Science.gov

Sample records for exhaust hood compartment

  1. Pollutant Removal Efficiency of Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Sherman, Alexander D.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2011-07-01

    Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination; (B) short hood with grease-screen-covered air inlet at bottom; and (C) deep, open hood exhausting at top. Devices were evaluated at varying installation heights, at highest and lowest fan settings, and with the hood installed 15 cm away from back wall with intent to improve CE for front burners. Each configuration was evaluated for the oven and for three cooktop burner combinations (two back, two front, one front and one back). At highest fan settings and standard installation against the wall, Hoods A and C captured back cooktop burner exhaust at > 90 percent and Hood B at > 80 percent. In this configuration, CE for front burner exhaust was 73-78 percent for Hoods A and C but only 46-63 percent for Hood B. CEs followed similar patterns but were substantially lower on the lowest fan speed. Installing the hood away from the wall improved CE for oven and front burners on Hood A at low speed, but substantially reduced CE for back burners for all hoods at low and high speed.

  2. Modernization of exhaust hood of low-pressure cylinder of a cogeneration turbine T-250/300-23.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, V. G.; Khandrymailov, A. A.; Kultishev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Yamaltdinov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    An option of modernization of an exhaust hood for a low-pressure cylinder of a T-250/300-23.5 series turbine is presented in order to increase its effectiveness in a wide regimes range. An influence of a number of design decisions on gas-dynamic and energy characteristics of an exhaust compartment is considered. The investigation is carried out by the numerical simulation of a viscous wet steam flow through the exhaust compartment consisting of a last stage and an exhaust hood. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data is presented.

  3. Computer simulation in the design of local exhaust hoods for shielded metal arc welding.

    PubMed

    Tum Suden, K D; Flynn, M R; Goodman, R

    1990-03-01

    Computer simulations were used to examine competing exhaust hood configurations for shielded metal arc welding. The welder's breathing zone concentration appears to be an inverse linear function of the computer-predicted hood capture efficiency. Hood aspect ratio, hood flow, and the welder's position relative to the hood all have a significant effect on the breathing zone concentration. The height of the hood above the welding surface showed no significant effect in reducing breathing zone concentration. Further examination of breathing zone concentration as a function of capture efficiency is needed before reliable design methods can be developed using this parameter.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a steam power plant low-pressure turbine downward exhaust hood

    SciTech Connect

    Tindell, R.H.; Alston, T.M.; Sarro, C.A.; Stegmann, G.C.; Gray, L.; Davids, J.

    1996-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to the analysis of a low-pressure turbine exhaust hood at a typical steam power generating station. A Navier-Stokes solver, capable of modeling all the viscous terms, in a Reynolds-averaged formulation, was used. The work had two major goals. The first was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the complex three-dimensional flow fields that exist in the exhaust hood at representative operating conditions. The second was to evaluate the relative benefits of a flow guide modification to optimize performance at a selected operating condition. Also, the influence of simulated turbine discharge characteristics, relative to uniform hood entrance conditions, was evaluated. The calculations show several interesting and possibly unique results. They support use of an integrated approach to the design of turbine exhaust stage blading and hood geometry for optimum efficiency.

  5. Mock-up and testing of a variable volume laboratory fume hood exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Vresk, J.; Hirsch, P. R.; Davis, S. A.; Myers, G. E.; Woodring, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A test of an ANL-designed variable volume system prototype used to displace an existing constant volume fume hood ventilation system in a laboratory of the Materials Science Division is described. Performance characteristics such as response, stability, repeatability and hood containment were tested and evaluated, with particular emphasis on containment, to clearly demonstrate that operator safety and the environment are not compromised. Results obtained clearly indicate the feasibility of implementing the prototype concept. The variable volume system enables reducing conditioned ventilation air to the laboratory room by at least 50%, dependent solely upon internal heat loads. Normal hood exhaust of 200 CFM with the face sash in a closed position can be provided by air used to condition building offices and corridors. In all modes of operation, i.e., fume hood face sash closed to fully open, the building differential pressure design criteria from office to corridor to laboratory to fume hood is maintained. Also, hood face velocity can be established to meet minimum requirements at any position of sash opening and test results indicate a hood containment efficiency equal to or better than the presently existing constant volume proportional by-pass system.

  6. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  7. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok J.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  8. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  9. Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.

    PubMed

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

    2012-08-15

    Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven.

  10. Internal Performance of a Fixed-Shroud Nonaxisymmetric Nozzle Equipped with an Aft-Hood Exhaust Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of a fixed-shroud nonaxisymmetric nozzle equipped with an aft-hood exhaust deflector. Model geometric parameters investigated included nozzle power setting, aft-hood deflector angle, throat area control with the aft-hood deflector deployed, and yaw vector angle. Results indicate that cruise configurations produced peak performance in the range consistent with previous investigations of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles. The aft-hood deflector produced resultant pitch vector angles that were always less than the geometric aft-hood deflector angle when the nozzle throat was positioned upstream of the deflector exit. Significant losses in resultant thrust ratio occurred when the aft-hood deflector was deployed with an upstream throat location. At each aft-hood deflector angle, repositioning the throat to the deflector exit improved pitch vectoring performance and, in some cases, substantially improved resultant thrust ratio performance. Transferring the throat to the deflector exit allowed the flow to be turned upstream of the throat at subsonic Mach numbers, thereby eliminating losses associated with turning supersonic flow. Internal throat panel deflections were largely unsuccessful in generating yaw vectoring.

  11. Low flow fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  12. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  13. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  14. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. 118.425 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.425 Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  15. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. 118.425 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.425 Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  16. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  17. 'Cobra Hoods'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation flips back and forth between left and right eye images of the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center top). The images were taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. These pictures was captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  18. Exhaust system for use with a turbine and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Dalsania, Prakash Bavanjibhai; Sadhu, Antanu

    2015-08-18

    An exhaust system for use with a steam turbine is provided. An exhaust hood includes an input and an output, the input receiving fluid from the steam turbine. The exhaust hood includes a first side wall that extends between the input and the output. The first side wall includes an aperture. An ejector is coupled to the exhaust hood. The ejector includes inlets and an outlet. At least one of the inlets receives fluid from the exhaust hood via the aperture.

  19. Good Practices for Hood Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikell, William G.; Drinkard, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes safety practices for laboratory fume hoods based on certain assumptions of hood design and performance. Also discusses the procedures in preparing to work at a hood. A checklist of good hood practices is included. (JM)

  20. Hood: Answers in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood Coll., Frederick, MD.

    The president of Hood College, a liberal arts college for women located in Frederick, Maryland, considers the challenges confronting American higher education and describes what one college is doing to meet them. A description of Hood College and American higher education is provided. Seven sections focus on the following: (1) matters of equity…

  1. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope.... Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S3... engine, luggage, storage, or battery compartment. S4. Requirements. S4.1Each hood must be provided with...

  2. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  3. An investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Altemose, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin at the hood, to predict the results of the user tracer gas test is evaluated. All of the laboratory hoods tested in this study were identical bench top bypass hoods with horizontally sliding sashes. A face velocity traverse, cross draft measurements, a pitot traverse to measure exhaust flow, a smoke test, a manikin tracer gas test, and a user tracer gas test were performed on each hood in several different sash positions. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its distribution and variability, and the magnitude of cross drafts relative to face velocity are important variables in determining hood leakage. `Unblocked` vortices, formed such that no physical barrier exists between the vortex and room air or a person in front of the hood, are identified as important sites of leakage. For the hoods evaluated in this study, unblocked vortices were observed along the beveled side edges. The data support the hypothesis that in the presence of a person standing in front of the hood, leakage is more likely to occur if unblocked vortices are formed than if all vortices are blocked. Evidence suggests that cross drafts are more likely to cause leakage when flowing in a direction that may cause separated flow along a beveled edge of the hood and thereby augment the unblocked vortices along the edge. Results indicate that smoke tests, manikin tracer gas tests, and average face velocity all serve as useful monitoring techniques. Face velocity measurements and smoke tests, which are easy and inexpensive, may provide information which is as valuable as traditional manikin tracer gas tests.

  4. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  5. Effects of walk-by and sash movement on contaminant leakage of air curtain-isolated fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Hong Da; Hung, Chien-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    The effects of the walk-by motion and sash movement on the containment leakage of an air curtain-isolated fume hood were evaluated and compared with the results of a corresponding conventional fume hood. The air curtain was generated by a narrow planar jet issued from the double-layered sash and a suction slot-flow arranged on the floor of the hood just behind the doorsill. The conventional fume hood used for comparison had the major dimensions identical to the air-curtain hood. SF tracer-gas concentrations were released and measured following the prEN 14175-3:2003 protocol to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Experimental results showed that operating the air-curtain hood at the suction velocity above about 6 m/s and jet velocity about 1 m/s could provide drastically high containment performance when compared with the corresponding conventional fume hood operated at the face velocity of 0.5 m/s. The total air flow required for the air-curtain hood operated at 6 m/s suction velocity and 1 m/s jet velocity was about 20% less than that exhausted by the conventional fume hood. If the suction velocity of the air-curtain hood was increased above 8 m/s, the containment leakage during dynamic motions could be reduced to ignorable level (about 10(3) ppm). PMID:18212476

  6. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  8. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  9. Interview with Leroy Hood.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-06-01

    Leroy Hood has an MD from Johns Hopkins and a PhD from Caltech. He was a professor at Caltech for 22 years, at the University of Washington for 8 years, and has been President and co-founder of the Institute for Systems Biology for the past 13 years. His interests include technology development, molecular immunology, genomics, systems biology, cancer and neurodegeneration. He has published more than 700 papers, has 36 patents and has been involved in the start-up of 13 different companies. He has won numerous awards including the Lasker Award (1987), the Kyoto Prize (2002), the Russ Prize (2011) and, most recently, the Medal of Science (2011). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer and the Institute of Medicine. He is currently focused on taking a systems approach to disease. Here he talks to Lisa Parks, Assistant Commissioning Editor of Bioanalysis.

  10. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-03-26

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

  11. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  12. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  13. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 feet/minute) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust air flows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  14. Design for a Miniature Portable Fume Hood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ronald A.; Wait, Samuel C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design of undergraduate chemical laboratory fume hoods. Proves that folding the sides and top permit the hood and its duct hose to be stored in a standard 18-inch-wide laboratory cabinet. (WRM)

  15. Fume hood performance: Using a bypass in variable air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joao, R.V.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.

    1998-10-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) exhaust systems provide sophisticated engineering controls for maintaining laboratory ventilation. Depending on how they are installed, they may be very responsive to changes in air flows and air pressures. Some of these changes are a consequence of natural phenomena and some are induced by the transit and actions of laboratory occupants. While the responsiveness of VAV controls can provide tight regulation, the dynamic nature of the VAV system may also introduce undesirable air flow fluctuations. Furthermore, since the volumes of air being exhausted vary, the amount of air available for fume hood capture and containment will also vary. These studies examine the responsiveness and consequences of ventilation system perturbations, as well as the effect of fume hood exhaust being reduced to very low air volumes. Face velocity and air volumes were measured at different sash heights and in response to rapid sash movements. In addition, capture of contaminants was evaluated at different sash heights by American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 110-85 tests. The authors have found that at low sash heights the total volume of air may be reduced to a level that is insufficient to efficiently capture airborne contaminants. The addition of a fume hood bypass was necessary to ensure that the volume of air exhausted is sufficient to remove the contaminants present. Understanding the causes and characteristics of fume hood instabilities provides insight into how to prevent these perturbations.

  16. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  17. The Benefits of Mixed Flow Technology: Roof Exhaust Fans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with laboratory workstation exhaust faced by most colleges and universities and explains how the selection of a proper fume hood exhaust system can prevent or eliminate these problems and provide a clean and safe lab environment. Also highlighted are indoor air quality legal implications. (GR)

  18. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  19. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1).

  20. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1). PMID:25690760

  1. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display.

  2. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the...

  4. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  5. Hood River Passive House, Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  7. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  8. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  9. Numerical simulation of laboratory fume hood airflow performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Reither, R.

    1998-12-31

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been used to predict airflow patterns in laboratory fume hoods. The simulation includes bypass fume hood primary operational features including the top and bottom bypasses, front airfoils, and rear-slotted baffles. All results were validated experimentally, and the simulation was found to adequately predict fume hood airflow patterns. The results indicate that fume hood flow patterns are highly dependent on inlet flow boundary conditions so that the computation must include the near field room airflow. Additionally, the study included the effects on the fume hood airflow of sash height changes, an operator positioned outside the fume hood, and equipment within the main fume hood chamber. It was shown that for conditions of a fully open sash height, a person in front of the fume hood, and an object inside the fume hood, the fume hood experiences a loss of containment of the flow.

  10. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  15. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  16. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  17. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  18. Characterization of a hooded human exposure apparatus for inhalation of gases and aerosols.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Mehaffy, John; Watt, Janet; Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; Kline, Joel N

    2004-03-01

    A human exposure apparatus was designed to administer a gas and/or aerosol directly to the subject's face. This apparatus utilized a hood associated with a powered air-purifying respirator. The design criteria included the need to maximize subject comfort, maintain consistent atmospheres of a gas or dust within the hood, and the accurate use of direct-reading instruments to monitor exposure levels. An 83-L drum was used to pre-mix the gas or aerosol with the main dilution air prior to entering the hood worn by the subject. A clear plastic oxygen tent, ventilated with room exhaust air, was used to contain contaminants exiting the hood. Bypass valves were added to allow for a startup period during which contaminant concentration levels were allowed to stabilize prior to exposing the human subject. Results from characterization studies demonstrated that the system adequately contained contaminants within the oxygen tent, provided adequate mixing of contaminant and dilution air, produced stable contaminant concentrations over time, and was responsive to sudden changes in contaminant generation rate. PMID:15204873

  19. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  20. Evaluation of the Edgegard Laminar Flow Hood

    PubMed Central

    Coriell, Lewis L.; McGarrity, Gerard J.

    1970-01-01

    In a horizontal back-to-front flow high-efficiency particulate air-filtered laminar hood, it is shown that a Blake bottle obstruction to the air flow causes a downstream cone of turbulent air which can draw microbial contamination into the work area of the hood. In controlled experiments, contamination with T3 coliphage was reduced by a series of perforations around the open edge of the hood which eliminates the cone of turbulent air. The average reduction in phage counts was 90.75, 86.79, 91.12, and 98.92%, depending upon the site of nebulization. The phage counts were reduced in 48 of the 51 tests. Images PMID:5485728

  1. Study of how sash movement affects performance of fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, T.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine how sash movements affect the performance of fume hoods. The performance of two fume hoods was studied as the sashes were moved from closed to open position at speeds of 2 ft/s, 1.5 ft/s, and 1 ft/s. The tests were conducted with fume hoods operated at both constant volume and variable air volume. The tests indicate that sash movements can disturb airflow patterns at the face of the hood and potentially affect the performance of the hood. The effect of the sash movement varied with hood type and speed of sash movement. The faster sash movements of 2 ft/s and 1.5 ft/s had a greater effect on the performance of the hoods than the slower movement of 1 ft/s. Constant-volume hoods and variable-air-volume hoods were both affected by sash movements. Constant-volume hoods set to a full open face velocity of 60 ft/min were more susceptible to the sash movement than at 100 ft/min full open face velocity. The performance of variable-air-volume hoods is affected not only by sash movement speed but also by the response time of the controller. The drop in face velocity that occurs when the sash is moved is determined by the speed of the VAV controller. The required response time for containment depends on the fume hood design and the speed of the sash movement.

