Science.gov

Sample records for exhaust gas pollutants

  1. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection of Environment... standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of certification, your vehicle family...

  2. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection of Environment... standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of certification, your vehicle family...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection of Environment... standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of certification, your vehicle family...

  4. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  10. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    SciTech Connect

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  11. Exhaust gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.; Miree, T.J.

    1997-02-09

    The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

  12. The Development of Miniaturization Infrared Exhaust Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyan; Zhang, Bing; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Wenzhen

    In order to solve the environmental pollution caused by motor vehicle exhaust, this article designed and developed a miniaturized infrared exhaust gas sensor, can effectively detect the concentration of CO2, CO, hydrocarbons, solves the existing sensor of large volume, slow response, etc.

  13. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  14. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  15. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  17. Process for desulfurizing an exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinoda, N.; Okino, S.; Oshima, M.; Shigeta, S.; Tatani, A.; Ukawa, N.

    1983-12-13

    A process is disclosed for desulfurizing an exhaust gas which comprises desulfurizing an exhaust gas containing SO/sub 2/ by bringing it into contact with a slurry containing calcium compounds and aluminum compounds, characterized in that the concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion in said slurry is detected and a manganese compound is supplied into said slurry in such a manner that the ratio of the concentration of manganese (including both solid and liquid) to said concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion may be maintained in a molar ratio of less than 1 in said slurry.

  18. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  19. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    they have both acute toxicity and sub- lethal effects on some aquatic organisms. PAHs may also bioaccumulate in edible shellfish, which gives them a...EGCSA, 2010). 6.6 METALS Metals are a diverse group of pollutants, many of which are toxic to aquatic life and humans. While some metals...impacts of scrubber washwater discharge on water quality and aquatic life and protectiveness of IMO guidelines

  20. Diesel exhaust-gas purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, B.J.

    1982-07-01

    The design of a diesel exhaust gas purification system is presented. It will provide 2000 scfm of dry, anerobic gas (essentially nitrogen) for use in air drilling operations where drill pipe corrosion is a problem, such as geothermal applications. The system is operable in the field and may be transported via highways. It will operate at ambient temperatures up to 110/sup 0/F and requires no water - diesel fuel is used to combust excess oxygen and to generate electricity for the system. Gas production costs, including capital amortization, operations, fuel and maintenance (for reasonable utilization) are about $1.50/1000 scf.

  1. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  2. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  3. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  4. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  5. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  6. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  7. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  8. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  9. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  10. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Pollution on Floral Volatiles and the Consequences for Honey Bee Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Girling, Robbie D; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Jackson, Chris W; Poppy, Guy M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing evidence of a substantial decline in pollinators within Europe and North America, most likely caused by multiple factors such as diseases, poor nutrition, habitat loss, insecticides, and environmental pollution. Diesel exhaust could be a contributing factor to this decline, since we found that diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral volatiles, which honey bees require for flower recognition. In this study, we exposed eight of the most common floral volatiles to diesel exhaust in order to investigate whether it can affect volatile mediated plant-pollinator interaction. Exposure to diesel exhaust altered the blend of common flower volatiles significantly: myrcene was considerably reduced, β-ocimene became undetectable, and β-caryophyllene was transformed into its cis-isomer isocaryophyllene. Proboscis extension response (PER) assays showed that the alterations of the blend reduced the ability of honey bees to recognize it. The chemically reactive nitrogen oxides fraction of diesel exhaust gas was identified as capable of causing degradation of floral volatiles.

  11. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  12. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  14. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  15. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  16. Exhaust gas provides alternative gas source for cyclic EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeppelwerth, G.P.

    1993-04-26

    Injected exhaust gas from a natural gas or propane engine enhanced oil recovery from several Nebraska and Kansas wells. The gas, containing nitrogen and carbon dioxide, is processed through a catalytic converted and neutralized as necessary before being injected in a cyclic (huff and puff) operation. The process equipment is skid or trailer mounted. The engine in these units drives the gas-injection compressor. The gas after passing through the converter and neutralizers is approximately 13% CO[sub 2] and 87% N[sub 2]. The pH is above 6.0 and dew point is near 0 F at atmospheric pressure. Water content is 0.0078 gal/Mscf. This composition is less corrosive than pure CO[sub 2] and reduces oil viscosity by 30% at 1,500 psi. The nitrogen supplies reservoir energy and occupies pore space. The paper describes gas permeability, applications, and field examples.

  17. Subsonic Jet Noise Reduced With Improved Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Aircraft noise pollution is becoming a major environmental concern for the world community. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responding to this concern by imposing more stringent noise restrictions for aircraft certification then ever before to keep the U.S. industry competitive with the rest of the world. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, attempts are underway to develop noise-reduction technology for newer engines and for retrofitting existing engines so that they are as quiet as (or quieter than) required. Lewis conducted acoustic and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) tests using Pratt & Whitney's Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers (IEGM). The IEGM's mix the core flow with the fan flow prior to their common exhaust. All tests were conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory--a semihemispheric dome open to the ambient atmosphere. This was the first time Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used in such a facility at Lewis. Jet exhaust velocity and turbulence and the internal velocity fields were detailed. Far-field acoustics were also measured. Pratt & Whitney provided 1/7th scale model test hardware (a 12-lobe mixer, a 20-lobe mixer, and a splitter) for 1.7 bypass ratio engines, and NASA provided the research engineers, test facility, and test time. The Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200 engine power conditions were used for all tests.

  18. Dynamics of exhaust gas generated by arc extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Hotta, Eiki

    2001-11-01

    We report an analytical study on hot gas exhaust process of a SF6 gas circuit breaker (GCB), after current interruption. The behavior of the hot gas has been studied based on measured gas temperature and simulation results of gas composition. We also propose a mechanism of interaction between the hot gas and pressure waves, which causes a self-blocking of the exhaust gas. During the heavy current interruption, the flow model suggests that the dielectric strength of the hot gas is affected by the pressure waves that are generated by the hot gas exhaustion. We believe that the results reported in this article provide guidance for the optimum structure of the exhaust chamber for small size GCB, operating at very high interrupting current.

  19. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  20. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  1. Numerical simulation of the pollution formed by exhaust jets at the ground running procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaeva, T. A.; Turchinovich, A. O.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents an approach that is new for aviation-related ecology. The approach allows defining spatial distribution of pollutant concentrations released at engine ground running procedure (GRP) using full gas-dynamic models. For the first time such a task is modeled in three-dimensional approximation in the framework of the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with taking into account a kinetic model of interaction between the components of engine exhaust and air. The complex pattern of gas-dynamic flow that occurs at the flow around an aircraft with the jet exhausts that interact with each other, air, jet blast deflector (JBD), and surface of the airplane has been studied in the present work. The numerical technique developed for calculating the concentrations of pollutants produced at the GRP stage permits to define level, character, and area of contamination more reliable and increase accuracy in definition of sanitary protection zones.

  2. Pollutant monitoring of aircraft exhaust with multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-10-01

    Communities surrounding local airports are becoming increasingly concerned about the aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle, and their potential for negative health effects. Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston and London have all recently been featured in the news regarding concerns over the amount of airport pollution being emitted on a daily basis, and several studies have been published on the increased risks of cancer for those living near airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors that can monitor the spatial and temporal nature of jet engine exhaust plumes. In this work we seek to design a multispectral imaging system that is capable of tracking exhaust plumes during the engine idle phase, with a specific focus on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. UHCs are especially potent to local air quality, and their strong absorption features allow them to act as a spatial and temporal plume tracer. Using a Gaussian plume to radiometrically model jet engine exhaust, we have begun designing an inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive imaging system to monitor the relative amount of pollutants emitted by aircraft in the idle phase. The LWIR system will use two broadband filters to detect emitted UHCs. This paper presents the spatial and temporal radiometric models of the exhaust plume from a typical jet engine used on 737s. We also select filters for plume tracking, and propose an imaging system layout for optimal detectibility. In terms of feasibility, a multispectral imaging system will be two orders of magnitude cheaper than current unobtrusive methods (PTR-MS) used to monitor jet engine emissions. Large-scale impacts of this work will include increased capabilities to monitor local airport pollution, and the potential for better-informed decision-making regarding future developments to airports.

  3. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  4. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  5. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  6. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING....102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  7. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING....102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  8. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko -Jen

    2015-09-15

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.

  9. Pollutant Removal Efficiency of Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Sherman, Alexander D.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2011-07-01

    Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination; (B) short hood with grease-screen-covered air inlet at bottom; and (C) deep, open hood exhausting at top. Devices were evaluated at varying installation heights, at highest and lowest fan settings, and with the hood installed 15 cm away from back wall with intent to improve CE for front burners. Each configuration was evaluated for the oven and for three cooktop burner combinations (two back, two front, one front and one back). At highest fan settings and standard installation against the wall, Hoods A and C captured back cooktop burner exhaust at > 90 percent and Hood B at > 80 percent. In this configuration, CE for front burner exhaust was 73-78 percent for Hoods A and C but only 46-63 percent for Hood B. CEs followed similar patterns but were substantially lower on the lowest fan speed. Installing the hood away from the wall improved CE for oven and front burners on Hood A at low speed, but substantially reduced CE for back burners for all hoods at low and high speed.

  10. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  11. Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  13. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  14. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  15. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system....

  16. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  17. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  18. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok J.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  19. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  20. Air pollution and lung cancer: diesel exhaust, coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, I.T.

    1984-03-01

    It is known, that cigarette smoking is by far the most important cause of lung cancer and that about a dozen occupational exposures are also established as causes of this disease. There has been continuing uncertainty about the role of general air pollution. During the past few years, this uncertainty has been compounded with anxiety that the increasing use of diesel-powered vehicles might lead to a deterioration in air quality and, with it, an increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current role of air pollution as a factor in lung cancer and specifically the contribution of diesel exhaust emissions to the incidence of that disease.

  1. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  2. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and formaldehyde. The exhaust gas analytical system is not... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  3. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

  4. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  6. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Micro gas turbines are expected as engines for the distributed co-generation systems, performing power generation and heat recovery. Waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, and it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to an absorption refrigerator. In this paper, we evaluated various single-double effect absorption cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption refrigerators, and clarified that the difference of performance among these cycles are little. We adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine, and experimented with it to get the partial load characteristics and the effect of cooling water temperature on the performance. Based on the experimental data, we developed as imulation model of the static characteristics, and studied the direction of improvement.

  7. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  8. System using electric furnace exhaust gas to preheat scrap for steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, K.; Iwasaki, K.

    1987-09-08

    A method is described for clean preheating of scrap contaminated with oil and organic matter, for steelmaking, using heat from exhaust gas flow from an electric furnace. It consists of: burning any combustibles present in the exhaust gas flow and simultanously separating out dust particles from the exhaust gas flow; heating a predetermined amount of the scrap by heat exchange with a predetermined portion of the exhaust gas flow; removing and collecting dust from the exhaust gas flow after preheating of scrap thereby; sensing the temperature of the exhaust flow; scrubbing the exhaust gas flow with an aqueous solution of a deodorant solvent flowing at a rate regulated to be in a predetermined relationship related to the exhaust gas temperature sensed prior to scrubbing, thereby generating saturated vapor and reducing the temperature of the exhaust gas flow by a predetermined amount; and electrostatically precipitating out oil mist attached to saturated water vapor and liquid droplets in the exhaust gas flow.

  9. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  10. Fermentation exhaust gas analysis using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, B.; Brix, Fastert, H.; Gbewonyo, K.; Hunt, G.; Jain, D.

    1985-11-01

    A Perkin Elmer MGA-1200 mass spectrometer has been coupled with a mini-computer and a sampling manifold to analyze up to 8 components in the exhaust gases of fermentors. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen are typically analyzed, but ethanol for yeast fermentations can also be tested by heating the line from the fermentor to the sampling manifold. Specifications, operation, and performance of the system are described. The system has been used for process control, the study of fermentation kinetics, and process development. 8 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  11. Metal supports for exhaust gas catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Nonnenmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1979, metal supports as pre-catalysts have been mass-produced and installed in export models of German automobiles bound for the United States and Japan. The close-to-engine installation directly behind the exhaust manifold places specially high demands on the thermal and mechanical durability of the metal supports. Sueddeutsche Kuehlerfabrik Behr produces these metal supports under the name of ''Metalit''. The development, properties and special advantages of these metal supports are covered. The successful use of hundreds of thousands of metal supports, a number of automobile manufacturers are working on programs to employ the Metalit concept for primary catalysts.

  12. Physiological changes in certain test plants under automobile exhaust pollution.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Madhumanjari

    2006-01-01

    Plants are the only living organisms which have to suffer a lot from automobile exhaust pollution because they remain static at their habitat. But such roadside plants like Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica Naud., and Tabemaemontana divaricata L. can easily avoid the effects of air pollution by altering their physiological pathways pertaining to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure in Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal clogging in Nerium and Tabemaemontana help these plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases. The increased activity of the enzyme Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase) belonging to C4 pathway helps Nerium and Boerhaavia (both C3 plants) in carbon fixation under stress condition. Photorespiration is favoured in Amaranthus, Cephalandra and Tabernaemontana to compensate for the over production of ATP in them. Owing an inefficient gaseous exchange in Boerhaavia and Tabemaemontana, the activity of Glucose 6--Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6-PD) also increases for the preferential shift to Pentose Phosphate Pathway to produce excess NADPH+H+ which are likely to re-oxidize by metabolic reactions not linked to electron transport chain.

  13. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  14. Harmless drainage of automobile exhaust gas under catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Qingying; Dai Qianhuan )

    1988-09-01

    In terms of an epidemiologic investigation in Beijing, a higher incidence of lung cancer appears in the population of traffic policemen and workers involved with automobile exhausts which might be a biomarker of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in their environment. Recently, a purification catalyst containing cheaper metal oxides and rare earth metal oxides for automobile exhaust has been developed in this laboratory. After catalysis the CO, benzene and lower hydrocarbons oxidize completely to form CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The mark of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutant penteno(cd)pyrene, can not be found after the catalysis. Other PAH which have been carcinogenicity tested by animals or predicted in terms of Di region theory, were not found in the catalyzed exhaust.

  15. IET exhaust gas stack. Section, west elevation, foundation plan, access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET exhaust gas stack. Section, west elevation, foundation plan, access ladder, airplane warning light. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 433. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106984 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows mounting brackets, concrete braces, divided portion of duct, other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 429. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106980 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  18. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  19. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  20. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  1. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  2. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

    1993-01-01

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  3. Assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases using computer simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarshinov, Michael G.; Vaismana, Yakov I.

    2016-10-01

    The following methods were used in order to identify the pollution fields of urban air caused by the motor transport exhaust gases: the mathematical model, which enables to consider the influence of the main factors that determine pollution fields formation in the complex spatial domain; the authoring software designed for computational modeling of the gas flow, generated by numerous mobile point sources; the results of computing experiments on pollutant spread analysis and evolution of their concentration fields. The computational model of exhaust gas distribution and dispersion in a spatial domain, which includes urban buildings, structures and main traffic arteries, takes into account a stochastic character of cars apparition on the borders of the examined territory and uses a Poisson process. The model also considers the traffic lights switching and permits to define the fields of velocity, pressure and temperature of the discharge gases in urban air. The verification of mathematical model and software used confirmed their satisfactory fit to the in-situ measurements data and the possibility to use the obtained computing results for assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases.

  4. Flight Tests of Exhaust Gas Jet Propulsion, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pnkel, Benjamin; Turner, L. Richard

    1940-01-01

    Flight test s were conducted on the XP-41 airplane, equipped with a Pratt & Whitney R1830-19, 14-cylinder, air-cooled engine, to determine the increase in flight speed obtainable by the use of individual exhaust stacks directed rearwardly to obtain exhaust-gas thrust. Speed increases up to 18 miles per hour at 20,000 feet altitude were obtained using stacks having an exit area of 3.42 square inches for each cylinder. A slight increase in engine power and decrease in cylinder temperature at a given manifold pressure were obtained with the individual stacks as compared with a collector-ring installation. Exhaust-flame visibility was quite low, particularly in the rich range of fuel-air ratios.

  5. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  6. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  7. Effects of injection pressure and injection timing to exhaust gas opacity for a conventional indirect diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, Agus; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Pambayun, Nirmala Adhi Yoga; Yuswono, Lilik Chaerul; Sukoco

    2016-06-01

    In relation to pollution control and environmental friendliness, the quality of exhaust gas from diesel engine needs to be considered. The influences of injection pressure and timing to exhaust gas opacity were investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in a one-cylinder conventional diesel engine with a naturally aspirated system and indirect injection. The default specification of injection pressure was 120 kg/cm2. To investigate the injection pressure, the engine speed was retained on 1000 rpm with pressure variations from 80 to 215 kg/cm2. On the other hand, the various injection timing (8, 10, 12, 16 degrees before TDC point and exact 18 degrees before TDC point) were used to determine their effects to exhaust gas opacity. In this case, the engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2400 rpm. The injector tester was used to measure injection pressure whereas the exhaust gas opacity was determined by the smoke meter. Those data were also statistically analyzed by product moment correlation. As the results, the injection pressure of diesel engine had a non-significant positive correlation to the exhaust gas opacity with r = 0.113 and p > 5 %. Injection pressure should be adjusted to the specification listed on the diesel engine as if it was too high or too low will lead to the higher opacity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between injection timing and the exhaust gas opacity in all engine speeds.

  8. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  9. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix B of this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used for...

  10. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system...

  11. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system...

  12. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix B of this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used for...

  13. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system...

  14. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system...

  15. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix B of this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used for...

  16. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix B of this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used for...

  17. Reduction of low temperature engine pollutants by understanding the exhaust species interactions in a diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lefort, I; Herreros, J M; Tsolakis, A

    2014-02-18

    The interactions between exhaust gas species and their effect (promotion or inhibition) on the light-off and activity of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for the removal of pollutants are studied, using actual engine exhaust gases from the combustion of diesel, alternative fuels (rapeseed methyl ester and gas-to-liquid fuel) and diesel/propane dual fuel combustion. The activity of the catalyst was recorded during a heating temperature ramp where carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) light-off curves were obtained. From the catalyst activity tests, it was found that the presence of species including CO, medium-heavy HC, alkenes, alkanes, and NOx and their concentration influence the catalyst ability to reduce CO and total HC emissions before release to the atmosphere. CO could inhibit itself and other species oxidation (e.g., light and medium-heavy hydrocarbons) while suffering from competitive adsorption with NO. Hydrocarbon species were also found to inhibit their own oxidation as well as CO through adsorption competition. On the other hand, NO2 was found to promote low temperature HC oxidation through its partial reduction, forming NO. The understanding of these exhaust species interactions within the DOC could aid the design of an efficient aftertreatment system for the removal of diesel exhaust pollutants.

  18. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... analytical systems used for analyzing CVS grab “bag” samples from spark-ignition engines. Since...

  19. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... analytical systems used for analyzing CVS grab “bag” samples from spark-ignition engines. Since...

  20. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... analytical systems used for analyzing CVS grab “bag” samples from spark-ignition engines. Since...

  1. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  2. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  3. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  4. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  5. Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

    2012-12-01

    Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

  6. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  7. Diesel Exhaust Activates & Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, & Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Rats exposed to Diesel Exhaust (DE, 2.0,0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks demonstrated elevated levels of whole brain IL-6 protein, nitrated proteins,...

