaş, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

    2013-02-15

    The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors. PMID:23298742

  20. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86... Procedures § 86.1342-90 Calculations; exhaust emissions. (a) The final reported transient emission test... exhaust entering positive displacement pump during test, °R (°K). (e) Sample calculation of mass values...

  1. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  2. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  3. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  4. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  5. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  6. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  8. [Emission Factors of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-07-01

    Based on the investigation of basic data such as vehicle type composition, driving conditions, ambient temperature and oil quality, etc., emission factors of vehicle exhaust pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter(PM) were calculated using COPERT IV model. Emission factors of typical gasoline passenger cars and diesel trucks were measured using on-board measurement system on actual road. The measured and modeled emission factors were compared and the results showed that: the measured emission factors of CO, NOx and HC were 0. 96, 0. 64 and 4. 89 times of the modeled data for passenger cars conforming to the national IV emission standard. For the light, medium and heavy diesel trucks conforming to the national III emission standard, the measured data of CO emission factors were 1.61, 1. 07 and 1.76 times of the modeled data, respectively, the measured data of NOx emission factors were 1. 04, 1. 21 and 1. 18 times of the modeled data, and the measured data of HC emission factors were 3. 75, 1. 84 and 1. 47 times of the modeled data, while the model data of PM emission factors were 1. 31, 3. 42 and 6. 42 times of the measured data, respectively. PMID:26489301

  9. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  10. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  11. Gas turbine exhaust nozzle. [for noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, D. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An elongated hollow string is disposed in an exhaust nozzle combustion chamber and communicates with an air source through hollow struts at one end. The other end of the string is bell-mouth shaped and extends over the front portion of a nozzle plug. The bell-mouth may be formed by pivotally mounted flaps or leaves which are used to vary the exhaust throat area and the area between the plug and the leaves. Air from the engine inlet flows into the string and also between the combustion chamber and a housing disposed around the chamber. The air cools the plug and serves as a low velocity inner core of secondary gas to provide noise reduction for the primary exhaust gas while the other air, when it exits from the nozzle, forms an outer low velocity layer to further reduce noise. The structure produces increased thrust in a turbojet or turbofan engine.

  12. Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1980-01-01

    The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

  13. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine Engines To Comply with Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 AGENCY: Coast...-543 policy letter 09-01 that provide guidance for exhaust gas cleaning systems under MARPOL Annex VI... emissions in order to comply with regulation 14 of Annex VI of the International Convention for...

  14. Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

  15. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust Gas Monitoring. (a) During...

  16. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel Exhaust Gas Monitoring § 70.1900 Exhaust Gas Monitoring. (a) During...

  17. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas... optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  18. Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

    2012-12-01

    Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

  19. Three years operation demonstrates exhaust emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The first field installation of a patented NO{sub x} emissions system completed its third year of operation as a demonstration site last August. The cogeneration site is powered by three Caterpillar 350 kW G398 natural gas-fueled engines. The Hybrid Low NO{sub x} system has achieved NO{sub x} and CO levels below 10 ppm consistently. Although this system initially appears complicated and somewhat sophisticated, it has been relatively maintenance free and easy to operate, according to university officials. Petrocon Technologies, of Beaumont, Texas, acquired the license to use the technology in 1994. The first step in the Hybrid Low NO{sub x} system`s process is an afterburner fired at substoichiometric conditions to increase the temperature while also increasing the CO content of the engine exhaust. The added fuel consumption of the burner limits the economy of the system to sites that have use for the additional thermal energy. Cogeneration plants are good candidates. Downstream from the burner, the high-temperature, CO-enriched exhaust passes through a heat recovery steam generator where the gas temperature is reduced to about 538{degree}C. Exhaust then passes over an Allied Signal-supplied reduction catalyst, where NO{sub x} is reduced to below 10 ppm. Controlled levels of CO in contact with the proprietary catalyst is the primary factor in achieving such extraordinarily low NO{sub x} emission levels.

  20. Hot exhaust gases with passive FTIR emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus; Haus, Rainer

    1998-12-01

    Passive FTIR emission spectroscopy using a commercial medium resolution instrument with a telescope has been applied to analyze the hot exhaust gases of various combustion sources, such as industrial and building smoke stacks, aircraft engines, flares, and forest fires. To interpret the remotely measured spectra a multi-layer, line-by-line spectra retrieval software using the molecular spectral databases HITRAN and HITEMP has been developed, validated and successfully used to determine the exhaust gas temperatures and the concentrations of CO2, H2O, CO, N2O, CH4, NO, NO2, SO2, and HCl for different combustion conditions of the sources. In this paper the feasibility and the setup of passive IR measurements, the basic theory of radiative transfer and special features of the commercially available spectra analysis code are described. In addition, the results of the different measurement applications are summarized.

  1. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  2. Method and means for diesel exhaust particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludecke, O.A.

    1983-04-19

    A method and means for controlling diesel particulate emissions involves providing an exhaust trap filter to collect exhaust particulates at a point near the engine exhaust ports and providing means to periodically vent burning combustion chamber gases to the exhaust filter to initiate combustion and incineration of the collected particulates. Various means for conducting burning mixture to ignite the particulates in the filter are disclosed.

  3. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  4. Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001–06: An Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease

  5. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.1777-99 Section 86.1777-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1777-99 Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions of § 86.144 apply to...

  7. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  8. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  10. Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

    Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum

  11. Resonant microcavity light emitters for onboard exhaust emissions IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Francois; Picard, Emmanuel; Rothmann, Johan; Mottin, Eric; Hadji, Emmanuel; Duhr, Joel

    2005-02-01

    A sensor based on selective optical absorption allows monitoring of hazardous engine exhaust emissions such as gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The IR components presented here offer the potential to develop a compact, fast and selective sensor reaching the technical and cost requirements for on-board automotive applications. Optical gas monitoring requires light sources above 3&mum since most of the gas species have their fundamental absorption peaks between 3 and 6 &mum. We report here on resonant microcavity light sources emitting at room temperature between 3 and 5&mum. The emitter combines a CdxHg1-xTe light emitting heterostructure and two dielectric multilayered mirrors. It is optically pumped by a commercial III-V laser diode. The principle of the resonant microcavity emitter allows tailoring of the emission wavelength and the line width to fit the absorption band of a specific gas, ensuring a very good selectivity between species. Moreover, this kind of emitter allows fast modulation enabling high detectivity and short response time. We report performances of light sources in the range 3-5&mum allowing the detection of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Association of emitters peaking at different characteristic wavelengths with a single broad band detector allows designing of an optical sensor for several gas species. Sensitivity and time response issues have been characterized: detection of less than 50ppm of CH4 on a 15cm path has been demonstrated on synthetic gas; analysis of exhaust gases from a vehicle has allowed cylinder to cylinder resolution. This optical sensor offers the potential of various on-board automotive applications.

  12. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2... or HFET test is close to a Gas Guzzler Tax threshold value based on tolerances established by...

  13. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2... or HFET test is close to a Gas Guzzler Tax threshold value based on tolerances established by...

  14. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  15. Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Guttikunda, Sarath K.

    2015-03-01

    For a 40-year horizon (1990-2030), on-road vehicle exhaust emissions were evaluated, retrospectively and prospectively, for the largest urban agglomeration in India - the Greater Delhi region with a combined population of 22 million in 2011 (Delhi along with Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon). Emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reached their peak during late 1990s through early 2000s after which they reduced significantly through year 2012. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide show an increasing trend. The most reduction in emissions between 1998 and 2012 occurred as a result of implementation of four sets of vehicular emission standards, removal of lead, reduction of sulfur content, mandatory retirement of older commercial vehicles, and conversion of diesel and petrol run public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas. In addition, changes in the vehicular technology have also contributed to controlling emissions especially in case of auto-rickshaws and motorized two-wheelers, which changed from two-stroke to four-stroke. The rising trend of NOx along with the presence of VOCs indicates increasing tendency to form ground-level ozone and as a result, smog in the region. We predict that the current regime of vehicle technology, fuel standards, and high growth rate of private vehicles, is likely to nullify all the past emission reductions by the end of 2020s.

  16. 14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document can be..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  17. 14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document can be..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  18. 14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document can be..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  19. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke...

  20. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  1. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  2. Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-02-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

  3. Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hoard, John W.

    1998-01-01

    An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

  4. Remote sensing of temperature and concentration profiles of a gas jet by coupling infrared emission spectroscopy and LIDAR for characterization of aircraft engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offret, J.-P.; Lebedinsky, J.; Navello, L.; Pina, V.; Serio, B.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature data play an important role in the combustion chamber since it determines both the efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission of engines. Air pollution problem concerns the emissions of gases such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and also aerosols, soot and volatile organic compounds. Flame combustion occurs in hostile environments where temperature and concentration profiles are often not easy to measure. In this study, a temperature and CO2 concentration profiles optical measurement method, suitable for combustion analysis, is discussed and presented. The proposed optical metrology method presents numerous advantages when compared to intrusive methods. The experimental setup comprises a passive radiative emission measurement method combined with an active laser-measurement method. The passive method is based on the use of gas emission spectroscopy. The experimental spectrometer device is coupled with an active method. The active method is used to investigate and correct complex flame profiles. This method similar to a LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) device is based on the measurement of Rayleigh scattering of a short laser pulse recorded using a high-speed streak camera. The whole experimental system of this new method is presented. Results obtained on a small-scale turbojet are shown and discussed in order to illustrate the potentials deliver by the sophisticated method. Both temperature and concentration profiles of the gas jet are presented and discussed.

  5. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING....102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102... Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  13. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102... Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  14. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102... Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  15. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102... Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  16. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary...

  17. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary...

  18. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary...

  19. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary...

  20. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary...

  1. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  2. 40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) Tier 1 standards. NOX emissions from model year 2004 and later engines with displacement of 2.5...-use testing: Table A-2—Voluntary Emission Standards Rated brake power (kW) THC+NOX PM Power ≥ 37 kW... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards....

  3. Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N.; Fassel, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.

  4. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  5. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2002-01-01

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  6. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2003-04-22

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  7. Fast and quantitative measurement of benzene, toluene and C 2-benzenes in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation with and without catalytic exhaust gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Bach, Christian

    Time-Resolved Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to investigate the emission profiles of benzene, toluene and the C 2-benzenes (xylenes and ethyl benzene) in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation. On-line emission measurements with a frequency of 1-5 Hz clearly identified the critical driving conditions that are mainly responsible for the overall aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. The passenger car, equipped with a catalytic converter showed significant BTXE-emissions only in the first part of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) due to sub-optimal catalyst temperature. On the same car without a catalytic converter, emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were detected over the entire test run and the benzene-toluene mixing ratios of the exhaust gas were rather constant. With catalytic exhaust gas treatment the observed benzene-toluene mixing ratios varied to a greater extent reflecting predominantly different catalytic converter conditions. The average molar ratio of benzene over toluene rose from 0.33 to 0.53 upon exhaust gas treatment. With catalytic converter the emissions during extra urban (EUDC) driving repeatedly showed benzene-toluene mixing ratios >1 and an average molar benzene/toluene ratio of 0.74 was detected during the EUDC part of the driving cycle. Whereas the total hydrocarbon (T.HC) emissions were decreased by 83% upon exhaust gas treatment the overall reduction of the benzene emissions was only 70%.