  2. 75 FR 18144 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet on... INFORMATION CONTACT: For more information regarding this meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt. Hood...

  3. 75 FR 21220 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Action of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet on Tuesday... meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt. Hood National Forest; 16400 Champion Way; Sandy, Oregon 97055;...

  4. 76 FR 19314 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon... Connie Athman, Mt. Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy, Oregon 97055. Comments may also...

  5. 76 FR 53114 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Sandy, Oregon. The... September 26, 2011, and begin at 10 a.m ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Mt. Hood National...

  6. 76 FR 58768 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting location change. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in... Home, Oregon; (541) 367-5168. Written comments should be sent to Connie Athman, Mt.Hood National...

  7. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  8. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  9. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  10. Acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, C

    2000-01-01

    Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome is a disorder, which can cause loss of limb if left untreated. Compartment syndrome develops when pressures within the fascial compartments become elevated, resulting in decreased perfusion to muscles and nerves. Left untreated, tissue death occurs. Rapid identification of clinical signs can decrease severity of symptoms. Diligent nursing assessment and monitoring of clinical signs, with communication to the physician, will facilitate rapid treatment by the physician. The primary treatment option is early identification and intervention through performance of a fasciotomy.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  12. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity.

  13. Containment testing for occupied and unoccupied laboratory chemical hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Greenley, P.L.; DiBerardinis, L.J.; Lorch, F.A.

    1999-07-01

    Containment of hazards in a laboratory chemical hood is based on the principle that air drawn through the face area of the hood is sufficient to overcome the many challenges at or near the opening. Challenges to overcome include, but are not limited to, air velocities near the hood, movement of the researcher, people walking past the hood, location of equipment inside the hood, size of the sash opening, and the shape and configuration of entrance conditions. To overcome these challenges, a sufficient face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity for a given hood should be resolved by the system designer, facility safety officer, and researcher with these and other issues in mind. This research tests for containment at 100 feet per minute (fpm) face velocity on occupied hoods and tests the same hoods for containment at the reduced velocity of 60 fpm when unoccupied. Three laboratory chemical hoods of different sizes with several ash positions are used. The test results show that under ideal conditions in a test laboratory, an unoccupied hood (without a manikin) at 60 fpm contains as good as, if not better than, an occupied hood (with a manikin) at 100 fpm, as measured by the tracer gas tests specified in ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995, Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 1995). Further testing is needed to determine if this relationship is the same under conditions of actual use, i.e., cluttered hoods and presence of cross-drafts.

  14. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  15. Efficient and Cost-Effective Use of Adjustable Canopy Hoods in a Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Suggests the use of small canopy hoods that provide flexibility of vertical and horizontal adjustment over the lab bench as a replacement for permanent hoods. Includes many safety related instances where canopy hoods should be used. (MVL)

  16. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  17. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  18. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  19. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  20. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  1. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  2. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  3. 13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing north (Note: B/W scale on fume hood is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. Hood River Pelton Ladder Studies : Annual Report 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1996-09-01

    Data collected from this program will provide the baseline information needed to (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the Hood River Production Plan and (2) determine any post-project impacts the Hood River Production Plan has on indigenous populations of resident fish.

  5. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  6. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  7. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  8. Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2001-09-01

    Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large--on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue.

  9. The effect of thermal loading on laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Chessin, S J; Chesnovar, B W; Lillquist, D R

    2000-11-01

    A modified version of the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to evaluate the relationship between thermal loading in a laboratory fume hood and subsequent tracer gas leakage. Three types of laboratory burners were used, alone and in combination, to thermally challenge the hood. Heat output from burners was measured in BTU/hr, which was based on the fuel heat capacity and flow rate. Hood leakage was measured between 2824 and 69,342 BTU/hr. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released at 23.5 LPM for each level of thermal loading. Duct temperature was also measured during the heating process. Results indicate a linear relationship for both BTU/hr vs. hood leakage and duct temperature vs. hood leakage. Under these test conditions, each increase of 10,000 BTU/hr resulted in an additional 4 ppm SF6 in the manikin's breathing zone (r2 = 0.68). An additional 3.1 ppm SF6 was measured for every 25 degrees F increase in duct temperature (r2 = 0.60). Both BTU/hr and duct temperature models showed p < 0.001. For these tests, BTU/hr was a better predictor of hood leakage than duct temperature. The results of this study indicate that heat output may compromise fume hood performance. This finding is consistent with those of previous studies.

  10. Mt. Hood Tech Prep Demonstration Project. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    The Mt. Hood Tech Prep Demonstration Project provides technical education to students in grades 9-14 plus opportunities to continue into apprenticeship or four-year college programs. The consortium includes seven Oregon local school districts, Mt. Hood Community College (MHCC), and active business and industry partners. An estimated 1,500 students…

  11. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR...

  12. 75 FR 54846 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Action of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For more information regarding this meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt....

  13. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR...

  14. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61 Section 93.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an...

  15. 76 FR 14897 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon....

  16. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  17. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  18. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  19. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... of land owned by Mt. Hood Meadows Oreg., LLC, in Hood River County, Oregon. DATES: Comments... land owned by Mt. Hood Meadows Oreg., LLC, in Hood River County, Oregon. The Omnibus legislation states... potential effects to resource areas including wildlife, fisheries, water quality, wetlands and...

  20. Fume hood performance: Face velocity variability inconsistent air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, C.E.; Joao, R.V.; Gershey, E.L.; Reiman, J.S.; Party, E.

    1998-09-01

    A 3-year survey of 366 bench-type fume hoods in working laboratories in conventional, constant air volume settings showed that face velocities varied greatly from unit to unit and over time. Fume hoods with bypasses performed better than those without; however, even newly fabricated bypass hoods exhibited large variations. These variations were due to several factors; however, face velocities at 100 {+-} 10 ft/min at working sash heights in the range of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 16 inches) were attainable. The use of smoke showed poor containment, especially at face velocities below 85 ft/min (0.425 m/s) or above 130 ft/min (0.65 m/s) and when the hoods were obstructed by large items placed on the work surface. Auxiliary/supplemental air created unstable face velocities and poor smoke patterns. The analysis of 3 years of fume hood monitoring showed clearly the need for and importance of a maintenance program where the fume hood lower slots are cleaned and fans, ducts, dampers, and hoods are checked periodically.

  1. In situ vitrification melt and confinement hood performance review

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.

    1990-09-01

    This document consolidates and organizes information available concerning in situ vitrification (ISV) melt behavior and confinement hood performance. This information is derived from reports of various scaled ISV tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The objective of this document is twofold: (1) to serve as a central reference of information concerning the reported melt and confinement hood performance under various operating conditions and (2) to identify ISV melt and hood characteristics that require alteration or further investigation through either additional field tests or laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  3. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  4. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  5. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  6. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  7. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  8. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  9. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  10. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  11. Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH SEABEE STATUE IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 76 FR 26182 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... of the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble, Washington to test an operational change...

  14. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This...

  15. 77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... (77 FR 12514). We received 17 comments on the proposed ] rule. No public meeting was requested, and... regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This modification will relieve heavy...

  16. Resource Management: Futuristic Concept a Reality at Hood College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speers, Mary Louise; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Resource Management Center at Hood College (Maryland) provides home economics students with facilities to study and practice resource conservation, nutrition and preventive health maintenance, and community outreach. (SK)

  17. 5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND METAL FRAGMENT AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

  18. 10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to the right. Filter boxes to the left. Looking south. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  20. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  1. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  2. EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. TRENCH IN FOREGROUND IS FOR DUCT THAT WILL CARRY COOLANT AIR FROM MTR'S THERMAL SHIELD. DUCT LINES UP WITH NORTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. AT RIGHT OF VIEW, NOTE TRENCH LEADING TO SOUTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE; IT WILL BRING CONTAMINATED AIR FROM LABORATORY HOODS AND VENTS. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2764. Unknown Photographer, 6/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Study of flow patterns in fume hood enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    A three-dimensional model for flow inside a fume hood enclosure was developed and numerical computations were carried out to explore the flow pattern and possible path of contaminant transport under different operating conditions of the hood. Equations for the conservation of mass and momentum were solved for different flow rate and opening conditions in the hood. The face velocity was maintained constant at its rated value of 0.4 m/s. The flow was assumed to enter through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leave the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model was used for the prediction of turbulence. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow patterns around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. In addition, the effect of a person standing in front of the hood on the flow pattern was investigated. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its trailing surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. The computed flow patterns will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air from inside the room.

  4. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  5. Magnetotelluric investigations at Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, E.C.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.

    1986-10-01

    Magnetotelluric data, with both electric and magnetic field references for noise cancellation, were collected at accessible locations around and as close as possible to the Mount Hood andesite-dacite volcano. The purpose of the study was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to the thermal regime of the region. Several conductors could be discerned. The shallowest, at a depth of around 500 m below the surface, was identified as a flow of heated water moving away from the summit: the deepest (--50 km) might be a melt zone in the upper mantle. Of particular interest is an elongate conductor that strikes N 10/sup 0/ W and extends from a depth of 12 km down to 22 km. Because the conductor strike is close to the trend of the chain of Cascade volcanoes and because of the high conductive thermal gradients reported for the area, this feature was initially believed to be a zone of partial melt following the volcanic axis. However, because no teleseismic P wave velocity anomaly has been found, the cause of the conductor is more problematic. While the existence of small zones of melt cannot be ruled out, it is possible that the conductor is caused by a large volume of intensely deformed rocks with brine-filled microfractures.

  6. Analysis of heat transfer and contaminant transport in fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the analysis of three-dimensional flow patterns and the associated heat and mass transfer mechanisms in a fume hood enclosure. The flow enters the hood through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leaves the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow pattern around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its training surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. Both temperature and concentration were found to be maximum near the source and gradually decreased as the heated air or gaseous contaminant entrained with incoming air. The local concentration decreased with increase in sash opening area. The results will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air inside the room.

  7. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  8. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  9. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  10. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Reports for 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Lambert, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary goals of the Hood River Production Program is to (1) increase subbasin production of wild summer and winter steelhead and (2) reintroduce spring chinook salmon into the Hood River subbasin.

  11. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Jamshid J

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  12. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  13. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  14. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods. PMID:19933309

  15. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal, Bangor; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1220 Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas. (a) Hood Canal, Bangor; Naval restricted areas—(1) Area No. 1. That...

  16. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  18. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  19. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  20. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. 28.330..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.330 Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL...

  1. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  2. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. 28.330..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.330 Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  4. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  5. Data from geothermal test wells near Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Forcella, L.S.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes well specifications, drillers ' logs, and temperature logs of geothermal test wells drilled at 7 sites near Mt. Hood, Oreg. The wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980 under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, was part of an interagency effort to determine the geothermal potential of Mt. Hood. The agencies involved were, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. (USGS)

  6. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  7. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies and Hood River Fish Habitat Project, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    1999-12-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood Canal in vicinity of Bangor—(1) The area. All waters of Hood Canal between latitude 47°46′00″...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood Canal in vicinity of Bangor—(1) The area. All waters of Hood Canal between latitude 47°46′00″...

  10. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  11. Compartment syndrome following intraosseous infusion.

    PubMed

    Moen, Todd C; Sarwark, John F

    2008-08-01

    Intraosseous infusion is a valuable technique in the resuscitation of critically ill pediatric patients in whom vascular access has proved otherwise impossible. Although it is well established as a safe and reliable means of emergent access, intraosseous infusion is not without danger, nor complication. One of the rare yet most grave complications of intraosseous access is compartment syndrome. We report a case of compartment syndrome as a result of intraosseous infusion that serves to remind of the potential pitfalls of this technique. An otherwise healthy 6-year-old girl presented to our institution's pediatric intensive care unit following emergent resuscitation for a prolonged cardiac arrest. Approximately 1 hour following an uneventful soccer practice, without any antecedent cardiopulmonary symptoms or complaints, the patient collapsed and was unresponsive, not breathing, and pulseless. In the course of resuscitation, right and left tibial intraosseous lines were started. After 30 minutes of resuscitation, with multiple rounds of lidocaine and epinephrine infused through the intraosseous lines, a sustained perfusing rhythm was established. Acute compartment syndrome was diagnosed, and through anterolateral and posteromedial incisions, all 4 fascial compartments were released. While the condition of the patient's extremity improved, the overall clinical condition of the patient did not. This case highlights the fundamental principles regarding the use of intraosseous infusion and the diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome in critically ill patients. PMID:19292404

  12. "Robin Hood" on Ropes in Texas School Aid Tilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Texas has had its Robin Hood school financing system in place since 1993, when the legislature adopted the system in response to a state supreme court order to equalize state spending on public schools. Under the arrangement, any district that has taxable property values exceeding $305,000 per student is not allowed to keep all of its property-tax…

  13. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds in fat from kitchen hoods.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Vetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could be quantified. Between 0.2 and 18 μg polyhalogenated chemicals/g fat were detected, with chlorinated paraffins being the most relevant contaminant group. Aside from the chlorinated paraffins, each kitchen hood fat sample showed a distinct fingerprint. A wide range of old and current-use brominated flame retardants were also detected in the samples. In addition to these contaminants originating from their use in indoor equipment, residues of organochlorine pesticides and semi-volatile halogenated natural products verified that cooking of food, accompanied with the release of contaminants from the heated food, was another relevant source of contamination. Re-analyses of two samples after 3 months only resulted in small variations in contaminant pattern and concentrations. Therefore, fat from kitchen hoods is proposed as an easily accessible matrix to assess contamination of these hazardous polyhalogenated chemicals. PMID:23877177

  14. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds in fat from kitchen hoods.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Vetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could be quantified. Between 0.2 and 18 μg polyhalogenated chemicals/g fat were detected, with chlorinated paraffins being the most relevant contaminant group. Aside from the chlorinated paraffins, each kitchen hood fat sample showed a distinct fingerprint. A wide range of old and current-use brominated flame retardants were also detected in the samples. In addition to these contaminants originating from their use in indoor equipment, residues of organochlorine pesticides and semi-volatile halogenated natural products verified that cooking of food, accompanied with the release of contaminants from the heated food, was another relevant source of contamination. Re-analyses of two samples after 3 months only resulted in small variations in contaminant pattern and concentrations. Therefore, fat from kitchen hoods is proposed as an easily accessible matrix to assess contamination of these hazardous polyhalogenated chemicals.

  15. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... disclose the potential environmental effects of improving the parking at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. The..., cut/fill slopes, storm water swales, snow storage, and an equipment maintenance yard. In addition, the...). An additional 4.5 acres would be cleared for access roads, cut/fill slopes, storm water swales,...

  16. 5. VIEW OF SITE A FROM SOUTH END OF HOOD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE A FROM SOUTH END OF HOOD, FACING NORTH (BUILDINGS 117, 120, 122, 116, 128, and 121 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. Mt. Hood Community College Institutional Effectiveness (IE) Report Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, R. Dan

    This report examines the indicators of institutional effectiveness for Mount Hood Community College (MHCC) (Oregon). The document reports on five institutional goals: (1) knowledge-based workforce education and services; (2) access for members of the community and development of an environment in which diversity thrives; (3) economic development,…

  18. 6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. SCRAPS OF ENRICHED URANIUM FROM MACHINING OPERATIONS WERE CLEANED IN A SOLVENT BATH, THEN PRESSED INTO BRIQUETTS. THE BRIQUETTS WERE USED AS FEED MATERIAL FOR THE FOUNDRY. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Compartment interiors. For each compartment occupied by the crew or passengers, the following apply: (a... and the cavity walls that are exposed when a full complement of such carts or containers is not... compartments, galleys, lavatories, crew rest quarters, cabinets and stowage compartments, need not meet...