  8. Cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust and ozone in a multi-pollutant context

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cardiovascular effects of two common pollutants, diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), were examined alone and in combination. Healthy subjects (n=15) were exposed for 2 hrs with intermittent, moderate exercise on Day 1 to 0.3 ppm O3, 300 µg/m3 DE, both O3 and DE, or fil...

  9. Exhaust gas measurements in a propane fueled swirl stabilized combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aanad, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaust gas temperature, velocity, and composition are measured and combustor efficiencies are calculated in a lean premixed swirl stabilized laboratory combustor. The radial profiles of the data between the co- and the counter swirl cases show significant differences. Co-swirl cases show evidence of poor turbulent mixing across the combustor in comparison to the counter-swirl cases. NO sub x levels are low in the combustor but substantial amounts of CO are present. Combustion efficiencies are low and surprisingly constant with varying outer swirl in contradiction to previous results under a slightly different inner swirl condition. This difference in the efficiency trends is expected to be a result of the high sensitivity of the combustor to changes in the inner swirl. Combustor operation is found to be the same for propane and methane fuels. A mechanism is proposed to explain the combustor operation and a few important characteristics determining combustor efficiency are identified.

  10. Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Voss, Fred

    1940-01-01

    This investigation presents the results of tests made on a radial engine to determine the thrust that can be obtained from the exhaust gas when discharged from separate stacks and when discharged from the collector ring with various discharge nozzles. The engine was provided with a propeller to absorb the power and was mounted on a test stand equipped with scales for measuring the thrust and engine torque. The results indicate that at full open throttle at sea level, for the engine tested, a gain in thrust horsepower of 18 percent using separate stacks, and 9.5 percent using a collector ring and discharge nozzle, can be expected at an air speed of 550 miles per hour.

  11. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, Yuichi; Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/ C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  12. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.47 Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (a) The adequacy of...

  13. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  14. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  15. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  16. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  17. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  18. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of petroleum-fueled, natural gas... integrated system is required for THC (petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled, and liquefied petroleum gas... heated sample system (375 ±20 °F (191 ±11 °C)). For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...

  20. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel...

  3. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2000-07-01

    This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

  4. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  5. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOEpatents

    Dutart, Charles H.; Choi, Cathy Y.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  6. Histological examination of the rat after long-term exposure to subtoxic automotive exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, W; Neumann, H; Thron, H L; Schneider, H; Sarasa-Corral, J L

    1981-07-01

    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, in recent years attention has increasingly been focused on the possible effects on the cardiovascular system. In order to investigate this problem further, the influence of long-term exhaust gas exposure on rats has been studied. One hundred Wistar rats of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 h/week up to 28 months to an atmosphere polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine, CO concentrations held constant at 90 ppm. A second group (50 rats) was exposed to 250 ppm for 6 months. Blood parameters and body weight were controlled. Specimens of CNS, heart, vessels, kidney etc. were investigated light microscopically. Focal necroses of the myocardium with inflammatory reactions as well as interstitial fibrosis were found in the heart muscle of the 90 ppm group. In the 250 ppm group endothelial proliferations, edema of the intima and deposits of proteoglycanes in the media were observed. We conclude that subtoxic concentrations of CO which only lead to slight morphologic changes may aggravate preexisting lesions caused by high risk conditions, e.g., hypertension or hypercholesteremia.

  7. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Jankovic, Mrdjan J; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2000-03-14

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  8. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  9. Characterization of protein expression of Platanus pollen following exposure to gaseous pollutants and vehicle exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Senlin; Ren, Jingjin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Zhang, Rongci; Wu, Minghong; Yi, Fei; Lin, Jun; Shinich, Yonemochi; Wang, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Being major ornamental street trees, species of Platanus are widely planted in the Shanghai urban area. A great deal of allergenic Platanus pollen is released from the trees and suspended in the atmosphere during its flowering season, ultimately causing allergic respiratory diseases. Few papers have focused on the distribution of this type of pollen and its expression of allergenic proteins. In order to investigate any differences in protein expression in Platanus pollen following exposure to gaseous and particulate pollutants, a special apparatus was designed. Exposure condition (such as temperature, humidity, and exposure time) of Platanus pollen and gaseous pollutants can be simulated using of this apparatus. Fresh Platanus orientalis pollen, pollutant gases (NO2, SO2, NH3), and typical urban ambient particles (vehicle exhaust particles, VEPs) were mixed in this device to examine possible changes that might occur in ambient airborne urban pollen following exposure to such pollutants. Our results showed that the fresh P. orientalis pollen became swollen, and new kinds of particles could be found on the surface of the pollen grains after exposure to the pollutants. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that five protein bands with molecular weights of 17-19, 34, 61, 82, and 144 kDa, respectively, were detected and gray scale of these brands increased after the pollen exposure to gaseous pollutants. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that a Platanus pollen allergenic protein (Pla a1, with a molecular weight of 18 kDa) increased in abundance following exposure to pollutant gases and VEPs, implying that air pollutants may exacerbate the allergenicity of pollen.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  14. The Purification and Thermal Recovery of Exhaust Gas with the Wet-type Electrostatic Precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemiya, Hiromichi; Koike, Hiroshi

    The exhaust gas ejected from engine heat pump contain the injurious materials, SOx, NOx and dust. And it also has a good deal of thermal energy, so thermal recovery from the exhaust gas increases the total C.O.P. of the heat pump system. The experimental study for the purpose of the purification of the exhaust gas and the thermal recovery from exhaust gas has been conducted with the wet-type electrostatic precipitator, which has the advantage of high collection efficiency and the gas-liquid direct heat-exchanism. The experimental results showed that: 1. For the dust, the collection efficiency of 96 % was achieved, when applied voltage was 19,000V. 2. The effect of the alkali absorption of Nox and SOx gases was made sure by the experiment. 3. The fundamental equation which is useful for design method was resolved by kinetic model of charged particle. 4. In the phenomenon of coagulation the velocity constant was decided with "Chemical Kinetics" and so that the density of coagulant, Ca(OH)2 was decided. 5. It is shown that mixing coagulant, Ca(OH)2, was a very effective way to remove the dust particles from the waste water. 6. Thermal energy of 5.3 kW was recovered from exhaust gas, so that total C.O.P. of heat pump system increases from 1.83 to 1.97.

  15. Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

    2006-08-10

    In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters.

  16. Exhaust Gas Modeling Effects on Hypersonic Powered Simulation at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to investigate the accuracy and validity of cold-gas simulation of actual hot scramjet exhaust within a Mach 10 free stream over a representative single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing configuration. In particular, exhausts of various noncombusting chemistry models were studied to characterize their effects on the vehicle aftbody performance and the plume flow field definition. Two approximations of the hot scramjet combustion products were utilized to determine the requirement for expensive, multi-species numerical modeling, and to establish a baseline for the validation of cold-gas simulation. Cold-gas simulation at Mach 10 is shown to be a viable technique using an appropriate thermally perfect gas mixture for reproducing hot scramjet exhaust effects.

  17. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    He, Xin [Denver, CO; Durrett, Russell P [Bloomfield Hills, MI

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  19. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Rectangular Exhaust-Gas Ejectors Applicable for Engine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganiello, Eugene J; Bogatsky, Donald

    1945-01-01

    An experimental investigation of rectangular exhaust-gas ejector pumps was conducted to provide data that would serve as a guide to the design of ejector applications for aircraft engines with marginal cooling. The pumping characteristics of rectangular ejectors actuated by the exhaust of a single-cylinder aircraft engine were determined for a range of ejector mixing-section area from 20 to 50 square inches, over-all length from 12 to 42 inches, aspect ratio from 1 to 5, diffusing exit area from 20 to 81 square inches, and exhaust-nozzle aspect ratio from 1 to 42.

  1. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  2. The effects of vehicular exhaust buoyancy during worst case pollution scenarios near roadways

    SciTech Connect

    Held, A.E.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Carroll, J.J.

    1998-12-31

    The California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) has been using CALINE4, a gaussian finite line-source dispersion model, to estimate air pollutant concentrations near roadways given an estimate of traffic flow rates, vehicular emission factors, roadway geometry, and local meteorology. Modelers have typically used CALINE4 to simulate low wind near parallel thermally stable conditions to estimate a worst case pollution scenario (i.e., highest predicted pollutant concentrations) for a proposed roadway. In October 1995, the University of California, Davis (UCD), in conjunction with the CALTRANS Environmental Program, began a two-year investigation to determine if CALINE4 was adequately predicting CO concentrations during worst case meteorological conditions. Based on physical reasoning and a literature review of several highway dispersion studies conducted in the late 1970`s, it was reasoned that gaussian models may over-predict CO concentrations during worst case scenarios because these models do not adequately parameterize the increased vertical dispersion of pollutants due to vehicular emission buoyancy. To explore the role that exhaust buoyancy plays in roadway pollutant dispersion, a series of experiments were conducted on I-80 (near Sacramento) during winter pre-dawn commute hours. Results of the dispersion studies were inconclusive due to difficulty in capturing sufficiently low wind speed conditions during the sampling effort, however, in a compare-contrast study of field measurements versus CALINE4 predictions it was verified that CALINE4 adequately predicts both the magnitude and qualitative shape of non-worst case pollution scenarios. In addition, based on integrated mass flux from downwind CO concentration and wind profiles it was found that the use of CT-EMFAC, a regional scale emission factor model, overpredicted observed modal emissions by as much as 250 to 480%.

  3. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  4. Controlling the injection of ammonia in a dry type exhaust gas denitration process

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Y.; Ukawa, N.

    1982-02-02

    In a first processor unit the relationship between the amount of nitrogen oxides in a combustion exhaust gas and a numerical value representing an amount of combustion, E.G. - fuel flow rate or the like, is stored. In a second processor unit the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides as a function of the combustion exhaust gas temperature is stored. A numerical value corresponding to the actual measured amount of combustion is inputted to the first processor unit to derive the amount of nitrogen oxides in the combustion exhaust gas. The actual measured combustion exhaust gas temperature is inputted to the second processor unit to derive the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides. The optimum amount of ammonia to be injected is derived by multiplying the amount of nitrogen oxides, derived by means of the first processor unit, by the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides derived by means of the second processor unit. In a preferable embodiment of the present invention, the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides is corrected before the multiplication by means of a correction factor which is stored in a third processor unit and which corresponds to a time variation rate of the combustion exhaust gas temperature.

  5. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  6. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-05-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the

  7. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-10-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the

  8. Damage of natural stone tablets exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Török, Ákos

    2016-04-01

    Natural stone tablets were exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions to assess urban stone damage. Cylindrical test specimens (3 cm in diameter) were made from travertine, non-porous limestone, porous limestone, rhyolite tuff, sandstone, andesite, granite and marble. The samples were exposed to exhaust gas that was generated from diesel engine combustion (engine type: RÁBA D10 UTSLL 160, EURO II). The operating condition of the internal combustion engine was: 1300 r/m (app 50%). The exhaust gas was diverted into a pipe system where the samples were placed perpendicular to main flow for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 hours, respectively. The exhaust emission was measured by using AVL particulate measurement technology; filter paper method (AVL 415). The stone samples were documented and selective parameters were measured prior to and after exhaust gas exposure. Density, volume, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mineral composition and penetration depth of emission related particulate matter were recorded. The first results indicate that after 10 hours of exposure significant amount of particulate matter deposited on the stone surface independently from the surface properties and porosity. The black soot particles uniformly covered all types of stones, making hard to differentiate the specimens.

  9. Use of gas turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this program was to evaluate the merits of using natural gas-fired gas turbine exhaust to directly dry food products. A survey of drying practices utilized in the food industry and a detailed review of worldwide regulatory drying practices were completed. An investigation of the economic advantages associated with direct drying was also considered. Four drying scenarios were used as part of the analysis: Dilution - hot turbine exhaust gases were diluted with ambient air to achieve temperatures suitable for food product drying; Indirect Heat Exchanger - gas turbine exhaust was directed through an intermediate heat exchanger to avoid flue-gas contamination of the ambient air; Tri-Generation - exhaust gases from the gas turbine were first directed to a heat recovery boiler and then through the drying system to dry the food product; and Conventional Cogeneration - the most conventional simple cycle gas turbine cogeneration (this scenario served as the baseline for all evaluations). Although the economics associated with direct drying appear attractive, the principal concern of any potential use would be the extraordinarily high NO/sub x/ levels and the potential nitrate and nitrosamine (potential carcinogens and carcinogenic precursors) contamination in food products. 21 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... instantaneous flow. A low response time temperature sensor is necessary for accurate flow calculation. ER06OC93... sample lines), and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the... when testing natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (Procedures for determining...

  11. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    PubMed

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-02-23

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  12. A Method for Removal of CO from Exhaust Gas Using Pulsed Corona Discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Lin; Lei, Yuyong; Wang, Jiansheng; Lu, Yiyu

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal . When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters.

  13. A method for removal of CO from exhaust gas using pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Yang, L; Lei, Y; Wang, J; Lu, Y

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal. When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters.

  14. Performance of Blowdown Turbine Driven by Exhaust Gas of Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Desmon, Leland G

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made of an exhaust-gas turbine having four separate nozzle boxes each covering a 90 degree arc of the nozzle diaphragm and each connected to a pair of adjacent cylinders of a nine-cylinder radial engine. This type of turbine has been called a "blowdown" turbine because it recovers the kinetic energy developed in the exhaust stacks during the blowdown period, that is the first part of the exhaust process when the piston of the reciprocating engine is nearly stationary. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the blow turbine could develop appreciable power without imposing any large loss in engine power arising from restriction of the engine exhaust by the turbine.

  15. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  16. Applying Systems Engineering to Improve the Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Maintenance Strategy for the CG-47 Ticonderoga Class Cruiser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    IMPROVE THE MAIN GAS TURBINE EXHAUST SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CG-47 TICONDEROGA CLASS CRUISER by Robert D. Sparks September 2015 Thesis...TURBINE EXHAUST SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CG-47 TICONDEROGA CLASS CRUISER 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Sparks, Robert D. 7. PERFORMING...recommendations for improvement of the main gas turbine exhaust system maintenance strategy are the focus of this thesis. The analysis recommends a

  17. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be... test data are observed. At all test conditions the intake mixture shall contain 1.5 ±0.1 percent,...

  18. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be... test data are observed. At all test conditions the intake mixture shall contain 1.5 ±0.1 percent,...

  19. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  20. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  1. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  2. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  3. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard will conduct a public meeting on the International.... ADDRESSES: The public meeting will be held in Room 2501 of the United States Coast Guard Headquarters... Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems...

  4. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of...

  5. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-scale deflection. The precision is defined as two times the standard deviation of five repetitive... mean response to a zero calibration gas shall not exceed ±3 percent of full-scale deflection during a 1... calibration response shall be less than ±3 percent of full scale during a 1-hour period. The...

  7. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The... Engineers, Inc. (SAE) Recommended Practice J1151, “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography,” December... chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection....

  8. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrocarbon (THC) (hydrocarbon plus methanol in the case of methanol-fueled vehicles), methane (CH4) (for... of nitrogen (NOX). The schematic diagram of the continuous THC analysis train (and for THC plus... determination of THC, a methane analyzer (consisting of a gas chromatograph combined with a FID) for...

  9. Fast exhaust channel optical absorption method and apparatus to study the gas exchange in large diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattulainen, J.; Hernberg, R.; Hattar, C.; Gros, S.

    1998-01-01

    An optical absorption spectroscopic method and apparatus with shorter than 1 ms response time have been used to study the gas exchange processes in realistic conditions for a single cylinder of a large diesel engine. The method is based on measuring the differential line-of-sight optical uv absorption of the exhaust-gas-contained SO2 as a function of time in the exhaust port area just after the exhaust valves. The optical absorption by SO2 is determined from light transmission measurements at 280 and 340 nm performed through optical probes installed into the exhaust channel wall. The method has been applied to a continuously fired, large, medium speed production-line-type diesel engine with 990 kW rated power. The test engine was operated with standard light fuel oil (MDO Termoshell) and with light fuel oil treated with a sulfur additive {Di-Tert-Butyldisulfid [(CH3)3C]2S2}. The latter was to improve the optical absorption signals without increasing the fouling of the exhaust channel optical probes as in the case of heavier fuel oil qualities. In the reported case of a four-stroke diesel engine measurement results show that the method can provide time-resolved information of the SO2 density in the exhaust channel and thus give information on the single-cylinder gas exchange. During the inlet and exhaust valve overlap period the moment of fresh air entering into the measurement volume can be detected. If independent exhaust gas temperature and pressure data are available, the absorption measurements can readily be used for determining the burnt gas fraction in the exhaust channel. In this work the possibility of using the optical absorption measurement to determine the instaneous exhaust gas temperature was studied. Based on known fuel properties and conventional averaged SO2 measurements from the exhaust channel a known concentration of SO2 was assumed in the exhaust gas after the exhaust valves opening and before the inlet and exhaust valves overlap period

  10. Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Schmieg, Steven J.; Blint, Richard J.; Den, Ling; Viola, Michael B.; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2011-08-30

    A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

  11. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  12. Reduction of NOx and PM in marine diesel engine exhaust gas using microwave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, W.; FInst, P.; Manivannan, N.; Beleca, R.; Abbod, M.

    2015-10-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energetic electrons (1-3eV) are produced for the generation of non-thermal plasma (NTP). 2kW gen-set diesel exhaust gas was used to test our pilot-scale MW plasma reactor. The experimental results show that almost 100% removal of NO is possible for the exhaust gas flow rate of 60l/s. It was also shown that MW can significantly remove soot particles (PM, 10nm to 365nm) entrained in the exhaust gas of 200kW marine diesel engine with 40% engine load and gas flow rate of 130l/s. MW without generating plasma showed reduction up to 50% reduction of PM and with the plasma up to 90% reduction. The major challenge in these experiments was that igniting the desired plasma and sustaining it with passive electrodes for longer period (10s of minutes) as it required fine tuning of electrode position, which was influenced by many factors such as gas flow rate, geometry of reactor and MW power.

  13. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  14. Elimination of methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process by immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Min; Yang, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Fu, Shan-Fei; Sun, Meng-Ting; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-01-13

    Biogas upgrading is essential for the comprehensive utilization of biogas as substitute of natural gas. However, the methane in the biogas can be fully recovered during the upgrading process of biogas, and the exhaust gas produced during biogas upgrading may contain a very low concentration of methane. If the exhaust gas with low concentration methane releases to atmosphere, it will be harmful to environment. In addition, the utilization of large amounts of digestate produced from biogas plant is another important issue for the development of biogas industry. In this study, solid digestate was used to produce active carbon, which was subsequently used as immobilized material for methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in biofilter. Biofilter with MOB immobilized on active carbon was used to eliminate the methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed porous active carbon was successfully made from solid digestate. The final methane elimination capacity of immobilized MOB reached about 13molh(-1)m(-3), which was more 4 times higher than that of MOB without immobilization.

  15. Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission/transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marran, David F.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Neira, Jorge; Markham, James R.; Rutka, Ronald; Strange, Richard R.