  8. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86.110-90 Section 86.110-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  9. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko -Jen

    2015-09-15

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.

  10. Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

  11. Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6 h/d × 50 d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  12. ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICULATE AND GAS PHASE CONTRIBUTIONS TO VASCULAR TOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicular emissions (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6 h/d × 50 days, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein, 3-nitrotyrosine, and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  13. Data reduction and evaluation procedures. [concerning exhaust gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirsky, W.

    1976-01-01

    The computational procedures that are involved in exhaust emissions data reduction and the use of these computational procedures for determining the quality of the data that is obtained from exhaust measurements were considered. Four problem areas were calculated: (1) the various methods for performing the carbon balance, (2) the method for calculating water correction factors, (3) the method for calculating the exhaust molecular weight, and (4) assessing the quality of the data.

  14. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  15. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  16. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  17. CONTROL OF OZONE DISINFECTION BY EXHAUST GAS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper it was demonstrated empirically that disinfection with ozone can be controlled by monitoring the exhaust gas ozone concentration exiting the contactor. This method is more reliable than measuring dissolved ozone because of the inherent difficulties and inadequacies ...

  18. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  19. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  20. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok J.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  1. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  2. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN. PMID:17328194

  3. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

  4. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  5. Exhaust gas cleaning device of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Ishida, Y.

    1984-03-06

    An exhaust gas cleaning device of an internal combustion engine, comprising a secondary-air supply system connected to exhaust ports to supply the secondary air for cooling the exhaust gas, and reed valve devices installed in the secondary-air supply system and adapted to be opened and closed by the pulsating pressure generated in the exhaust ports when the engine is in operation. The reed valve devices are mounted on the side surface of the cylinder block, each of which has a reed valve chamber and a reed valve that divides the reed valve chamber into an upstream chamber and a downstream chamber and that is adapted to be opened and closed by the pulsating exhaust gas. The upstream chamber is communicated with the open air via a secondary-air intake pipe, and the downstream chamber is connected to the exhaust port via a secondary-air supply passage. The exhaust gas cleaning device is simply constructed so that its maintenance is easy and the presence of the device does not hinder maintenance operation for the internal combustion engine such as replacement of spark plugs, adjustment of tappets, and the like.

  6. Ground-based aircraft exhaust measurements of a Lufthansa Airbus A340 using FTIR emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    The emission inventories of aircraft emissions are being set up using flight routing data and test rig measurements of the engine manufacturers for certification purposes which have to be extrapolated with respect to the actual parameters at cruise altitude. Precise data from in-service engines are not existing. FTIR-emission-spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component exhaust gas analysis method has been further developed to specify the traceable molecules in aircraft exhausts, to determine the detection limits, and to obtain reliable statements concerning its accuracy. The first measurement with the Airbus A340 engine CFM56-5C2 during run up tests at ground level showed the overall ability of the FTIR-emission system to analyze the exhausts of modern gas turbines with high bypass ratio and mixing of fan air into the exhausts before the nozzle exit. Good quality spectra were measured and analyzed with respect to the mixing rations of CO2, H2O, CO, NO, and N2O, and the emission indices of CO, NO, and N2O. Total measurement times at one thrust level should be about 15 minutes to obtain reliable result which can be compared to the ICAO data of this engine.

  7. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Micro gas turbines are expected as engines for the distributed co-generation systems, performing power generation and heat recovery. Waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, and it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to an absorption refrigerator. In this paper, we evaluated various single-double effect absorption cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption refrigerators, and clarified that the difference of performance among these cycles are little. We adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine, and experimented with it to get the partial load characteristics and the effect of cooling water temperature on the performance. Based on the experimental data, we developed as imulation model of the static characteristics, and studied the direction of improvement.

  8. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...

  9. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  10. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  11. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  12. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  13. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  15. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  16. On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

  17. Damage of natural stone tablets exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Török, Ákos

    2016-04-01

    Natural stone tablets were exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions to assess urban stone damage. Cylindrical test specimens (3 cm in diameter) were made from travertine, non-porous limestone, porous limestone, rhyolite tuff, sandstone, andesite, granite and marble. The samples were exposed to exhaust gas that was generated from diesel engine combustion (engine type: RÁBA D10 UTSLL 160, EURO II). The operating condition of the internal combustion engine was: 1300 r/m (app 50%). The exhaust gas was diverted into a pipe system where the samples were placed perpendicular to main flow for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 hours, respectively. The exhaust emission was measured by using AVL particulate measurement technology; filter paper method (AVL 415). The stone samples were documented and selective parameters were measured prior to and after exhaust gas exposure. Density, volume, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mineral composition and penetration depth of emission related particulate matter were recorded. The first results indicate that after 10 hours of exposure significant amount of particulate matter deposited on the stone surface independently from the surface properties and porosity. The black soot particles uniformly covered all types of stones, making hard to differentiate the specimens.

  18. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of car exhausts and coal combustion emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, B.; Ahlbourg, U.

    1983-01-01

    Car exhausts and coal combustion emissions may cause a spectrum of health effects, varying from annoyance reactions, to bronchitis, to cancer in the respiratory organs and possibly also other organs. Deaths in cardiovascular diseases in particularly sensitive individuals have furthermore, under certain circumstances, been associated with ambient air pollution. The objective of the meeting was to examine the relevance of short-term and long-term biological tests for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to the assessment of human carcinogenic risk that may arise from exposure to air pollution from motor vehicle exhausts and coal combustion products. (135 refs.)

  19. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  20. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  1. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  2. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  3. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O. A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a flame... consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis...

  4. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  5. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  6. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, S.; Nomoto, Y.; Oda, T.; Yokooku, K.

    1984-09-18

    An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating passage for communicating the intake passage and the exhaust passage thereof. The recirculating passage is provided with a valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas. A fundamental air-fuel ratio control value for regulating the air-fuel ratio of the intake gas to a predetermined value is corrected by an operating condition correction value according to the operating condition of the engine. The operating condition correction value is successively changed to an optimal value by comparing the actually obtained air-fuel ratio with a predetermined value. The operating condition correction value for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio control value when the exhaust gas recirculation is carried out is changed independently from the same for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio correction value when the exhaust gas recirculation is not carried out. The initial values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other, while the present values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other. The comparison value of the initial values and the comparison value of the present values are compared with each other to detect clogging of the recirculating passage. When clogging is detected, the valve is controlled to compensate for the clogging.

  8. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00 Section 86.160-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. 86.159-08 Section 86.159-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  10. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. 86.159-00 Section 86.159-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  11. Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.

  12. 40 CFR 1066.831 - Exhaust emission test procedures for aggressive driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for aggressive driving. 1066.831 Section 1066.831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles § 1066.831 Exhaust emission...

  13. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR part 86 for the exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO that apply for heavy-duty vehicles. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for NOX,...

  14. Comparison of Exhaust Emissions and Their Mutagenicity from the Combustion of Biodiesel, Vegetable Oil, Gas-to-Liquid and Petrodiesel Fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort has been made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutanegnic polycycluc aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In several studies conducted since 1995, we observed an appreciable red...

  15. Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S.; Philippopoulos, C.

    The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6 l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0-11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene) and MTBE, before and after their catalytic treatment by a three-way catalytic converter. The addition of MTBE into gasoline resulted in a decrease in CO and HC emissions only at high engine loading. During cold-start up of the engine, MTBE, HC, CO emissions were significant and increased with MTBE addition into fuel. At the catalytic converter outlet MTBE was detected when its concentration in fuels was greater than 8% and only as long as the catalytic converter operates at low temperatures. Methane and ethylene emissions were comparable for all fuels tested at engine outlet, but methane emissions remained almost at the same level while ethylene emissions were significantly decreased by the catalytic converter.

  16. Method of removing sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, K.; Konno, K.; Miyamori, T.; Saitoh, S.; Watanabe, T.; Yaguchi, K.

    1983-05-10

    A method of removing sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gas containing sulfur dioxide by contacting the exhaust gas with an aqueous solution containing at least one organic acid salt expressed by the formula rcoom (Wherein R represents H, CH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ or C/sub 3/H/sub 7/, and M represents an alkali metal or NH/sub 4/) to efficiently dissolve sulfur dioxide contained in the gas in the form of a sulfite in the aqueous solution by reacting the sulfur dioxide with the salt. The resultant solution which dissolves the sulfite may be contacted with a calcium compound for producing calcium sulfite by reaction of the sulfite with the calcium compound thereby effectively removing the sulfur dioxide in the form of calcium sulfite from the combustion exhaust gas. Alternatively, the sulfite-dissolving aqueous solution may be contacted with oxygen or air for oxidizing the sulfite contained in the solution into a sulfate, followed by contacting the sulfate, which is now dissolved in the aqueous solution, with a calcium compound. The sulfate is satisfactorily reacted with the calcium compound to produce calcium sulfate and thus sulfur dioxide may be effectively ultimately removed in the form of calcium sulfate from the combustion exhaust gas.

  17. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). PMID:25302450

  18. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  19. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  20. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-15

    The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. PMID:24239260

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler... designed, constructed, inspected, tested and stamped in accordance with the applicable provisions in this part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  2. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler... designed, constructed, inspected, tested and stamped in accordance with the applicable provisions in this part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  3. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler... designed, constructed, inspected, tested and stamped in accordance with the applicable provisions in this part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  4. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler... designed, constructed, inspected, tested and stamped in accordance with the applicable provisions in this part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  5. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler... designed, constructed, inspected, tested and stamped in accordance with the applicable provisions in this part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  6. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. In addition, copies... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND...

  7. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. In addition, copies... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND...

  8. IET exhaust gas stack. Section, west elevation, foundation plan, access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET exhaust gas stack. Section, west elevation, foundation plan, access ladder, airplane warning light. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 433. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106984 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O. A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a...

  10. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  11. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a...

  12. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  13. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  14. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  15. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A... description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a flame ionization detector...