  20. Evaluation of factors affecting the containment performance of traditional and nanomaterial fume hoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Kevin Holden

    This research was conducted to: 1) evaluate different methods for measuring containment effectiveness of a nanomaterial handling enclosure; 2) to evaluate design and operational factors which may impact containment performance for a traditional constant air volume (CAV) and nano fume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and; 3) to assess the impact on the operator body and arm motion on nanoparticle containment of the CAV and nano fume hoods. The research approach to address these objectives starts with an evaluation of the containment effectiveness of a new nanomaterial handling enclosure using tracer gas, nanoparticle and nanoparticle handling methodologies in a real-world laboratory setting. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well-correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. However, the nanoparticle method was more sensitive than the tracer gas test showing leakage in situations not indicated by the tracer gas tests. These experiments also identified substantial leaks near the sides of the hood sides even when the tracer gas concentration in the manikin breathing zone was not elevated. This result was consistent with new research showing that sampling in the manikin breathing zone may not be adequate to describe containment of fume hood devices. The second phase of this project provides an assessment of the internal flow patterns of a nano fume hood and a traditional CAV chemical fume hood. The impacts of design and operational differences between these hoods are investigated using both experimental measurements and numerical simulations with CFD. An investigation of the airflow patterns inside the hoods showed that large scale recirculation zones develop behind the sash for both hoods. However, the design of the side airfoils of the nano hood resulted in a secondary recirculation pattern along the sides of the hood which impacts interior contaminant dispersion and potential for leakage. The

  1. Energy saving exhaust siphon

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.B.

    1982-04-06

    A device is disclosed for attachment to the tailpipe of an exhaust system comprising a body portion placed around the tailpipe, but spaced apart from the tailpipe, in a manner that air may easily flow between the body portion and the tailpipe when the vehicle is moving in a forward direction, a narrowing portion operative to compress the air flow, and an exhaust discharge portion operative for the exhaust from the tailpipe and the air to be discharged therethrough.

  2. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  3. Exhaust gas purifying device

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.; Hamada, S.

    1985-04-23

    An exhaust gas purifying device for use with a diesel engine comprising a filter block disposed in an engine exhaust passage for collecting exhaust gas particulates, and a heater for incinerating the collected exhaust gas particulates. The filter block has parallel channels defined therein and separated from one another by porous partition walls, some of the channels being closed at their inlet ends with blind plugs while the other channels are closed at their outlet ends with blind plugs. The heater is supported by the blind plugs.

  4. Exploring Water-Tight Compartments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Steve

    John Dewey employed the phrase "water-tight compartments" to mark deficiencies of integration within an individual's personality. For Dewey, the self is complex, but a strong personality integrates its various habits so that they reinforce rather than conflict with one another. Dewey's focus on this problem of personality has relevance for…

  5. Flow Characteristics and Robustness of an Inclined Quad-vortex Range Hood

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun; HUANG, Rong Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel design of range hood, which was termed the inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood, was examined for its flow and containment leakage characteristics under the influence of a plate sweeping across the hood face. A flow visualization technique was used to unveil the flow behavior. Three characteristic flow modes were observed: convex, straight, and concave modes. A tracer gas detection method using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was employed to measure the containment leakage levels. The results were compared with the test data reported previously in the literature for a conventional range hood and an inclined air curtain (IAC) range hood. The leakage SF6 concentration of the IQV range hood under the influence of the plate sweeping was 0.039 ppm at a suction flow rate of 9.4 m3/min. The leakage concentration of the conventional range hood was 0.768 ppm at a suction flow rate of 15.0 m3/min. For the IAC range hood, the leakage concentration was 0.326 ppm at a suction flow rate of 10.9 m3/min. The IQV range hood presented a significantly lower leakage level at a smaller suction flow rate than the conventional and IAC range hoods due to its aerodynamic design for flow behavior. PMID:24583513

  6. Improving flow and spillage characteristics of range hoods by using an inclined air-curtain technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Nian, You-Cyun; Chen, Jia-Kun; Peng, Kuan-Lin

    2011-03-01

    The current study developed a new type of range hood, which was termed an 'inclined air-curtain range hood', in order to improve the flow and performance of the conventionally used wall-mounted range hood. The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of air-curtain and conventional range hoods under the influences of both a mannequin presence and a simulated walk-by motion were experimentally examined. The study examined flow patterns by using a laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke-flow visualization technique and diagnosed spillages by using the tracer gas concentration test method. A mannequin presented in front of the conventional hood induced turbulent dispersion of oil mists toward the chest and nose of the mannequin owing to the complex interaction among the suction, wake, and wall effect, while the inclined air-curtain hood presented excellent hood performance by isolating the oil mists from the mannequin with an air curtain and therefore could reduce spillages out into the atmosphere and the mannequin's breathing zone. Both flow visualization and the tracer gas test indicated that the air-curtain hood had excellent 'robustness' over the conventional hood in resisting the influence of walk-by motion. The air-curtain technique could drastically improve the flow characteristics and performance of the range hood by consuming less energy.

  7. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  8. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Minoura, M.; Yorioka, K.

    1980-11-18

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the exhaust gas pressure while the ratio of the exhaust gas flow rate to the air intake into the engine is varied in correspondence to the intake pipe negative pressure. This exhaust gas recirculation system can be adapted to a fuel injection type intake system as well as other intake systems provided with an air valve for regulating air intake or having no venturi constriction such as employed in an su type carburetor.

  10. Hooded mergansers swim in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male and two female hooded mergansers swim in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male displays its distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  11. A female hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A female hooded merganser swims solo in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male is distinguished by a fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  12. A male hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast identify this hooded merganser, swimming in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  13. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  14. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  15. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  16. A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities

  17. Biomedical laboratory uses VAV fume hoods and heat recovery to save fuel costs

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.L. . Peter F. Loftus Div.)

    1994-03-01

    This article describes a HVAC system utilizing VAV fume hoods and heat recovery equipment to save energy. The topics of the article include building description and system design, planning, IAQ/thermal comfort, innovative design features such as digitally controlled VAV fume hoods, chiller heat recovery for fume hood make-up air reheat, glycol-run-around system for the animal facility, glycol-run-around free cooling/make-up air preheating system, and operations and maintenance.

  18. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  2. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  3. Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L. Gary

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

  4. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested. PMID:22293724

  5. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested.

  6. Exposure of commuters to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons from petrol exhaust.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, L; Persson, K; Strömvall, A M; Petersson, G

    1991-10-15

    Twenty-two volatile aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in the air of an automobile during commuting. Sampling was made on Tenax cartridges and laboratory determinations were carried out using thermal desorption combined with temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatography. Selected hydrocarbons representative of petrol exhaust were determined in the automobile and in an electric commuter train during eight parallel commuter trips. In the automobile, the concentrations of benzene were 35-70 micrograms/m3 and those of total aromatic hydrocarbons 200-400 micrograms/m3. The petrol exhaust levels were 5-10 times higher in the automobile than in the compartment of the commuter train.

  7. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  8. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  9. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  10. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  11. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  12. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  13. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  14. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  15. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or passengers— (a) The materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the following test criteria as... walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other...

  16. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or passengers— (a) The materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the following test criteria as... walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other...

  17. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  18. Exertional compartment syndromes of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Schepsis, A A; Lynch, G

    1996-03-01

    Compartment syndromes may be acute or chronic secondary to exertion or exercise. The chronic or exertional type most commonly involves the lower extremity, particularly the anterior compartment of the lower leg, and is the subject of this review. Rarely, an exertional compartment syndrome may become acute. The diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and compartment pressure measurements. The differential diagnosis of exertional leg pain includes stress fractures, stress reaction, periostitis, claudication, popliteal artery entrapment, and peripheral nerve entrapment. Unusual causes, such as a ganglion of the proximal tibiofibular joint causing an anterior compartment syndrome, have recently been reported.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod; DCruz, Chris

    2011-09-02

    Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and April–May 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered about three quarters of the cooktop. And for microwaves the vast majority (96%) covered the back burners but not the front burners. Hood type was also correlated with asking price or

  20. Selective autophagy against membranous compartments

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Muiños, Felipe X; Boada-Romero, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagic degradation of cellular components underlies many of the important physiological and pathological implications that autophagy has for mammalian cells. Cytoplasmic vesicles, just like other intracellular items, can be subjected to conventional autophagic events where double-membrane autophagosomes specifically isolate and deliver them for lysosomal destruction. However, intracellular membranes appear to constitute common platforms for unconventional versions of the autophagic pathway, a notion that has become apparent during the past few years. For instance, in many cases of autophagy directed against bacterial phagosomes, subversion of the process results in multimembrane vacuoles that promote bacterial replication instead of the usual degradative outcome. In a different atypical modality, single-membrane vesicles can be labeled with LC3 to direct their contents for lysosomal degradation. In fact, single-membrane compartments of various kinds often provide an assembly site for the autophagic machinery to perform unanticipated nondegradative activities that range from localized secretion of lysosomal contents to melanosome function. Interestingly, many of these unconventional processes seem to be initiated through engagement of relevant nodes of the autophagic signaling network that, once activated, promote LC3 decoration of the targeted membrane, and some cases of inducer/receptor proteins that specifically engage those important signaling hubs have recently been described. Here we review the available examples of all autophagic variants involving membranous compartments, with a main focus on the more recently discovered unconventional phenomena where the usual degradation purpose of autophagy or its canonical mechanistic features are not completely conserved. PMID:24419294

  1. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

  2. 77 FR 26699 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood Canal, WA...

  3. 78 FR 8027 - Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood Canal, WA. This...

  4. 77 FR 60960 - Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard is proposing to establish a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood...

  5. 77 FR 59083 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood...

  6. 76 FR 70649 - Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal... temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Department of Defense exercise in Hood Canal, WA that... public during the exercise. The zone will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering...

  7. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  16. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  20. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  2. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m3/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s. PMID:25810445

  3. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  4. The Use of Feedback in Lab Energy Conservation: Fume Hoods at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Daniel; Olivetti, Elsa; Graham, Amanda; Lanou, Steve; Cooper, Peter; Doughty, Jim; Wilk, Rich; Glicksman, Leon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an Massachusetts Institute of Technology Chemistry Department campaign to reduce energy consumption in chemical fume hoods. Hood use feedback to lab users is a crucial component of this campaign. Design/methodology/approach: Sash position sensor data on variable air volume fume…

  5. Robin Hood caught in Wonderland: brain SPECT findings.

    PubMed

    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting several episodes of body image distortions, ground deformation illusions, and problems assessing distance in the orthostatic position corresponding to the Alice in Wonderland syndrome. No symptoms were reported when sitting or lying down. She had uncontrolled hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and a history of head trauma. Her condition had been diagnosed with left internal carotid artery dissection 2 years earlier. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-ECD performed after i.v. injection of the radiotracer in supine and in standing positions showed hypoperfusion in the healthy contralateral frontoparietal operculum (Robin Hood syndrome), deteriorating when standing up. PMID:24152648

  6. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Sandy Wild and Scenic River, Upper Portion, Mount Hood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Hood National Forest, Oregon AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: In..., VA 22209, and at the Supervisor's Office of the Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy... office: Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way Sandy, Oregon 97055, 503-668-1700,...

  7. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Roaring Wild and Scenic River, Mount Hood National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Forest Service Boundary Description and Final Map for Roaring Wild and Scenic River, Mount Hood National...'s Office of the Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy, Oregon 97055. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information may be obtained by contacting the following office: Mount Hood...

  8. Exhaust gas recirculator

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.

    1983-01-04

    An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The egr valve operates in association with the carburetor throttle valve for metering the flow of egr gas. The egr controlling valve is separated by a diaphragm into an egr gas chamber communicating with the egr passage between the egr controlling valve and the egr valve and a negative pressure chamber communicating with the intake manifold. The negative pressure chamber contains a compression spring, and the diaphragm is connected with a valve member through a rod upon which is disposed a stopper to serve as a different seal in place of the valve member to close off the exhaust gas passage, which valve member and stopper are constructed to be opened and closed by pressure difference between the egr gas chamber and the negative pressure chamber and by elastic force of the compression spring. The egr controlling valve functions to control the pressure difference around the egr valve to be constant.

  9. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  10. Chronic compartment syndrome: diagnosis, management, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E; Sharpe, K; Sufit, R L; Girdley, F M

    1985-01-01

    A consecutive operative series of 100 patients with chronic compartment syndrome involving 233 compartments is reported. Seven of every eight were athletes, and runners predominated. Exercise-induced symptoms of consistently recurring tightness, aching (in some, sharp pains) in anatomically defined compartments were pathognomonic. Mean months of symptoms prior to operation was 22; median age was 26 years. Bilaterality occurred in 82. The distribution of compartments was: anterior, 39%; lateral, 12%; and posterior, 48%. Incidental compartment pressures were elevated (mean = 23 mmHg). Fasciotomy using local anesthesia was performed on 70 outpatients. At a median of 4.5 months, over 90% were cured or significantly improved in symptoms and/or function. Median time to walking unassisted was 2 days, and to resumption of conditioned running 21 days. Fasciotomy can be a safe, effective, and economical treatment for chronic compartment syndrome.

  11. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  12. Acute lower-leg compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Nathan; Gissel, Hannah; Henderson, Corey; Hao, Jiandong; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2013-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome remains a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons because its diagnosis is not always straightforward and it has a high risk of associated limb morbidity if left undiagnosed or untreated. Failure to diagnose and treat acute compartment syndrome is one of the most common causes of successful medical liability claims. The authors review the current literature concerning the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome and discuss new non-invasive technologies that may allow for earlier and more accurate diagnosis of impending acute compartment syndrome.

  13. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  14. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  16. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-01

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s). PMID:27104797

  17. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  18. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) < 8 m/sec but was negligibly small at V(s) > 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood. PMID:23009207

  19. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  20. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  1. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  2. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a)...

  3. Cell communication compartments in molluscan embryos.

    PubMed

    Serras, F; Kühtreiber, W M; Krul, M R; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1985-08-01

    Early embryos of Patella vulgata have been injected with Lucifer Yellow. No restriction of dye spread was found. We show that later in the development, the larval trochophore stage present evidence of compartments of cell communication. These dye compartments coincide with different presumptive regions. PMID:4028198

  4. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  5. Decontamination of a technetium contaminated fume hood in a research laboratory.

    PubMed

    O'Dou, Thomas J; Bertoia, Julie; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2011-08-01

    After 4 y of working with 99Tc in milligram to gram quantities to make many different compounds and provide the resource for the generation of several publications, work in one of the fume hoods used by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), radiochemistry program started to cause an increase in contamination events that were discovered in weekly surveys. It was decided that the hood should be cleaned out when the researchers were away during the winter break in December 2009. The hood, until just before the winter break, held equipment from years of operation.