    2001-02-01

    12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high acoustical noise and vibration, considerable temperature swings in the ambient with engine operation), providing quantitative gas phase information. Measurements were made through the diameter of the engine's one meter exhaust plume, about 0.7 meters downstream of the engine exit plane. The sensor performed near simultaneous infrared transmission and infrared emission measurements through the centerline of the plume. Automated analysis of the emission and transmission spectra provided the temperature and concentration information needed for engine tuning and control that will ensure optimal engine operation and reduced emissions. As a demonstration of the utility and accuracy of the technique, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, water, and carbon dioxide were quantified in spite of significant variations in the exhaust gas temperature. At some conditions, unburned fuel, particulates (soot/fuel droplets), methane, ethylene and aldehydes were identified, but not yet quantified.

  16. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  17. Batch-processed semiconductor gas sensor array for the selective detection of NOx in automotive exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hani; Kim, Minki; Kim, Yongjun

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports on a semiconductor gas sensor array to detect nitrogen oxides (NOx) in automotive exhaust gas. The proposed semiconductor gas sensor array consisted of one common electrode and three individual electrodes to minimize the size of the sensor array, and three sensing layers [TiO2 + SnO2 (15 wt%), SnO2, and Ga2O3] were deposited using screen printing. In addition, sensing materials were sintered under the same conditions in order to take advantage of batch processing. The sensing properties of the proposed sensor array were verified by experimental measurements, and the selectivity improved by using pattern recognition.

  18. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong

    2015-07-07

    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  19. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  20. The Measurement of Fuel-air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124

  1. The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C.; Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.

  2. Fiber-optic exhaust-gas sensor based on the fluorescence characteristics of Cu containing zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, Jeffrey

    2000-03-01

    A single catalyst in the exhaust system can reduce the concentration of toxic gases emitted by automobiles if the engine is operated close to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. This is accomplished through the use of an electrochemical oxygen sensor in the exhaust stream. Near the stoichiometric point, this sensor produces a step-function response when the exhaust gas transitions from an oxygen-poor to an oxygen-rich condition. This talk describes a different kind of sensor based on the use of copper-containing zeolites that produces a proportional output. Zeolites are a class of aluminosilicate materials that have an open 3D structure containing channels and cavities. The Al sites are negatively charged and are generally compensated by cations present during formation of the zeolite. Our experiments use a zeolite designated Cu-ZSM-5, which has the protons originally present in the ZSM-5 material replaced with cupric (Cu^+2) ions. Exposure of this zeolite to a reducing gas results in the conversion of some cupric ions to cuprous (Cu^+1) ions. Subsequent exposure of the zeolite to an oxidizing gas reverses this reaction. The use of this material as a gas sensor is based on the observation that cuprous ions produce a green fluorescent emission when exposed to blue light, whereas no fluorescence is observed from cupric ions. Monitoring the fluorescence of Cu-ZSM-5 placed in a gas stream can thus provide information on the gas's reductant-to-oxidant ratio. We present the results of high temperature in-situ fluorescence spectra, intensity, and reponse-time measurements performed on samples of Cu-ZSM-5 exposed to various O_2-reductant combinations and also discuss data obtained from a single-fiber prototype sensor fabricated using a sol-gel processing technique.(J.T. Remillard et al.), Appl. Opt. 38 5306 (1999).

  3. A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

  4. Integrated exhaust gas analysis system for aircraft turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated exhaust gas analysis system was designed and installed in the hot-section facility at the Lewis Research Center. The system is designed to operate either manually or automatically and also to be operated from a remote station. The system measures oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Two microprocessors control the system and the analyzers, collect data and process them into engineering units, and present the data to the facility computers and the system operator. Within the design of this system there are innovative concepts and procedures that are of general interest and application to other gas analysis tasks.

  5. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  6. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the...

  9. Effects of chronic exposure to diluted automotive exhaust gas on the CNS of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, W; Thron, N L; Ast, D; Köhler, P R

    1981-01-01

    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, attention during the last years has been increasingly focused on the possible effects in high-risk groups of the population. In order to evaluated this point further, the combined influence of both, chronic arterial hypertension and long-time exhaust gas exposure on the CNS has been studied. Both, normotensive Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 hours per week for up to 18 months to atmospheres polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine with CO concentrations held constant at about 0,90 and 250 ppm, respectively. Biochemical data, body weight, and blood pressure were checked regularly. Characteristic histomorphological findings in the non-exposed SHR brains were hyalinosis and hyperplasia of intracerebral arterioles and -- in some cases -- small focal hemorrhages and infarcts. In the exposed SHR brains, large infarcts of the hemisphere and in the basal ganglia were found, which possibly corresponds to the increase of the mortality rate in SHR. We assume that the increase hematocrit plays an important role in the disturbance of microcirculation of the CNS.

  10. Air intake contamination by building exhausts: tracer gas investigation of atmospheric dispersion models in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Lazure, Louis; Saathoff, Pat; Stathopoulos, Ted

    2002-02-01

    The establishment of a safe distance between sources of pollution and air intakes is based on a complex exercise that should take into account several wind, physical, and topographical factors. To estimate the maximum concentrations of the pollutants as a function of the distance from the emission source, some heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers use the atmospheric dispersion models suggested by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Two of these models, the Halitsky and Wilson-Chui-Lamb models, have been developed and evaluated mainly with laboratory data. There have been relatively few evaluations with full-scale field data. The objective of this study, carried out on a building in downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was to compare the measured concentrations of a tracer gas emitted by an exhaust stack with those predicted by these models. The results indicate that the Halitsky model gives lower than actual dilution, while the Wilson-Chui-Lamb model generally gives acceptable estimates, with occasional over-estimations of the dilution.

  11. Environmental policy constraints for acidic exhaust gas scrubber discharges from ships.

    PubMed

    Ülpre, H; Eames, I

    2014-11-15

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels onboard ships (International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulation 14) can be met by either refining the fuel to reduce sulphur content or by scrubbing the exhaust gases. Commonly used open loop marine scrubbers discharge warm acidic exhaust gas wash water into the sea, depressing its pH. The focus on this paper is on the physics and chemistry behind the disposal of acidic discharges in seawater. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 59/24/Add.1 Annex 9) requires the wash water to reach a pH greater than 6.5 at a distance of 4m from the point of discharge. We examine the engineering constraints, specifically size and number of ports, to identify the challenges of meeting regulatory compliance.

  12. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  13. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  14. Conversion of an Existing Gas Turbine to an Intercooled Exhaust-Heated Coal-Burning Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    possibilities of using biomass is also included. The engine chosen for conversion is the 2.8 MW F olar 5650 industrial gas turbine. The conversion... alkali -laden gas which can result in particulate and chemical action on the turbine as well as pollution. Particulate matter has a powerful erosive effect...rate is then adjusted by altering the pressure difference between the tank and the carrier line at the orifice [45]. Pretreatment of the coal is

  15. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  16. Multiple Exhaust Nozzle Effects on J-2X Gas Generator Outlet Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Muss, Jeffrey; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The current test setup of the J-2X gas generator system uses a multiple nozzle configuration to exhaust hot gases to drive the propellant supply turbines. Combustion stability assessment of this gas generator design requires knowledge of the impedance effects the multiple nozzle configuration creates on the combustion chamber acoustic modes. Parallel work between NASA and Sierra Engineering is presented, showing two methods used to calculate the effective end impedance resulting from multiple nozzle configurations. The NASA method is a simple estimate of the effective impedance using the long wavelength approximation. Sierra Engineering has developed a more robust numerical integration method implemented in ROCCID to accommodate for multiple nozzles. Analysis using both methods are compared to J-2X gas generator test data collected over the past year.

  17. Accounting for exhaust gas transport dynamics in instantaneous emission models via smooth transition regression.

    PubMed

    Kamarianakis, Yiannis; Gao, H Oliver

    2010-02-15

    Collecting and analyzing high frequency emission measurements has become very usual during the past decade as significantly more information with respect to formation conditions can be collected than from regulated bag measurements. A challenging issue for researchers is the accurate time-alignment between tailpipe measurements and engine operating variables. An alignment procedure should take into account both the reaction time of the analyzers and the dynamics of gas transport in the exhaust and measurement systems. This paper discusses a statistical modeling framework that compensates for variable exhaust transport delay while relating tailpipe measurements with engine operating covariates. Specifically it is shown that some variants of the smooth transition regression model allow for transport delays that vary smoothly as functions of the exhaust flow rate. These functions are characterized by a pair of coefficients that can be estimated via a least-squares procedure. The proposed models can be adapted to encompass inherent nonlinearities that were implicit in previous instantaneous emissions modeling efforts. This article describes the methodology and presents an illustrative application which uses data collected from a diesel bus under real-world driving conditions.

  18. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

    2012-09-01

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  19. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  20. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies.

  1. Unit for combustion of process exhaust gas and production of hot air

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, J.O.; Eriksson, T.L.; Nystrom, O.

    1982-12-07

    Unit for thermal incineration of non-explosive gases with minor amounts of organic pollutants and for production of hot air, and which can be adapted to various types of supplementary fuel. There is a combustion chamber which consists of a flame pipe inside an outer jacket. Through the space therebetween, incoming process gas is led as coolant. At its front end, the combustion chamber has a burner for supplementary fuel and a mixing-in zone for process gas. The process gas rapidly mixes with the hot combustion gases in the flame, the gas reaching its reaction temperature directly. Powerful turbulence in the mixing-in zone gas, film-layer cooling, convective cooling and even flow give highly efficient and pure combustion while keeping the flame pipe temperature low enough to prevent corrosion.

  2. Economic recovery and utilization of boiler flue gas pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.; Sackett, R.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a method of removing unwanted pollutants from flue gas streams from power plants. It comprises passing flue gas containing lime, sulphur dioxide and water in succession through at least three vertically extending beds of particulates, the particulates being disposed in a duct such that the flue gas is passed through substantially all of the particulates, reacting lime, sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form gypsum at a first bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form sulphuric acid, and collecting sulphuric acid below its condensation temperature at a second bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide in the flue gas with an alkali material to form bisulphites and bisulphates at a third bed of particulates; and removing the pollutants from the particulates of the beds.

  3. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  4. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  5. Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Paul Albert

    2010-11-01

    Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

  6. Alternative catalyst and exhaust gas sensor work at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Iton, L.E.; Maroni, V.A.; Dieckman, S.L.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    Research programs at Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of automobile emissions monitoring and control are described. The mandate to improve automobile efficiency while reducing Pollution requires the development of new catalysts for exhaust emissions control that are capable of functioning efficiently under lean-burn engine operating conditions. It is also desirable that the use of expensive noble metal catalysts be avoided. NO{sub x} emissions will not be efficiently controlled by the current three-way, supported noble metal catalysts under lean-burn conditions. New catalysts are being sought that could effect the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by exhaust hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen. Molecular sieve zeolites of the ZSM-5 and ferrierite types, ion-exchanged with copper ions, are the best of the catalysts known to effect this chemistry, but the mechanism of the SCR is still not understood. In this project the authors will first undertake the investigation of the SCR of NO using model reactions to test postulated mechanistic pathways. Initial experiments have been devised to investigate the possible participation of metal alkyl complexes, metal oxime complexes, N-alkyl-N-nitroso-alkylaminato-metal complexes, and metal nitrile complexes in the zeolites. ANL will also develop microsensors, based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensing techniques, and a micro mass-spectrometer (MS) for tailpipe or engine-out emission monitoring. The sensor configurations and sensing techniques of the proposed SAW and micro-MS are described.

  7. Role of snow and cold environment in the fate and effects of nanoparticles and select organic pollutants from gasoline engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Kurien, Uday; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo B; Ariya, Parisa A

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to vehicle exhaust can drive up to 70 % of excess lifetime cancer incidences due to air pollution in urban environments. Little is known about how exhaust-derived particles and organic pollutants, implicated in adverse health effects, are affected by freezing ambient temperatures and the presence of snow. Airborne particles and (semi)volatile organic constituents in dilute exhaust were studied in a novel low-temperature environmental chamber system containing natural urban snow under controlled cold environmental conditions. The presence of snow altered the aerosol size distributions of dilute exhaust in the 10 nm to 10 μm range and decreased the number density of the nanoparticulate (<100 nm) fraction of exhaust aerosols, yet increased the 100-150 nm fraction. Upon 1 hour exhaust exposure, the total organic carbon increased in the natural snow from 0.218 ± 0.014 to 0.539 ± 0.009 mg L(-1), and over 40 additional (semi)volatile organic compounds and a large number of exhaust-derived carbonaceous and likely organic particles were identified. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) increased from near the detection limit to 52.48, 379.5, 242.7, and 238.1 μg kg(-1) (± 10 %), respectively, indicating the absorption of exhaust-derived toxic organic compounds by snow. The alteration of exhaust aerosol size distributions at freezing temperatures and in the presence of snow, accompanied by changes of the organic pollutant content in snow, has potential to alter health effects of human exposure to vehicle exhaust.

  8. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; Summers, Cathy A [Albany, OR; Gerdemann, Steve [Albany, OR; Oryshchyn, Danylo B [Philomath, OR; Turner, Paul [Independence, OR; Patrick, Brian R [Chicago, IL

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  9. Toward gas exhaustion in the W51 high-mass protoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, A.; Goss, W. M.; Goddi, C.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Dale, J. E.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. D.; Youngblood, A.; Sankrit, R.; Smith, R.; Darling, J.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Liu, H. B.

    2016-10-01

    We present new JVLA observations of the high-mass cluster-forming region W51A from 2 to 16 GHz with resolution θfwhm ≈ 0.3-0.5″. The data reveal a wealth of observational results: (1) Currently forming, very massive (proto-O) stars are traced by o - H2CO21,1-21,2 emission, suggesting that this line can be used efficiently as a massive protostar tracer; (2) there is a spatially distributed population of ≲mJy continuum sources, including hypercompact H ii regions and candidate colliding wind binaries, in and around the W51 proto-clusters; and (3) there are two clearly detected protoclusters, W51e and W51 IRS2, that are gas-rich but may have most of their mass in stars within their inner ≲0.05 pc. The majority of the bolometric luminosity in W51 most likely comes from a third population of OB stars between these clusters. The presence of a substantial population of exposed O-stars coincident with a population of still-forming massive stars, together with a direct measurement of the low mass loss rate via ionized gas outflow from W51 IRS2, implies that feedback is ineffective at halting star formation in massive protoclusters. Instead, feedback may shut off the large-scale accretion of diffuse gas onto the W51 protoclusters, implying that they are evolving toward a state of gas exhaustion rather than gas expulsion. Recent theoretical models predict gas exhaustion to be a necessary step in the formation of gravitationally bound stellar clusters, and our results provide an observational validation of this process. This paper and all related analysis code are available on the web at http://https://github.com/adamginsburg/paper_w51_evlaTable A.1 and final data (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A27

  10. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  11. Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the exhaust gas flow in a diesel power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a numerical study of heat transfer in the exhaust duct of a diesel power generator. The analysis was performed using two different approaches: the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the Finite Volume Method (FVM), this last one by means of a commercial computer software, ANSYS CFX®. In FDM, the energy conservation equation was solved taking into account the estimated velocity profile for fully developed turbulent flow inside a tube and literature correlations for heat transfer. In FVM, the mass conservation, momentum, energy and transport equations were solved for turbulent quantities by the K-ω SST model. In both methods, variable properties were considered for the exhaust gas composed by six species: CO2, H2O, H2, O2, CO and N2. The entry conditions for the numerical simulations were given by experimental data available. The results were evaluated for the engine operating under loads of 0, 10, 20, and 37.5 kW. Test mesh and convergence were performed to determine the numerical error and uncertainty of the simulations. The results showed a trend of increasing temperature gradient with load increase. The general behaviour of the velocity and temperature profiles obtained by the numerical models were similar, with some divergence arising due to the assumptions made for the resolution of the models.

  12. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  13. Impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the oxidative reactivity of diesel engine soot

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Boehman, Andre L.

    2008-12-15

    This paper expands the consideration of the factors affecting the nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of diesel soot to include the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Past work showed that soot derived from oxygenated fuels such as biodiesel carries some surface oxygen functionality and thereby possesses higher reactivity than soot from conventional diesel fuel. In this work, results show that EGR exerts a strong influence on the physical properties of the soot which leads to enhanced oxidation rate. HRTEM images showed a dramatic difference between the burning modes of the soot generated under 0 and 20% EGR. The soot produced under 0% EGR strictly followed an external burning mode with no evidence of internal burning. In contrast, soot generated under 20% EGR exhibited dual burning modes: slow external burning and rapid internal burning. The results demonstrate clearly that highly reactive soot can be achieved by manipulating the physical properties of the soot via EGR. (author)

  14. Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

  15. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health.

  16. Automobile exhaust gas as a source of aqueous phase OH radical in the atmosphere and its effects on physiological status of pine trees.

    PubMed

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshihide; Nakatani, Nobutake

    2011-10-01

    Free radical generation potential of automobile exhaust gas was examined by measuring hydroxyl (OH) radical photo-formation rates in exhaust gas-scrubbing water. Effects of automobile exhausts on physiological status of Japanese red pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) were also investigated to elucidate the mechanism how the free radicals derived from exhaust gas damage higher plants. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases were scrubbed into pure water. Potential photo-formation rates of OH radical in aqueous phase (normalized to sun light intensity of clear sky midday on May 1 at 34°N) for gasoline and diesel cars were ave. 51 and 107 μ Mh⁻¹ m⁻³ of exhaust gas, respectively. Nitrite was a dominant source (ca. 70-90%) of photochemical formation of OH radical in both gasoline and diesel car exhausts. The scrubbed solution of diesel car exhaust gas was sprayed for six times per week to needles of pine tree seedlings in open top chambers. Control, exhaust+mannitol (added as OH radical scavenger), and nitrite+nitrate standard solution (equivalent levels existed in the exhaust gas) were also sprayed. Two months sprays indicated that the sprayed solutions of diesel exhaust and nitrite+nitrate caused a decrease of maximum photosynthetic rate and stomata conductance in pine needles while the control and exhaust+mannitol solution showed no effects on photosynthetic activities of pine needles. These results indicated that OH radicals generated mainly from photolysis of nitrite occurring in the scrubbing solution of exhaust gas are responsible for the decrease of photosynthetic activities of pine needles.

  17. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-05-17

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  18. Effects of lead pollution from vehicular exhaust fumes against sentinel juvenile Achatina achatina.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, I E; Ologhobo, A D

    2008-11-01

    We investigated lead metal pollution induced by traffic fumes along roads with differing traffic intensity near abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Juvenile Achatina achatina were positioned as sentinels in plastic snaileries 2 m on road sides. Lead contamination in snail tissue by atomic absorption spectrophotometer increased with increasing vehicular traffic intensity. Snails showed low positive (r (2) = 0.40) relationship and significant (p < 0.05) accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution. Edible snails sold along road sides are prone to lead contamination.

  19. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  20. Calculations of economy of 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine with exhaust-gas turbine geared to the crankshaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, Richard W; Zimmerman, Richard H

    1945-01-01

    Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.

  1. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles... the THC probe be free from cold spots (i.e., free from spots where the probe wall temperature is less... common sample pump is used for all analyzers and the sample line system design reflects good...

  2. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles... the THC probe be free from cold spots (i.e., free from spots where the probe wall temperature is less... common sample pump is used for all analyzers and the sample line system design reflects good...