  16. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following specifications: (1) The analyzer used shall conform to the accuracy provisions of 40 CFR part 1065... flow. (b) The inclusion of a raw CO2 analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required in order to... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  18. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following specifications: (1) The analyzer used shall conform to the accuracy provisions of 40 CFR part 1065... flow. (b) The inclusion of a raw CO2 analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required in order to... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  19. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust... calculated. (b) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute...

  20. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust... calculated. (b) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute...

  1. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust... calculated. (b) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute...

  2. Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Schmieg, Steven J.; Blint, Richard J.; Den, Ling; Viola, Michael B.; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2011-08-30

    A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

  3. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development. PMID:26695777

  4. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  5. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

    1993-01-01

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  6. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, H.R.; Fischler, S.; Wagner, W.R. )

    1993-01-15

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  7. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  8. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C.; Anderson, J.A.; Howden, Kenneth C.

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  9. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a J-58 engine at simulated supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

  10. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for HC+NOX emissions as described in subpart H of this part. You may not generate or use emission... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must...-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for HC+NOX emissions as described in subpart H of this part. You may not generate or use emission... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must...-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for HC+NOX emissions as described in subpart H of this part. You may not generate or use emission... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must...-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 1066.835 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust emissions while simulating an urban trip on a hot summer day. The provisions of 40 CFR part 86 and 40 CFR part 600 waive SC03 testing for some vehicles; in those cases, calculate SFTP composite emissions by adjusting the weighting calculation as specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S. (a) Drain...

  14. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  15. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and...

  16. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and...

  17. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and...

  18. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and...

  19. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and...

  20. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  1. Optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon compositions for reducing exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yitao; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon compositions on raw exhaust emissions and combustion processes were studied on an engine test bench. The optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon composition was discussed. As olefins content increased from 10.0% to 25.0% in volume, the combustion duration was shortened by about 2 degree crank angle (degrees CA), and the engine-out THC emission was reduced by about 15%. On the other hand, as aromatics content changed from 35.0% to 45.0%, the engine-out NOx emissions increased by 4%. An increment in olefins content resulted in a slight increase in engine-out CO emission, while the aromatics content had little effect on engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO emissions. Over the new European driving cycle (NEDC), the THC, NOx and CO emissions of fuel with 25.0% olefins and 35.0% aromatics were about 45%, 21% and 19% lower than those of fuel with 10.0% olefins and 40.0% aromatics, respectively. The optimized gasoline compositions for new engines and new vehicles have low aromatics and high olefins contents. PMID:19999967

  2. 40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of HC in exhaust gas. (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC=576.8 g/m3-carbon atom (16.33 g/ft3-carbon atom), assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.85, at 20 °C (68 °F) and 101.3 kPa (760 mm...)) g/m3-carbon atom (1.1771(12.011+H/C(1.008)) g/ft3-carbon atom) where H/C is the hydrogen to...

  3. 40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of HC in exhaust gas. (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC=576.8 g/m3-carbon atom (16.33 g/ft3-carbon atom), assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.85, at 20 °C (68 °F) and 101.3 kPa (760 mm...)) g/m3-carbon atom (1.1771(12.011+H/C(1.008)) g/ft3-carbon atom) where H/C is the hydrogen to...

  4. Field test comparison of natural gas engine exhaust valves

    SciTech Connect

    Bicknell, W.B.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N.; Statler, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a product improvement program, an extensive spark-ignited, turbocharged, natural gas engine exhaust valve test program was conducted using laboratory and field engines. Program objectives were to identify a valve and seat insert combination that increased mean time between overhauls (MTBO) while reducing the risk of premature valve cracking and failure. Following a thorough design review, a large number of valve and seat insert configurations were tested in a popular 900 RPM, 166 BHP (0.123 Mw) per cylinder industrial gas engine series. Material, head geometry, seat angle and other parameters were compared. Careful in-place measurements and post-test inspections compared various configurations and identified optimal exhaust valving for deployment in new units and upgrades of existing engines.

  5. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle with an exhaust total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions rate which is less than or equal to twice the... THC emissions rate which is greater than two times the applicable emissions standard shall be...

  6. Organic acids emissions from natural-gas-fed engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, Efthimios; Tazerout, Mohand

    A natural-gas-fed spark-ignition engine, operating under lean conditions, is used for the study of the organic acids exhaust emissions. These pollutants are collected by passing a sample of exhaust gas into deionised water. The final solution is directly analysed by HPLC/UV at 204 nm. Only formic acid is emitted in detectable concentration under the experimental conditions used. Its concentration decreases with the three engine operating parameters studied: spark advance, volumetric efficiency and fuel/air equivalence ratio. Exhaust formic acid concentration is also linked with exhaust oxygen concentration and exhaust temperature. A comparison with other engines (SI engines fed with gasoline and compression ignition engines) from bibliographic data proves that natural-gas-fed engines emit less organic acids than the other two types of engines.

  7. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B.

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Power plants were the largest stationary source of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States in 2010, according to data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) GHG Reporting Program, the agency announced on 11 January. The GHG data set, which includes reports from more than 6700 facilities, provides information that the public can search to identify local sources of emissions and that businesses can use to track emissions. Gina McCarthy, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, said the program is “a transparent, powerful data resource available to the public” and that it provides “a critical tool” for businesses and others to find efficiencies to reduce emissions.

  9. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system is...) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute flow...

  10. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system is...) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute flow...

  11. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system is...) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute flow...

  12. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

  14. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  15. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  16. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  17. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test... official test cycle, is either conducted in an environmental test facility or under test conditions that... ambient test conditions of: 95 °F air temperature, 100 grains of water/pound of dry air (approximately...

  18. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test... official test cycle, is either conducted in an environmental test facility or under test conditions that... ambient test conditions of: 95 °F air temperature, 100 grains of water/pound of dry air (approximately...

  19. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  20. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  2. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  3. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test... official test cycle, is either conducted in an environmental test facility or under test conditions that... ambient test conditions of: 95 °F air temperature, 100 grains of water/pound of dry air (approximately...

  4. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test... official test cycle, is either conducted in an environmental test facility or under test conditions that... ambient test conditions of: 95 °F air temperature, 100 grains of water/pound of dry air (approximately...

  5. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  6. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

  8. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  9. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  10. Subsonic Jet Noise Reduced With Improved Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Aircraft noise pollution is becoming a major environmental concern for the world community. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responding to this concern by imposing more stringent noise restrictions for aircraft certification then ever before to keep the U.S. industry competitive with the rest of the world. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, attempts are underway to develop noise-reduction technology for newer engines and for retrofitting existing engines so that they are as quiet as (or quieter than) required. Lewis conducted acoustic and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) tests using Pratt & Whitney's Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers (IEGM). The IEGM's mix the core flow with the fan flow prior to their common exhaust. All tests were conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory--a semihemispheric dome open to the ambient atmosphere. This was the first time Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used in such a facility at Lewis. Jet exhaust velocity and turbulence and the internal velocity fields were detailed. Far-field acoustics were also measured. Pratt & Whitney provided 1/7th scale model test hardware (a 12-lobe mixer, a 20-lobe mixer, and a splitter) for 1.7 bypass ratio engines, and NASA provided the research engineers, test facility, and test time. The Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200 engine power conditions were used for all tests.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  12. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine at simulated cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine were measured in an altitude facility at four simulated cruise flight conditions: Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 9.1, 10, 7, and 12.2 km and Mach 0.9 at 10.7 km. Engine inlet air temperature was held constant at 283 K for all tests. Emissions measurements were made at nominally 6 cm intervals across the horizontal diameter of the engine exhaust nozzle with a single-point traversing gas sample probe. Measured emissions of decreased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 10.4 to one of 8.3, while carbon monoxide increased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 1.6 to one of 4.4. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were essentially negligible for all flight conditions. Since the engine inlet air temperatures were not correctly simulated, the NOx emission indices were corrected to true altitude conditions by using correlating parameters for changes in combustor inlet temperature, pressure, and temperature rise. The correction was small at the lowest altitude. At the 10.7 and 12.2 km, Mach 0.8 test conditions the correction decreased the measured values by 1 emission index.

  13. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 234 225 33,000 CH4 or N2O standards apply under this section. See 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles....

  14. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet requirements for exhaust... fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing. (a) Candidate vehicles which conform to the emission... the in-use fleet and tested in their as-received condition. (b) Candidate vehicles for the test...

  15. 40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards. 1033.240 Section 1033.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....240 Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards. (a) For purposes of certification,...

  16. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document can be obtained from the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE... Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions....

  17. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document can be obtained from the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE... Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions....

  18. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document can be obtained from the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE... Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions....

  19. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  20. Using GC×GC-ToF-MS to characterise SVOC from diesel exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Ramadhas, A. S.; Stark, C. P.; Liu, D.; Xu, H.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite intensive research over the last 20 years, a number of major research questions remain concerning the sources and properties of road traffic-generated particulate matter. There are major knowledge gaps concerning the composition of primary vehicle exhaust aerosol, and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These uncertainties relate especially to the semi-volatile component of the particles. Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) are compounds which partition directly between the gas and aerosol phases under ambient conditions, and include compounds with saturation concentrations roughly between 0.1 and 104 μg m-3. The SVOC in engine exhaust are typically hydrocarbons in the C15-C35 range. They are largely uncharacterised, other than the n-alkanes, because they are unresolved by traditional gas chromatography and form a large hump in the chromatogram referred to as Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM). In this study, samples were collected from the exhaust of a diesel engine with and without abatement devices fitted. Engine exhaust was diluted with air and collected using both filter and impaction (MOUDI), to resolve total mass and size resolved mass respectively. Particle size distribution was evaluated by sampling simultaneously with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). 2D Gas-Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was exploited to characterise and quantify the composition of SVOC from the exhaust emission. The SVOC was observed to contain predominantly n-alkanes, alkyl-cyclohexanes and aromatics; similar to both fresh lubricating oil and fuel. Preliminary results indicate that the contribution of diesel fuel to the exhaust SVOC composition is dominant at high speeds, and a more pronounced contribution from lubricating oil is observed at low speeds. Differences were also observed in the SVOC composition when using different fuel types, engine lubricants, starting temperatures and collecting samples with