  6. Fort Hood solar cogeneration facility conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A study is done on the application of a tower-focus solar cogeneration facility at the US Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Solar-heated molten salt is to provide the steam for electricity and for room heating, room cooling, and domestic hot water. The proposed solar cogeneration system is expected to save the equivalent of approximately 10,500 barrels of fuel oil per year and to involve low development risks. The site and existing plant are described, including the climate and plant performance. The selection of the site-specific configuration is discussed, including: candidate system configurations; technology assessments, including risk assessments of system development, receiver fluids, and receiver configurations; system sizing; and the results of trade studies leading to the selection of the preferred system configuration. (LEW)

  7. Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor’s position in terms of coordinates based on each individual’s motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock. PMID:24339960

  8. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  9. Numerical investigation of turbulent diffusion in push-pull and exhaust fume cupboards.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Cheng, Wei-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate airflow motions and associated pollutant distributions in fume hoods. Currently, most exhaust fume hoods are designed to use an airflow induced by a fan at the top to remove pollutants. Ambient fluids are drawn, flowing toward the opening and subsequently turning to the outlet at the roof. Pollutants are supposedly captured by the airflow and brought out from the cupboard. The present numerical study based on the finite-volume method and the standard k-epsilon turbulence model simulates flow patterns and pollutant distributions in an exhaust fume hood with and without a manikin present. Subsequently, a push-pull air curtain technique is applied to a fume cupboard. To investigate the capturing performance of a push-pull fume cupboard, numerical approaches are used to simulate flow and concentration variations. Numerical results reveal that four characteristic flow modes exist for a variety of speed ratios of push-pull flows and openings. A concave curtain mode which has a fast pull flow and a weak push flow is suggested for the operation of a push-pull fume cupboard. According to ANSI-ASHRAE Standard 110-1995, the local concentration at the specified point is <0.1 parts per million (p.p.m.). Meanwhile, we also examine concentration variations at 12 selected points in front of the sash, and all where the concentration is <0.1 p.p.m. A manikin is put in front of the sash to observe its effect. As a result, the flow and the concentration contours in a push-pull fume cupboard are not affected by a manikin. In terms of those predicted results, it turns out that a push-pull fume cupboard successfully captures pollutants and prevents an operator from breathing pollutants. PMID:17638713

  10. Air contaminant control investigation of a jet augmented local exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.B.; Johnston, W.L.; Konzen, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of a jet augmented local exhaust system to control air contaminants was investigated in a scale model hood. Tracer gas concentrations were mapped on top of idealized airflow streamlines to illustrate the jet's interaction with air contaminants. A key findings was the possibility of contaminant loss from the hood if the jet flow was not recaptured completely. Airflow design parameters, which had been identified previously to affect the airflow pattern, were evaluation for their effect on air contaminant control. The results indicated that tracer gas recovery was affected by a single airflow design parameters. An inverse linear relationship between the design parameter and control levels indicated that the recovery rate was controllable in design and that 100% control was achievable at a low total airflow rate. Important potential design advantages include the ability to specify the contaminant control level prior to installation, system flexibility to change contaminant control levels by adjusting airflow design parameters, and lower installation and operation costs than a comparable local exhaust system. The next research step is to test a full-scale prototype system to evaluate its performance efficiency and economy under realistic operating conditions.

  11. 81. Neg. No. F63, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, HOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. Neg. No. F-63, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, HOOD DEPARTMENT - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R. ); Schmalz, H. Thermal Surveys, Inc., Rockford, IL )

    1992-01-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  13. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R.; Schmalz, H. |

    1992-11-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  14. Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

  15. Hereditary onchyo-osteo-dysplasia (HOOD syndrome): Report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Garces, M.A.; Muraskas, J.K.; Muraskas, E.K.; Abdel-Hameed, M.F.

    1982-03-01

    HOOD syndrome is relatively uncommon. Two cases are presented, and the radiographic findings are discussed. Because of the diversification in clinical and symptomatic manifestations, radiologic findings are often the major criteria in establishing the diagnosis.

  16. Compartment syndrome complicating tibial tubercle avulsion.

    PubMed

    Pape, J M; Goulet, J A; Hensinger, R N

    1993-10-01

    Avulsion of the tibial tubercle is an uncommon physeal injury. Complications from this fracture are infrequent. Adolescent boys developed compartment syndrome after tibial tubercle avulsion. Injury to the soft tissue surrounding the tibial tubercle avulsion may be more extensive than is usually appreciated. The anatomy of the proximal tibia and the tibial tubercle with nearby branches of the anterior tibial recurrent artery suggest a predisposing factor for the development of compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome should be added to the list of possible complications of tibial tubercle avulsion fractures.

  17. Significance of face velocity fluctuation in relation to laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In order to recognize the problems associated with the transport mechanism of containment during the ventilation process of a laboratory fume hood, a transparent, full scale chemical fume hood is constructed for experimental studies. Distributions of mean velocity and velocity fluctuation in the sash plane are measured using a thermal anemometer. Flow patterns and tracer-gas concentration leakages are respectively diagnosed via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the EN 14175-3 test protocol. The magnitudes of measured velocity fluctuations exhibit a sharp peak along the perimeter of the sash opening. The results of flow visualization verify that the elevated turbulence fluctuations are induced by the boundary-layer separation when the flow passes over the edges of sash perimeter. The tracer gas experiment shows that the regions where high degree containment leakages detected are located along the perimeter of hood aperture. Eleven commercial hoods which are claimed with fine aerodynamic design are further tested for confirmation of these observations. The results show similar correlations. Conclusions thus are made that large-scale vortex structures occurring around the perimeters of hood aperture due to the boundary-layer separation could induce strong turbulence, and therefore enhance dispersion of the hood containment. PMID:20160407

  18. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  19. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding to the specified flight and ground load conditions, and to the emergency landing conditions of... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has...

  20. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corresponding to the specified flight and ground load conditions, and to the emergency landing conditions of... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has...

  1. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  2. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  3. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  4. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a...., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall...

  5. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a...., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall...

  6. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  7. Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Ouellette, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a fibro-osseous space increases to a level that results in a decreased perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds. Compartment syndromes of the hand, forearm, and upper arm can result in tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating loss of function. The etiology of acute compartment syndrome in the upper extremity is diverse, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Pain out of proportion to injury is the most reliable early symptom of impending compartment syndrome. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in obtunded patients and in young children. Early recognition and expeditious surgical treatment are essential to obtain a good clinical outcome and prevent permanent disability.

  8. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  9. Intracellular potassium compartments in Nitella axillaris.

    PubMed

    DIAMOND, J M; SOLOMON, A K

    1959-05-20

    Three intracellular compartments for potassium exchange have been observed in intact cells of the giant-celled alga, Nitella axillaris. These compartments have been compared with the exchange properties of isolated subcellular structures. The smallest and fastest compartment (apparent half-time, 23 seconds) appears to involve passive absorption on the cell wall. The next largest (apparent half-time, 5 hours) may represent exchange with the cytoplasmic layer through the plasma membrane, the chloroplasts being in rapid equilibrium with the surrounding cytoplasm. The largest and slowest compartment (apparent half-time, 40 days) has been identified with the central vacuole. The vacuolar membrane and the plasma membrane have similar properties with respect to K permeability. Thus, the experimental data from the whole cell can be accounted for by a structural model of the compartments. Cyanide in concentrations up to 10(-3)M causes no net loss of K. The fastest compartment in Nitella and in higher plants is compared, and the ecological significance of the slow rate of potassium transport in Nitella is discussed.

  10. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Ken; Cain, Thomas C.; Heller, David A.

    1988-03-01

    Fisheries habitat improvement work is being done on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Rood River sub-basins under program measure 704(c), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This report describes the work completed in 1987 for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project number 84-11, the Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program. The program is composed of six projects: Collawash River Habitat Improvement Project; Collawash River Falls Passage Improvement Project, Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project; Lake Branch/West Fork Hood River Habitat Improvement Project; Fifteenmile Creek Habitat Improvement Project; and Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, As Influenced by Habitat Enhancement. This ongoing program was initiated in 1984, although some of the projects were begun with BPA funding support as early as 1983. The projects are complemented by a variety of habitat improvement and management activities funded from a variety of Forest Service sources. This report describes the activities implemented for five of the six projects. A separate annual report on the 1987 habitat improvement and monitoring/evaluation efforts in the Fish Creek drainage has been prepared. Species for management emphasis include spring chinook and coho salmon, and summer and winter steelhead trout. Project work in 1987 primarily focused on increasing the quantity and quality of available rearing habitat, and improving access at passage barriers. The underlying theme of the improvement work has been to increase habitat diversity through the introduction of ''structure''. Structure provided by logs and boulders serves to deflect, pond, or otherwise disrupt flow patterns within a stream channel. This alteration of flow patterns results in formation of an increased number of habitat niches (i.e. pools, glides, alcoves, etc. ) in which a

  11. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction. PMID:22459321

  12. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the performance of an industrial benchtop enclosing hood.

    PubMed

    He, Xinjian Kevin; Guffey, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Plain benchtop enclosing hoods are assumed to be highly effective in protecting workers from airborne contaminants, but there is little research published to support or rebut that assumption. The purpose of this research was to investigate the performance of a 36 in. wide, 30 in. high, and 40 in. deep benchtop enclosing hood. The study consisted of two parts: (1) investigating the effects of hood face velocity (five levels: 111, 140, 170, 200, and 229 ft/min) and wind tunnel cross-draft velocity (five levels: 14, 26, 36, 46, and 57 ft/min) on a plain benchtop enclosing hood, and (2) studying the effects of specific interventions (no-intervention, collar flange, bottom flange, cowling, and sash) added onto the same enclosing hood. A tracer gas method was used to study the hood's performance inside a 9 ft high, 12 ft wide, and 40 ft long wind tunnel. Freon-134a concentrations were measured at the mouth and nose of an anthropometrically scaled, heated, breathing manikin holding a source between its hands while standing at the enclosing hood's face. Roughly 3 L/min of pure Freon-134a mixed with 9 L/min of helium was released from the source during all tests. Results showed that hood face velocity, wind tunnel cross-draft velocity, and interventions had statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) on the concentrations measured at the manikin's breathing zone. Lower exposures were associated with higher face velocities and higher cross-draft velocities. The highest exposures occurred when the face velocity was at the lowest test value (111 ft/min), and the cross-draft velocity was at its lowest test value (14 ft/min). For the effects of interventions to the hood face, the results showed that flanges and the cowling failed to consistently reduce exposures and often exacerbated them. However, the customized sash reduced exposures to less than the detection limit of 0.1 ppm, so a similar sash should be considered when feasible. The hood face velocity should be at least 150

  14. An overview of the 2009 Fort Hood Robotics Rodeo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth

    2010-04-01

    The Robotics Rodeo held from 31 August to 3 September 2009 at Fort Hood, Texas, had three stated goals: educate key decision makers and align the robotics industry; educate Soldiers and developers; and perform a live market survey of the current state of technologies to encourage the development of robotic systems to support operational needs. Both events that comprised the Robotics Rodeo, the Extravaganza and the robotic technology observation, demonstration and discussion (RTOD2) addressed these stated goals. The Extravaganza was designed to foster interaction between the vendors and the visitors who included the media, Soldiers, others in the robotics industry and key decision makers. The RTOD2 allowed the vendors a more private and focused interaction with the subject matter experts teams, this was the forum for the vendors to demonstrate their robotic systems that supported the III Corps operational needs statements that are focused on route clearance, convoy operations, persistent stare, and robotic wingman. While the goals of the Rodeo were achieved, the underlying success from the event is the development of a new business model that is focused on collapsing the current model to get technologies into the hands of our warfighters quicker. This new model takes the real time data collection from the Rodeo, the Warfighter Needs from TRADOC, the emerging requirements from our current engagements, and assistance from industry partners to develop a future Army strategy for the rapid fielding of unmanned systems technologies.

  15. Watershed sediment source fingerprinting: a view under the hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment source fingerprinting procedures involve the discrimination of sediment sources based on physical and chemical properties and estimation of the contributions from those sources to mixtures of fine-grained sediment transported within watersheds. Sources of sediment widely considered include agricultural land uses, channel banks and geological zones. There has been a tendency in the literature for sediment fingerprinting to be presented as a technique that can deliver accurate and precise information on source contributions to sediment across a range of environments. However, recent research indicates that such a view of sediment fingerprinting cannot presently be supported. Furthermore, many past papers lack transparency in data processing and presentation that prevents the critical assessment of results and hinders wider uptake of the technique. Therefore, this contribution aims to delve 'under the hood' of sediment fingerprinting to promote further discussion and debate over future research needs and method limitations. It draws on important developments from the last two years concerning the effect of (i) tracer selection, (ii) tracer behaviour during transport, (iii) corrections to tracer datasets and (iv) the choice of mixing model on predictions of sediment source contributions. Sediment fingerprinting has the potential to make a very significant contribution to the measurement of contemporary sediment sources in watersheds, but cannot be viewed as an 'off-the-shelf' technique for widespread application until important challenges have been addressed.

  16. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  17. Pallet insertion glovebox/hood control ladder diagram. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Issaian, V.

    1995-12-01

    The pallet insertion glovebox/hood (G/H) is a special confinement space that will be designed to allow for insertion of pallets into the Stacker/Retriever (S/R) area. The S/R a large vault that is kept at negative 1 inches w.c. relative to the atmosphere and is used for the safe storage of special nuclear material. The S/R system uses a vehicle to move the special nuclear material that are placed on the pallets from the storage bins to input/output (I/O) stations and vice versa. As the name suggest the I/O stations are used to place the material into the S/R vault or to remove material from the S/R vault. The pallets are specially designed structures that will hold certain numbers of the material containers in a safe configuration. To store additional material containers, there is a need to insert additional pallets in the SIR vault. Due to the presence of radioactive contamination and the fact that the vault must be kept at a negative pressure at all times, one of the several I/O stations will be modified so that pallets could be inserted into the S/R vault. The ventilation system for the S/R area is a dedicated system that recirculates nitrogen with less than 5% oxygen by volume throughout the area while exhausting small option of the nitrogen to keep the S/R at negative 1 inches w.c. relative to the atmosphere. The rooms surrounding the G/H and the S/R area are maintained at negative of 0.3 inches w.c. relative to the outside atmosphere. Both the G/H and the control system for the G/H will be designed such that the confinement requirements of the S/R and the G/H system will not be jeopardized. A ladder diagram will be developed to illustrate the control system.

  18. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  19. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  20. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  1. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  2. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  3. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment is not required. (b) No compartment may contain any controls, wiring, lines, equipment, or... to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation can be made. (d) Each cargo and baggage compartment that is not sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely...

  4. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (e) No compartment may contain any controls, lines, equipment, or accessories whose damage or failure... protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat within the compartment must be shielded and... fire contained in any other compartment, either during or after extinguishment, unless...

  5. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Clackamas and Hood River Counties, Oregon. Summary report and map

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for near-surface mineral resources in the Mount Hood Wilderness is low. Geochemical data suggest two areas of weak epithermal mineralization in the Zigzag Mountain part of the wilderness: (1) the Lost Creek-Burnt Lake-Cast Creek-Short Creek area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver mineralization occurs; and (2) the Lady Creek-Laurel Hill area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has associated propylitic alteration resulting in some porphyry-type copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc mineralization. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F, 120/sup 0/C) hot-water systems in the wilderness is moderate to high. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) and two parts have been included in geothermal lease areas. Rock and gravel sources are present within the wilderness; however, quantities of similar and more accessible deposits are available outside the wilderness. Deposits outside the wilderness are large enough to supply local demand in the foreseeable future.