  3. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Content of Fuel Gas Constituents 1 Table 1 to Subpart Ja of Part 60 Protection of Environment... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol Methane (CH4) 7.29 842 Ethane (C2H6) 12.96 1,475 Hydrogen (H2) 1.61 269 Ethene (C2H4) 11.34 1,335...

  5. Dynamic Test Bed Analysis of Gas Energy Balance for a Diesel Exhaust System Fit with a Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Dobrzyński, Michal

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the energy balance for an exhaust system of a diesel engine fit with an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design has been carried out. A special measurement system and dedicated software were developed to measure the power generated by the modules. The research object was a 1.3-l small diesel engine with power output of 66 kW. The tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed that allows reproduction of an actual driving cycle expressed as a function V = f(t), simulating drivetrain (clutch, transmission) operating characteristics, vehicle geometrical parameters, and driver behavior. Measurements of exhaust gas thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and mass flow) as well as the voltage and current generated by the thermoelectric modules were performed during tests of our own design. Based on the results obtained, the flow of exhaust gas energy in the entire exhaust system was determined along with the ATEG power output. The ideal area of the exhaust system for location of the ATEG was defined to ensure the highest thermal energy recovery efficiency.

  6. First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rönkkö, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lähde, T; Heikkilä, J; Keskinen, J

    2012-10-16

    To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes.

  7. Exhaust-stack nozzle area and shape for individual cylinder exhaust-gas jet-propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Turner, Richard; Voss, Fred; Humble, Leroy V

    1943-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted on the effect of exhaust-stack nozzle area, shape, and length on engine power, jet thrust, and gain in net thrust (engine propeller plus jet). Single-cylinder engine data were obtained using three straight stacks 25, 44, and 108 inches in length; an S-shaped stack, a 90 degree bend, a 180 degree bend, and a short straight stack having a closed branch faired into it. Each stack was fitted with nozzles varying in exit area from 0.91 square inch to the unrestricted area of the stack of 4.20 square inches. The engine was generally operated over a range of engine speeds from 1300 to 2100 r.p.m, inlet-manifold pressures from 22 to 30 inches of mercury absolute, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.08. The loss in engine power, the jet thrust, and the gain in net thrust are correlated in terms of several simple parameters. An example is given for determining the optimum nozzle area and the overall net thrust.

  8. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  9. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  10. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  11. Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

  12. Development of techniques to characterize particulates emitted from gas turbine exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. P.; Hilton, M.; Waterman, D. R.; Black, J. D.

    2003-07-01

    Particles emitted from aircraft play a role in the formation of contrails and it is essential to characterize them to understand the physical and chemical processes that are happening. Current methods for measuring aircraft particulate emissions study the reflectance of samples collected in filter papers. A series of experiments to more fully characterize particulates has been performed on a small-scale gas turbine engine. An intrusive sampling system conforming to current ICAO regulations for aircraft emissions was used with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Non-intrusive measurements were made using laser induced incandescence (LII) and samples were taken from the exhaust to analyse using a transmission electron microscope. Results obtained from different techniques showed good agreement with each other. As engine power conditions increased, both the SMPS and LII indicated that the mass of soot had decreased. Differences were observed between measurements of diluted and undiluted samples. The mean particle size decreased with dilution but the size distribution became bi-modal. The study has shown how significant the sampling environment is for measuring particulates and careful techniques need to be used to ensure that accurate, consistent results can be obtained.

  13. Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P

    2008-01-01

    A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120). The effect of the EGR components CO2 and H2O was to suppress the compression temperature because of their higher heat capacities, which retarded SOC. For a concentration of O2 higher than the stoichiometric amount, or excess O2, there was an effect of advancing SOC for n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, but SOC for ethanol was not advanced. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) for n-heptane was also found to be highly dependent on excess O2, and mild endothermic reaction was observed for cases when excess O2 was not present.

  14. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, Brian R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 μm in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  15. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology.

  16. Vascular and Cardiac Impairments in Rats Inhaling Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background -Mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries from exposure to gas and particulate air pollutants are unknown. Objective -We hypothesized that episodic exposure of rats to ozone or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) will cause differential cardiovascular impairments, which will b...

  17. Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results.

  18. Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  19. Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2011-12-01

    We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

  20. Practical Possibilities of High-Altitude Flight with Exhaust-Gas Turbines in Connection with Spark Ignition Engines Comparative Thermodynamic and Flight Mechanical Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weise, A.

    1947-01-01

    As a means of preparing for high-altitude flight with spark-ignition engines in conjunction with exhaust-gas turbosuperchargers, various methods of modifying the exhaust-gas temperatures, which are initially higher than a turbine can withstand are mathematically compared. The thermodynamic results first obtained are then examined with respect to the effect on flight speed, climbing speed, ceiling, economy, and cruising range. The results are so presented in a generalized form that they may be applied to every appropriate type of aircraft design and a comparison with the supercharged engine without exhaust-gas turbine can be made.

  1. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  2. Exposure to hazardous volatile pollutants back diffusing from automobile exhaust systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-11-30

    As back diffusion gases from automobiles are significant sources of in-vehicular pollution, we investigated eight automobiles, five for back diffusion (driving) measurements and three for reference conditions (non-driving). To characterize the back diffusion emission conditions, seven volatile organic compounds (VOC) and four carbonyl compounds (CCs) were measured along with dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio. The data obtained from back diffusion measurements were examined after having been divided into three subcategories: (i) driving and non-driving, (ii) with and without automobile upgrading (sealing the inner line), and (iii) differences in CO emission levels. Among the VOCs, the concentrations of toluene (T) was found to be the highest (range: 13.6-155 ppb), while benzene (0.19-1.47 ppb) was hardly distinguishable from its ambient levels. Other VOCs (xylene, trimethylbenzene, and styrene) were generally below <1 ppb. Unlike VOCs, the concentrations (ppb) of CCs were seen at fairly enhanced levels: 30.1-95 (formaldehyde), 34.6-87.2 (acetaldehyde), 4.56-34.7 (propionaldehyde), and 3.45-68.8 (butyraldehyde). The results of our study suggest that the back diffusion phenomenon, if occurring, can deteriorate in-vehicle air, especially with the most imminent health hazards from a compound such as formaldehyde in view of its exceedance pattern over common guidelines.

  3. A temperature correlation for the radiation resistance of a thick-walled circular duct exhausting a hot gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Cline, J. G.; Jones, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is often useful to know the radiation impedance of an unflanged but thick-walled circular duct exhausting a hot gas into relatively cold surroundings. The reactive component is shown to be insensitive to temperature, but the resistive component is shown to be temperature dependent. A temperature correlation is developed permitting prediction of the radiation resistance from a knowledge of the temperature difference between the ambient air and the gas flowing from the duct, and a physical basis for this correlation is presented.

  4. *GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

  5. Role of average speed in N₂O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?

    PubMed

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

    2012-05-15

    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems.

  6. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a potential human cancer hazard in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust and urban air pollution is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone [3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one (3-NBA)] is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and ambient air particulate matter. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), was found in the urine of salt mine workers occupationally exposed to diesel emissions, indicating that human exposure to 3-NBA due to diesel emissions can be significant and is detectable. There is clear evidence that 3-NBA is a genotoxic mutagen forming DNA adducts after metabolic activation through simple reduction of the nitro group. Several human enzymes have been shown to activate 3-NBA and its metabolites in vitro and in cells to form electrophilic arylnitrenium and rearranged carbenium ions, leading to the formation of purine adducts at the C8 and N2 position of guanine and at the C8 and N6 position of adenine. The predominant DNA adducts in vivo, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone are also the most persistent adducts in target tissue in rodents, and are most probably responsible for the induction of GC-->TA transversion mutations observed in vivo. It is concluded that these adducts not only represent premutagenic lesions in DNA but are of primary importance for the initiation of the carcinogenic process and subsequent tumour formation in target tissue. Indeed, 3-NBA is carcinogenic in rats after intratracheal instillation, inducing mainly squamous cell carcinoma in lung. The intention of this article is to provide a critical review on the potential genotoxic effects of 3-NBA on human health. However, in general, there is a need for more mechanistic studies that relate 3-NBA to all processes that are considered to orchestrate tumour development and of studies on the ability of particles to promote 3-NBA

  7. MODELING THE POLLUTION OF PRISTINE GAS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Liubin; Scannapieco, Evan; Scalo, Jon E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu

    2013-10-01

    We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z{sub c}, which lies between ∼10{sup –6} and ∼10{sup –3} Z{sub ☉}. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z{sub c}, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z{sub c}, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized 'self-convolution' model, which predicts that P-dot = - (n/τ{sub con}) P (1-P{sup 1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale τ{sub con} is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and τ{sub con} as a function of M, Z{sub c}/(Z), and the length scale, L{sub p}, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how

  8. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  9. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  10. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... apply for aircraft engines manufactured before July 18, 2012 and certain engines exempted under §...

  11. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... apply for aircraft engines manufactured before July 18, 2012 and certain engines exempted under §...

  12. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  13. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution.

  14. Pollutant emissions from and within a model gas turbine combustor at elevated pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drennan, S. A.; Peterson, C. O.; Khatib, F. M.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional and advanced gas turbine engines are coming under increased scrutiny regarding pollutant emissions. This, in turn, has created a need to obtain in-situ experimental data at practical conditions, as well as exhaust data, and to obtain the data in combustors that reflect modern designs. The in-situ data are needed to (1) assess the effects of design modifications on pollutant formation, and (2) develop a detailed data base on combustor performance for the development and verification of computer modeling. This paper reports on a novel high pressure, high temperature facility designed to acquire such data under controlled conditions and with access (optical and extractive) for in-situ measurements. To evaluate the utility of the facility, a model gas turbine combustor was selected which features practical hardware design, two rows of jets (primary and dilution) with four jets in each row, and advanced wall cooling techniques with laser drilled effusive holes. The dome is equipped with a flat-vaned swirler with vane angles of 60 degrees. Data are obtained at combustor pressures ranging from 2 to 10 atmospheres of pressure, levels of air preheat to 427 C, combustor reference velocities from 10.0 to 20.0 m/s, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.3. Exit plane and in-situ measurements are presented for HC, O2, CO2, CO, and NO(x). The exit plane emissions of NO(x) correspond to levels reported from practical combustors and the in-situ data demonstrate the utility and potential for detailed flow field measurements.

  15. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust... for analyzing CVS bag samples from compression- ignition engines. Since various configurations can... engines to 191 °C ±6 °C) for the measurement of hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR)...

  16. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test... CVS grab “bag” samples from spark-ignition engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust temperature... 125 °F (52 °C) or less and shall prevent the condensation of water vapor in the dilution tunnel. (2... taken, at a temperature of 125 °F (52 °C) or less and shall prevent the condensation of water vapor...

  18. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... action revises the standards for oxides of nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... Protection (CAEP) of ICAO uses to differentiate the CAEP work cycles that produce new standards. For...

  19. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  20. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  1. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in themore » intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less

  2. Impact of oxidation catalysts on exhaust NO2/NOx ratio from lean-burn natural gas engines.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Daniel B; Kohls, Morgan; Arney, Gregg

    2010-07-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and (2) when an oxidation catalyst is used. Large NO2/NOx ratios may result in additional uncertainty in NOx emissions measurements because the most common technique (chemiluminescence) was developed for low NO2/NOx ratios. In this work, scenarios are explored in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be large. Additionally, three NOx measurement approaches are compared for exhaust with various NO2/NOx ratios. The three measurement approaches are chemiluminescence, chemical cell, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A portable analyzer with chemical cell technology was found to be the most accurate for measuring exhaust NOx with large NO2/NOx ratios.

  3. The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter.

  4. Gas-solid chromatographic analysis of automobile tailpipe emissions as a function of different engine and exhaust system modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, L.; Armstrong, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    The authors developed a single, relatively short gas-solid chromatographic PLOT column and used it to separate aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some inorganic gases (O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}) found in automobile exhaust. In the case of hydrocarbons, both aliphatic and aromatic components (up through alkylated-benzenes) were done in one run. Subambient temperature was needed for the oxygen-nitrogen separation, but they were easily resolved from each other and the other compounds present. The effects of different engine and exhaust system modifications on the level of compounds in the exhaust were tested. The concentrations of the emission gases varied considerably with changes in air/fuel ratio, coil voltage, use of catalytic converters and so forth. The results showed that the use of catalytic converter and a higher voltage coil tended to produce the most pronounced decreases in emissions of hydrocarbons and the catalytic converter produced the significant decrease in carbon monoxide concentrations. The results of the GSC analyses were compared to those of a commercial emission analyzer (i.e., sniffer). They showed similar trends and relative concentrations but somewhat different absolute concentrations. This may have been due to differences in the calibration of these methods.

  5. 40 CFR 1036.241 - Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY... factors must take into account any available data from in-use testing with similar engines. Apply... specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust...

  6. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  7. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald S [Basking Ridge, NJ; Moini, Ahmad [Princeton, NJ; Furbeck, Howard [Hamilton, NJ; Castellano, Christopher R [Ringoes, NJ

    2012-05-08

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

  8. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard; Schmieg, Steven J.; Blint, Richard J.

    2011-05-17

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

  9. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  10. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase.

  11. A Preliminary Study on Designing and Testing of an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Powered by Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitupulu, F. H.; Daulay, F. A.; Dedy, P. M.; Denis; Jecson

    2017-03-01

    In order to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas of a combustion engine, an adsorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. This is a preliminary study on design and testing of a prototype of absorption refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion engine. The heat source of the cycle is a compression ignition engine which generates 122.36 W of heat in generator of the cycle. The pairs of absorbent and refrigerant are water and ammonia. Here the generator is made of a shell and tube heat exchanger with number of tube and its length are 20 and 0.69 m, respectively. In the experiments the exhaust gas, with a mass flow rate of 0.00016 kg/s, enters the generator at 110°C and leaves it at 72°C. Here, the solution is heated from 30°C to 90°C. In the evaporator, the lowest temperature can be reached is 17.9°C and COP of the system is 0.45. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that the proposed system can be used to recycle the waste heat and produced cooling. However, the COP is still low.

  12. Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

    2002-08-25

    Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography..., “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography.” (Incorporated by reference pursuant to § 86.1(b)(2).) (ii) For natural gas vehicles, the manufacturer has the option of using gas chromatography to measure...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography..., “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography.” (Incorporated by reference pursuant to § 86.1(b)(2).) (ii) For natural gas vehicles, the manufacturer has the option of using gas chromatography to measure...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography..., “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography.” (Incorporated by reference pursuant to § 86.1(b)(2).) (ii) For natural gas vehicles, the manufacturer has the option of using gas chromatography to measure...

  16. CFD Investigation of Pollutant Emission in Can-Type Combustor Firing Natural Gas, LNG and Syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, H.; Fadhil, SSA; Mat Zian, N.; Om, NI

    2016-03-01

    CFD investigation of flow, combustion process and pollutant emission using natural gas, liquefied natural gas and syngas of different composition is carried out. The combustor is a can-type combustor commonly used in thermal power plant gas turbine. The investigation emphasis on the comparison of pollutant emission such in particular CO2, and NOx between different fuels. The numerical calculation for basic flow and combustion process is done using the framework of ANSYS Fluent with appropriate model assumptions. Prediction of pollutant species concentration at combustor exit shows significant reduction of CO2 and NOx for syngas combustion compared to conventional natural gas and LNG combustion.

  17. Harvesting hydrogen gas from air pollutants with an un-biased gas phase photo-electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Sammy W; Van Hal, Myrthe; Bosserez, Tom; Rongé, Jan; Hauchecorne, Birger; Martens, Johan A; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2017-02-08

    The concept of an all-gas-phase photo-electrochemical cell (PEC) producing hydrogen gas from volatile organic contaminated gas and light is presented. Without applying any external bias, organic contaminants are degraded and hydrogen gas is produced in separate electrode compartments. The system works most efficiently with organic pollutants in inert carrier gas. In the presence of oxygen gas, the cell performs less efficiently but still significant photocurrents are generated, showing the cell can be run on organic contaminated air. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate new application opportunities of PEC technology and to encourage further advancement toward photo-electrochemical remediation of air pollution with the attractive feature of simultaneous energy recovery and pollution abatement.

  18. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k

  19. 76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... 4 of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the... effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14. DATES... systems for marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex VI regulation 4 of the...

  20. Dynamic characteristics of a hydrostatic gas bearing driven by oscillating exhaust pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, C. B.; Eronini, I. E.; Branch, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    Vibration of a statically loaded, inherently compensated hydrostatic journal bearing due to oscillating exhaust pressure is investigated. Both angular and radial vibration modes are analyzed. The time-dependent Reynolds equation governing the pressure distribution between the oscillating journal and sleeve is solved together with the journal equation of motion to obtain the response characteristics of the bearing. The Reynolds equation and the equation of motion are simplified by applying regular perturbation theory for small displacements. The numerical solutions of the perturbation equations are obtained by discretizing the pressure field using finite-difference aproximations with a discrete, nonuniform line-source model which excludes effects due to feeding hole volume. An iterative scheme is used to simultaneously satisfy the equations of motion for the journal. The results presented include Bode plots of bearing-oscillation gain and phase for a particular bearing configuration for various combinations of parameters over a range of frequencies, including the resonant frequency.

  1. Effects of prevaporized fuel on exhaust emissions of an experimental gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Effects of fuel vaporization on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and smoke number were obtained in an experimental turbojet combustor segment. Two fuel injector types were used in which liquid ASTM A-1 jet fuel and vapor propane fuel were independently controlled to simulate varying degrees of vaporization. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet-air temperatures from 478 to 700 K (860 to 1260 R), pressures from 4 to 20 atmospheres, and combustor reference velocities from 15.3 to 27.4 m/sec (50 to 90 ft/sec). Converting from liquid to complete vapor fuel resulted in NOX reductions as much as 22 percent and smoke number reductions up to 51 percent.

  2. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Seya, A.; Asano, A.

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  3. Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

  4. IGR solid-state electrochemical NO sub x control for natural gas combustion exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M.; Cook, W.J. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1989-07-01

    Solid-state electrochemical technology, embodied in the IGR process, is used to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to nitrogen and oxygen, and thereby control NO{sub x} emissions from natural gas powered engines. The IGR deNO{sub x} process is based on solid-state, flow-through, high surface area, porous oxygen ion conductive ceramic electrolytes. Recent bench-scale experiments have demonstrated NO{sub x} reduction in multicomponent gas streams, the inert portion of which simulate natural gas combustion products. The reduction products were analyzed by in situ gas chromatography to verify NO{sub x} reduction rates inferred from electrochemical measurements. IGR process advantages compared with existing NO{sub x} control technologies are reviewed.

  5. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  6. Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, K.; Farooqui, A.; Srivastava, K.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J.; Behl, H.M. )

    1994-02-01

    Cuticular and epidermal features of leaves of two common plant species namely, Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeel.) growing in polluted and healthy (control) environments were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. Polluted leaf samples were collected from the plants growing near a diesel generating set used in running a tube well. The study shows that in polluted populations of Lantana camara, the trichome frequency had increased four fold. In Syzygium cuminii, the stomatal openings were filled with dust and a tendency towards callus formation was also observed. The epidermal cells were comparatively thick walled and were broken at certain places. The changes observed in the cuticular and epidermal features of polluted populations of the investigated species indicate their significance as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 40 CFR 1036.241 - Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas pollutant standards. 1036.241 Section 1036.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... HIGHWAY ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1036.241 Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for greenhouse gas emissions. Except...