  1. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  2. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  3. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  4. Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Jian Zhen; Lam, Ka Man; Feng, Natale Sin Yau; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a minibus station (diesel emission); (iv) a single-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); (v) a double-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); and (vi) a whole-food market entrance for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (diesel emission). A total of 15 carbonyls in the samples were quantified. Formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl among the VE-dominated samples, and its contribution to the total quantified amount on a molar basis ranged from 54.8% to 60.8%. Acetaldehyde and acetone were the next two abundant carbonyls. The carbonyls were quantified at three roadside locations in Hong Kong. The highest concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, 22.7 +/- 8.4 and 6.0 +/- 2.8 microg/m3, respectively, were determined in the samples collected at a main transportation gate for goods between Hong Kong and Mainland China. The total quantified carbonyl concentration, 37.9 +/- 9.3 microg/m3, was the highest at an entrance of a cross-harbor tunnel in downtown area. The theoretical carbonyls compositions of the three roadside locations were estimated according to the VE-dominated sample profiles and the statistics on vehicle numbers and types during the sampling period. The measured compositions of formaldehyde were much higher than the theoretical compositions in summer, demonstrating that photochemical reactions significantly contributed to the formaldehyde production in the roadsides. PMID:22442938

  5. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  6. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  7. Experimental Measurements of the Effects of Photo-chemical Oxidation on Aerosol Emissions in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracolo, M. A.; Presto, A. A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Nguyen, N.; Ranjan, M.; Reeder, A.; Lipsky, E.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many military and commercial airfields are located in non-attainment areas for particulate matter (PM2.5), but the contribution of emissions from in-use aircraft to local and regional PM2.5 concentrations is uncertain. In collaboration with the Pennsylvania Air National Guard 171st Air Refueling Wing, the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Mobile Laboratory was deployed to measure fresh and aged emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. The CFM-56 family of engine powers many different types of military and civilian aircraft, including the Boeing 737 and several Airbus models. It is one of the most widely deployed models of engines in the world. The goal of this work was to measure the gas-particle partitioning of the fresh emissions at atmospherically relevant conditions and to investigate the effect of atmospheric oxidation on aerosol loadings as the emissions age. Emissions were sampled from an inlet installed one meter downstream of the engine exit plane and transferred into a portable smog chamber via a heated inlet line. Separate experiments were conducted at different engine loads ranging from ground idle to take-off rated thrust. During each experiment, some diluted exhaust was added to the chamber and the volatility of the fresh emissions was then characterized using a thermodenuder. After this characterization, the chamber was exposed to either ambient sunlight or UV lights to initiate photochemical oxidation, which produced secondary aerosol and ozone. A suite of gas and particle-phase instrumentation was used to characterize the evolution of the gas and particle-phase emissions, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure particle size and composition distributions. Fresh emissions of fine particles varied with engine load with peak emission factors at low and high loads. At high engine loads, the fresh emissions were dominated by black carbon; at low loads volatile organic carbon emissions were

  8. Environmental policy constraints for acidic exhaust gas scrubber discharges from ships.

    PubMed

    Ülpre, H; Eames, I

    2014-11-15

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels onboard ships (International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulation 14) can be met by either refining the fuel to reduce sulphur content or by scrubbing the exhaust gases. Commonly used open loop marine scrubbers discharge warm acidic exhaust gas wash water into the sea, depressing its pH. The focus on this paper is on the physics and chemistry behind the disposal of acidic discharges in seawater. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 59/24/Add.1 Annex 9) requires the wash water to reach a pH greater than 6.5 at a distance of 4m from the point of discharge. We examine the engineering constraints, specifically size and number of ports, to identify the challenges of meeting regulatory compliance. PMID:25284442

  9. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  10. [Tracer gas evaluations of local exhaust hood performance].

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2007-09-01

    A local exhaust hood is one of the most commonly used controls for harmful contaminants in the working environment. In Japan, the performance of a hood is evaluated by hood velocity measurements, and administrative performance requirements for hoods are provided as control velocities by the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. However, it is doubtful whether the control velocity would be the most suitable velocity for any industrial hood since the control velocity is not substantiated by actual measurements of the containment ability of each hood. In order to examine the suitability of the control velocity as a performance requirement, a hood performance test by the tracer gas method, using carbon dioxide (CO(2)), was conducted with an exterior type hood in a laboratory. In this study, as an index of the hood performance, capture efficiency defined as the ratio of contaminant quantity captured by the hood to the total generated contaminant quantity, was determined by measuring the CO(2) concentrations. When the assumptive capture point of the contaminant was located at a point 30 cm from the hood opening, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of less than the current control velocity. Without cross draft, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s (corresponding to 40% of the control velocity) at the capture point. Reduction of the suction velocity to 0.2 m/s caused an 80% decrease in exhaust flow rate. The effect of cross draft, set at 0.3 m/s, on the capture efficiency differed according to its direction. When the direction of the cross draft was normal to the hood centerline, the effect was not recognized and a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s. A cross draft from a worker's back (at an angle of 45 degrees to the hood centerline) did not affect the capture efficiency, either. When the cross draft blew at an angle of 135 degrees to the hood

  11. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Seigneur, Christian; Charron, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; Polo, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were diluted with filtered air and sampling was performed on filters and polyurethane foams (PUF) and (2) a Dekati Fine Particle Sampler (FPS) in which emissions were diluted with purified air and sampled with on-line instruments (PTR-ToF-MS, HR-ToF-AMS, MAAP, CPC). Significant differences in the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) measured by the instruments are observed. The differences can be explained by sampling artefacts, differences between (1) the time elapsed during sampling (in the case of filter and PUF sampling) and (2) the time elapsed from emission to measurement (in the case of on-line instruments), which vary from a few seconds to 15 min, and by the different dilution factors. To relate elapsed times and measured concentrations of OC, the condensation of SVOC between the gas and particle phases is simulated with a dynamic aerosol model. The simulation results allow us to understand the relation between elapsed times and concentrations in the gas and particle phases. They indicate that the characteristic times to reach thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases may be as long as 8 min. Therefore, if the elapsed time is less than this characteristic time to reach equilibrium, gas-phase SVOC are not at equilibrium with the particle phase and a larger fraction of emitted SVOC will be in the gas phase than estimated by equilibrium theory, leading to an underestimation of emitted OC if only the particle phase is considered or if the gas-phase SVOC are estimated

  12. Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively. PMID:22664538

  13. Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

  14. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  15. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator. 600.008 Section 600.008... emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator. (a) Testing by the... promptly as possible. (ii) Starting with the 2012 model year for carbon-related exhaust emissions and...

  16. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Note that the tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions and that the specified standards for HC, CO, and smoke emissions apply independent of the changes to the NOX emission... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust emission standards for Tier...

  17. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  18. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  19. Exhaust gas measurements in a propane fueled swirl stabilized combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aanad, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaust gas temperature, velocity, and composition are measured and combustor efficiencies are calculated in a lean premixed swirl stabilized laboratory combustor. The radial profiles of the data between the co- and the counter swirl cases show significant differences. Co-swirl cases show evidence of poor turbulent mixing across the combustor in comparison to the counter-swirl cases. NO sub x levels are low in the combustor but substantial amounts of CO are present. Combustion efficiencies are low and surprisingly constant with varying outer swirl in contradiction to previous results under a slightly different inner swirl condition. This difference in the efficiency trends is expected to be a result of the high sensitivity of the combustor to changes in the inner swirl. Combustor operation is found to be the same for propane and methane fuels. A mechanism is proposed to explain the combustor operation and a few important characteristics determining combustor efficiency are identified.

  20. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2011-09-01

    We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission

  1. Apparatus for controlling pressure-activated actuator, and apparatus for controlling exhaust-gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M.; Demizu, A.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the exhaust-gas circulation of an engine having an exhaust passage and an intake passage. The apparatus consists of: an exhaust-gas recirculation passage connected at one end to the intake passage and at the other end to the exhaust passage, for guiding part of the exhaust gas flowing through the exhaust passage to the intake passage; an exhaust-gas recirculation valve having a pressure chamber and a valve body being moved in accordance with the pressure within the chamber, for opening and closing the exhaust-gas recirculation passage; first valve means for selectively applying a negative pressure and atmospheric pressure to the pressure chamber, thereby to control the opening of the exhaust-gas recirculation valve means; a first duct provided between the first valve means and the pressure chamber; a second duct provided in parallel to the first duct and having choke means; second valve means for selectively connecting the first and second ducts to the pressure chamber; and control means for actuating the second valve means such that the first duct is connected to the pressure chamber in order to change the pressure within the chamber at high speed, and the second duct is connected to the chamber in order to change the pressure within the pressure chamber at low speed.

  2. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust... temperatures. Light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks must calculate and report the weighted mass of...

  3. Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions

    PubMed Central

    Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy E.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Long, Mark S.; Godleski, John J.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments simulating atmospheric aging of motor vehicle exhaust emissions were conducted using a single vehicle and a photochemical chamber. A compact automobile was used as a source of emissions. The vehicle exhaust was diluted with ambient air to achieve carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations similar to those observed in an urban highway tunnel. With the car engine idling, it is expected that the CO concentration is a reasonable surrogate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Varying the amount of dilution of the exhaust gas to produce different CO concentrations, allowed adjustment of the concentrations of VOCs in the chamber to optimize production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) needed for animal toxicological exposures. Photochemical reactions in the chamber resulted in nitric oxide (NO) depletion, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, ozone (O3) accumulation, and SOA formation. A stable SOA concentration of approximately 40 µg m−3 at a chamber mean residence time of 30 min was achieved. This relatively short mean residence time provided adequate chamber flow output for both particle characterization and animal exposures. The chamber was operated as a continuous flow reactor for animal toxicological tests. SOA mass generated from the car exhaust diluted with ambient air was almost entirely in the ultrafine mode. Chamber performance was improved by using different types of seed aerosol to provide a surface for condensation of semivolatile reaction products, thus increasing the yield of SOA. Toxicological studies using Sprague-Dawley rats found significant increases of in vivo chemiluminescence in lungs following exposure to SOA. PMID:21689011

  4. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  5. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  6. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  7. Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  8. Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  9. Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions decreased with increasing altitude, and increased with increasing flight speed. NOX emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude, and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  10. Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. NO(x) emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  11. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section 86.110-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND...

  12. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  13. Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, N.; Harris, J. A.; Glover, K.

    2013-09-01

    Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air-fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (X_{O_2 }). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict λ and X_{O_2 } based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict λ, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of X_{O_2 }. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of λ and X_{O_2 }, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model.