  6. Anterior compartment syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pearl, A J

    1981-01-01

    The chronic form of the anterior compartment syndrome can be overlooked if the symptoms of leg pain are attributed to shin splints. Herein is presented a case report which I feel represents an acute exacerbation of the chronic form of anterior compartment syndrome in a long-distance runner secondary to bleeding into the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Chronic anterior compartment syndrome can be a disabling injury which may require a fasciotomy, depending upon the severity and duration of the patient's symptoms and the intracompartmental pressures. The lay term "shin splints" should be separated from medical use, and a more reliable assessment of the etiology of the patient's symptoms should be made. The term shin splints should be utilized only for pain localized to the posterior medial border of the tibia at the origin of the posterior tibialis muscle.

  7. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

  8. Exertional compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Botte, M J; Fronek, J; Pedowitz, R A; Hoenecke, H R; Abrams, R A; Hamer, M L

    1998-08-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome is characterized by intracompartmental pressures that rise transiently following repetitive motion or exercise, thereby producing temporary, reversible ischemia, pain, weakness, and, occasionally, neurologic deficits. The exact cause or pathogenesis remains unclear; a disturbance of microvascular flow caused by elevated intramuscular pressure leads to tissue ischemia, depletion of high-energy phosphate stores, and cellular acidosis. Anatomic contributing factors may include a limited compartment size, increased intracompartmental volume, constricted fascia, loss of compartment elasticity, poor venous return, or increased muscle bulk. The diagnosis is suspected based on history and confirmed with physical examination and intramuscular pressure evaluation before and after exercise (stress test). Differential diagnosis includes claudication or other vascular abnormalities, myositis, tendinitis, periostitis, chronic strains or sprains, stress fracture, other compression or systemic neuropathies, and cardiac abnormalities with angina or referred extremity pain. Initial treatment includes activity modification; refractory symptoms can be managed with elective fasciotomy.

  9. Exercise-induced compartment syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Klodell, C T; Pokorny, R; Carrillo, E H; Heniford, B T

    1996-06-01

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis is a frequent event occurring after severe forms of exercise. This is usually a short-lived, uncomplicated phenomenon that is seldom of any clinical significance. The rare progression of this muscle injury to compartment syndrome is, however, a limb- and life-threatening condition that typically presents in the anterior compartment of the lower leg. A case is reported of a young man who participated in physical activity well beyond his normal level of exertion and subsequently developed bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome requiring surgical decompression. To our knowledge, this is the only description of this complication occurring in a multicompartment, bilateral distribution. The combination of the rarity and morbidity of this condition, as well as the multitude of very common benign injuries that present in the same manner as the problem discussed, make this insult especially dangerous.

  10. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  11. Development and characterization of an inclined quad-vortex range hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Lee, Ji-Heng

    2013-11-01

    In order to increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, an inclined quad-vortex range hood (IQV range hood) was developed and tested by experimental methods. The flow structure was observed by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Leakage characteristics were measured by the tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection method. By arranging a narrow suction slot on the bottom face of the hood and two side plates hanging under lateral faces of the hood, a flow field featuring four backwards-inclined vortical flow structures was formed at suction velocities of larger than about 10 m s(-1) (suction flow rate 7.2 m(3) min(-1)). Oil mists were coherently contained in the vortical flow structures without observable dispersion out of the vortices; they rose up spirally with inclination towards the rear wall and were inducted into the suction slot. The backwards inclination of the oil-mist-containing vortical flow structures, caused by the backwards offset arrangement of the suction slot and the Coanda effect, benefited from the reduction in pollutant leakage induced by the influence of a mannequin's presence. Experimental results using the tracer gas concentration detection method showed a close correlation with the results from the flow visualization and LDV measurements. Under both occupied and unoccupied conditions, in which the mannequin was either present or not present, the IQV range hood provided low SF6 leakage concentration levels. PMID:23831934

  12. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A.

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  13. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions. PMID:25696976

  14. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  15. Acute and chronic compartment syndromes: know when to act fast.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Heard, Hank; Kelham, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Compartment syndrome is a fairly common condition noted in patients with fractures or crush injuries to the extremities (acute compartment syndrome) and in athletes (chronic compartment syndrome). Compartments bound by fascia are found in the extremities, buttocks, and abdomen; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss. This article reviews diagnosis of the problem, monitoring of compartment pressure, and appropriate treatment.

  16. Transport pathways in the lower reaches of Hood Canal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Gartner, Anne L.; Paulson, Anthony J.; Xu, Jingping; Josberger, Edward G.; Curran, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, studies revealed that the waters in the lower reaches of Hood Canal in Washington State had very low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, low enough to cause some fish kills between June and October of that year. In order to determine the transport patterns and the persistence of the low oxygen level in this portion of the canal, the U. S. Geological Survey deployed two instrumented platforms on the seabed near the head of the canal that measured currents over the whole water column, water level, near-bed temperature, salinity and oxygen for 2 months in the fall of 2004. Tidal currents, the dominant current component in the canal, flowed primarily along the canal axis and had speeds of 15-20 cm/s. There was also a persistent internal seiche that caused currents to flow along the canal axis with speeds of a few cm/s. The seiche, which had a period of a few days, caused currents in the surface layer to flow in an opposite direction to currents in water depths deeper than 15 m. A pool of warmer, saltier and more oxygenated water moved past the measurement sites toward the head of the canal with a speed of 1 cm/s. CTD measurements taken near the 2 measurement sites during the deployment indicated that this more oxygenated layer of water extended from the bed to the thermocline. Oxygen data from the tripods showed that this water remained in the region until at least the end of October 2004, when the tripods were recovered.

  17. Determination of the internal exposure hazard from plutonium work in an open front hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Cheryl Lynn

    Work with hazardous substances, such as radioactive material, can be done safely when engineered controls are used to maintain the worker effective dose below the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP 60 recommendation of 0.02 Sv/year and reduce the worker exposure to material to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A primary engineered control used at a Los Alamos National Laboratory facility is the open-front hood. An open-front hood, also known as an open-front box, is a laboratory containment box that is fully enclosed except for a 15-cm opening along the front of the box. This research involved collection of the aerosol escaping an open-front hood while PuO2 sample digestion was simulated. Sodium chloride was used as a surrogate to mimic the behavior of PuO2. The NaCl aerosol was binned as a function of median aerodynamic diameter using a Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI, MSP Corporation, Shoreview, MN) cascade impactor. Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to measure the mass of material in each of the nine bins of the MOUDI, the mass median diameter of the escaping aerosol was determined. Using the mass median diameter and the total mass of the particle distribution, dose was calculated using ICRP 60 methodology. Experimental conditions mimicked a stationary worker and a worker moving her hands in and out of the open front hood. Measurements were also done in the hood for comparison. The effect of the hands moving in and out of the box was modeled. Information necessary for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is given, such as volumetric flow rates out of the open front hood and into the experimental room, detailed sketches of the experimental set-up, and energy provided by the hot plate and worker. This research is unique as it measures particle size distribution from routine working conditions. Current research uses tracer gases or describes non-routine conditions. It is important to have results that mimic

  18. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.; Boucly, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased in alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces {sup 3}H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood... area will be used intermittently by the Navy for non-explosive torpedo ranging. Launching will...

  20. Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of an inclined quad-vortex range hood subject to influence from draft.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Lin, Jyun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The flow and spillage characteristics of an inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood subject to the influence of drafts from various directions were studied. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique was used to reveal the flow characteristics, and the tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) concentration detection method was used to indicate the quantitative values of the capture efficiency of the hood. It was found that the leakage mechanisms of the IQV range hood are closely related to the flow characteristics. A critical draft velocity of about 0.5 m/s and a critical face velocity of about 0.25 m/s for the IQV range hood were found. When the IQV range hood was influenced by a draft with a velocity larger than the critical draft velocity, the spillage of pollutants became significant and the pollutant spillage rate increased with increasing draft velocity. At draft velocities less than or equal to the critical value, no containment leakages induced by the turbulence diffusion, reverse flow, or boundary-layer separation were observed, and the capture efficiency was about 100%. The IQV range hood exhibited a high ability to resist the influences of lateral and frontal drafts. The capture efficiency of the IQV range hood operated at the suction flow rate 5 to 9 m(3)/min is higher than that of the conventional range hood operated at 11 to 15 m(3)/min. PMID:25436893

  1. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask...

  2. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons...

  3. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask...

  5. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons...

  6. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces...

  7. Seismic studies at the Mt. Hood Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Susan Molly; Weaver, Craig S.; Iyer, Hariharaiyer Mahadeva

    1979-01-01

    A sixteen station telemetered seismic network was established in the Mt. Hood, Oregon area to monitor local seismicity and to study crustal and upper mantle structure. The network was in operation 13 months, and recorded 10 local earthquakes, 25 regional events, and 300 teleseisms. A series of construction blasts were recorded and used to define an average upper crustal velocity of 5.4 km/s in the region. All local earthquakes occurred beneath Mt. Hood at shallow depths and roughly define a zone striking north-northwest beneath the mountain. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 3.4 event which had a strike-slip focal mechanism. The other events had magnitudes (ML) less than 2.0. P-wave travel time residuals from teleseismic events show a 0.5 second decrease in travel time from east to west across the Cascade Range. No travel time anomalies are associated directly with Mt. Hood.

  8. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations §...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations §...

  11. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  12. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Diaz Dilernia, Fernando; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Gamsie, Sebastian; Taype Zamboni, Danilo E R; Carabelli, Guido S; Barla, Jorge D; Sancineto, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  13. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.111... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.111... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  15. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome.

  16. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation.

  17. Design of lens-hood in the space fisheye optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhang, Zhi; Yan, Aqi; Cao, Jian-zhong; Zhang, Kai-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the extra wide field of view, fisheye optical systems are appropriately applied in space camera for scouting large-scale objects with near-distance. At the same time, because of the violent sunlight linger within the field of view more than other optical system and more stray light occur during the period, to design proper lens-hood can effectively reduce the sunshine time. Another distinct characteristic of fisheye optical system is the first protrude lens, which is contrived with negative focus to trace the ray with angle about even above 90 degree of incidence. Consequently, the first lens is in danger of damaging by scratching when operating the camera during the ground experiments without lens-hood. Whereas on account of the huge distortion which is the third mainly characteristic of fisheye optical system, to design appropriate lens-hood is a tough work comparing with other low-distortion optical system, especially for those whose half diagonal field is more than 90°. In this paper, an research carried out on the design lens-hood for fisheye is proposed. In the way of reverse ray-tracing, the location on the first lens and point-vector for each incident ray can be accurately calculated. Thus the incident ray intersecting the first lens corresponds to the boundary of the image sensor form the effective object space. According to the figure of the lens and the incident rays, the lens-hood can be confirmed. In the proposed method, a space fisheye lens is presented as a typical lens, whose horizontal field and vertical field are 134°, diagonal field is up to 192°, respectively. The results of design for the lens-hood show that the lingering time of sunshine is shorten because of obstructing some redundant sunlight, and the first outstanding lens are protected in the most degree.

  18. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a “good person,” who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production. PMID:27730088

  19. Extraocular Muscle Compartments in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Clark, Robert A.; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls. Medial and lateral compartmental volumes of the SO muscle were compared in patients with isotropic (round shape) versus anisotropic (elongated shape) SO atrophy. Results The medial and lateral compartments of the ipsilesional SO muscles were equally atrophic in isotropic SO palsy, whereas the lateral compartment was significantly smaller than the medial in anisotropic SO palsy (P = 0.01). In contrast to the SO, there were no differential compartmental volume changes in rectus EOMs; however, there was significant total muscle hypertrophy in the ipsilesional inferior rectus (IR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles and contralesional superior rectus (SR) muscles. Medial rectus (MR) volume was normal both ipsi- and contralesionally. Conclusions A subset of patients with SO palsy exhibit selective atrophy of the lateral, predominantly vertically acting SO compartment. Superior oblique atrophy is associated with whole-muscle volume changes in the ipsilesional IR, ipsilesional LR, and contralesional SR; however, SO muscle atrophy is not associated with compartmentally selective volume changes in the rectus EOMs. Selective compartmental SO pathology may provide an anatomic mechanism that explains some of the variability in clinical presentations of SO palsy. PMID:27768791

  20. SNM holdup assessment of Los Alamos exhaust ducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    Fissile material holdup in glovebox and fume hood exhaust ducting has been quantified for all Los Alamos duct systems. Gamma-based, nondestructive measurements were used to quantify holdup. The measurements were performed during three measurement campaigns. The first campaign, Phase I, provided foot-by-foot, semiquantitative measurement data on all ducting. These data were used to identify ducting that required more accurate (quantitative) measurement. Of the 280 duct systems receiving Phase I measurements, 262 indicated less than 50 g of fissile holdup and 19 indicated fissile holdup of 50 or more grams. Seven duct systems were measured in a second campaign, called Series 1, Phase II. Holdup estimates on these ducts ranged from 421 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing a shut-down uranium-machining facility to 39 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct servicing an active plutonium-processing facility. Measurements performed in the second campaign proved excessively laborious, so a third campaign was initiated that used more efficient instrumentation at some sacrifice in measurement quality. Holdup estimates for the 12 duct systems measured during this third campaign ranged from 70 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing analytical laboratories to 1 g of {sup 235}U and 1 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct carrying exhaust air to a remote filter building. These quantitative holdup estimates support the conclusion made at the completion of the Phase I measurements that only ducts servicing shut-down uranium operations contain about 400 g of fissile holdup. No ventilation ducts at Los Alamos contain sufficient fissile material holdup to present a criticality safety concern.

  1. Mars observations in 1984 and 1986 - Appearance of the first stages of the polar HOOD and formation of the winter HOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, S.; Dollfus, Audouin

    1987-08-01

    Photographic images of the 1984 Mars apparition, obtained with the 49 cm Observatoire de la Research Planetaire telescope in Tokyo and with the Meudon and Pic-du-Midi telescopes, are discussed which show the evolution of cloud formations. Following the boreal summer solstice in the beginning of 1984, white clouds were noted in the 10-100 deg longitude region. Data suggest a subsequent north-to-south migration of water vapor between the winter solstice and the southern spring equinox, forming the south polar hood. It is suggested that the actual south polar cap is then formed from frozen material deposited on the soil under this opaque haze. Progressive dissipation of clouds occurs towards the southern spring equinox. Precursor clouds of the south polar hood form above the Hellas, Argyre, and Phaethontis regions.

  2. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.; Neele, Filip P.

    2004-08-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be achieved using a spray of cold water in the inner parts of the exhaust system. The effects are compared with the effect of cooling with air. A typical frigate size diesel engine serves as an example for gas flow, composition and temperature of the plume. The infrared emission of the cooled an un-cooled exhaust gases is calculated. Both the spectral behaviour and the integrated values over typical bands are discussed. Apart from the signature also some advantages of water exhaust gas cooling for the ship design are discussed.

  3. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  4. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  5. Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Michael; Jockusch, Brigitte M

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days' knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin.

  6. [The anterior compartment syndrome of the leg].

    PubMed

    Parca, S; Tobaldi, F; Palego, E; Galante, V; Bonfili, G F

    1981-09-15

    The Authors define the compartment syndrome as a pathological condition collecting various clinical pictures constantly characterized by a rise of pressure in a restricted and inextensible not modifiable space, with circulatory difficulty and suffering of the tissues in this district. The only diagnosis is clinic. Functional and instrumental semiotics aren't of great aid. The quickly evolving clinical picture commands a timely diagnosis and a precocious intervention to reduce compartmental pressure by fasciotomy and eventual epimysiotomy effectual in the first twelve hours.

  7. Mt. Hood Community College National Tech Prep Demonstration Center. Concluding Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount Hood Community Coll., Gresham, OR.