  8. 40 CFR 1036.241 - Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas pollutant standards. 1036.241 Section 1036.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... HIGHWAY ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1036.241 Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for greenhouse gas emissions. Except...

  9. Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z.

    1995-06-01

    An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

  10. Non-Thermal Removal of Gaseous Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.; McGowan, J. William; Chiu, K. C. Ray

    1995-01-01

    The removal of fluorine based exhaust gases such as CFC's, PFC's, NF3, and SF6 used for plasma etching of and deposition on semi-conductors is a subject of increasing interest because of safety, air pollution, and global warming issues. Conventional treatment methods for removing exhaust gas pollutants are wet scrubbing, carbon and resin adsorption, catalytic oxidation, and thermal incineration. However, there are drawbacks associated with each of these methods which include difficulties in implementation, problems with the disposal of solid and liquid pollutant waste, large water and fuel consumption, and additional pollutants such as NOx emissions which are generated in thermal incineration processes.

  11. Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2013-10-01

    The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 μg m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution

  12. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sample gas temperature is maintained above the sample's aqueous dewpoint at all times during collection... sampling system requires dilution of the exhaust to a temperature of 47 °C ±5 °C, measured upstream of a... stream at the temperatures required for the measurement of particulate and hydrocarbon emission...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sample gas temperature is maintained above the sample's aqueous dewpoint at all times during collection... sampling system requires dilution of the exhaust to a temperature of 47 °C ±5 °C, measured upstream of a... stream at the temperatures required for the measurement of particulate and hydrocarbon emission...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sample gas temperature is maintained above the sample's aqueous dewpoint at all times during collection... sampling system requires dilution of the exhaust to a temperature of 47 °C ±5 °C, measured upstream of a... stream at the temperatures required for the measurement of particulate and hydrocarbon emission...

  15. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  16. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  17. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  18. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  19. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  20. Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

  1. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  2. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in nitrogen-methane gas mixture: PTR-MS analyzes of the exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torokova, Lucie; Mazankova, Vera; Krcma, Frantisek; Mason, Nigel J.; Matejcik, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive study of with the in situ mass spectrometry analysis of gaseous phase species produced by an atmospheric plasma glow discharge in N2-CH4 gas mixtures (with methane concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%). The products are studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). HCN and CH3CN are identified as the main gaseous products. Hydrazine, methanimine, methyldiazene, ethylamine, cyclohexadiene, pyrazineacetylene, ethylene, propyne and propene are identified as minor compounds. All the detected compounds and their relative abundances are determined with respect to the experimental conditions (gas composition and applied power). The same molecules were observed by the Cassini-Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (which has same N2-CH4 gas mixtures). Such, experiments show that the formation of such complex organics in atmospheres containing C, N and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  3. Gas flaring and resultant air pollution: A review focusing on black carbon.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olusegun G; Cai, X-M; MacKenzie, A R

    2016-09-01

    Gas flaring is a prominent source of VOCs, CO, CO2, SO2, PAH, NOX and soot (black carbon), all of which are important pollutants which interact, directly and indirectly, in the Earth's climatic processes. Globally, over 130 billion cubic metres of gas are flared annually. We review the contribution of gas flaring to air pollution on local, regional and global scales, with special emphasis on black carbon (BC, "soot"). The temporal and spatial characteristics of gas flaring distinguishes it from mobile combustion sources (transport), while the open-flame nature of gas flaring distinguishes it from industrial point-sources; the high temperature, flame control, and spatial compactness distinguishes gas flaring from both biomass burning and domestic fuel-use. All of these distinguishing factors influence the quantity and characteristics of BC production from gas flaring, so that it is important to consider this source separately in emissions inventories and environmental field studies. Estimate of the yield of pollutants from gas flaring have, to date, paid little or no attention to the emission of BC with the assumption often being made that flaring produces a smokeless flame. In gas flares, soot yield is known to depend on a number of factors, and there is a need to develop emission estimates and modelling frameworks that take these factors into consideration. Hence, emission inventories, especially of the soot yield from gas flaring should give adequate consideration to the variation of fuel gas composition, and to combustion characteristics, which are strong determinants of the nature and quantity of pollutants emitted. The buoyant nature of gas flaring plume, often at temperatures in the range of 2000 K, coupled with the height of the stack enables some of the pollutants to escape further into the free troposphere aiding their long-range transport, which is often not well-captured by model studies.

  4. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  5. Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L; Rioux, Christine

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a distinct set of freshly-emitted air pollutants downwind from major highways, motorways, and freeways that include elevated levels of ultrafine particulates (UFP), black carbon (BC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO). People living or otherwise spending substantial time within about 200 m of highways are exposed to these pollutants more so than persons living at a greater distance, even compared to living on busy urban streets. Evidence of the health hazards of these pollutants arises from studies that assess proximity to highways, actual exposure to the pollutants, or both. Taken as a whole, the health studies show elevated risk for development of asthma and reduced lung function in children who live near major highways. Studies of particulate matter (PM) that show associations with cardiac and pulmonary mortality also appear to indicate increasing risk as smaller geographic areas are studied, suggesting localized sources that likely include major highways. Although less work has tested the association between lung cancer and highways, the existing studies suggest an association as well. While the evidence is substantial for a link between near-highway exposures and adverse health outcomes, considerable work remains to understand the exact nature and magnitude of the risks. PMID:17688699

  6. Gas pollutants removal in a single- and two-stage ejector-venturi scrubber.

    PubMed

    Gamisans, Xavier; Sarrà, Montserrrat; Lafuente, F Javier

    2002-03-29

    The absorption of SO(2) and NH(3) from the flue gas into NaOH and H(2)SO(4) solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejector-venturi scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing solution flowrate. Some types of venturi tube constructions were assessed, including the use of a two-stage venturi tube. The results showed a strong influence of the liquid scrubbing flowrate on pollutant removal efficiency. The initial pollutant concentration and the gas flowrate had a slight influence. The use of a two-stage venturi tube considerably improved the absorption efficiency, although it increased energy consumption. The results of this study will be applicable to the optimal design of venturi-based absorbers for gaseous pollution control or chemical reactors.

  7. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  8. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted a tractor-trailer greenhouse gas emission regulation applicable to new and in-use 53-foot and longer box-type trailers and...

  9. Airborne measurements of gas and particle pollutants during CAREBeijing-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, T.; Yang, W.; Bai, Z.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, Y.; Yin, B.; Zhao, X.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous pollutants - including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particle number concentrations (5.6-560 nm and 0.47-30 μm) - and meteorological parameters (T, RH, P) were conducted during the Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Regions in 2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), from 27 August through 13 October 2008. The data from a total 18 flights (70 h flight time) from near the surface to 2100 m altitude were obtained with a Yun-12 aircraft in the southern surrounding areas of Beijing (38-40° N, 114-118° E). The objectives of these measurements were to characterize the regional variation of air pollution during and after the Olympics of 2008, determine the importance of air mass trajectories and to evaluate of other factors that influence the pollution characteristics. The results suggest that there are primarily four distinct sources that influenced the magnitude and properties of the pollutants in the measured region based on back-trajectory analysis: (1) southerly transport of air masses from regions with high pollutant emissions, (2) northerly and northeasterly transport of less pollutant air from further away, (3) easterly transport from maritime sources where emissions of gaseous pollutant are less than from the south but still high in particle concentrations, and (4) the transport of air that is a mixture from different regions; that is, the air at all altitudes measured by the aircraft was not all from the same sources. The relatively long-lived CO concentration is shown to be a possible transport tracer of long-range transport from the northwesterly direction, especially at the higher altitudes. Three factors that influenced the size distribution of particles - i.e., air mass transport direction, ground source emissions and meteorological influences - are also discussed.

  10. Reduction of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas emission components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.; Huettenberger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further reduction of noxious and climate-influencing emissions. To prove the effectiveness of the emission reduction the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.

  11. An Approach to the Prototyping of an Optimized Limited Stroke Actuator to Drive a Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve

    PubMed Central

    Gutfrind, Christophe; Dufour, Laurent; Liebart, Vincent; Vannier, Jean-Claude; Vidal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a limited stroke actuator and the corresponding prototype to drive a Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve for use in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). The direct drive actuator topology is an axial flux machine with two air gaps in order to minimize the rotor inertia and a bipolar surface-mounted permanent magnet in order to respect an 80° angular stroke. Firstly, the actuator will be described and optimized under constraints of a 150 ms time response, a 0.363 N·m minimal torque on an angular range from 0° to 80° and prototyping constraints. Secondly, the finite element method (FEM) using the FLUX-3D® software (CEDRAT, Meylan, France) will be used to check the actuator performances with consideration of the nonlinear effect of the iron material. Thirdly, a prototype will be made and characterized to compare its measurement results with the analytical model and the FEM model results. With these electromechanical behavior measurements, a numerical model is created with Simulink® in order to simulate an EGR system with this direct drive actuator under all operating conditions. Last but not least, the energy consumption of this machine will be estimated to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed EGR electromechanical system. PMID:27213398

  12. An Approach to the Prototyping of an Optimized Limited Stroke Actuator to Drive a Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve.

    PubMed

    Gutfrind, Christophe; Dufour, Laurent; Liebart, Vincent; Vannier, Jean-Claude; Vidal, Pierre

    2016-05-20

    The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a limited stroke actuator and the corresponding prototype to drive a Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve for use in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). The direct drive actuator topology is an axial flux machine with two air gaps in order to minimize the rotor inertia and a bipolar surface-mounted permanent magnet in order to respect an 80° angular stroke. Firstly, the actuator will be described and optimized under constraints of a 150 ms time response, a 0.363 N·m minimal torque on an angular range from 0° to 80° and prototyping constraints. Secondly, the finite element method (FEM) using the FLUX-3D(®) software (CEDRAT, Meylan, France) will be used to check the actuator performances with consideration of the nonlinear effect of the iron material. Thirdly, a prototype will be made and characterized to compare its measurement results with the analytical model and the FEM model results. With these electromechanical behavior measurements, a numerical model is created with Simulink(®) in order to simulate an EGR system with this direct drive actuator under all operating conditions. Last but not least, the energy consumption of this machine will be estimated to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed EGR electromechanical system.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Exhaust Gas Cooling in Channels with Periodic Elbows for Application in Compact Heat Recovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Sergio; Cotton, James S.; Robinson, Anthony J.

    2012-11-01

    Miniature and Micro devices represent the new frontier for advanced heat and mass transfer technology. Due to the small length scales, the use of CFD is very useful for designing and optimizing microfluidic devices since experimentation and visualization at these scales can be difficult. In this work a high temperature air microfluidic cooling strategy for applications such as compact waste heat recovery, exhaust gas recirculation and fuel cell thermal management is proposed. Initially, the application of a simple straight microchannel is considered. In an effort to partially compensate for the poor thermal properties of air, right-angle bends are introduced in order to induce Dean vortices which periodically restart the thermal boundary layer development, thus improving the heat transfer and fluid mixing. Numerical simulations in the range of 100 <= ReDh <= 1000 have been carried out for channels of square cross-section. Channel wall lengths of 1.0 mm are investigated for elbow spacings of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm. High temperature air (300°C) at atmospheric inlet pressure is the working fluid. The results indicate that the elbows substantially improve the local and average heat transfer in the channels while increasing the pressure drop. Design considerations are discussed which take into account the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the channels.

  14. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on emissions from a flame-tube combustor using Liquid Jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of uncooled exhaust gas recirculation as an inert diluent on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2) and on combustion efficiency were investigated. Ratios of recirculated combustion products to inlet airflow were varied from 10 to 80 percent by using an inlet air ejector nozzle. Liquid Jet A fuel was used. The flame-tube combustor was 10.2 cm in diameter. It was operated with and without a flameholder present. The combustor pressure was maintained constant at 0.5 MPa. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.3 to 1.0. The inlet air temperature was varied from 590 to 800 K, and the reference velocity from 10 to 30 m/sec. Increasing the percent recirculation from 10 to 25 had the following effects: (1) the peak NOx emission was decreased by 37 percent, from 8 to 5 g NO2/kg fuel, at an inlet air temperature of 590 K and a reference velocity of 15 m/sec; (2) the combustion efficiency was increased, particularly at the higher equivalence ratios; and (3) for a high combustion efficiency of greater than 99.5 percent, the range of operation of the combustor was nearly doubled in terms of equivalence ratio. Increasing the recirculation from 25 to 50 percent did not change the emissions significantly.

  15. A Fast Exhaust-Gas Analyzer for the ITER Fusion Experiment Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C Christopher; Carlson, E. P.; Moschella, J. J.; Hazelton, R C; Keitz, M D; Gardner, Walter L

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a first demonstration of a radio-frequency (RF)-excited optical gas analyzer (RF-OGA) designed to quantitatively measure minority species inside the neutralization region of the ITER fusion experiment divertor. The sensor head, which creates its own plasma excitation and plasma light emission, is designed to operate in a strong magnetic field, and the RF coupling leads to bright light emission. It also allows for operation at low voltages, avoiding the radiation-enhanced breakdowns expected when high voltages are present in the ITER environment. Furthermore, the preferred sensor head features full isolation of the metal RF electrodes from the induced plasma. This "electrodeless" operation will permit long operation without frequent maintenance. The testing of a first experimental RF-OGA with an electrodeless design in a strong (similar to 2-T) magnetic field showed a mostly linear response of the He I-6678 angstrom line emission to the He concentration in a hydrogen background, which would produce a He concentration measurement accurate to within 2% of the helium-to-hydrogen ratio.

  16. Analytical bias among different gas chromatographic approaches using standard BTX gases and exhaust samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Pal, Raktim

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the analytical compatibility of the gas chromatographic (GC) approach was evaluated through a cross-calibration exercise. To this end, three aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs: benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX)) were simultaneously analyzed with four individual instrumental setups (type I = GC with MS plus solid phase microextraction (SPME) method, II = GC with flame ionization detection (FID) plus SPME, III = fast GC-FID plus SPME, and IV = GC-FID plus air server/thermal desorption (AS/TD) method). A comparison of basic quality assurance (QA) data revealed considerable differences in DL values among the methods with moderate variabilities in the intercompound sensitivity. In light of the differences in detection properties, the analytical bias involved for each methodological approach was assessed by the relative relationship between analytes and basic operating conditions. The results suggest that the analysis of environmental samples at ultra-low concentration levels (at or below ppb level) can be subject to diverse sources of bias. Although detection properties of target compounds seem to be affected by the combined effects of various factors, changes in the sample concentration levels were seen to be the most consistent under the experimental setups analyzed in this study.

  17. Gas-aerosol partitioning of semi volatile carbonyls in polluted atmosphere in Hachioji, Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Sou N.; Kato, Shungo; Yoshino, Ayako; Greenberg, Jim P.; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Guenther, Alex B.

    2005-06-01

    Gaseous and particulate semi volatile carbonyls have been measured in urban air using an annular denuder sampling system. Three dicarbonyls, five aliphatic aldehydes and two hydroxy carbonyls were observed. Concentrations of other biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), SO2, CO, NO2 and particle concentration were also measured. Estimated gas-aerosol equilibrium constants for the carbonyls showed an inverse correlation with the concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants such as benzene, isopentane and SO2. This suggests that the increase in the fraction of non-polar anthropogenic particles in the atmosphere could change the average property of the ambient aerosols and drive the gas particle equilibrium of the carbonyls to the gas phase. This trend is uncommon in remote forest air. In this study, we examined the factors controlling the equilibrium in the polluted atmosphere and show that there is a difference in gas-aerosol partition between polluted and clean air.

  18. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

    1996-08-01

    There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

  19. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  20. Method for converting noxious pollutants from flue gas into merchantable by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described for removing pollutants from boiler plant flue gases comprising the steps of: (a) exchanging heat between a flue gas which contains SO[sub 2], SO[sub 3] and NO pollutants and a first fluid to cool the flue gas down to a first temperature whereat substantially all SO[sub 3] in the flue gas is combined with H[sub 2]O; (b) condensing the SO[sub 3] and H[sub 2]O from the flue gas as a first condensate; (c) adding a solution containing an ammoniacal substance and a detergent to said flue gas to produce soapsuds and sulfates including ammonium bisulfate; (d) collecting the soap suds and ammonium bisulfate produced after said adding step and the first condensate as a first solution; and (e) separating ammonium bisulfate from said first solution.

  1. Carbon Nanotube-like Materials in the Exhaust from a Diesel Engine Using Gas Oil/Ethanol Mixing Fuel with Catalysts and Sulphur.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Mori, Shinsuke

    2017-02-28

    Particle matters from a diesel engine including soot and carbon nanomaterials were collected on a sampling holder and their structure was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result of employing gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with sulphur and ferrocene/molybdenum as catalyst sources, formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-like materials in addition to soot was observed in the exhaust gas from a diesel engine. It was revealed that CNT-like materials were included among soot in our system only when following three conditions were satisfied simultaneously; high ethanol fraction in fuel, high sulphur loading and presence of catalyst sources in fuel. This report confirmed that if at least one of above three conditions was not satisfied, CNT-like materials were not observed in the exhaust from a diesel engine. These experimental results shown in this work will provide insights into understanding of CNT-like material formation mechanism in a diesel engine. Implications Recent papers reported that carbon nanotube-like materials were included in the exhaust gas from engines, but investigating conditions for carbon nanotube-like material formation has not been well studied. This work provides required conditions for carbon nanotube-like material growth in a diesel engine and this will be helpful for understanding of carbon nanotube-like material formation mechanism and taking countermeasures to preventing carbon nanotube-like material formation in a diesel engine.

  2. Flue gas treatability studies: a tool for techno-economic control of industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Padma S; Rao, B Shrinivas; Manthapurwar, N S; Hasan, M Z

    2003-02-01

    Air pollution problems in developing countries have gained larger fraction in the last decade especially due to non functioning and non implementation of effective air pollution control devices in industries. In industrial wastewater management, adequate treatability studies are conducted to arrive at a techno-economic treatment option. However no such studies were done for reducing air pollution or emission from industries until now in India. Little information was available about such studies in other countries. This article provides information about a novel technique known as flue gas treatability studies and to undertake such studies, a pilot scale system is installed in Air Pollution Control Division of M/s National Environmental Engineering research Institute, NEERI, Nagpur-20, India. This study is a tool for techno-economic selection of air pollution control systems specially for small/medium scale industrial emissions.

  3. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lack, D. A.; Corbett, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85-100% load); absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel) also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25-100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on (a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and (b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of

  4. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lack, D. A.; Corbett, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85-100% load); absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel) also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25-100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of

  5. Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.N.

    1980-10-10

    This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

  6. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

  7. Inhalation of Whole Diesel Exhaust but not Gas-Phase Components Affects In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Intravascular thrombosis and platelet aggregation are enhanced following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and other respirable particulate matter; however, the roles of endothelial and circulating mediators on platelet aggregation remain unclear. We hypothesized that ad...