  14. Determination of the Effects of Speed, Temperature, and Fuel Factors on Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Yang David

    1995-11-01

    This study provided a comprehensive approach to examining the relative significance and possible synergistic effects of speed, temperature, and fuel on mobile source emissions modeling. Eleven passenger vehicles from three fuel delivery system control groups were tested, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. A minimum of 90 tests were conducted on each vehicle with a random combination of three fuel types (Phase 1, Phase 2, and Indolene), three temperatures (50 F, 75 F, and 100 F), and ten speed cycles. Each vehicle was repeated for ten speed cycles (75 F and Indolene). In general, exhaust emissions descended in the order of CARBU, TBI, and MPFI. All vehicles in the CARBU group contained a "dead" catalyst, which probably explained why vehicles in CARBU were "high emitters.". Results from the paired t-test indicated that exhaust emissions difference between Phase 1 and Phase 2 fuels for all vehicles was significant. The net exhaust emissions reduction of Phase 2 over Phase 1 fuel for HC and NOx was 21% and 12%, respectively; which is in good agreements with the CARB projected 17% HC (including evaporative and exhaust emissions) and 11% CO emissions reduction based on 1996 calendar year when Phase 2 fuel is introduced. Temperature had minimal effects on exhaust emissions especially the test cycles were in hot-stabilized mode. Nevertheless, exhaust emissions from cold-start mode were higher than hot-start mode because the catalyst had not reached to optimal operating temperature during the cold-start mode. The relative contributions of speed, temperature, and fuel to exhaust emissions were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and it was found interaction terms among fuel, speed, and temperature were statistically insignificant. Individually, the temperature and fuel factor played a minor role in exhaust emission modeling. Speed and vehicle type were the two

  15. Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

    1997-01-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of

  16. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  17. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion noise level of an indirect injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.

    1997-12-31

    A pollutant that has not yet received as much public or regulatory attention as gaseous or solid particulate emissions is engine generated noise. Excessive levels of noise can, however, be as harmful to human health and the environment as noxious gases. In a well-designed engine, mechanical noise can be kept to a minimum but the combustion process itself still generates noise, combustion noise. Thus, if the combustion process is modified for exhaust emission control it can be expected that the level of noise generated by combustion will also be affected, albeit not necessarily adversely. As exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is becoming an essential technology for NOx emission control in diesel engines, and, as this technique modifies the combustion process, it is important that the effects of using EGR on noise generation be identified.

  18. Fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions induced by cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-04-01

    Many cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies have been presented to improve traffic efficiency as well as road traffic safety, but scholars have rarely explored the impacts of these strategies on cars' fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. In this paper, we respectively select two-velocity difference model, multiple velocity difference model and the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations to investigate each car's fuel consumptions, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions and carry out comparative analysis. The comparisons of fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions in three different cruise control strategies show that cooperative cars simulated by the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations can run with the minimal fuel consumptions, CO, HC and NOX emissions, thus, taking the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations as the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy can significantly improve cars' fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  19. Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

    2012-03-01

    Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions. PMID:22304813

  20. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... withdrawn from dilution air, °R. (x) PB = Barometric pressure during test, mm Hg. (xi) VEM = Volume of.... (x) VSE = Volume of formaldehyde sample withdrawn from dilute exhaust, ft3. (xi) PB = Barometric... = Saturated vapor pressure, in mm Hg (kPa) at the engine intake air dry bulb temperature. (E) PB =...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... withdrawn from dilution air, °R. (x) PB = Barometric pressure during test, mm Hg. (xi) VEM = Volume of.... (x) VSE = Volume of formaldehyde sample withdrawn from dilute exhaust, ft3. (xi) PB = Barometric... = Saturated vapor pressure, in mm Hg (kPa) at the engine intake air dry bulb temperature. (E) PB =...

  2. [Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

    2004-07-01

    The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

  3. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  4. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  5. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  6. Measurements of gas phase acids in diesel exhaust: a relevant source of HNCO?

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Vlasenko, A; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Poitras, Marie-Josée; Chan, Tak; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2013-07-16

    Gas-phase acids in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicle exhaust were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Fuel based emission factors (EF) and NOx ratios for these species were determined under differing steady state engine operating conditions. The derived HONO and HNO3 EFs agree well with literature values, with HONO being the single most important acidic emission. Of particular importance is the quantification of the EF for the toxic species, isocyanic acid (HNCO). The emission factors for HNCO ranged from 0.69 to 3.96 mg kgfuel(-1), and were significantly higher than previous biomass burning emission estimates. Further ambient urban measurements of HNCO demonstrated a clear relationship with the known traffic markers of benzene and toluene, demonstrating for the first time that urban commuter traffic is a source of HNCO. Estimates based upon the HNCO-benzene relationship indicate that upward of 23 tonnes of HNCO are released annually from commuter traffic in the Greater Toronto Area, far exceeding the amount possible from LDD alone. Nationally, 250 to 770 tonnes of HNCO may be emitted annually from on-road vehicles, likely representing the dominant source of exposure in urban areas, and with emissions comparable to that of biomass burning. PMID:23781923

  7. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  8. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  9. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  12. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  13. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  14. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  15. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  16. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  17. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  18. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  19. Microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor for trace-metals in furnace exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P. P.; Rhee, D. Y.; Thomas, P.; Cohn, D. R.; Surma, J. E.; Titus, C. H.

    1996-10-01

    A microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor has been successfully demonstrated for sensitive (<1 ppb), real time measurements of trace metals in furnace exhaust. The instrument uses a robust, up to 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz microwave plasma sustained in a portion of the undiluted furnace exhaust flow for atomic emission spectroscopy. The waveguide device is constructed of refractory materials compatible with high-temperature environments (≳500 °C) and is flange mountable into the inside of the furnace exhaust duct. Fused quartz fiber optics in close proximity to the plasma flame transmit the UV through visible emission (190-690 nm) to three spectrometers for simultaneous monitoring of several metals. This instrument has been used for continuous monitoring for a 49 h period with 0.5 s time resolution on a dc graphite electrode arc furnace during a soil vitrification test. Results are presented for chromium, manganese, and iron emissions during soil loading operations.

  20. 40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of... ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions. Regulations regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading...

  1. 40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards? 1054.107 Section 1054.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT...

  2. 40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of... ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions. Regulations regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading...

  3. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust emission standards in this section by model year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in subpart F of this part. (1)...

  4. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust emission standards in this section by model year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in subpart F of this part. (1)...

  5. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust emission standards in this section by model year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in subpart F of this part. (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust emission standards in this section by model year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in subpart F of this part. (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  9. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  10. Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

    2014-06-30

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges. This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment. PMID:24837462

  11. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section. Generating or using emission credits requires that you specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each pollutant you include in the ABT program for each engine family. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the engine family with respect to all required testing instead of the...

  12. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section. Generating or using emission credits requires that you specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each pollutant you include in the ABT program for each engine family. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the engine family with respect to all required testing instead of the...

  13. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section. Generating or using emission credits requires that you specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each pollutant you include in the ABT program for each engine family. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the engine family with respect to all required testing instead of the...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section. Generating or using emission credits requires that you specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each pollutant you include in the ABT program for each engine family. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the engine family with respect to all required testing instead of the...

  15. Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with

  16. Gas Emissions Acquired during the Aircraft Particle Emission Experiment (APEX) Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changlie, Wey; Chowen, Chou Wey

    2007-01-01

    NASA, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, engine/airframe manufacturers, airlines, and airport authorities, recently sponsored a series of 3 ground-based field investigations to examine the particle and gas emissions from a variety of in-use commercial aircraft. Emissions parameters were measured at multiple engine power settings, ranging from idle to maximum thrust, in samples collected at 3 different down stream locations of the exhaust. Sampling rakes at nominally 1 meter down stream contained multiple probes to facilitate a study of the spatial variation of emissions across the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices measured at 1 m were in good agreement with the engine certification data as well as predictions provided by the engine company. However at low power settings, trace species emissions were observed to be highly dependent on ambient conditions and engine temperature.

  17. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2000-07-01

    This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

  18. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section. See 40 CFR part 1036 for CH4 or N2O standards that apply to engines used in these... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for...

  19. Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-27

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

  20. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  1. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  2. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  3. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  4. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel. PMID:19525107

  5. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOEpatents

    Dutart, Charles H.; Choi, Cathy Y.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-07-14

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  7. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Jankovic, Mrdjan J; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2000-03-14

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  8. Examination of Acute Pulmonary Responses to Various Cookstove Exhaust Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is a global public heath problem, to which the emissions from rudimentary cooking devices has been estimated to contribute significantly through the burning of various types of biomass. Notably, exposure to cookstove emissions (CE) has been linked to increases in mo...

  9. A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

  10. The effect of gasoline RVP on exhaust emissions from current European vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.J.; Beckwith, P.; Goodfellow, C.L.; Skaardalsmo, K.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of gasoline RVP on regulated exhaust emissions has been investigated in a fleet consisting of five current European vehicles. The effects of MTBE with changing RVP and E70 were also studied. All vehicles were equipped with the standard OEM small carbon canisters and three-way catalytic converters and the regulated emissions measured over the new European test cycle. A rigorous refueling protocol was employed to ensure that the carbon canisters were loaded in a repeatable way before the emission tests. The results show that a reduction in RVP gave benefits in CO and NOx, but no effect on exhaust THC emissions. The benefits for CO and NOx were greater in non-oxygenated fuels. Of the five test vehicles, three showed CO emission benefits due to RVP reduction, while CO from the other two was insensitive to RVP changes. Four vehicles also showed NOx emission benefits due to RVP reduction while the NOx emissions from the other vehicle were insensitive to RVP changes. The benefits of reducing RVP were observed for the fleet over all three phases of the cycle, however, the largest percentage of changes were seen after the vehicles had warmed up. Although no significant overall effect of RVP on exhaust THC emissions was apparent, reductions in THC over the ECE 3+4 and EUDC phases were observed. At high RVP MTBE addition gave reductions in CO and NOx emissions, but at low RVP no emission reductions were observed. A reduction in E70 only influenced exhaust THC emissions, resulting in a small increase.

  11. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 μg km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 μg km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 μg km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

  12. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  13. Emission of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal from restaurant exhausts to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chao, Mu-Rong; Luo, Hong-Wei; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    Cooking exhausts may contribute significant organic compounds to the atmosphere. It has been shown that trans, trans-2,4-decadienal ( tt-DDE) is an important toxic compound in cooking oil fumes (COF). In this study, the emissions of tt-DDE were quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases of three kinds of restaurant exhausts (Chinese, western and barbecue). Samples of exhausts were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of US EPA Modified Method 5. The tt-DDE was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that the emission factors of tt-DDE in terms of μg customer -1 were in sequence: barbecue (1990)>Chinese (570)>western (63.8). The average proportion of tt-DDE in the particulate phase of the exhausts was 83% for the 16 investigated restaurants. Evidently, the majority of tt-DDE in the exhausts was in the particulate phase. There was no evident correlation found between phase distribution of tt-DDE and exhaust temperature in the restaurants investigated. The efficiencies of removal of particulate tt-DDE by air pollution control devices (APCDs) were assessed. The removal efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP), ESP and activated carbon in series, and wet scrubber were 64.2%, 86.3% and 71.3%, respectively.