    The Mt. Hood Community College National Tech Prep Demonstration Center program is described in this performance report. The report details the following activities through which the center contributed significantly to educational reform: (1) information dissemination (including distributing information packets to more than 2,770 sites, hosting 63…

  8. EVALUATION OF FERTILIZATION FOLLOWING OVULATORY DELAY WITH THIRAM IN THE LONG-EVANS HOODED RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of fertilization following ovulatory delay with thiram in the Long-Evans Hooded Rat

    1TE Stoker, 1* S Jeffay, and 1 SD Perreault.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  9. Transfer of lipids from plankton to blubber of harp and hooded seals off East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk-Petersen, Stig; Haug, Tore; Hop, Haakon; Nilssen, Kjell T.; Wold, Anette

    2009-10-01

    Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are some of the most productive ecosystems in the world's oceans. The capacity of herbivorous zooplankton, such as Calanus, to biosynthesize and store large amounts of lipids during the short and intense spring bloom is a fundamental adaptation which facilitates the large production in these ecosystems. These energy-rich lipids are rapidly transferred through the food chain to Arctic seals. The fatty acids and stable isotopes from harp seal ( Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata) off East Greenland as well as their potential prey, were analysed. The results were used to describe the lipid dynamics and energy transfer in parts of the East Greenland ecosystem. Even if the two seal species showed considerable overlap in diet and occurred at relatively similar trophic levels, the fatty acid profiles indicated that the bases of the food chains of harp and hooded seals were different. The fatty acids of harp seals originate from diatom-based food chain, whereas the fatty acids of hooded seals originate from dinoflagellate and the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii-based food chain. Stable isotope analyses showed that both species are true carnivores on the top of their food chains, with hooded seal being slightly higher on the food chain than harp seal.

  10. Chemical Fume Hoods in Higher Education Science Laboratories: Electrical, Mechanical and Human Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, John M.

    This paper is predicated on the realization that a chemical hood is only one element of laboratory safety which encompasses a variety of other elements starting with the architectural design and layout of laboratories; through the installation, operation and maintenance of integrated electrical and mechanical systems; to the safety-mindedness of…

  11. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1339 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flying the Coast Guard Ensign. (b) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington. 165.1339 Section 165.1339 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1339 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flying the Coast Guard Ensign. (b) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington. 165.1339 Section 165.1339 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  14. 75 FR 1706 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) covering the Hood Canal in Washington that will... the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines,...

  15. 75 FR 27638 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 1706). We received one comment on the proposed rule that was actually meant for a related interim rule published on the same date at (75 FR 1709). That comment is addressed... regulated navigation area (RNA) covering a portion of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington that will...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  1. Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Dai, Guan-Zhong

    2010-11-01

    The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were studied experimentally. Flow patterns were examined using a laser-light, sheet-assisted, smoke flow visualization technique. Spillages were diagnosed by the locally averaged tracer gas concentration test method. Tracer gas concentration test results correlated well with those of flow visualizations. For the wall-mounted hood, primary leakages occur around the region near the front edge of a countertop due to boundary layer separation, as well as the region just below the lower edge of the side panels of the hood due to the expansion effect of plumes. Increasing the suction flow rate above some critical values may help to reduce leakages out of the lateral planes but would increase spillages around the front edge of the countertop. For the jet-isolated range hood, oil mists spread widely and present unsteady motions with a high degree of turbulence because insufficient free air is allowed to enter the space enclosed by the jets and rear wall. Spillages across the jets into the environment due to turbulent dispersion become significant. Increasing the suction flow rate above some critical values may help to reduce spillages, while increasing the jet velocity would increase turbulent dispersion and thus lead to larger leakages. PMID:20924934

  2. The Socioeconomic Benefits Generated by Mt. Hood Community College. Volume 1: Main Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Kjell A.; Robison, M. Henry

    This study uses data collected from Mt. Hood Community College (MHCC) (Washington) databases to analyze the socioeconomic impact of its educational services upon the larger community. Data was collected from an unduplicated enrollment of 31,072 at all MHCC colleges, applying analysis to 100% of those enrollees. It is estimated that 60% of students…

  3. Quantification of hood effectiveness and entrained subsurface air in a Seattle Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1994-05-01

    An underground 3-story wing of a hospital having problems with sewer air odors was tested with perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to quantify the performance of the mechanical ventilation system and determine the extent of sewer air entrainment and chemical hood effectiveness.

  4. 3. VIEW OF SITE A FROM HOOD AVENUE, FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SITE A FROM HOOD AVENUE, FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST. (BUILDINGS 116, 117, 120, 118, 128, AND 122 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. Marguerite V. Hood and Music Education Radio Broadcasts in Rural Montana (1937-39)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shelly

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the radio in the 1930s can be compared to the force of change in people's lives today caused by current technology. Marguerite V. Hood (1903-92), a recognized leader in the music education profession during the 1930s, understood the importance of music education radio broadcasts for rural one-room schools and music education classes.…

  6. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  7. Bacterial translocation - impact on the adipocyte compartment.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat." The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

  8. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system.

  9. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system. PMID:24965005

  10. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  11. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  12. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  13. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods. PMID:23519947

  14. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods.

  15. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, R H; Haverkamp, D; Campo, M M; van der Vis, H M

    2012-03-01

    A 62year old man developed a compartment syndrome of the thigh after total knee arthroplasty. Twelve years previously he had a HTO of the same knee complicated by a compartment syndrome of the calf. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed with intracompartmental pressure measurement. Following fasciotomy pressures were normalized and further course was uncomplicated. Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare, but potentially devastating, complication following total knee arthroplasty. A previous compartment syndrome of the calf is identified as a risk factor.

  16. Antioxidant capacity develops with maturation in the deep-diving hooded seal

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Burns, Jennifer M.; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maturation in hooded seals is characterized by the rapid development of their physiological diving capacity and is accompanied by increases in oxidant production but not oxidative damage. To test the hypothesis that the antioxidant system of hooded seals develops as they transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic environment, we obtained the complete cDNA sequence that encodes the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and compared Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression levels in muscle samples from neonate, weaned pups and adult hooded seals, along with glutathione (GSH) levels and the activity/protein content of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxyredoxin VI (PrxVI), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutaredoxin 1 (Glrx1), glutathione disulphide reductase, glutathione S-transferase and glutamate-cysteine ligase. The Nrf2 of the hooded seal is 1822 bp long and encodes a protein of 606 amino acids with a leucine zipper domain and Keap1-mediated proteosomal degradation residues, which are key for Nrf2 function and regulation. Although neither Nrf2 mRNA nor Nrf2 nuclear protein content are higher in adults than in pups, GSH levels along with GPx, PrxVI, Trx1, TrxR and Glrx1 activity/protein content increase with maturation, suggesting that the potential for peroxide removal increases with development in hooded seals, and that these enzymes contribute to the regulation of the intracellular redox state and the prevention of oxidative damage in these deep-diving mammals. PMID:21832133

  17. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Julie M; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Boehme, Lars; Wiersma, Yolanda F; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Hammill, Mike O; Stenson, Garry B

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to 51 Northwest (NW) Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males) during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008). Using General Additive Models (GAMs) we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT) and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult) and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding) but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding). Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  18. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Julie M; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Boehme, Lars; Wiersma, Yolanda F; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Hammill, Mike O; Stenson, Garry B

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to 51 Northwest (NW) Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males) during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008). Using General Additive Models (GAMs) we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT) and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult) and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding) but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding). Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods. PMID:24282541

  19. Antioxidant capacity develops with maturation in the deep-diving hooded seal.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Burns, Jennifer M; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2011-09-01

    Maturation in hooded seals is characterized by the rapid development of their physiological diving capacity and is accompanied by increases in oxidant production but not oxidative damage. To test the hypothesis that the antioxidant system of hooded seals develops as they transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic environment, we obtained the complete cDNA sequence that encodes the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and compared Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression levels in muscle samples from neonate, weaned pups and adult hooded seals, along with glutathione (GSH) levels and the activity/protein content of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxyredoxin VI (PrxVI), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutaredoxin 1 (Glrx1), glutathione disulphide reductase, glutathione S-transferase and glutamate-cysteine ligase. The Nrf2 of the hooded seal is 1822 bp long and encodes a protein of 606 amino acids with a leucine zipper domain and Keap1-mediated proteosomal degradation residues, which are key for Nrf2 function and regulation. Although neither Nrf2 mRNA nor Nrf2 nuclear protein content are higher in adults than in pups, GSH levels along with GPx, PrxVI, Trx1, TrxR and Glrx1 activity/protein content increase with maturation, suggesting that the potential for peroxide removal increases with development in hooded seals, and that these enzymes contribute to the regulation of the intracellular redox state and the prevention of oxidative damage in these deep-diving mammals.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  4. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. PMID:27293917

  5. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  6. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  7. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... pilot compartment if the cockpit door becomes jammed. (c) There must be an emergency means to enable...

  8. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  9. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  10. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  11. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  12. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... pilot compartment if the cockpit door becomes jammed. (c) There must be an emergency means to enable...

  13. Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

    2004-04-01

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described.

  14. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially

  15. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  16. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  17. Acute compartment syndrome of the leg: pressure measurement and fasciotomy.

    PubMed

    Masquelet, A-C

    2010-12-01

    Compartment syndrome involves a conflicting situation between an unyielding space, the compartment, and its increasing tissue content secondary to traumatic ischemia. Rapidly irreversible damages occur without treatment. Although the diagnosis approach to leg compartment syndrome is clinical in priority, pressure measurements should be systematically produced: first to confirm the presence of this condition and define optimal surgical strategies and second to provide the only objective available criteria in case of a debatable diagnosis. In practice, two schematic situations can be distinguished, which do not cover the many different cases: leg compartment syndrome without a fracture in which the four leg compartments are affected and which requires a fasciotomy using two surgical approaches, the lateral and the medial; leg compartment syndrome associated with a fracture: fasciotomy of the four compartments may be performed by a single lateral approach distant from the fracture site and its fixation hardware. It should be noted that this approach is easy, effective and safe.

  18. Use of CFD for static sampling hood design: An example for methane flux assessment on landfill surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lucernoni, Federico; Rizzotto, Matteo; Tapparo, Federica; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Busini, Valentina

    2016-11-01

    The work focuses on the principles for the design of a specific static hood and on the definition of an optimal sampling procedure for the assessment of landfill gas (LFG) surface emissions. This is carried out by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate the fluid dynamics conditions of the hood. The study proves that understanding the fluid dynamic conditions is fundamental in order to understand the sampling results and correctly interpret the measured concentration values by relating them to a suitable LFG emission model, and therefore to estimate emission rates. For this reason, CFD is a useful tool for the design and evaluation of sampling systems, among others, to verify the fundamental hypotheses on which the mass balance for the sampling hood is defined. The procedure here discussed, which is specific for the case of the investigated landfill, can be generalized to be applied also to different scenarios, where hood sampling is involved. PMID:27540761

  19. Use of CFD for static sampling hood design: An example for methane flux assessment on landfill surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lucernoni, Federico; Rizzotto, Matteo; Tapparo, Federica; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Busini, Valentina

    2016-11-01

    The work focuses on the principles for the design of a specific static hood and on the definition of an optimal sampling procedure for the assessment of landfill gas (LFG) surface emissions. This is carried out by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate the fluid dynamics conditions of the hood. The study proves that understanding the fluid dynamic conditions is fundamental in order to understand the sampling results and correctly interpret the measured concentration values by relating them to a suitable LFG emission model, and therefore to estimate emission rates. For this reason, CFD is a useful tool for the design and evaluation of sampling systems, among others, to verify the fundamental hypotheses on which the mass balance for the sampling hood is defined. The procedure here discussed, which is specific for the case of the investigated landfill, can be generalized to be applied also to different scenarios, where hood sampling is involved.

  20. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face. PMID:24195536

  1. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face.

  2. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  3. Entry and Elimination of Marine Mammal Brucella spp. by Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) Alveolar Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anett K.; Nymo, Ingebjørg H.; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  4. Entry and elimination of marine mammal Brucella spp. by hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  5. Entry and elimination of marine mammal Brucella spp. by hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  6. A Floating Bridge Disrupts Seaward Migration and Increases Mortality of Steelhead Smolts in Hood Canal, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, Eugene P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. Methodology/Principal Findings The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. Conclusions/Significance This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation. PMID:24039937

  7. Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

  8. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  9. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood. PMID:26950527

  10. Cell biological analysis of mosquito midgut invasion: the defensive role of the actin-based ookinete hood.

    PubMed

    Schlegelmilch, Timm; Vlachou, Dina

    2013-12-01

    Successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the mosquito vector is critical for malaria transmission. It has been documented that the fate of Plasmodium in the mosquito ultimately depends on a fine interplay of molecular mosquito factors that act as parasite agonists and antagonists. Here we investigate whether the cellular responses of the invaded midgut epithelium can also determine the parasite fate and development. We show that the parasite hood, an actin-rich structure formed around the ookinete as it exits the epithelium, is a local epithelial defence reaction observed around 60% of invading parasites. The hood co-localizes with WASP, a promoter of actin filament nucleation, suggesting that it is an active reaction of the invaded cell against invading parasites. Importantly, depletion of WASP by RNAi leads to a significant reduction in hood formation, which is consistent with the previously documented role of this gene as a potent parasite antagonist. Indeed, in mosquitoes that are either genetically selected or manipulated by RNAi to be refractory to Plasmodium, most dead parasites exhibit an actin hood. In these mosquitoes, invading ookinetes are killed by lysis or melanization while exiting the midgut epithelium. Silencing WASP in these mosquitoes inhibits the formation of the hood and allows many parasites to develop to oocysts. These data in conjunction with fine microscopic observations suggest that the presence of the hood is linked to ookinete killing through lysis. PMID:24428832

  11. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood.

  12. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  13. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  14. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  15. Recent eruptive history of Mount Hood, Oregon, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1980-01-01

    Each of three major eruptive periods at Mount Hood (12,000-15,000(?), 1,500-1,800, and 200-300 years ago) produced dacite domes, pyroclastic flows, and mudflows, but virtually no pumice. Most of the fine lithic ash that mantles the slopes of the volcano and the adjacent mountains fell from ash clouds that accompanied the pyroclastic flows. Widely scattered pumice lapilli that are present at the ground surface on the south, east, and north sides of Mount Hood may have been erupted during the mid-1800's, when the last known activity of the volcano occurred. The geologically recent history of Mount Hood suggests that the most likely eruptive event in the future will be the formation of another dome, probably within the present south-facing crater. The principal hazards that could accompany dome formation include pyroclastic flows and mudflows moving from the upper slopes of the volcano down the floors of valleys. Ash clouds which accompany pyroclastic flows may deposit as much as a meter of fine ash close to their source, and as much as 20 centimeters at a distance of 11 kilometers downwind from the pyroclastic flows. Other hazards that could result from such eruptions include laterally directed explosive blasts that could propel rock fragments outward from the sides of a dome at high speed, and toxic volcanic gases. The scarcity of pumiceous ash erupted during the last 15,000 years suggests that explosive pumice eruptions are not a major hazard at Mount Hood; thus, there seems to be little danger that such an eruption will significantly affect the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan area in the near future.

  16. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bounded by a line commencing on the east shore of Hood Canal at latitude 47 deg.46′18″ N, longitude 122 deg.42′18″ W; thence latitude 47 deg.46′32″ N, longitude 122 deg.42′20″ W; thence to latitude 47 deg.46′38″ N, longitude 122 deg.42′52″ W; thence to latitude 47 deg.44′15″ N, longitude 122 deg.44′50″...