  8. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  9. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants from flue gas by a vaporized composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Xue, Fangming; Feng, Yanan

    2017-01-05

    An economical process that was used to remove SO2, NO and Hg(0) simultaneously was developed, based on the pre-oxidations of Hg(0) and NO by a vaporized Fenton-based complex oxidant (FO) consisted of Fenton and NaClO. The effects of concentrations of FeSO4 and NaClO in the oxidant, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutant, the oxidant solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants, the flue gas flow and the concentrations of coexistence gases in flue gas on the simultaneous removals were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the removals of NO and Hg(0) were significantly depended on FeSO4 and NaClO concentrations, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutants, the FO solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants and flue gas flow. And higher concentration of SO2 and an appropriate concentration of NO had the promotion for Hg(0) removal. The average simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO2, 81% for NO and 91% for Hg(0) were obtained under the optimal reaction conditions. According to the characterization of the reaction removal products by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFS, the reaction mechanism was speculated.

  10. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  11. Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-10-04

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  12. Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

  13. Diesel Exhaust in New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Pollution from diesel engines is a widespread problem across New England and it significantly contributes to air pollution, especially in urban areas. Diesel exhaust is made up of small particles, known as fine particulate matter.

  14. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  15. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  16. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  18. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  19. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    The objectives of this report period were to complete the development of the Gas Generator design, which was done; fabricate and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas Gas Generator, which has been postponed. Focus during this report period has been to complete the brazing and bonding necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continue making preparations for fabricating and testing the Gas Generator, and continuing the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware in preparation for the test program. Fabrication is more than 95% complete and is expected to conclude in early May 2002. the test schedule was affected by relocation of the testing to another test supplier. The target test date for hot fire testing is now not earlier than June 15, 2002.

  20. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.

  1. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is thus crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compressionmore » ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. Lastly, the probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.« less

  2. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is thus crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. Lastly, the probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.

  3. Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

  4. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  5. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  6. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  7. Exhaustion, a guide to transportation emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This publication contains a series of fact sheets on the environmental impact of the automobile, addressing the issues of vehicle exhaust and its impact, alternative and cleaner fuels, and alternative forms of transportation. The sheets are intended to serve as background information and reference material. Specific topics of the sheets include: Components of car exhaust and other automobile-related emissions; air quality in Canada; smog; climate change and the greenhouse effect; acid rain; stratospheric ozone depletion; hazardous air pollutants and the automobile; health impacts; modifications and improvements to diesel fuels; reformulated gasoline; alternative fuels such as propane, ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen, and methanol; emissions standards and controls; inspection and maintenance programs; transportation demand management; driving behavior and the environment; and indirect costs of the automobile.

  8. Principle Findings from Development of a Recirculated Exhaust Gas Intake Sensor (REGIS) Enabling Cost-Effective Fuel Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, Claus

    2016-03-30

    Kick-off of the Bosch scope of work for the REGIS project started in October 2012. The primary work-packages included in the Bosch scope of work were the following: overall project management, development of the EGR sensor (design of sensor element, design of protection tube, and design of mounting orientation), development of EGR system control strategy, build-up of prototype sensors, evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and the new control strategy, long-term durability testing, and development of a 2nd generation sensor concept for continued technology development after the REGIS project. The University of Clemson was a partner with Bosch in the REGIS project. The Clemson scope of work for the REGIS project started in June 2013. The primary work-packages included in the Clemson scope of work were the following: development of EGR system control strategy, and evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and new control strategy. This project was split into phase I, phase II and phase III. Phase I work was completed by the end of June 2014 and included the following primary work packages: development of sensor technical requirements, assembly of engine testbench at Clemson, design concept for sensor housing, connector, and mounting orientation, build-up of EGR flow test benches at Bosch, and build-up of first sensor prototypes. Phase II work was completed by the end of June 2015 and included the following primary work pack ages: development of an optimizing function and demonstration of robustness of sensor, system control strategy implementation and initial validation, completion of engine in the loop testing of developed control algorithm, completion of sensor testing including characteristic line, synthetic gas test stand, and pressure dependency characterization, demonstration of benefits of control w/o sensing via simulation, development of 2nd generation sensor concept. Notable technical achievements from phase II were the following

  9. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  10. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2010-10-12

    A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

  11. On-road measurement of gas and particle phase pollutant emission factors for individual heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; DeMartini, Steven J; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Herndon, Scott C; Onasch, Timothy B; Wood, Ezra C; Harley, Robert A

    2012-08-07

    Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ethene, and black carbon (BC), as well as optical properties of emitted particles. Fleet-average emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and BC respectively decreased 30 ± 6 and 37 ± 10% relative to levels measured at the same location in 2006, whereas a 34 ± 18% increase in the average NO(2) emission factor was observed. Emissions distributions for all species were skewed with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, the dirtiest 10% of trucks emitted half of total NO(2) and BC emissions. Emission rates for NO(2) were found to be anticorrelated with all other species considered here, likely due to the use of catalyzed diesel particle filters to help control exhaust emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 ± 0.03.

  12. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sound reduction, such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections shall not constitute a violation of this subpart);...

  13. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  14. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  15. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TREATING POLLUTANTS IN A GAS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND UV LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clauseu, christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending there between. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  16. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  17. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles... designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of either Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles or light-duty trucks which are waived from requirements for the measurement of...

  18. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles... designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of either Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles or light-duty trucks which are waived from requirements for the measurement of...

  19. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles... designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of either Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles or light-duty trucks which are waived from requirements for the measurement of...

  20. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles... designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of either Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles or light-duty trucks which are waived from requirements for the measurement of...

  1. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-30

    The objectives of this report period were to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, to complete the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication, and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas generator. Focus during this report period has been on testing the Gas Generator. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA. A substantial portion of this report period was devoted to Testing Preparations, i.e. test facility development, cold- flow testing, calibration testing, performing igniter ignition testing, and then commencement of the completely assembled Gas Generator Assembly Testing, in process at this writing.

  2. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation: Cost comparison with other air pollution control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C S; Wolfrum, E J; Miller, R A

    1994-11-01

    Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) appears to be particularly well suited for waste streams with low pollutant concentrations (1000 ppm or less) and low to moderate flow rates (< 20,000 cubic feet per minute, cfm). The PCO technology is modular in nature and thus is well suited to treat dispersed or low flow rate streams. This same attribute minimizes the advantages of scale for PCO and makes the technology comparatively less attractive for high volume waste streams. Key advantages for PCO lie in its low operating cost and ability to completely destroy pollutants at ambient temperature and pressure.

  3. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Peter M; Brown, Steven S; Roberts, James M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M; deGouw, Joost A; Dubé, William P; Field, Robert A; Flynn, James H; Gilman, Jessica B; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O; Lefer, Barry L; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A; Murphy, Shane M; Parrish, David D; Senff, Christoph J; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R; Trainer, Michael K; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J; Young, Cora J; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-16

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  4. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  5. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  6. Test and Evaluation of a Pilot Two-Stage Precipitator for Jet Engine Test Cell Exhaust Gas Cleaning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    then available for emission control . A two- stage electrostatic precipitator was recommended as .j he most viable alternative to a concept then being...TEST AND EVALUATION OF A "PILOT TWO* STAGE PRECIPITATOR FOR JET ENGINE TEST CELL 0 EXHAUST GA, S CLEANING C44 NAVAL AIR REWORK FACILITY NAVAL AIR...is the release you requested in your telephone conversation of 20 July 1976 with the undersigned. Yourn very tru~ly, Head Specifications Branch a 21

  7. Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew S; Nilsson, Elna J K; Svensson, Erik A; Langer, Sarka

    2014-01-01

    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m(3)/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m(3)/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH(•) concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(10) cm(-3) at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m(3), and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10(9) cm(-3) at 10 kJ/m(3). Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH(•) reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution.

  8. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    E.W. Baxter

    2002-06-30

    The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

  9. Gas chromatographic separation of diastereomeric isoprenoids as molecular markers of oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Berthou, F; Friovourt, M P

    1981-12-18

    By means of high-performance glass capillary gas chromatography (GC), diastereomeric isoprenoids were resolved into double peaks. The retention indices on three liquid phases and the mass spectra of the diastereoisomers were almost similar. The leading GC peaks represent the isoprenoids of fossil origin, while the rear peaks correspond to those of recent origin. Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for fingerprinting isoprenoids in different samples. The mass fragmentation patterns were characteristic of the branched alkanes. Hydrocarbon mixtures from four crude oil spills in the sea and from polluted and oil-free oyster tissues were investigated. The relative ratios of n-alkanes/pristane or phytane were shown to be strongly dependent on the chromatographic resolution of the isoprenoid peaks. It is suggested that the double GC peaks in the isoprenoid series are an unmistakable sign of oil pollution.

  10. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  11. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  12. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  13. FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

    2003-06-01

    In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to commercialization for the gas generator technology

  14. Posttranslational modification of bioaerosol protein by common gas pollutants: NO2 and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi Mahmood, Marliyyah; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution can exacerbate several medical conditions, for example, hay fever and asthma. The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades; however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that the exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence (Reinmuth-Selzle et al., 2014, Franze, et al., 2005). Since atmospheric pollutants often have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Certainly, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas (Schröder et al., 2015). Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies and changes in the chemical composition of pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein (Reinmuth-Selzle et al., 2014). This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular nitration that occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. These modifications may affect human immune response to the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such chemically altered protein. Quantification of the relative degree of PTMs, from a variety of

  15. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, fabrication and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive Gas Generator. Focus during this past report period has been to continue completion the Gas Generator design, completing the brazing and bonding experiments to determine the best method and materials necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continuing to making preparations for fabricating and testing this Gas Generator and commencing with the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware. Designs have been completed sufficiently such that Long Lead Items [LLI] have been ordered and upon arrival will be readied for the fabrication process. The keys to this design are the platelet construction of the injectors that precisely measures/meters the flow of the propellants and water all throughout the steam generating process and the CES patented gas generating cycle. The Igniter Assembly injector platelets fabrication process has been completed and bonded to the Igniter Assembly and final machined. The Igniter Assembly is in final assembly and is being readied for testing in the October 2001 time frame. Test Plan dated August 2001, was revised and finalized, replacing Test Plan dated May 2001.

  16. Promoted decomposition of NOx in automotive diesel-like exhausts by electro-catalytic honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Chiang, De-Yi; Shih, Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chin; Mao, Chih-Wei; Wang, Bo-Chung

    2015-03-17

    NO and NO2 (collectively called NOx) are major air pollutants in automotive emissions. More effective and easier treatments of NOx than those achieved by the present methods can offer better protection of human health and higher fuel efficiency that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, currently commercialized technologies for automotive NOx emission control cannot effectively treat diesel-like exhausts with high NOx concentrations. Thus, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used extensively, which reduces fuel efficiency and increases particulate emission considerably. Our results show that the electro-catalytic honeycomb (ECH) promotes the decomposition of NOx to nitrogen and oxygen, without consuming reagents or other resources. NOx can be converted to nitrogen and oxygen almost completely. The ECHs are shown to effectively remove NOx from gasoline-fueled diesel-like exhausts. A very high NO concentration is preferred in the engine exhaust, especially during engine cold-start. Promoted NOx decomposition (PND) technology for real-world automotive applications is established in this study by using the ECH. With PND, EGR is no longer needed. Diesel-like engines can therefore achieve superior fuel efficiency, and all major automotive pollutants can be easily treated due to high concentration of oxygen in the diesel-like exhausts, leading to zero pollution.

  17. Numerical investigation of exhaust gas emissions for a dual fuel engine configuration using diesel and pongamia oil.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ibrahim, N H; Udayakumar, M

    2016-12-01

    The investigation presented in this paper focuses on determination of gaseous exhaust emissions by computational simulation during combustion in compression ignition engine with pongamia oil substitution. Combustion is modeled using Equilibrium Constants Method (ECM) with MATLAB program to calculate the mole fraction of 10 combustion products when pongamia oil is burnt along with diesel at variable equivalence ratio and blend ratio. It had been observed that pongamia oil substitution causes decrease in the CO emission and increase in the NOx emission as the blend ratio as well as equivalence ratio increases.

  18. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  19. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  20. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in diesel exhaust using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with programmed temperature vaporization and large volume injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira de Souza, Carolina; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2015-02-01

    Diesel engines are significant sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAHs) in urban atmospheres. These compounds are widely known for their carcinogenic potential and mutagenic properties. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of 16 priorities PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with programmable temperature vaporizer large volume injection (PTV-LVI), which allowed to be obtained detection limits below 2.0 ng mL-1. This method was evaluated in samples from stratified particulate matter and gas phase from the emissions of diesel vehicle employing diesel commercial S10 (sulfur 10 mg L-1) and B5 (biodiesel 5% v/v). A sampling system that does not employ exhaust products dilution was used to evaluate the PAHs gas-particle partition. Six PAHs were identified in extracts and gas-phase PAHs took percentage of 80% in the total PAHs emissions. The sampling system without dilution not caused a strong nucleation/condensation of the most volatile PAHs. PAHs size-particle distribution was found in higher levels in the accumulation mode.

  2. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health

  3. Monitoring of air pollution in the atmosphere around Oman Liquid Natural Gas (OLNG) plant.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A

    2005-01-01

    This study was basically designed to assess the potential environmental air quality impacts arising from the existing two operational trains at the Oman Liquid Natural Gas (OLNG) plant. The results of the paper contain a baseline survey of the existing environment. The pollutants studied included methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and suspended particulate matters (dust PM 10). Meteorological parameters monitored simultaneously include wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity. The air quality data were used to determine the diurnal and monthly variations in the pollutants. Description levels of the pollutants with respect to meteorological data were also used in analysis. Moreover, a statistical analysis of the collected data was presented. Generally, the results indicated that the mean concentrations of pollutants were low to cause any significant impact in air quality. The area had no problem in meeting the air quality standards for CO and NO2. It was also found that there was a random relationship between CO and NMHC, and between NO and NOx (no apparent correlation). The diurnal peaks of NOx, NO2, THC, and NMHC over a 24-h period were observed at around 9:00-10:00 AM (morning peak). For NO, NO2, and NOx, another peak was seen at around 5:00 PM (evening peak). Furthermore, the measured concentrations for NO2, NOx, and CO were found higher in winter than in summer. The study would help to gain a better understanding of local background levels of air pollutants at the area prior to the construction of new industrial projects, and to prepare action plans for controlling pollution in the area.

  4. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  5. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. Objective: We quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. Methods: A mass-balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes in Southern California and the exposure concentrations experienced by individual occupants. We estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for 1 week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs as well as NO2 and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of NO2 and CO were obtained from available databases. We inferred ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use from household characteristics. We also explored proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying by < 10%. Results: The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods—62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Conclusions: Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed

  6. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS... associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5... from similar tests.) The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy...

  8. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the following... and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Procedures for..., and assorted valves, and pressure and temperature sensors. The CFV sample system shall conform to...

  9. Lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, calcium and magnesium in SPF male rats exposed to a dilution of automotive exhaust gas throughout their lives.

    PubMed

    Stupfel, M; Valleron, A J; Radford, E

    1983-12-15

    Male pathogen free CFE albino Sprague Dawley rats were exposed 8 h per day, 5 days per week, for three years to a 1/1000 dilution of automotive exhaust gas, containing 58 ppm carbon monoxide, 0.37% carbon dioxide, 23 ppm nitrogen oxides, 2 ppm aldehydes, less than 5 mg/l hydrocarbons and 8.5 micrograms/m3 lead. Lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption in the femurs and tibias of the rats which died during the experiment. A comparison with two control groups revealed that the only significant difference in the elements measured in the bones was a 500% increase in lead concentration. The calculations of the correlations between the percentages of the elements in bones, the ages and the body weights of the rats, as well as cluster analysis, did not show consistent variations of the water, calcium, magnesium concentrations nor of the other studied metals related to this increase in lead concentration. Moreover, longevity was the same in the 3 groups of rats, but the body weight was statistically smaller (4%) in the group exposed to the auto exhaust dilution.

  10. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  11. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  12. Subsurface detection of fossil fuel pollutants by photoionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Robbat, Albert; Considine, Thomas; Antle, Patrick M

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes analysis of environmental pollutants at depth without bringing sample to the surface. It is based on an improved 3-stage Peltier freeze trap, which efficiently pre-concentrates volatile coal tar and petroleum hydrocarbons, and an integrated system for detecting pollutants on-line, in real-time by photoionization detection and quantitation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as the probe is advanced into the subsurface. Findings indicate measurement precision and accuracy for volatiles meet EPA criteria for hazardous waste site investigations. When a Teflon membrane inlet is used to detect contaminants in groundwater, its 140 degrees C temperature limit restricts analyte collection in soil to C(2)-phenanthrenes. Two case studies demonstrate the probe is well-suited to tracking petroleum and coal tar plumes from source to groundwater.

  13. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  14. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  15. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released.

  16. NOx abatement in the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas engines over Ag-supported γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Y.; Kambolis, A.; Boréave, A.; Giroir-Fendler, A.; Retailleau-Mevel, L.; Guiot, B.; Marchand, O.; Walter, M.; Desse, M.-L.; Marchin, L.; Vernoux, P.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ag catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3, including two different γ-Al2O3 supports and various Ag loadings (2-8 wt.%), was prepared, characterized (SEM, TEM, BET, physisorption, TPR, NH3-TPD) and tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by CH4 for lean-burn natural gas engines exhausts. The catalysts containing 2 wt.% Ag supported on γ-Al2O3 were found to be most efficient for the NOx reduction into N2 with a maximal conversion of 23% at 650 °C. This activity was clearly linked with the ability of the catalyst to concomitantly produce CO, via the methane steam reforming, and NO2. The presence of small AgOx nanoparticles seems to be crucial for the methane activation and NOx reduction.

  17. Investigation into the effects of vermiculite on NOx reduction and additives on sooting and exhaust infrared signature from a gas-turbine combustor. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, K.R.

    1990-09-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using catalytic reduction of NOX emissions from a typical jet engine combustor in the test cell environment. A modified T-63 combustor in combination with an instrumented 21 foot augmentation tube containing a vermiculite catalyst was used. Several methods for containing the vermiculite were attempted. Both vermiculite and vermiculite which had been coated with thiourea were used. Up to 19% reduction in NOX concentrations was obtained using the vermiculite coated with thiourea, however the pressure loss across the catalyst bed was measured to be 36 in. H2O. The techniques used proved ineffective and unacceptable for gas turbine engine test cell applications. Tests were conducted using both Wynn's 15/590 and Catane TM (ferrocene) fuel supplements in order to determine their effectiveness for soot reduction and whether or not the exhaust plume could be changed.

  18. Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-06-01

    Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to ²¹⁸Po and ²¹⁴Po short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y⁻¹ due to radon short-lived decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y⁻¹) dose limit interval for workers.