  14. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  15. General Motors Corporation and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Staff Exchange: Instrumentation for rapid measurement of automotive exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.W.; Sharpe, S.W.; Sloane, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    Information in this report on the staff exchange of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with the AIGER Consortium (General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Navistar, the environmental protection Agency, and the California Air Resources Board) includes the purpose and objectives, a summary of activities, significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefits from that work, and two appendices. Appendix A is a brief description of the fast gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy chemometric technologies and their application to the rapid characterization of automobile exhaust emissions. Appendix B is a list of key contacts and the schedule of activities pertaining to the staff exchange.

  16. 40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of this part. The manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which will serve as the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart D of this part do not apply for Category...

  17. 40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of this part. The manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which will serve as the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart D of this part do not apply for Category...

  18. 40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of this part. The manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which will serve as the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart D of this part do not apply for Category...

  19. 40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of this part. The manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which will serve as the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart D of this part do not apply for Category...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equivalent mass for ethanol vehicles: OMNMHCEmass=NMHCmass + (13.8756/32.042) × (CH3OH)mass + (13.8756/46.064) × (CH3CH2OH)mass + (13.8756/30.0262) × (HCHO)mass + (13.8756/44.048) × (CH3CHO)mass (2) (b) The requirements... emission standards in §§ 86.1708 and 86.1709, the mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle certified...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equivalent mass for ethanol vehicles: OMNMHCEmass=NMHCmass + (13.8756/32.042) × (CH3OH)mass + (13.8756/46.064) × (CH3CH2OH)mass + (13.8756/30.0262) × (HCHO)mass + (13.8756/44.048) × (CH3CHO)mass (2) (b) The requirements... emission standards in §§ 86.1708 and 86.1709, the mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle certified...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equivalent mass for ethanol vehicles: OMNMHCEmass=NMHCmass + (13.8756/32.042) × (CH3OH)mass + (13.8756/46.064) × (CH3CH2OH)mass + (13.8756/30.0262) × (HCHO)mass + (13.8756/44.048) × (CH3CHO)mass (2) (b) The requirements... emission standards in §§ 86.1708 and 86.1709, the mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle certified...

  3. Studies on health effects of automotive exhaust emissions. How dangerous are diesel emissions?

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, H; Winneke, H

    1990-04-01

    The following paper indicates that current results of research conducted on the effects of intentionally increased concentrations of diesel engine exhaust emissions, particularly the results of animal experiments, do not lead scientifically to final conclusions. According to the current level of knowledge, we must continue to assume that the risk of cancer, possibly due to diesel particles, is negligible, particularly under real environmental conditions. The preventive measures taken by governments are of course supported by the automotive industry, an additional research outlay, however, is necessary not only to clear up contradictions and answer new questions arising from current test results, but also to take positive, and not merely precautionary, action in the future. Due to its links to other influences on humans and plants, research conducted on the effects of motor vehicle emissions is a task that lies very much in the public interest. At the same time, the overview of concluded and ongoing research objectives presented in this paper indicates that the automotive industry is greatly committed to this issue and will meet well-justified expectations. PMID:1694306

  4. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  5. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  6. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  7. [Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Measures During the APEC Conference in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Guo, Jin-jin

    2016-01-15

    Vehicle emission is one of the primary factors affecting the quality of atmospheric environment in Beijing. In order to improve the air quality during APEC conference, strict control measures including vehicle emission control were taken in Beijing during APEC meeting. Based on the activity level data of traffic volume, vehicle speed and vehicle types, the inventory of motor vehicle emissions in Beijing was developed following bottom-up methodology to assess the effectiveness of the control measures. The results showed that the traffic volume of Beijing road network during the APEC meeting decreased significantly, the vehicle speed increased obviously, and the largest decline of traffic volume was car. CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 15.1%, 22.4%, 18.4% and 21.8% for freeways, 29.9%, 36.4%, 32.7% and 35.8% for major arterial, 35.7%, 41.7%, 38.4% and 41.2% for minor arterial, 40.8%, 46.5%, 43.1% and 46.0% for collectors, respectively. The vehicles exhaust emissions inventory before and during APEC conference was developed based on bottom-up emissions inventory method. The results indicated that CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 37.5%, 43.4%, 39.9% and 42.9% in the study area, respectively. PMID:27078943

  8. Analysis on fuel economy improvement and exhaust emission reduction in a two-stroke engine by using an exhaust valve

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Takaharu; Okada, Kazunori

    1995-12-31

    A timing controlled auto-ignition name ``AR combustion`` could improve irregular combustion in the part load operation of conventional two-stroke engines. Their previous papers have suggested its idea and the drastic improvements in fuel consumption and HC emission proven through a bench experiments. This time, form a concept that improvements of a two-stroke engine should be done maintaining its original advantages, an AR combustion engine was developed by using a simple exhaust valve and maintaining engine`s original power output. This engine was mounted on a motorcycle and experimented in the ``Dakar rally``. As the results, good fuel economies exceeding a four-stroke rally model, excellent driveability and durability were proven, because of the improvement in the combustion and engine`s potential for the downsizing. The AR combustion engine, consequently, has good prospects for the practical use.

  9. General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

  10. Particle-Bound PAH Emission from the Exhaust of Combustion Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Medrano, Y. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Khachikian, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful, semi-volatile organic compounds which are generated due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs are of concern as a pollutant because some of these compounds are carcinogenic and mutagenic even at low levels. Most of the PAHs are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. The PAHs carcinogenic potential can be increased by the adsorption onto small size particles (< 1μm) which can easily get into the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs. PAHs associated with sub-micron particles are mostly generated from high temperature sources like combustion chambers. In this current study, the presence of 16 priority PAHs (listed by United States Environmental Protection Agency) which are attached to the particulates emitted from the exhaust of the jet engine are evaluated. The engine was operated at different swirl numbers (S; the ratio of tangential air flow to axial air flow) to investigate the effect of this parameter on the effluent of combustion chamber. The samples were collected using two instruments simultaneously: a particle analyzer and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposited Impactor (MOUDI). Particle analyzer was used to count the number of particles in different sizes and MOUDI was used to collect particles with respect to their size as they were emitted from the exhaust. The MOUDI's aluminum substrates were weighed before and after the experiment in order to measure the mass of particles that were collected during the sampling period. The concentration of PAHs associated with the particles was measured by extracting the particles with dichloromethane followed by analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In general, lower molecular weight PAHs emitted from the exhaust of combustion chamber are mostly in gas phase while PAHs of higher molecular weight are adsorbed onto particles. Preliminary results from GC/MS confirm the presence of higher molecular weight PAHs like Benzo

  11. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  12. Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

    2006-08-10

    In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters

  13. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

  14. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles? 1051.103 Section 1051.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family. (ii) Your basic mechanical warranty for...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards? 1054.107 Section 1054.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... product warranty statements and marketing materials regarding engine life, in making this...

  16. 40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  2. 75 FR 67634 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 57191). The direct final rule... Federal Register (75 FR 57191). This rule eliminates turbochargers from the list of equipment considered... dissipative devices. FMCSA used the direct final rule procedures (75 FR 29915, May 28, 2010) because it was...

  3. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 86.144 or 40 CFR part 1065, subpart G. (b) For composite emission calculations over... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and...

  4. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 86.144 or 40 CFR part 1065, subpart G. (b) For composite emission calculations over... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and...

  5. 40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with applicable...

  6. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section 610.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria...

  7. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6... Tier 8 NOX standards apply as described in this paragraph (c)(3) beginning January 1, 2014. See paragraph (d) of this section for provisions related to models introduced before January 1, 2014 apply...

  8. SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

  9. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  10. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  11. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  12. Introduction to NASA contracts. [on engine modifications to reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center issued requests for proposal to Avco Lycoming and Teledyne Continental Motors for a contractual effort to establish and demonstrate engine modifications to reduce exhaust emissions safely with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, and fuel economy. The secondary objective was reducing fuel consumption.

  13. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  14. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  15. Attempts to Reduce NOx Exhaust Emissions by Using Reformulated Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two routes were investigated for reformulating soy-based biodiesel in an effort to reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions. In the first approach, methyl soyate was modified by converting a proportion of the cis-bonds in the fatty acid chains of its methyl esters to their trans isomers. In the second ...

  16. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.114-08 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon... to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions values for the purpose of determining optional... each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the...

  17. An Experimental Investigation of Rectangular Exhaust-Gas Ejectors Applicable for Engine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganiello, Eugene J; Bogatsky, Donald

    1945-01-01

    An experimental investigation of rectangular exhaust-gas ejector pumps was conducted to provide data that would serve as a guide to the design of ejector applications for aircraft engines with marginal cooling. The pumping characteristics of rectangular ejectors actuated by the exhaust of a single-cylinder aircraft engine were determined for a range of ejector mixing-section area from 20 to 50 square inches, over-all length from 12 to 42 inches, aspect ratio from 1 to 5, diffusing exit area from 20 to 81 square inches, and exhaust-nozzle aspect ratio from 1 to 42.

  18. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  19. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  20. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  1. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) or less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas mixture temperature, measured at a point... transfer of heat from the vehicle exhaust gas shall be minimized between the point where it leaves the vehicle tailpipe(s) and the point where it enters the dilution tunnel airstream. To accomplish this,...

  2. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  3. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. PMID:26844787

  4. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual engine was on or before December 31, 1999: Oxides of Nitrogen: (40+2(rPR)) grams/kilonewtons r0... after December 31, 1999: Oxides of Nitrogen: (32+1.6 (rPR)) grams/kilonewtons r0. (v) The emission... 89 kilonewtons: Oxides of Nitrogen: (19 + 1.6 (rPR)) grams/kilonewtons rO. (B) That have a...

  5. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend. PMID:25993509

  6. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  7. Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, J G

    1975-01-01

    The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

  8. Dynamic Response of Turbine-blade Temperature to Exhaust-gas Temperature for Gas-turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Richard; Phillips, William E , Jr

    1952-01-01

    The frequency of blade temperature to exhaust gas temperature is presented for two locations in the blade and at several operating conditions. The frequency response was determined by Fourier analysis of transient data. Two analytical methods are presented, and results are compared with experimental data. Dynamic response of turbine-blade temperature to exhaust-gas temperature exhibited the form of an approximate first-order lag. The results are used to predict blade temperature for a typical controlled and uncontrolled gas-turbine engine.

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  11. An Experimental Investigation of an Exhaust-gas-to-air Heat Exchanger for Use on Jet-stack-equipped Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalder, Jackson R; Spies, Ray J , Jr

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the loss in exhaust-jet thrust and engine power resulting from the insertion of an exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchanger in a jet-type exhaust stack of an aircraft engine. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger was also determined.