  17. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  18. Correlation between airflow patterns and performance of a laboratory fume hood.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, C-P

    2006-12-01

    To understand the physical mechanisms of the contaminant dispersion and containment leakage during the ventilation process through a laboratory fume hood, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas (SF6) leakage were studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard/special gas sampling technique, respectively. Through flow visualization, the large-scale vortex structures and boundary layer separations were found around the side poles and doorsill of the hood. In the near-wake region of the manikin, large recirculation zones and wavy flow structures were also identified. When tracer gas concentration measurements were conducted point-by-point across the sash opening, the areas near the doorsill, the lower parts of the side poles, and the sides of the manikin showed significant contaminant leaks. These areas with high contaminant leaks exactly corresponded to where the flow recirculated or separated. However, when the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 protocol was used to measure the concentration of SF6 at the breathing zone of the manikin, no appreciable leakage was detected. It is suggested that a method based on the aerodynamic features and multipoint leakage detections would reflect a more realistic evaluation of overall performance of laboratory fume hood than a single-point sampling method at the manikin's breathing zone. PMID:17133690

  19. Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Frans, Lonna M.; Noble, Marlene; Kendall, Carol; Josberger, Edward G.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2006-01-01

    Hood Canal is a long (110 kilometers), deep (175 meters) and narrow (2 to 4 kilometers wide) fjord of Puget Sound in western Washington. The stratification of a less dense, fresh upper layer of the water column causes the cold, saltier lower layer of the water column to be isolated from the atmosphere in the late summer and autumn, which limits reaeration of the lower layer. In the upper layer of Hood Canal, the production of organic matter that settles and consumes dissolved oxygen in the lower layer appears to be limited by the load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN): nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Freshwater and saline loads of DIN to Hood Canal were estimated from available historical data. The freshwater load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal, which could be taken up by phytoplankton, came mostly from surface and ground water from subbasins, which accounts for 92 percent of total load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal. Although DIN in rain falling on land surfaces amounts to about one-half of the DIN entering Hood Canal from subbasins, rain falling directly on the surface of marine waters contributed only 4 percent of the load to the upper layer. Point-source discharges and subsurface flow from shallow shoreline septic systems contributed less than 4 percent of the DIN load to the upper layer. DIN in saline water flowing over the sill into Hood Canal from Admiralty Inlet was at least 17 times the total load to the upper layer of Hood Canal. In September and October 2004, field data were collected to estimate DIN loads to Lynch Cove - the most inland marine waters of Hood Canal that routinely contain low dissolved-oxygen waters. Based on measured streamflow and DIN concentrations, surface discharge was estimated to have contributed about one-fourth of DIN loads to the upper layer of Lynch Cove. Ground-water flow from subbasins was estimated to have contributed about one-half of total DIN loads to the upper layer. In autumn 2004, the relative

  20. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    PubMed Central

    Mullan, F

    2000-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered. PMID:10800417

  1. Age-dependent prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in hooded seals Cystophora cristata.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Tryland, Morten; Frie, Anne Kirstine; Haug, Tore; Foster, Geoffrey; Rødven, Rolf; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Investigations of hooded seals Cystophora cristata have revealed high prevalences of Brucella-positive seals in the reduced Northeast Atlantic stock, compared to the increasing Northwest Atlantic stock. This study evaluated the relation between Brucella-serostatus in seals in the Northeast Atlantic stock and age, sex, body condition and reproduction. Bacteriology documented which animals and organs were B. pinnipedialis positive. No relationship was observed between Brucella-serostatus and body condition or reproductive traits. Pups (<1 mo old) had a substantially lower probability of being seropositive (4/159, 2.5%) than yearlings (6/17, 35.3%), suggesting that exposure may occur post-weaning, during the first year of life. For seals >1 yr old, the mean probability of being seropositive decreased with age, with no seropositives older than 5 yr, indicating loss of antibody titre with either chronicity or clearance of infection. The latter explanation seems to be most likely as B. pinnipedialis has never been isolated from a hooded seal >18 mo old, which is consistent with findings in this study; B. pinnipedialis was isolated from the retropharyngeal lymph node in 1 seropositive yearling (1/21, 5%). We hypothesize that this serological and bacteriological pattern is due to environmental exposure to B. pinnipedialis early in life, with a subsequent clearance of infection. This raises the question of a reservoir of B. pinnipedialis in the hooded seal food web.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  3. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  4. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  7. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  8. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  9. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  10. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  11. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  12. Probe samples components of rocket engine exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, P. E.

    1965-01-01

    Water-cooled, cantilevered probe samples the exhaust plume of rocket engines to recover particles for examination. The probe withstands the stresses of a rocket exhaust plume environment for a sufficient period to obtain a useful sample of the exhaust components.

  13. Designing the Space Station Crew Compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitmacher, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Design of the crew compartment in the modules of the International Space Station began in the mid-1980s and was influenced by past experiences as well as new and innovative designs. This paper will trace some of the alternative configurations that were considered during the early Phase B studies and the trade studies, design and modeling activities which led to the configuration as it is being flown today. Design of the core systems, lofts, and rack-based modules will all be reviewed. Based upon crew feedback and experiences in the integration of space station missions over the years of operation, problems that have been experienced in planning and implementation will be reviewed.

  14. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  15. cAMP signalling meets mitochondrial compartments.

    PubMed

    Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles comprising at least three distinct areas, the OMM (outer mitochondrial membrane), the IMS (intermembrane space) and the mitochondrial matrix. Physical compartmentalization allows these organelles to host different functional domains and therefore participate in a variety of important cellular actions such as ATP synthesis and programmed cell death. In a surprising homology, it is now widely accepted that the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP uses the same stratagem, compartmentalization, in order to achieve the characteristic functional pleiotropy of its pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that all the main mitochondrial compartments contain segregated cAMP cascades; however, the regulatory properties and functional significance of such domains are not fully understood and often remain controversial issues. The present mini-review discusses our current knowledge of how the marriage between mitochondrial and cAMP compartmentalization is achieved and its effects on the biology of the cell. PMID:24646228

  16. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such

  17. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  18. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  19. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

    Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

  20. Exertional compartment syndrome in covert mild hemophilia. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tountas, C P; Ferris, F O; Cobb, S W

    1992-07-01

    A 37-year-old white male experienced unexpected postoperative bleeding after fasciotomy and decompression for left pronator and compartment syndromes of the forearm. He was subsequently diagnosed with a mild form of hemophilia A. One year later, surgery was required for right pronator and compartment syndromes. Pre- and postoperative cryoprecipitate infusions controlled bleeding following the second operation until the patient discontinued his infusions, resulting in a wound hematoma. Covert mild hemophilia is implicated in the pathogenesis of his compartment syndromes.

  1. Effects of mannequin and walk-by motion on flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Dai, Guan-Zhong; Chen, Jia-Kun

    2010-08-01

    Laser-assisted flow-visualization experiments and tracer gas concentration tests were conducted for the wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods to examine the physical mechanisms and relative magnitudes of hood spillages. The effects of a mannequin standing in front of the test rig and walk-by motions (which are situations always encountered in kitchens) were emphasized. The results showed that a mannequin (or a cook) standing in front of the counter would attract oil fumes toward the mannequin's body, induce large turbulent flows, and cause a significant dispersion of oil fumes into the environment through the front edge of the hood. Very high tracer gas concentrations were detected around the breathing zone of the mannequin. Increasing the suction flow rate did not reduce the spillage levels of the wall-mounted range hood but could moderately lower those of the jet-isolated hood. Serious spillages from both the wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were detected as the simulated walk-by motion was performed. The jet-isolated range hood presented a much lower robustness in resisting the influence of people's walk-bys than did the wall-mounted range hood. In summary, both the wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were vulnerable to the influences of a cook's presence and a cook's walk-by motions. Increasing the suction flow rate might not obtain satisfactorily low spillages of pollutants but might increase noise level and energy consumption. PMID:20385660

  2. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  3. Exhaust gas recirculation control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.

    1981-02-03

    An E.G.R. control system includes a pressure modulator operative to modulate the magnitude of the port vacuum as applied to a diaphragm type actuator of an E.G.R. valve. The modulator comprises a housing and a diaphragm assembly disposed in the housing and consisting of a pair of diaphragms and a member connecting the diaphragms so that they are deformed simultaneously. The diaphragm assembly divides the interior of the housing into first, second and third chambers which are communicated with the engine carburetor venturi, vented to the atmosphere and communicated with the E.G.R. passage between the E.G.R. valve and a fixed restriction in the E.G.R. passage upstream of the E.G.R. valve, respectively, so that the diaphragm assembly is moved in response to variation in the venturi vacuum and also in response to variation in the exhaust gas pressure in the E.G.R. passage between the restriction and the E.G.R. valve. A valve member is mounted on the diaphragm assembly for movement therewith to control the flow of the atmospheric air from the second chamber into the E.G.R. valve actuator so that the port vacuum as applied to the E.G.R. valve actuator is modulated. The controlled flow of the recirculated exhaust gases through the E.G.R. passage from the exhaust pipe into the intake pipe is in proportion to the intake air flow.

  4. Magnetic analyses of powders from exhausted cabin air filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The automotive cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter placed in the outside-air intake for the car's passenger compartment. Dirty and saturated cabin air filters significantly reduce the airflow from the outside and introduce particulate matter (PM) and allergens (for example, pollen) into the cabin air stream. Magnetic measurements and analyses have been carried out on powders extracted from exhausted cabin air filters to characterize their magnetic properties and to compare them to those already reported for powders collected from disk brakes, gasoline exhaust pipes and Quercus ilex leaves. This study is also aimed at the identification and quantification of the contribution of the ultrafine fraction, superparamagnetic (SP) at room temperature, to the overall magnetic properties of these powders. This contribution was estimated by interpreting and comparing data from FORCs, isothermal remanent magnetization vs time decay curves, frequency and field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and out-of-phase susceptibility. The magnetic properties and the distribution of the SP particles are generally homogenous and independent of the brand of the car, of the model of the filter and of its level of usage. The relatively high concentration of magnetic PM trapped in these filters poses relevant questions about the air quality inside a car.

  5. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  6. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  7. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  8. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  9. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  10. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  11. Acute compartment syndrome in lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma.

    PubMed

    Olson, Steven A; Glasgow, Robert R

    2005-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating condition in which the pressure within an osseofascial compartment rises to a level that decreases the perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds, leading to cellular anoxia, muscle ischemia, and death. A variety of injuries and medical conditions may initiate acute compartment syndrome, including fractures, contusions, bleeding disorders, burns, trauma, postischemic swelling, and gunshot wounds. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, supplemented by compartment pressure measurements. Certain anesthetic techniques, such as nerve blocks and other forms of regional and epidural anesthesia, reportedly contribute to a delay in diagnosis. Basic science data suggest that the ischemic threshold of normal muscle is reached when pressure within the compartment is elevated to 20 mm Hg below the diastolic pressure or 30 mm Hg below the mean arterial blood pressure. On diagnosis of impending or true compartment syndrome, immediate measures must be taken. Complete fasciotomy of all compartments involved is required to reliably normalize compartment pressures and restore perfusion to the affected tissues. Recognizing compartment syndromes requires having and maintaining a high index of suspicion, performing serial examinations in patients at risk, and carefully documenting changes over time.

  12. Delayed onset thigh compartment syndrome secondary to contusion.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Rehman, Saqib

    2009-08-01

    While thigh compartment syndrome is relatively uncommon, it can occur in various situations. Multiple reports document thigh contusions as a cause of acute compartment syndrome; however, compartment syndrome of the thigh presenting primarily in a delayed fashion secondary to a contusion has not been described. This article reports a case of thigh compartment syndrome. A 39-year-old man sustained a left thigh contusion while playing basketball. He continued to play and also worked at the office over the next 2 days. Fifty-two hours postinjury, he developed severe pain in the thigh after a long walk. Increased swelling of the thigh followed, with numbness in the anterolateral thigh and pain with knee motion. He presented 60 hours postinjury with a compartment syndrome, and a lateral decompressive fasciotomy of the thigh was performed 62 hours postinjury. The wound was closed after 5 days. Three months postoperatively, the patient returned to playing basketball with no deficits. Treatment of established compartment syndrome in such cases is controversial, with some reports recommending nonoperative management. Contusion-related compartment syndromes are frequently associated with intramuscular bleeding in the involved compartment, which may accumulate slowly or worsen with further activity. Guidelines regarding return to sports need to be established in individuals sustaining severe contusions during sports-related activities to prevent compartment syndrome. Any individual sustaining such an injury should be under surveillance for delayed onset symptoms or signs of this potentially devastating syndrome.

  13. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  14. Formation of a Bright Polar Hood over the Summer North Pole of Saturn in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2016-10-01

    We report that a bright polar hood has formed over the north pole of Saturn, seen first in images captured by the Cassini ISS camera in 2016. When the north pole was observed during the previous period of Cassini spacecraft's high-inclination orbits in 2012-2013, the concentration of light-scattering aerosols within 2-degree latitude of the north pole appeared to be less than that of the surrounding region, and appeared as a dark hole in all ISS filters, in particular in the shorter wavelength filters BL1 (460 nm), and VIO (420 nm). The north pole's appearance in 2012 was in contrast to that of the south pole in 2007, when the south pole had a bright polar hood in those short wavelengths; the south pole appeared dark in all other ISS filters in 2007. The difference between the south pole in 2007 and the north pole in 2012 was interpreted to be seasonal; in 2007, Saturn was approaching the equinox of 2009 and the south pole had been continuously illuminated since the previous equinox in 1995. In 2012, the north pole had been illuminated for only ~3 years after the long winter polar night. The bright hood over the summer south pole in 2007 was hypothesized to consist of aerosols produced by ultraviolet photodissociation of hydrocarbon molecules. Fletcher et al (2015) predicted that a similar bright hood should form over the north pole as Saturn approaches the 2017 solstice. In 2016, the Cassini spacecraft raised its orbital inclination again in preparation for its Grande Finale phase of the mission, from where it has a good view of the north pole. New images captured in 2016 show that the north pole has developed a bright polar hood. We present new images of the north polar region captured in 2016 that show the north pole, and other seasonally evolving high-latitude features including the northern hexagon. Our research has been supported by the Cassini Project, NASA grants OPR NNX11AM45G, CDAPS NNX15AD33G PATM NNX14AK07G, and NSF grant AAG 1212216.