  19. Quantification of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in internal combustion engine exhaust with time-weighted average solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Koziel, Jacek A; Kenessov, Bulat

    2015-05-11

    A new and simple method for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) quantification in vehicle exhaust was developed based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The rationale was to develop a method based on existing and proven SPME technology that is feasible for field adaptation in developing countries. Passive sampling with SPME fiber retracted into the needle extracted nearly two orders of magnitude less mass (n) compared with exposed fiber (outside of needle) and sampling was in a time weighted-averaging (TWA) mode. Both the sampling time (t) and fiber retraction depth (Z) were adjusted to quantify a wider range of Cgas. Extraction and quantification is conducted in a non-equilibrium mode. Effects of Cgas, t, Z and T were tested. In addition, contribution of n extracted by metallic surfaces of needle assembly without SPME coating was studied. Effects of sample storage time on n loss was studied. Retracted TWA-SPME extractions followed the theoretical model. Extracted n of BTEX was proportional to Cgas, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limits were 1.8, 2.7, 2.1 and 5.2 mg m(-3) (0.51, 0.83, 0.66 and 1.62 ppm) for BTEX, respectively. The contribution of extraction onto metallic surfaces was reproducible and influenced by Cgas and t and less so by T and by the Z. The new method was applied to measure BTEX in the exhaust gas of a Ford Crown Victoria 1995 and compared with a whole gas and direct injection method.

  20. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  1. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  2. [Passive detection of aeroengine exhaust based on Fourier transform infrared system].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-cheng; Zuo, Hong-fu; Xia, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Since the composition and concentration of aeroengine exhaust can reflect the combustion efficiency, they can provide the basis for condition based maintenance, and also the basis for the analysis of environment pollution caused by aeroengine exhaust. So the importance of aeroengine exhaust detection is evident. Up to now, the measurement of aeroengine exhaust is based on sampling analysis which is not convenient and can't meet the detection requirements when an aeroplane is flying-off or flying in the sky. Hence, new methods of exhaust detection must be studied. The passive measurement technology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to the measurement of aeroengine exhaust in the present paper. At first, the principle of passive measurement based on FTIR was introduced in detail. On this basis, a model algorithm for gas concentration calculation was deduced based on the principle of infrared transmission. Then the feasibility of aeroengine exhaust measurement based on passive FTIR was analyzed, and the passive measurement method of aeroengine exhaust based on FTIR was given. In the end, an experiment of aeroengine exhaust passive measurement was carried out by a FTIR with the type of Tensor 27 produced by BRUKER. Good quality spectra of the exhaust and the background were measured. Based on the model algo rithm of passive measurement, the absorbance spectra of CO and NO were obtained respectively, and the concentrations of CO and NO were figured out. To check up the veracity of this method, a comparison was made with another apparatus. There were only little differences between the results of the two experiments, showing that the passive measurement technology based on FTIR could meet the requirements of aeroengine exhaust detection.

  3. A survey of laser and selected optical systems for remote measurement of pollutant gas concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Menzies, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique to the remote sensing of pollutant gases are surveyed. In the DIAl technique, the differential absorption of two laser beams reflected back to a receiver from a target determines the concentration of the gas being studied. The types of instruments available are considered in detail: dye lidar (to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone); carbon dioxide laser (for ozone, ethylene, ammonia, and hydrazine), helium-neon laser (for methane); hydrogen fluoride laser (for HF); and tunable diode laser (for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide). DIAL instruments are compared with other optical remote sensors such as Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers, correlation spectrometers (COSPEC and GASPEC), and grating spectrometers; and criteria for the selection of an appropriate gas measuring system are suggested. Laser and other optical remote sensors are found to be cost effective in many cases, despite the fact that they are more costly than point-monitoring systems.

  4. Experimental investigation of 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system with a natural gas reformer and an exhaust gas burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Tzu-Hsiang; Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Wei-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hung-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Lee, Chien-Hsiung

    An experimental investigation is performed to establish the optimal operating conditions of a porous media after-burner integrated with a 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system fed by a natural gas reformer. The compositions of the anode off-gas and cathode off-gas emitted by the SOFC when operating with fuel utilizations in the range 0-0.6 are predicted using commercial GCTool software. The numerical results are then used to set the compositions of the anode off-gas and cathode off-gas in a series of experiments designed to clarify the effects of the fuel utilization, cathode off-gas temperature and excess air ratio on the temperature distribution within the after-burner. The experimental results show that the optimal after-burner operation is obtained when using an anode off-gas temperature of 650 °C, a cathode off-gas temperature of 390 °C, a flame barrier temperature of 700 °C, an excess air ratio of 2 and a fuel utilization of U f = 0.6. It is shown that under these conditions, the after-burner can operate in a long-term, continuous fashion without the need for either cooling air or any additional fuel other than that provided by the anode off-gas.

  5. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... constant mass flow system must be used to ensure a proportional THC measurement. (2) For natural gas-fueled... than 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the walls of the sampling system. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any...

  6. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn K; Lu, Hongyou; Liu, Xu; Tsen, Katherine; Xiangyang, Wei; Yunpeng, Zhang; Jian, Guan; Rui, Hou; Junfeng, Zhang; Yuqun, Zhuo; Shumao, Xia; Yafeng, Han; Manzhi, Liu

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  7. Indoor pollutant levels from the use of unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dutton, S J; Hannigan, M P; Miller, S L

    2001-12-01

    High CO and NO2 concentrations have been documented in homes with unvented combustion appliances, such as natural gas fireplaces. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted from incomplete natural gas combustion. The acute health risks of CO and NO2 exposure have been well established for the general population and for certain high-risk groups, including infants, the elderly, and people with heart disease or asthma. Health effects from PAH exposure are less well known, but may include increased risk of cancer. We monitored CO emissions during the operation of unvented natural gas fireplaces in two residences in Boulder, CO, at various times between 1997 and 2000. During 1999, we expanded our tests to include measurements of NO2 and PAH. Results show significant pollutant accumulation indoors when the fireplaces were used for extended periods of time. In one case, CO concentrations greater than 100 ppm accumulated in under 2 hr of operation; a person at rest exposed for 10 hr to this environment would get a mild case of CO poisoning with an estimated 10% carboxyhemoglobin level. Appreciable NO2 concentrations were also detected, with a 4-hr time average reaching 0.36 ppm. Similar time-average total PAH concentrations reached 35 ng/m3. The results of this study provide preliminary insights to potential indoor air quality problems in homes operating unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder.

  8. Predictive estimation of upward pollutant migration during shale gas production using satellite image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalko, Vadim; Azimov, Oleksandr; Yakovlev, Yevgen

    2016-07-01

    The report considers the relevance of the application of modern remote aerospace and hydrogeological methods in the problems of the ecological safety for the hydrosphere during shale gas production in Ukraine. Case studies of pilot implementation of these methods are present for the Bilyaivska area adjacent to the Yuzivka licensed site within the Dnieper-Donets Depression. A number of the hydrogeological filtration parameters and the thematic processing for remote sensing data of the Earth enable to obtain the rough estimate of the temporal indices for the upward pollutant migration from the fracturing zone to the groundwater aquifers in the potential process of shale gas production (as an example the 400-Bilyaivska well). It is found that the possible variety of the active permeability in tectonic zone, which may be predicted by using remote sensing of the Earth image interpretation in vicinity of the well, is responsible for the passage time of pollution from the fracturing zone level to the groundwater aquifers one and this time interval spans 50˜5 years.

  9. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  10. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  11. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  12. Satellite observation of pollutant emissions from gas flaring activities near the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Sayer, Andrew M.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Fu, Joshua S.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Lee, Jaehwa; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2016-05-01

    Gas flaring is a common practice in the oil industry that can have significant environmental impacts, but has until recently been largely overlooked in terms of relevance to climate change. We utilize data from various satellite sensors to examine pollutant emissions from oil exploitation activities in four areas near the Arctic. Despite the remoteness of these sparsely populated areas, tropospheric NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is substantial at ˜1 × 1015 molecules cm-2, suggesting sizeable emissions from these industrial activities. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level, corresponding uncertainties in parentheses) increasing trends of 0.017 (±0.01) × 1015 and 0.015 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 over 2004-2015 were found for Bakken (USA) and Athabasca (Canada), two areas having recently experienced fast expansion in the oil industry. This rapid change has implications for emission inventories, which are updated less frequently. No significant trend was found for the North Sea (Europe), where oil production has been declining since the 1990s. For northern Russia, the trend was just under the 95% significance threshold at 0.0057 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1. This raises an interesting inconsistency as prior studies have suggested that, in contrast to the continued, albeit slow, expansion of Russian oil/gas production, gas flaring in Russia has decreased in recent years. However, only a fraction of oil fields in Russia were covered in our analysis. Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data revealed similar tendencies, albeit at a weaker level of statistical significance, due to the longer lifetime of aerosols and contributions from other sources. This study demonstrates that synergetic use of data from multiple satellite sensors can provide valuable information on pollutant emission sources that is otherwise difficult to acquire.

  13. Remote sensing of temperature and concentration profiles of a gas jet by coupling infrared emission spectroscopy and LIDAR for characterization of aircraft engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offret, J.-P.; Lebedinsky, J.; Navello, L.; Pina, V.; Serio, B.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature data play an important role in the combustion chamber since it determines both the efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission of engines. Air pollution problem concerns the emissions of gases such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and also aerosols, soot and volatile organic compounds. Flame combustion occurs in hostile environments where temperature and concentration profiles are often not easy to measure. In this study, a temperature and CO2 concentration profiles optical measurement method, suitable for combustion analysis, is discussed and presented. The proposed optical metrology method presents numerous advantages when compared to intrusive methods. The experimental setup comprises a passive radiative emission measurement method combined with an active laser-measurement method. The passive method is based on the use of gas emission spectroscopy. The experimental spectrometer device is coupled with an active method. The active method is used to investigate and correct complex flame profiles. This method similar to a LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) device is based on the measurement of Rayleigh scattering of a short laser pulse recorded using a high-speed streak camera. The whole experimental system of this new method is presented. Results obtained on a small-scale turbojet are shown and discussed in order to illustrate the potentials deliver by the sophisticated method. Both temperature and concentration profiles of the gas jet are presented and discussed.

  14. Assessing and controlling the effect of aircraft on the environment: Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Grobman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The air pollution created by aircraft engines around airports and the global atmospheric problem of supersonic aircraft operating in the stratosphere are discussed. Methods for assessing the air pollution impact are proposed. The use of atmospheric models to determine the air pollution extent is described. Methods for controlling the emissions of aircraft engines are examined. Diagrams of the atmospheric composition resulting from exhaust gas emissions are developed.

  15. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  16. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

  17. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

  18. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably.

  19. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  20. METHODOLOGIES FOR QUANTIFYING POLLUTION PREVENTION BENEFITS FROM LANDFILL GAS CONTROL AND UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes developing emission factors for controlled primary pollutants (e.g., nonmethane organic compounds) and secondary air pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide). The report addresses the following criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon mo...

  1. From pollutant gas to biological messenger: the diverse actions of nitric oxide in cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Peter A.; Moncada, Salvador

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has undergone an image change in recent years. Previously regarded as a toxic pollutant gas, it has now become the subject of intense research in many fields of medicine and science. It is a free radical, with a diverse range of actions in both physiological and pathological processes. Although over 44,000 research papers have now been written on NO, only a small number have originated from the surgical specialties. Its role in tumour biology remains incompletely understood. NO is known to have both tumour promoting and inhibitory effects, presumed to be dependent on its local concentration within the tumour. NO appears to be pivotal in the angiogenic process, and the p53 tumour suppressor gene may influence its production. This review summarises the brief history of this molecule, gives an overview of its many effects in the common solid tumours and discusses how targeting of NO production may have possible future therapeutic benefit. PMID:11995767

  2. Reduction of gaseous pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant emission from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target emission indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC emission. Experimental emission characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.

  3. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  4. Numerical methods for assessment of the ship's pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenaru, A.; Acomi, N.

    2016-08-01

    The maritime transportation sector constitutes a source of atmospheric pollution. To avoid or minimize ships pollutant emissions the first step is to assess them. Two methods of estimation of the ships’ emissions are proposed in this paper. These methods prove their utility for shipboard and shore based management personnel from the practical perspective. The methods were demonstrated for a product tanker vessel where a permanent monitoring system for the pollutant emissions has previously been fitted. The values of the polluting agents from the exhaust gas were determined for the ship from the shipyard delivery and were used as starting point. Based on these values, the paper aimed at numerical assessing of ship's emissions in order to determine the ways for avoiding environmental pollution: the analytical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, by using computation program MathCAD, and the graphical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, using variation diagrams of the parameters, where the results of the on board measurements were introduced, following the application of pertinent correction factors. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process linked to the reduction of ship's pollutant emissions.

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1999-12-15

    Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater.

  6. Measurement comparison of gas phase pollutants during field campaign in Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Pearl River delta, an economically developed region in Guangdong province China, has been suffering from serious ground-level ozone pollution. To understand the formation mechanisms of the photochemical smog in this area, a field measurement campaign involving 12 separate institutes, was performed from Oct. 1 to Nov. 4, 2004. Measurements of gas phase pollutants, performed by the different research groups using several different methods, were inter-compared. Ambient SO2, O3 and NO were measured by Peking University and Hong Kong Polytechnic University using the same methods: chemiluminescence for NOx, pulsed fluorescence for SO2, and UV photometric method for O3. VOC speciation was accomplished using canister sampling followed by GC-MS measurement by Peking University and on-line GC-FID technology by National Central University in Taiwan. Ambient concentrations of HONO, the photolysis of which is the most important source of OH radical in Pearl River delta, was measured by two wet chemical methods: one from Energy Research Foundation of the Netherlands and one developed in Peking University. Based on these inter-comparisons, the co-variation of O3, NO and VOCs at an urban site and one rural site in Pearl River delta and estimates of the relative contributions to OH production from photolysis of O3, HONO and HCHO will be presented.

  7. Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

  8. Design and Performance of a Gas Chromatograph for Automatic Monitoring of Pollutants in Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalobos, R.; Stevens, D.; LeBlanc, R.; Braun, L.

    1971-01-01

    In recent years, interest in air pollution constituents has focused on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons as prime components of polluted air. Instrumental methods have been developed, and commercial instruments for continuous monitoring of these components have been available for a number of years. For the measurement of carbon monoxide, non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy has been the accepted tool, in spite of its marginal sensitivity at low parts-per-million levels. For continuously monitoring total hydrocarbons, the hydrogen flame ionization analyzer has been widely accepted as the preferred method. The inadequacy of this latter method became evident when it was concluded that methane is non-reactive and cannot be considered a contaminant even though present at over 1 ppm in the earth's atmosphere. Hence, the need for measuring methane separately became apparent as a means of measuring the reactive and potentially harmful non-methane hydrocarbons fraction. A gas chromatographic method for the measurement of methane and total hydrocarbons which met these requirements has been developed. In this technique, methane was separated on conventional gas chromatographic columns and detected by a hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) while the total hydrocarbons were obtained by introducing a second sample directly into the FID without separating the various components. The reactive, or non-methane hydrocarbons, were determined by difference. Carbon monoxide was also measured after converting to methane over a heated catalyst to render it detectable by the FID. The development of this method made it possible to perform these measurements with a sensitivity of as much as 1 ppm full scale and a minimum detectability of 20 ppb. Incorporating this technique, criteria were developed by APCO for a second generation continuous automatic instrument for atmospheric monitoring stations.

  9. Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

    Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

  10. Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale.

    PubMed

    Rozell, Daniel J; Reaven, Sheldon J

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, shale gas formations have become economically viable through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These techniques carry potential environmental risk due to their high water use and substantial risk for water pollution. Using probability bounds analysis, we assessed the likelihood of water contamination from natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale. Probability bounds analysis is well suited when data are sparse and parameters highly uncertain. The study model identified five pathways of water contamination: transportation spills, well casing leaks, leaks through fractured rock, drilling site discharge, and wastewater disposal. Probability boxes were generated for each pathway. The potential contamination risk and epistemic uncertainty associated with hydraulic fracturing wastewater disposal was several orders of magnitude larger than the other pathways. Even in a best-case scenario, it was very likely that an individual well would release at least 200 m³ of contaminated fluids. Because the total number of wells in the Marcellus Shale region could range into the tens of thousands, this substantial potential risk suggested that additional steps be taken to reduce the potential for contaminated fluid leaks. To reduce the considerable epistemic uncertainty, more data should be collected on the ability of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facilities to remove contaminants from used hydraulic fracturing fluid.

  11. Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2008-03-01

    Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ≈200 μm of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  12. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

  13. TODAY: EPA Administrator at the Center for American Progress to Discuss Reducing Methane Pollution from the Oil and Gas Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the Center for American Progress will host a conversation with EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to discuss the first-ever methane pollution standards that will require new and modified oil and gas facilities to use readily availa

  14. Simultaneous high-speed gas property measurements at the exhaust gas recirculation cooler exit and at the turbocharger inlet of a multicylinder diesel engine using diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P

    2015-02-10

    A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well

  15. Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Ranendra K.

    2002-06-04

    Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

  16. An investigation of the effects of smoke suppressant fuel additives on engine and test cell exhaust gas opacities. Final report for 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Thornburg, D.W.; Darnell, T.R.; Netzer, D.W.

    1982-05-01

    Tests were conducted in a one-eighth scale turbojet test cell with a ramjet type combustor to investigate the effects of fuel additives on smoke reduction. Particle size and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using three wavelength optical detector systems. Particulate samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Combustor temperature and fuel additives were found to significantly affect particulate mass concentrations emitted from the engine while particle size appeared to be unaffected. No significant changes in the particulate size or mass occurred from the engine exhaust to the stack exhaust. The optical determination of exhaust mean particulate size/mass concentration with three wavelength optical detector systems appears to be reasonably accurate technique for evaluating the effects of engine and test cell operating conditions and fuel composition changes on the emitted particulates.

  17. Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

  18. Automobile exhaust level of CO: study in Chidambaram town.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, N; Thirumarran, M

    2002-01-01

    The exhaust gases from automobiles constitute about 75% of air pollution. Among the various pollutants emitted from vehicles, CO is the primary pollutant and very toxic one. The CO monitor method was used to predict the CO level in Chidambaram town. From the study it is evident that the pollution level is closely related to the density of motor vehicles on the roads. With increase in number of motor vehicles pollution level also increases which pollutes the roadside environment severely in future.

  19. Extraction of Mg(OH)2 from Mg silicate minerals with NaOH assisted with H2O: implications for CO2 capture from exhaust flue gas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Silvia; Priestnall, Michael; Godoy, Erik; Kumar, R Vasant; Raymahasay, Sugat; Evans, Michael; Wang, Ruofan; Manenye, Seabelo; Kinoshita, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of Mg(OH)2 to capture exhaust CO2 has been hindered by the limited availability of brucite, the Mg(OH)2 mineral in natural deposits. Our previous study demonstrated that Mg(OH)2 can be obtained from dunite, an ultramafic rock composed of Mg silicate minerals, in highly concentrated NaOH aqueous systems. However, the large quantity of NaOH consumed was considered an obstacle for the implementation of the technology. In the present study, Mg(OH)2 was extracted from dunite reacted in solid systems with NaOH assisted with H2O. The consumption of NaOH was reduced by 97% with respect to the NaOH aqueous systems, maintaining a comparable yield of Mg(OH)2 extraction, i.e. 64.8-66%. The capture of CO2 from a CO2-N2 gas mixture was tested at ambient conditions using a Mg(OH)2 aqueous slurry. Mg(OH)2 almost fully dissolved and reacted with dissolved CO2 by forming Mg(HCO3)2 which remained in equilibrium storing the CO2 in the aqueous solution. The CO2 balance of the process was assessed from the emissions derived from the power consumption for NaOH production and Mg(OH)2 extraction together with the CO2 captured by Mg(OH)2 derived from dunite. The process resulted as carbon neutral when dunite is reacted at 250 °C for durations of 1 and 3 hours and CO2 is captured as Mg(HCO3)2.