  12. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  13. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  14. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; DensityHC = 16.33 g/ft3−carbon atom (0.5768 kg/m3−carbon atom), assuming an average carbon to hydrogen... petroleum gas-fuel; DensityHC = 1.1771 (12.011+H/C (1.008)) g/ft3−carbon atom (0.04157(12.011+H/C (1.008))kg/m3−carbon atom), where H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon components of the...

  15. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles. PMID:26757000

  16. MTBE, methane, ethylene and regulated exhaust emissions from vehicles with deactivated catalytic converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S. G.; Philippopoulos, C. J.

    In the present work, the effect of the gradual deactivation of a three-way catalytic converter on the exhaust emissions was studied. The exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (i.e. total unburned organic compounds), MTBE, methane and ethylene, before and after their catalytic treatment, in a wide range of engine operating conditions. The thermal aging of the catalytic converter resulted in an increase in the required time for the start of its operation and loss of its auto thermal operation. The catalytic efficiency was significantly decreased after each thermal aging step, especially at idle conditions. As a result, CO and especially HC emissions were increased, whereas ethylene and MTBE emissions were multiplied by a factor of 6-7 at 3.81 hp, in the case of the deactivated catalyst.

  17. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  18. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  19. Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion.

  20. Formation and destruction of CH2O in the exhaust system of a gas engine.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, María U; Glarborg, Peter

    2003-10-01

    A computational study of chemical reactions occurring in the exhaust system of natural gas engines has been conducted, emphasizing the formation and destruction of formaldehyde. The modeling was based on a detailed reaction mechanism, developed for describing oxidation of C1-C2 hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. The mechanism was validated against data from laboratory flow reactors and from the exhaust system of a full-scale gas engine. A parametric study of the exhaust system chemistry was performed, investigating the effect of temperature, stoichiometry, pressure, and exhaust gas composition. The results indicate a complex interaction between unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), formaldehyde, and nitrogen oxides. Above 850 K, partial oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons may occur, resulting in net formation or net destruction of CH2O depending on the unburned hydrocarbons/CH2O ratio and the reaction conditions. At the typical unburned hydrocarbons/CH2O ratio of 1.0-1.5% for gas engines, net formaldehyde formation may occur in the exhaust system if temperatures above 850 K are reached. PMID:14572109

  1. Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heland, J; Schäfer, K

    1997-07-20

    Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO. PMID:18259296

  2. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E.

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  3. Effects of equivalence ratio and dwell time on exhaust emissions from an experimental premixing prevaporizing burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.

    1974-01-01

    A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as .3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99% combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of .4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat higher equivalence ratios with shorter times.

  4. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  5. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  7. A method for removal of CO from exhaust gas using pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Yang, L; Lei, Y; Wang, J; Lu, Y

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal. When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters. PMID:11288300

  8. Performance of Blowdown Turbine Driven by Exhaust Gas of Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Desmon, Leland G

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made of an exhaust-gas turbine having four separate nozzle boxes each covering a 90 degree arc of the nozzle diaphragm and each connected to a pair of adjacent cylinders of a nine-cylinder radial engine. This type of turbine has been called a "blowdown" turbine because it recovers the kinetic energy developed in the exhaust stacks during the blowdown period, that is the first part of the exhaust process when the piston of the reciprocating engine is nearly stationary. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the blow turbine could develop appreciable power without imposing any large loss in engine power arising from restriction of the engine exhaust by the turbine.

  9. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  10. Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of traps, engine condition, trap condition and fuel aromatic content. In addition to the currently regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter), a number of unregulated emissions were measured, including aldehydes, benzene, PAHs, metals and trace elements, and 1,3-butadiene. Particulate samples were also analyzed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. In general, the vehicles produced lower hydrocarbon emissions, higher carbon monoxide emissions, and lower fuel economy when the traps were installed in the vehicles.

  11. A comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Lapin, Charles A; Bunn, William B

    2008-09-01

    A comprehensive comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas (CNG) was developed from 25 reports on transit buses, school buses, refuse trucks, and passenger cars. Emissions for most compounds were highest for untreated exhaust emissions and lowest for treated exhaust CNG buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., benzene, butadiene, ethylene, etc.), and carbonyl compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein). Diesel buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exhaust after-treatments reduced most emissions to similar levels in diesel and CNG buses. Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were similar for most vehicle types, fuels, and exhaust after-treatments with some exceptions. Diesel school buses had higher CO2 emissions than the CNG bus. CNG transit buses and passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts had lower NO(x) emissions. Diesel buses equipped with traps had higher nitrogen dioxide emissions. Fuel economy was best in the diesel buses not equipped with exhaust after-treatment. PMID:18800512

  12. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  13. Microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor for trace-metals in furnace exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Thomas, P.; Cohn, D.R.; Surma, J.E.; Titus, C.H.

    1996-10-01

    A microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor has been successfully demonstrated for sensitive ({lt}1 ppb), real time measurements of trace metals in furnace exhaust. The instrument uses a robust, up to 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz microwave plasma sustained in a portion of the undiluted furnace exhaust flow for atomic emission spectroscopy. The waveguide device is constructed of refractory materials compatible with high-temperature environments ({approx_gt}500{degree}C) and is flange mountable into the inside of the furnace exhaust duct. Fused quartz fiber optics in close proximity to the plasma flame transmit the UV through visible emission (190{endash}690 nm) to three spectrometers for simultaneous monitoring of several metals. This instrument has been used for continuous monitoring for a 49 h period with 0.5 s time resolution on a dc graphite electrode arc furnace during a soil vitrification test. Results are presented for chromium, manganese, and iron emissions during soil loading operations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-01

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

  15. US Coast Guard/US Maritime Administration Cooperative Research on marine engine exhaust emissions. Marine exhaust emissions measurement of the M/V Kings Pointer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.J.; Bentz, A.P.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of emissions testing conducted on board the M/V KINGS POINTER in May 1995. The objective of this testing was to conduct baseline instrumentation, monitoring, and evaluation of the engine exhaust emissions as part of joint U.S. Coast Guard/Maritime Administration cooperative research on controlling air pollution from ships. The U.S. Coast Guard`s interest in emissions testing arises from both its desire to meet all federal and state air quality regulations and the fact that in the future it may be called upon to enforce regulations in the marine environment. The U.S. Maritime Administration`s interest in this and related research is based on its efforts to assure that its vessels and those of the privately-owned U.S. Flag Merchant Marine can comply with future air pollution control requirements. Underway tests were conducted of the 224-foot M/V KINGS POINTER in which two of its four diesel-electric generators were sampled for NO, NO2, CO, and SO2 in the exhaust. Additional data on fuel flow and power output were collected at five speeds over the full range of vessel operating ranges. NOx values were calculated and compared with standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Results showed that average NOx values were 9.4 g/kWh which is slightly below the 10.9 g/kWh upper limit or cap that is being proposed by the IMO for a diesel engine with a rated speed of 1200 RPM. Additional conclusions and recommendations on the technique of portable emissions monitoring instrumentation are made.

  16. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 μg/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 μg/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (∑ B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 μg/m3and 37.652 μg/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  17. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be either chemically cleaned stainless steel or other inert material, for example... testing under this subpart: (i) The exhaust is analyzed for gaseous emissions using analyzers meeting the... waived and only the minimum temperature specification applies. (B) For locomotives and engines...

  18. Comparison of exhaust emissions resulting from cold- and hot-start motorcycle driving modes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Ye, Hui-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the emissions of criteria air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbons [HCs], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) from motorcycle exhaust at cold- and hot-start driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Seven four-stroke carburetors and two fuel-injection motorcycles were tested. As expected, the emission factors (g/km) of CO and HCs increased during cold-start driving. The ratio of emission factors (g/km) for cold- and hot-start driving cycles ranged from 1.1-1.5 (for CO) to 1.2-2.8 (for HCs). However, the difference of NOx emissions between the cold- and hot-start cycles was not pronounced. Further, the cold-/hot-start ratios of CO and HCs from 50-cm3 motorcycles were higher than those of 100- and 125-cm3 motorcycles; however, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was the lowest for the four-stroke motorcycles. High engine temperature and poor combustion efficiency of smaller cylinder-capacity motorcycles may contribute a significant amount of exhaust emission. Additionally, the fuel-base emission factor (g/L-fuel) ratios were low compared with the distance-base emission factor (g/km) in cold- and hot-start driving. This indicates that the effect of catalyst efficiency was greater than the effect of fuel combustion in the tested motorcycles. A comparison of emission ratios of motorcycles and passenger cars shows that the warm-up may be more important for cars, especially under low-temperature conditions. However, the motorcycle contributes a large proportion of CO and HC emissions in many Asian counties. The difference between cold- and hot-start emissions may affect inventory PMID:19947115

  19. A Mathematical Model for the Exhaust Gas Temperature Profile of a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a heat transfer model for the exhaust gas of a diesel power generator to determine the gas temperature profile in the exhaust pipe. The numerical methodology to solve the mathematical model was developed using a finite difference method approach for energy equation resolution and determination of temperature profiles considering turbulent fluid flow and variable fluid properties. The simulation was carried out for engine operation under loads from 0 kW to 40 kW. The model was compared with results obtained using the multidimensional Ansys CFX software, which was applied to solve the governor equations of turbulent fluid flow. The results for the temperature profiles in the exhaust pipe show a good proximity between the mathematical model developed and the multidimensional software.

  20. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard; Schmieg, Steven J.; Blint, Richard J.

    2011-05-17

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

  1. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald S.; Moini, Ahmad; Furbeck, Howard; Castellano, Christopher R.

    2012-05-08

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

  2. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements...

  3. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements...

  4. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  5. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  6. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  7. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  8. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  9. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  10. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  11. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  12. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  13. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47 Section 36.47 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements §...

  14. Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeaux, A.M.

    1995-05-01

    Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar testing conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard for measuring patrol boat diesel engine emissions and International Standards Organization methodology. The primary challenge of the experiment design was to minimize interference with the engineering plant as the assigned ship was concurrently tasked for other operations. Data gathered allowed calculation of engine rpm, engine load, exhaust gas flow rate, and determination of pollutant amounts. The tests were conducted at a series of predetermined speeds to reflect an 11-Mode duty cycle developed previously for the LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines.

  15. Detection of very large ions in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor exhaust: charged small soot particles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, S.; Haverkamp, H.; Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

    Small electrically charged soot particles (CSP) present in the exhaust of a jet aircraft engine combustor have been detected by a Large Ion Mass Spectrometer and quantitatively measured by an Ion Mobility Analyzer. The size and concentration measurements which took place at an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor test-rig at the ground covered different combustor conditions (fuel flow=FF, fuel sulphur content=FSC). At the high-pressure turbine stage of the engine, CSP-diameters were mostly around 6 nm and CSP-concentrations reached up to 4.8×10 7 cm -3 (positive and negative) corresponding to a CSP-emission index ECSP=2.5×10 15 CSP kg -1 fuel burnt. The ECSP increased with FF but did not increase with FSC. The latter indicates that sulphur was not a major component of the large ions. Possible CSP-sources and CSP-sinks as well as CSP-roles are discussed.

  16. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  17. Histological examination of the rat after long-term exposure to subtoxic automotive exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, W; Neumann, H; Thron, H L; Schneider, H; Sarasa-Corral, J L

    1981-07-01

    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, in recent years attention has increasingly been focused on the possible effects on the cardiovascular system. In order to investigate this problem further, the influence of long-term exhaust gas exposure on rats has been studied. One hundred Wistar rats of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 h/week up to 28 months to an atmosphere polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine, CO concentrations held constant at 90 ppm. A second group (50 rats) was exposed to 250 ppm for 6 months. Blood parameters and body weight were controlled. Specimens of CNS, heart, vessels, kidney etc. were investigated light microscopically. Focal necroses of the myocardium with inflammatory reactions as well as interstitial fibrosis were found in the heart muscle of the 90 ppm group. In the 250 ppm group endothelial proliferations, edema of the intima and deposits of proteoglycanes in the media were observed. We conclude that subtoxic concentrations of CO which only lead to slight morphologic changes may aggravate preexisting lesions caused by high risk conditions, e.g., hypertension or hypercholesteremia. PMID:7271450

  18. Methane Emissions from Leak and Loss Audits of Natural Gas Compressor Stations and Storage Facilities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Environmental Defense Fund's Barnett Coordinated Campaign, researchers completed leak and loss audits for methane emissions at three natural gas compressor stations and two natural gas storage facilities. Researchers employed microdilution high-volume sampling systems in conjunction with in situ methane analyzers, bag samples, and Fourier transform infrared analyzers for emissions rate quantification. All sites had a combined total methane emissions rate of 94.2 kg/h, yet only 12% of the emissions total resulted from leaks. Methane slip from exhausts represented 44% of the total emissions. Remaining methane emissions were attributed to losses from pneumatic actuators and controls, engine crankcases, compressor packing vents, wet seal vents, and slop tanks. Measured values were compared with those reported in literature. Exhaust methane emissions were lower than emissions factor estimates for engine exhausts, but when combined with crankcase emissions, measured values were 11.4% lower than predicted by AP-42 as applicable to emissions factors for four-stroke, lean-burn engines. Average measured wet seal emissions were 3.5 times higher than GRI values but 14 times lower than those reported by Allen et al. Reciprocating compressor packing vent emissions were 39 times higher than values reported by GRI, but about half of values reported by Allen et al. Though the data set was small, researchers have suggested a method to estimate site-wide emissions factors for those powered by four-stroke, lean-burn engines based on fuel consumption and site throughput. PMID:26148551

  19. Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

  20. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  1. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  2. A GAS TEMPERATURE PROFILE BY INFRARED EMISSION-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program calculates the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas. Emphasis is on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing water vapor or carbon dioxide as radiating gases. The temperature profile is assumed to be axisymmetric with a functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters are calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Infrared emission and absorption measurements at two or more wavelengths provide a method of determining a gas temperature profile along a path through the gas by using a radiation source and receiver located outside the gas stream being measured. This permits simplified spectral scanning of a jet or rocket engine exhaust stream with the instrumentation outside the exhaust gas stream. This program provides an iterative-cyclic computation in which an initial assumed temperature profile is altered in shape until the computed emission and absorption agree, within specified limits, with the actual instrument measurements of emission and absorption. Temperature determination by experimental measurements of emission and absorption at two or more wavelengths is also provided by this program. Additionally, the program provides a technique for selecting the wavelengths to be used for determining the temperature profiles prior to the beginning of the experiment. By using this program feature, the experimenter has a higher probability of selecting wavelengths which will result in accurate temperature profile measurements. This program provides the user with a technique for determining whether this program will be sufficiently accurate for his particular application, as well as providing a means of finding the solution. The input to the program consists of four types of data: (1) computer program control constants, (2) measurements of gas radiance and transmittance at selected wavelengths, (3) tabulations from the literature of gas

  3. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume. PMID:26592000

  4. Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2012-04-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O₃, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363 ± 66 μg/m³ P+MSHA and 212 ± 95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  5. Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 μg/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 μg/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  6. Dairy gas emissions model: reference manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy Gas Emissions Model (DairyGEM) is a software tool for estimating ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy production systems as influenced by climate and farm management. A production system is defined to include emissions during the production of all feeds wh...

  7. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz. PMID:26253286

  8. Impact of oxidation catalysts on exhaust NO2/NOx ratio from lean-burn natural gas engines.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Daniel B; Kohls, Morgan; Arney, Gregg

    2010-07-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and (2) when an oxidation catalyst is used. Large NO2/NOx ratios may result in additional uncertainty in NOx emissions measurements because the most common technique (chemiluminescence) was developed for low NO2/NOx ratios. In this work, scenarios are explored in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be large. Additionally, three NOx measurement approaches are compared for exhaust with various NO2/NOx ratios. The three measurement approaches are chemiluminescence, chemical cell, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A portable analyzer with chemical cell technology was found to be the most accurate for measuring exhaust NOx with large NO2/NOx ratios. PMID:20681434

  9. Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio and hydrogen addition on exhaust emission in a hydrocarbon-fueled combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of reducing the primary-zone equivalence ratio on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in experimental hydrocarbon-fueled combustor segments at simulated supersonic cruise and idle conditions were investigated. In addition, the effects of the injection of hydrogen fuel (up to 4 percent of the total weight of fuel) on the stability of the hydrocarbon flame and exhaust emissions were studied and compared with results obtained without hydrogen addition.

  10. METHANOL MEASUREMENT IN AUTO EXHAUST USING A GAS-FILTER CORRELATION SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spectroscopic methods offer an alternative to wet chemical methods for analysis of methanol emissions from automobiles. The gas filter correlation infrared optical analysis approach appears very promising. The report describes the gas correlation optical system constructed to ana...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045.103 Protection of Environment... emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle emission standards. Starting in the 2010 model year, exhaust emissions from your outboard and personal watercraft engines...

  12. Establishing a Calibration for a Microwave Plasma Continuous Emissions Monitor For Stack Exhaust Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, G. J., III; Green, K. M.; Woskov, P. P.; Hadidi, K.; Thomas, P.

    1998-11-01

    A real-time continuous emissions monitor for hazardous metals in stack exhaust is in development to replace the regulatory standard, EPA Method 29. A microwave plasma is sustained in ambient stack exhaust flow for real-time atomic emission spectroscopy. A metals injection calibration subsystem using a pneumatic nebulizer and standard metals solution is attached to the exhaust flow for real-time span calibration of the monitored metals. A novel approach to determine the nebulizer injection efficiency during plasma operation was tested. A known metal mass on a tungsten filament attached to an alumina rod was introduced into a nitrogen plasma at different axial positions. These signals were then correlated to masses of metals aspirated into the plasma by the nebulizer. The metals injection efficiency as a function of rod insertion position was calculated by dividing the correlated mass by the total mass aspirated by the nebulizer, and extrapolated to the end of the sample line. The resulting efficiency was compared to samples collected directly by Gelman Science Type A/E glass fiber filters off line from the plasma. The results to date give the nebulizer metals injection efficiencies less than one percent.

  13. Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

    2006-04-01

    Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine. PMID:17913184

  14. Characterization of exhaust emissions from alcohol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The report describes the laboratory effort to develop analytical techniques to characterize exhaust emissions from neat methanol and ethanol-fueled vehicles. Analytical techniques were developed or modified to allow the measurement of methanol, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, methyl nitrite, and formic and acetic acid in both raw and CVS-diluted exhaust. The methods were validated, qualified, and then used to evaluate exhaust emissions from a 1981 Ford Escort chassis with a 1983 1.6-liter methanol-fueled Ford Escort engine. The vehicle was evaluated over the Light-Duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and at 30 and 55 mph steady-state operation both with and without a catalytic converter. In addition to testing conducted with the 90% methanol/10% gasoline fuel blend for which the Ford Escort engine was designed, testing was also conducted with 100% methanol fuel. Other areas investigated included unburned fuel hydrocarbon composition, FID response correction for alcohols as compared with propane, and losses of unburned fuel and aldehydes in the sampling system.

  15. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  16. Exhaust emission calibration of two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude, supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16.0 to 23.5 km. For each flight condition exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels, from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. Oxides of nitrogen emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  17. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-12-01

    The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

  18. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

  19. Reduction of NOx and PM in marine diesel engine exhaust gas using microwave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, W.; FInst, P.; Manivannan, N.; Beleca, R.; Abbod, M.

    2015-10-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energetic electrons (1-3eV) are produced for the generation of non-thermal plasma (NTP). 2kW gen-set diesel exhaust gas was used to test our pilot-scale MW plasma reactor. The experimental results show that almost 100% removal of NO is possible for the exhaust gas flow rate of 60l/s. It was also shown that MW can significantly remove soot particles (PM, 10nm to 365nm) entrained in the exhaust gas of 200kW marine diesel engine with 40% engine load and gas flow rate of 130l/s. MW without generating plasma showed reduction up to 50% reduction of PM and with the plasma up to 90% reduction. The major challenge in these experiments was that igniting the desired plasma and sustaining it with passive electrodes for longer period (10s of minutes) as it required fine tuning of electrode position, which was influenced by many factors such as gas flow rate, geometry of reactor and MW power.

  20. A laboratory comparison of two methods of characterizing exhaust stack emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, C.; LaBauve, J.; Kissane, R.; Ortiz, C. |

    1995-08-11

    Concern for the environment and public health, and compliance with DOE and EPA regulations require that representative sampling be conducted on exhaust stacks that emit radioactive materials. In order to design and install particulate samplers, EPA Regulation 40CFR61, Subpart H (NESHAP) specifies that particle concentration profiles be determined, in addition to velocity profiles, at the sampling cross section of all stacks requiring sampling. Neither the NESHAP regulation nor ANSI standard N13.1-1969, A3.2, p27, which is incorporated into NESHAP by reference, specify detection or analytical methods for determining effluent concentration uniformity in stacks that may emit radioactive gases or particles. Methods are described for stacks emitting nonradioactive materials, but these are not suitable for radioactive emissions, nor do the regulations specify any tolerances on the concentration uniformity for exhaust stacks. Mass tracer detection and laser light scattering detection methods are compared.