  20. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  1. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  2. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  3. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  4. Air pollution from gas flaring: new emission factor estimates and detection in a West African aerosol remote-sensing climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Fawole, Olusegun Gabriel; Levine, James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Gas flaring, the disposal of gas through stacks in an open-air flame, is a common feature in the processing of crude oil, especially in oil-rich regions of the world. Gas flaring is a prominent source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), SO2 (in "sour" gas only), and soot (black carbon), as well as the release of locally significant amounts of heat. The rates of emission of these pollutants from gas flaring depend on a number of factors including, but not limited to, fuel composition and quantity, stack geometry, flame/combustion characteristics, and prevailing meteorological conditions. Here, we derive new estimated emission factors (EFs) for carbon-containing pollutants (excluding PAH). The air pollution dispersion model, ADMS5, is used to simulate the dispersion of the pollutants from flaring stacks in the Niger delta. A seasonal variation of the dispersion pattern of the pollutant within a year is studied in relation to the movements of the West Africa Monsoon (WAM) and other prevailing meteorological factors. Further, we have clustered AERONET aerosol signals using trajectory analysis to identify dominant aerosol sources at the Ilorin site in West Africa (4.34 oE, 8.32 oN). A 10-year trajectory-based analysis was undertaken (2005-2015, excluding 2010). Of particular interest are air masses that have passed through the gas flaring region in the Niger Delta area en-route the AERONET site. 7-day back trajectories were calculated using the UK Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Programme (UGAMP) trajectory model which is driven by analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). From the back-trajectory calculations, dominant sources are identified, using literature classifications: desert dust (DD); Biomass burning (BB); and Urban-Industrial (UI). We use a combination of synoptic trajectories and aerosol optical properties to distinguish a fourth source

  5. Evaluation of gas-particle partitioning in a regional air quality model for organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, Christos I.; Matejovičová, Jana; Bieser, Johannes; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are of considerable concern due to their well-recognized toxicity and their potential to bioaccumulate and engage in long-range transport. These compounds are semi-volatile and, therefore, create a partition between vapour and condensed phases in the atmosphere, while both phases can undergo chemical reactions. This work describes the extension of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system to POPs with a focus on establishing an adaptable framework that accounts for gaseous chemistry, heterogeneous reactions, and gas-particle partitioning (GPP). The effect of GPP is assessed by implementing a set of independent parameterizations within the CMAQ aerosol module, including the Junge-Pankow (JP) adsorption model, the Harner-Bidleman (HB) organic matter (OM) absorption model, and the dual Dachs-Eisenreich (DE) black carbon (BC) adsorption and OM absorption model. Use of these descriptors in a modified version of CMAQ for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) results in different fate and transport patterns as demonstrated by regional-scale simulations performed for a European domain during 2006. The dual DE model predicted 24.1 % higher average domain concentrations compared to the HB model, which was in turn predicting 119.2 % higher levels compared to the baseline JP model. Evaluation with measurements from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) reveals the capability of the more extensive DE model to better capture the ambient levels and seasonal behaviour of BaP. It is found that the heterogeneous reaction of BaP with O3 may decrease its atmospheric lifetime by 25.2 % (domain and annual average) and near-ground concentrations by 18.8 %. Marginally better model performance was found for one of the six EMEP stations (Košetice) when heterogeneous BaP reactivity was included. Further analysis shows that, for the rest of the EMEP locations, the model continues to underestimate BaP levels, an observation that can be

  6. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  7. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  8. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  9. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., continuous HFID (required for petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle and optional for methanol-fueled, natural gas... gas dilution function at the vehicle tailpipe exit. (6) For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...—petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. The components...

  10. Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilbaş, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

    2013-02-15

    The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors.

  11. Air pollution: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to air pollution detection. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radar scattering, aerial and spaceborne photography, microwave radiometry, and thermal imaging. Applications include the monitoring of stack gas emissions, vegetation emissions, forest fires, episodic air pollution, exhaust emissions, chlorohydrocarbons, urban smog, and general aspects of air pollution monitoring and identification. Remote sensing techniques applied to ocean pollution are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heated flame ionization detector (HFID) (375 °±20 °F (191 °±11 °C)) sample for total hydrocarbon (THC... the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel). (ii) Sufficiently distant (radially) from the THC probe so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies produced by the THC probe. (iii) 0.5 inch...

  13. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  14. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics.

  15. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared

  16. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and... exhaust duct system is connected to the clothes dryer, and (ii) A moisture lint exhaust duct system is... section. (2) A clothes dryer moisture-lint exhaust duct shall not be connected to any other duct, vent...

  17. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed a smoke number (SN) of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas... paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section refer to exhaust smoke emission emitted during operation of the...

  18. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed a smoke number (SN) of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas... paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section refer to exhaust smoke emission emitted during operation of the...

  19. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  20. Photochemical Reaction Altered Cardiac Toxicity of Diesel Exhaust Inhalation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have indicated an association between urban air pollution exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and compared with photochemically altered d...

  1. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  2. Remote sensing of aircraft exhaust temperature and composition by passive Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Schäfer, Klaus; Black, John; Harig, Roland; Jahn, Carsten

    2007-10-01

    The scanning infrared gas imaging system (SIGIS-HR) and the quantitative gas analysis software MAPS (Multicomponent Air Pollution Software) are applied to investigate the spatial distribution of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO, NO) within the plume of aircraft engines at airports. The system integrates an infrared camera also. It is used for the localisation of the hot source that additionally suggests the best measurement position of the SIGIS-HR. The application of emission FTIR spectrometry for the measurement of temperature and gas emission index of CO and NO is presented for the exhaust of a small turbojet based on a helicopter turbine. In these measurements the emitted infrared radiation from the exhaust gas stream was collected by the SIGIS-HR at different spectral resolution (56 cm -1 and 0.2 cm -1). The software MAPS includes the Instrumental Line Shape (ILS) of the OPAG- 22 FTIR spectrometer obtained by active gas cell measurements and ILS modelling. The rough concept of the system will be presented and operational applications will be discussed. The results of the investigation of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO, NO) within the aircraft engine plumes will be shown. The limitations and of the systems will be discussed.

  3. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  4. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: III. Components of diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions driving non-cancer biological responses in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

    2014-09-01

    An approach to identify causal components of complex air pollution mixtures was explored. Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h daily for 1 week or 6 months to dilutions of simulated downwind coal emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts and wood smoke. Organ weights, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, central vascular and respiratory allergic responses were measured. Multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of the combined database ranked 45 exposure (predictor) variables for importance to models best fitting 47 significant responses. Single-predictor concentration-response data were examined for evidence of single response functions across all exposure groups. Replication of the responses by the combined influences of the two most important predictors was tested. Statistical power was limited by inclusion of only four mixtures, albeit in multiple concentrations each and with particles removed for some groups. Results gave suggestive or strong evidence of causation of 19 of the 47 responses. The top two predictors of the 19 responses included only 12 organic and 6 inorganic species or classes. An increase in red blood cell count of rats by ammonia and pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses of mice by inorganic gases yielded the strongest evidence for causation and the best opportunity for confirmation. The former was a novel finding; the latter was consistent with other results. The results demonstrated the plausibility of identifying putative causal components of highly complex mixtures, given a database in which the ratios of the components are varied sufficiently and exposures and response measurements are conducted using a consistent protocol.

  5. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 2. Appendices to project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  6. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2. [Noise pollution control for natural gas pipeline compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type.

  7. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of four polluted river waters for phenolic and organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nomani, A A; Ajmal, M; Ahmad, S

    1996-03-01

    Forty-four water samples from eleven sampling points were collected from four highly polluted rivers of northern India once in each four seasons during 1988-1989. The samples were analyzed for phenol, chlorophenols, a few bromophenols and other organics. Phenol was found to be absent in all the analyzed samples. Trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were frequently detected. Comparatively, the Ganges river was most polluted at Kannauj followed by Narora, Kachala and Fatehgarh. Maximum phenols were found at Mathura downstream of the Yamuna river followed by Mathura upstream, Okhla, ITO and none at Wazirabad. No phenols were detected in the water of the rivers Hindon and Kali at Ghaziabad and Aligarh, respectively. Some other organic pollutants were also identified by their mass spectra and supported by data from the computerized library, but, not quantified.

  8. Automobiles and pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Degobert, P.

    1995-12-31

    This book explores the impact automobile emissions have on air pollution, focusing objectively on the share of pollution that can actually be attributed to the use of vehicles. Automobiles and Pollution begins with a presentation of general information on atmospheric pollution, including its regulatory aspects. The book`s focus then shifts to a more in-depth analysis of how pollutants can be eliminated from car exhaust emissions. Automobiles and Pollution will serve as a thorough and up-to-date reference for the specialist, and an informative primer to the nonspecialist needing an objective opinion on the subject.

  9. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel

  10. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  11. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  12. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  13. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

  15. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  16. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and the impact outside the source region, mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross-section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements axially along the flow of the city's pollution plume to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume, are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  17. The impact of carbon dioxide and exhaust gas recirculation on the oxidative reactivity of soot from ethylene flames and diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid O.

    Restrictive emissions standards to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines necessitate the development of advanced emission control technology. The engine manufacturers in the United States have implemented the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and diesel particulate filters (DPF) to meet the stringent emissions limits on NOx and PM, respectively. Although the EGR-DPF system is an effective means to control diesel engine emissions, there are some concerns associated with its implementation. The chief concern with this system is the DPF regenerability, which depends upon several factors, among which are the physicochemical properties of the soot. Despite the plethora of research that has been conducted on DPF regenerability, the impact of EGR on soot reactivity and DPF regenerability is yet to be examined. This work concerns the impact of EGR on the oxidative reactivity of diesel soot. It is part of ongoing research to bridge the gap in establishing a relationship between soot formation conditions, properties, and reactivity. This work is divided into three phases. In the first phase, carbon dioxide (CO2) was added to the intake charge of a single cylinder engine via cylinders of compressed CO2. This approach simulates the cold-particle-free EGR. The results showed that inclusion of CO2 changes the soot properties and yields synergistic effects on the oxidative reactivity of the resulting soot. The second phase of this research was motivated by the findings from the first phase. In this phase, post-flame ethylene soot was produced from a laboratory co-flow laminar diffusion flame to better understand the mechanism by which the CO2 affects soot reactivity. This phase was accomplished by successfully isolating the dilution, thermal, and chemical effects of the CO2. The results showed that all of these effects account for a measurable increase in soot reactivity. Nevertheless, the thermal effect was found to be the most

  18. Recent developments and applications with gas cell correlation spectrometer. [IR sensing of air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Floyd, G.

    1978-01-01

    Gaspec, a gas filter correlation spectrometer, is described. Gaspec is a dual-gas three-channel instrument using two detectors which receive amplitude-shared source signals modulated at the frequency of the chopper. Several units for operation around the 3-5 micron and the 8-15 micron region have been constructed, and gases such as CO2, CO, CH4, HCl, NO, and hydrazines can be detected. Advantages of Gaspec are considered with reference to improvements developed for the basic Cospec (gas cell correlation spectrometer) instrument.

  19. Large-scale time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) for measurement of high subsonic hot coaxial jet exhaust of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, B. H.; Skeen, A. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Graves, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    The development of a highly configurable triple digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) system is described, which is capable of acquiring both continuous, statistically independent measurements at up to 14 Hz and time-resolved PIV data at MHz rates. The system was used at QinetiQ's Noise Test Facility (NTF) as part of the EU-funded CoJeN programme to obtain measurements from high subsonic (Mach <= 0.9), hot (~500 °C), large (1/10th) scale coaxial jet flows at a standoff distance of ~1 m. High-resolution time-averaged velocity and turbulence data were obtained for complete coaxial engine exhaust plumes down to 4 m (20 jet diameters) from the nozzle exit in less than 1 h. In addition, the system allowed volumetric data to be obtained, enabling fast assessment of spatial alignment of nozzle configurations. Furthermore, novel six-frame time-series data-capture is demonstrated up to 330 kHz, used to calculate time-space correlations within the exhaust, allowing for study of spatio-temporal developments in the jet, associated with jet-noise production. The highly automated system provides synchronization triggers for simultaneous acquisition from different measurement systems (e.g. LDA) and is shown to be versatile, rugged, reliable and portable, operating remotely in a hostile environment. Data are presented for three operating conditions and two nozzle geometries, providing a database to be used to validate CFD models of coaxial jet flow.

  20. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

  5. Mutagenicity of emissions from a natural gas fueled truck.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Charles A; Gautam, Mridul; Zielinska, Barbara; Wagner, Valentine O; McClellan, Roger O

    2002-08-26

    Concern about the potential health risks of particulate exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles has led regulatory agencies to foster the use of natural gas fueled heavy duty vehicles. However, the potential health risks of particulate exhaust emissions from natural gas fueled vehicles have not been well-studied. The present study investigated the mutagenicity of particulate exhaust emissions from a natural gas fueled refuse truck currently in-service. Organic solvent extracts of exhaust particulate emissions from the natural gas fueled truck were positive in both Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of S-9. The maximum mutagenic responses ranged from 7-fold in the TA100 strain to 87-fold in the TA98 strain when compared to negative controls. Our results show that current in-service natural gas fueled heavy duty trucks have particulate exhaust emissions that possess mutagenic activity. This finding requires follow-up studies to develop a database on natural gas fueled vehicles for comparison with data on diesel-fueled vehicles to aid in making decisions on use of alternative fuels to reduce air pollution health risks.

  6. Petition for EPA action to protect communities from oil and gas wells toxic air pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Petition submitted by Earthjustice urging EPA to list oil and gas wells and associated equipment as an area sourcecategory and set national air toxics standards to protect public health from these sources.

  7. Status of German European exhaust emission legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, U.

    1985-01-01

    Recent legislative initiatives in West Germany and other European countries are leading to more stringent automobile exhaust emission standards. A review of the emission inventory on a global and West German basis and other factors, such as acid rain and forest damage, indicate that the contribution of automobile exhaust to the emission problem may be less than the European public assumes. As an interim step while new standards are being considered, the West German government is promoting the purchase of low-pollution vehicles through a vehicle tax reduction program.

  8. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  9. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  10. The Use of Mobile, Electrochemical Sensor Nodes for the Measurement of Personal Exposure to Gas-Phase Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, G.; Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; McKeating, S. J.; Calleja, M.; Hayes, M.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    , and thus also the potential insufficiency at quantifying the risks to health in the surrounding area. Recent campaigns with mobile sensor nodes have included attempts to probe the differences in personal exposure to gas-phase air pollutants at different heights of breathing zone and between different methods of transport.

  11. Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

  12. NOx abatement in natural-gas-combustion exhaust gases by solid-state electrochemical technology. Topical report, September 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Neyman, M.; Siwajek, L.; Cook, W.J.; Gordon, A.Z.

    1987-11-01

    Solid-state electrochemical technology, embodied in the IGR deNOx process is used to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen and oxygen, and thereby control NOx emissions from natural gas powered engines. The IGR deNOx process is based on solid-state, flow-through, high-surface area, oxygen-ion-conductive ceramic electrolytes. Ceramic reactor elements made of fully stabilized zirconia (FSZ) (yttria-stabilized) were coated with porous silver electrodes, and tested with NO gas mixtures including a mixture containing CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/ using both electrical and gas-chromatographic analysis.

  13. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  14. [Dispersion and analysis of odor pollution in landfill area under the enclosed operation condition].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Wu, Shi-Xing; Dai, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Dai, Zhan-Guo; Lu, Xu-Fei; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Kai; Wei, Pan-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Odor pollution of landfill site is a serious problem accompanied with the urbanization process that influences city life. Generally, odor emission points in landfill boundary are detected by experience, but the pollution intensity, distribution and variation in the scope of landfill boundary are difficulty to describe. In this research, odor emission points were disclosed with equal odor concentration curves that were delineated using electric nose and GPS instrument. The leakage of landfill gas and exhaust emission from biogas incineration torch was the main cause of the odor pollution in landfill area. Gas production evaluation suggested that the improvement of landfill gas consumption is the key point to control the odor pollution at the landfill site.

  15. Comparison of immunotoxic effects induced by the extracts from methanol and gasoline engine exhausts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Che, Wangjun; Liu, Guiming; Qiu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ran, Yun; Zeng, Xianggui; Wen, Weihua; Shu, Ya

    2010-06-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered as a major source of air pollution in China. Due to lower cyto- and geno-toxicity effects of methanol engine exhaust, methanol is regarded as a potential substitute for gasoline. We have previously compared cyto- and geno-toxicities of gasoline engine exhaust with that of methanol engine exhaust in A549 cells (Zhang et al., 2007).To characterize the immunotoxic effects for gasoline and methanol engine exhausts in immune cell, in this study, we further compared effects of gasoline and methanol engine exhausts on immune function in RAW264.7 cell and rabbit alveolar macrophages. Results showed that both gasoline and methanol engine exhaust could evidently inhibit RAW264.7 cell proliferation, promote RAW264.7 cell apoptosis, decrease E-rosette formation rate and inhibit anti-tumor effects of alveolar macrophages, at the same time, these effects of gasoline engine exhaust were far stronger than those of methanol engine exhaust. In addition, gasoline engine exhaust could significantly inhibit activities of ADCC of alveolar macrophages, but methanol engine exhaust could not. These results suggested that both gasoline and methanol engine exhausts might be immunotoxic atmospheric pollutants, but some effects of gasoline engine exhaust on immunotoxicities may be far stronger than that of methanol engine exhaust.

  16. Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yinn; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Ru

    2010-02-01

    This study was focused on fuel energy efficiency and pollution analysis of different ratios of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels (E0, E3, E6, and E9) under different loadings. In this research, the experimental system consisted of a small engine generator, a particulate matter measurement system, and an exhaust gas analyzer system. Different fuels, unleaded gasoline, and ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E3, E6, and E9) were used to study their effects on the exhaust gas emission and were expressed as thermal efficiency of the small engine generator energy efficiency. The results suggested that particle number concentration increased as the engine loading increased; however, it decreased as the ethanol content in the blend increased. While using E6 as fuel, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was less than other fuels (E0, E3, and E9) for each engine loading. The average of CO concentration reduction by using E3, E6, and E9 is 42, 86, and 83%, respectively. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 78.7, 97.5, and 89.46% of the mean average values of hydrocarbons (HCs) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, for all engine loadings. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 35, 86, and 77% of the mean average values of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, at each engine loading. The E6 fuel gave the best results of the exhaust emissions, and the E9 fuel gave the best results of the particle emissions and engine performance. The thermal efficiency of the small engine generator increased as the ethanol content in the blend increased and as the engine loading increased.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and... specifications of Tables R99-15 and R99-16 are less than or equal to the standards in Tables R99-15 and R99-16 in...-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Sold in the...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and... specifications of Tables R99-15 and R99-16 are less than or equal to the standards in Tables R99-15 and R99-16 in...-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Sold in the...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and... specifications of Tables R99-15 and R99-16 are less than or equal to the standards in Tables R99-15 and R99-16 in...-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Sold in the...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and... specifications of Tables R99-15 and R99-16 are less than or equal to the standards in Tables R99-15 and R99-16 in...-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Sold in the...