  15. Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program, Technical Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation

    2008-04-28

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded program initiated as a mitigation measure for Columbia River hydrosystem effects on anadromous fish. The HRPP began in the early 1990s with the release of spring Chinook and winter steelhead smolts into the basin. Prior to implementation, co-managers, including the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife drafted the Hood River Production Master Plan (O'Toole and ODFW 1991a; O'Toole and ODFW 1991b) and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan (Smith and CTWSR 1991). Both documents were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Council in 1992 and authorized through a BPA-led Environmental Impact Statement in 1996. In 2003, a 10-year programmatic review was conducted for BPA-funded programs in the Hood River (Underwood et al. 2003). The primary objective of the HRPP Review (Review) was to determine if program goals were being met, and if modifications to program activities would be necessary in order to meet or revise program goals. In 2003, an agreement was signed between PacifiCorp and resource managers to remove the Powerdale Dam (RM 10) and associated adult trapping facility by 2010. The HRPP program has been dependant on the adult trap to collect broodstock for the hatchery programs; therefore, upon the dam's removal, some sort of replacement for the trap would be needed to continue the HRPP. At the same time the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) was being written and prompted the co-managers to considered future direction of the program. This included revising the numerical adult fish objectives based on the assimilated data and output from several models run on the Hood River system. In response to the Review as well as the Subbasin Plan, and intensive monitoring and evaluation of the current program, the HRPP co-managers determined the spring Chinook program was not achieving the HRPP's defined smolt

  16. Controls on long-term low explosivity at andesitic arc volcanoes: Insights from Mount Hood, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleszar, Alison M.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Wallace, Paul J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-03-01

    The factors that control the explosivity of silicic volcanoes are critical for hazard assessment, but are often poorly constrained for specific volcanic systems. Mount Hood, Oregon, is a somewhat atypical arc volcano in that it is characterized by a lack of large explosive eruptions over the entire lifetime of the current edifice (~ 500,000 years). Erupted Mount Hood lavas are also compositionally homogeneous, with ~ 95% having SiO2 contents between 58 and 66 wt.%. The last three eruptive periods in particular have produced compositionally homogeneous andesite-dacite lava domes and flows. In this paper we report major element and volatile (H2O, CO2, Cl, S, F) contents of melt inclusions and selected phenocrysts from these three most recent eruptive phases, and use these and other data to consider possible origins for the low explosivity of Mount Hood. Measured volatile concentrations of melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole from pumice indicate that the volatile contents of Mount Hood magmas are comparable to those in more explosive silicic arc volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens, Mount Mazama, and others, suggesting that the lack of explosive activity is unlikely to result solely from low intrinsic volatile concentrations or from substantial degassing prior to magma ascent and eruption. We instead argue that an important control over explosivity is the increased temperature and decreased magma viscosity that results from mafic recharge and magma mixing prior to eruption, similar to a model recently proposed by Ruprecht and Bachmann (2010). Erupted Mount Hood magmas show extensive evidence for mixing between magmas of broadly basaltic and dacitic-rhyolitic compositions, and mineral zoning studies show that mixing occurred immediately prior to eruption. Amphibole chemistry and thermobarometry also reveal the presence of multiple amphibole populations and indicate that the mixed andesites and dacites are at least 100 °C hotter than the high-SiO2

  17. Geology, alteration, and lithogeochemistry of the Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Hannah K.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Toole, Trish

    2016-04-01

    The Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are hosted by the ~2.68 Ga Amooga Booga volcanic belt (ABVB) in the northwestern Archaen Slave Craton and consist of three deposits (Hood 10, 41, and 41A) and three occurrences (46, 461, and 462). The mineralized zones consist of massive to semi-massive pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena hosted predominantly by felsic volcanic flows within the predominantly mafic ABVB. The mineralized lenses occur at different stratigraphic levels and have textural, alteration, and stratigraphic features consistent with formation via subseafloor replacement. The felsic volcanic rocks in the Hood deposits can be subdivided into groups based on immobile trace element geochemistry. The main felsic types (A and B) are petrographically indistinguishable. Type A has higher high field strength element (HSFE) and rare earth element (REE) contents than type B, suggesting a higher temperature of formation. Type A rocks also have higher Nb/Ta values indicative of a greater mantle input in their genesis compared to type B rocks. Mineralization is more closely associated with type A than type B rocks. The two mafic volcanic rock types previously identified in the ABVB, type I and type II, both occur within the Hood deposits. The type II mafic group is interpreted to be the result of variable crustal contamination of type I magma. The volcanic rocks of the ABVB are interpreted to have formed in a continental margin arc/back-arc setting. The genesis of these magmatic suites involved magmatic underplating and emplacement through pre-existing sialic basement that resulted in crustal melting, mantle-crust mixing, and contamination leading to the aforementioned geochemical features in both mafic and felsic suites. This type of extensional tectonic environment was likely associated with high heat flow and is similar to global VMS environments proximal to extending continental margins (e.g., Sturgeon Lake, Bathurst, and

  18. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute Quadrangle, Northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    1995-01-01

    This map shows the geology of the central and eastern parts of the Cascade Range in northern Oregon. The Quaternary andesitic stratovolcano of Mount Hood dominates the northwest quarter of the quadrangle, but nearly the entire area is underlain by arc-related volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Cascade Range. Most stratigraphic units were emplaced since middle Miocene time, and all are Oligocene or younger. Despite the proximity of the map area to the Portland metropolitan area, large parts remained virtually unstudied or known only from limited reconnaissance until the late 1970s. A notable exception is the area surrounding Mount Hood, where mapping and chemical analyses by Wise (1969) provided a framework for geologic interpretation. Mapping since 1975 was conducted first to understand the stratigraphy and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Anderson, 1978; Vogt, 1981; J.L. Anderson, in Swanson and others, 1981; Vandiver-Powell, 1978; Burck, 1986) and later to examine the geothermal potential of Mount Hood (Priest and others, 1982). Additional mapping was completed in 1985 for a geologic map of the Cascade Range in Oregon (Sherrod and Smith, 1989). From 1987 to 1990, detailed mapping was conducted in three 15-minute quadrangles on a limited basis (D.R. Sherrod, unpublished mapping) (see fig. 1 for index to mapping). An ongoing volcanic hazards study of Mount Hood by the U.S. Geological Survey (Scott and others, 1994) has provided the catalyst for completing the geologic map of the Mount Hood 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle. As of June 1994, only two broad areas still remain largely unmapped. One of these areas, labeled 'unmapped' on the geologic map, lies in the Salmon River valley south of Zigzag along the west margin of the quadrangle. Although strata of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the Salmon River valley were mapped in detail by Burck (1986), the overlying middle and upper(?) Miocene lava flows, volcaniclastic strata, and intrusions

  19. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust sample analysis must...

  20. Correlates of work exhaustion for medical technologists.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 196 medical technologists followed over a 4-year period, this study investigated if work-related demand and resource variables were related to subsequent work exhaustion. As hypothesized, increased levels of perceived work interference with family and task load and lower organizational support were related to higher subsequent work exhaustion. Distributive justice, as an intervening variable, had direct and partially mediating effects on work exhaustion. Distributive justice partially mediated the effects of work interfering with family and organizational support on work exhaustion. Distributive justice also mediated the impact of procedural justice on work exhaustion. Study limitations and future research issues are discussed. PMID:14526896

  1. Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, Ming-Qin; GUO, Hong; JIANG, Jian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65±0.53 (n=43) and 3.09±0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09±24.94 (n=23) and 28.94±27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes. PMID:25297076

  2. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata).

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild.

  3. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata)

    PubMed Central

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  4. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata).

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  5. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  6. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic.

  7. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic. PMID:24534631

  8. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia. PMID:27315379

  9. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.

  10. Thermal loading as a causal factor in exceeding the 0.1 PPM laboratory fume hood control level.

    PubMed

    Chessin, Saul J; Johnston, James D

    2002-07-01

    Tracer gas testing per ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to investigate the role of thermal loading in exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Three types of typical laboratory burners (blast, Meeker, and economy) were used to provide a thermal challenge. Heat outputs of between 0 and 61,610 Btu/hr were based on fuel heat capacity (for liquid propane gas) and fuel gas flow rates. Breathing zone concentrations were measured with a MIRAN 1B2 infrared gas analyzer. Also, for each test, the difference between the room and duct temperatures (delta temperature) was measured. Results indicated a linear relationship between heat loads and tracer gas breathing zone concentrations for both Btu/hr and delta temperature. Control levels of 0.1 ppm were exceeded at less than 12,000 Btu/hr. Also, control levels were exceeded at a lower heat load when the tracer gas generation rate was increased. These results indicate that thermal loads in laboratory fume hoods increase the risk of exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Some compensatory measures relative to hood configuration and flow rates are recommended for laboratory operations involving heat sources.

  11. Impact of reduced exhaust and ventilation rates at ``no-load`` cooking conditions in a commercial kitchen during winter operation

    SciTech Connect

    Spata, A.J.; Turgeon, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    While previous studies have examined the effect of reduced exhaust and ventilation rates on comfort levels and air-conditioning requirements in commercial kitchens when cooling of this space was required, no investigation had been performed to document energy savings that may be obtainable by a similar technique during periods when heating of make-up air was dictated. In addition, these prior studies examined the resultant kitchen conditions with lower exhaust and ventilation rates applied while the hooded appliances were actively being used for cooking. This paper presents the field evaluation findings by a major quick-service restaurant chain. These findings resulted from the reduction of exhaust and make-up air quantities during periods when heating of kitchen make-up air was required and no cooking was occurring on the grills. The initial results indicate that these reductions yield significant utility savings, with no detrimental effect on the environment within the kitchen, by minimizing the amount of outside air tempered by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment during ``no load`` cooking conditions.

  12. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Maintenance of... compartments. Rooms, compartments, or other parts of the official plant shall be kept clean and in sanitary... light fixtures in the official plant shall be kept clean. (c) All docks and rooms shall be kept...

  13. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  14. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  16. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  17. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel...

  18. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel...

  19. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.855 Section 29.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.855 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a)...

  20. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... control any fire that may start within the compartment. (d) (e) Class E. A Class E cargo compartment is... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... which— (1) The presence of a fire would be easily discovered by a crewmember while at his station;...

  1. Compartment syndrome presenting as ischemia following extravasation of contrast material

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Aaron; Yeager, Brian; Wollstein, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    A case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm, resulting from contrast dye extravasation that presented as upper extremity ischemia, is described. Timely surgical intervention resulted in an excellent outcome. When extravasation of dye occurs, the patient should be evaluated for compartment syndrome despite the possible lack of typical symptoms. PMID:19721799

  2. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... (2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight. (b) Class B. A Class B cargo or baggage compartment is one in which— (1) There is sufficient access in flight to enable a crewmember...

  3. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... (2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight. (b) Class B. A Class B cargo or baggage compartment is one in which— (1) There is sufficient access in flight to enable a crewmember...

  4. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  5. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks....

  6. Spontaneous sequential compartment syndrome of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Abisi, Said; Yong, Yao Pey; Beech, Andrew; Oluwole, Akin; Tennant, William

    2013-10-01

    Spontaneous compartment syndrome is a rare condition and requires urgent surgical treatment to achieve favorable outcome. Several cases have been reported in the literature, and it has been associated with patients with diabetes. We present a case of acute spontaneous sequential compartment syndrome of the lower limbs in a patient with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.

  7. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon.

  8. Acute exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot.

    PubMed

    Blacklidge, D K; Kurek, J B; Soto, A D; Kissel, C G

    1996-01-01

    A review of compartment syndrome, both acute and chronic, is presented. The pathophysiology, anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment are presented in relation to a unique case report. The case is one of acute exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot treated by fasciotomy. This condition is uncommon in both its nature and location.

  9. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

  10. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree

  11. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  12. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered.

  13. Multiple compartment syndrome in a pediatric patient with CML.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyuck

    2011-12-01

    Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening and life-threatening emergency resulting from elevated intracompartmental pressure. Prompt surgical intervention and treatment are necessary to prevent irreparable damage to muscle and nerve tissues. Leukemic infiltration of the muscle is an unusual cause of compartment syndrome and has been documented to occur secondary to hyperleukocytic leukemias, most commonly in acute myeloid leukemia. We present a rare case of multiple compartment syndrome in the buttock and thigh of an 11-year-old male patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was delayed, causing irreversible tissue damage. Physicians are generally unfamiliar with leukemia-induced complications and may not initially suspect leukemic compartment syndrome because of its rarity. Awareness of its clinical features is critical, because early diagnosis and prompt surgical debridement can prevent significant morbidity and even death.

  14. Acute compartment syndrome in children: contemporary diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bae, D S; Kadiyala, R K; Waters, P M

    2001-01-01

    Compartment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose in a child, with delays in diagnosis leading to disastrous outcomes. Thirty-six cases of compartment syndrome in 33 pediatric patients were treated at the authors' institution from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1997. There were 27 boys and 6 girls, with nearly equal upper and lower extremity involvement. Approximately 75% of these patients developed compartment syndrome in the setting of fracture. Pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness were relatively unreliable signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome in these children. An increasing analgesia requirement in combination with other clinical signs, however, was a more sensitive indicator of compartment syndrome: all 10 patients with access to patient-controlled or nurse-administered analgesia during their initial evaluation demonstrated an increasing requirement for pain medication. With early diagnosis and expeditious treatment, >90% of the patients studied achieved full restoration of function.

  15. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  16. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  17. T cell exhaustion during persistent viral infections.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Shannon M; Wherry, E John; Zajac, Allan J

    2015-05-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control.

  18. Relationship of light quantity and anthocyanin production in Pennisetum setaceum Cvs. rubrum and red riding hood.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Andrea G; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Cameron, Arthur C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-02-11

    Pennisetum setaceum cvs. Rubrum and Red Riding Hood are purple-pigmented ornamental grasses when grown in high-light environments. In low-light environments, foliage appears light purple or green, and as a result, aesthetic appeal is reduced. The impact of light on anthocyanin pigmentation was compared for P. setaceum Rubrum foliage and flowers and Red Riding Hood foliage grown under different light intensities and light sources. Light environments included UV supplemental light in the greenhouse, high-pressure sodium supplemental light in the greenhouse, cool-white fluorescent light in a growth chamber, and full sun outside. Anthocyanins in two cultivars of P. setaceum were analyzed by HPLC and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral experiments. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, were identified in the leaves and flowers of both cultivars and quantified by HPLC analysis. The major anthocyanin in both cultivars was cyanidin 3-glucoside and had highest concentration (0.199% fresh weight) in Rubrum leaves grown under fluorescent lights in the growth chamber with a photoperiod of 24 h and a daily light integral (DLI) of 13.3 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1) and in Rubrum and Red Riding Hood leaves and flowers (0.097 and 0.12% fresh weight) from plants grown outside in full sun with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 42 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The minor anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, had the highest quantity in plants grown in low-light-intensity greenhouse environments with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 2.3-7.0 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The functional significance of anthocyanins in P. setaceum Rubrum is discussed.

  19. Modeling the Temporal Evolution of the Magma Chamber at Mount Hood (Oregon, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degruyter, W.; Huber, C.; Cooper, K. M.; Kent, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of shallow magma reservoirs is complex as new mass is added intermittently and phase proportions (crystals, melt and bubbles) vary because of cooling or mass removal (eruptions). One requirement for eruptions to occur is that the crystal content during storage is low enough (< 0.4-0.6) such that the magma is mobile. Thermal modeling and geochemical data suggest these chambers are mobile only a very small fraction of their lifetime. Data from uranium-series disequilibria, crystal size distributions, and zoning of trace elements in crystals collected at Mount Hood (Oregon, USA) provide constraints on the thermal evolution of this system over the past 21 kyrs years and suggest <10% of this time the magma was mobile. This system also produced at least 3 significant eruptions over the last 10 kyrs based on the stratigraphic record (~220 and ~1500, and ~7700 years ago). Here we investigate the physical conditions of an open-system magma chamber that are in agreement with the thermal history inferred from the crystal record and with the eruption sequence. What are the magma recharge fluxes that are required to keep a system such as Mount Hood active but predominantly crystal-rich over the last 21 kyrs and what combination of processes produces the observed eruption frequency? To answer these questions we use an idealized magma chamber model to solve for the evolution of the thermodynamical state of the chamber (pressure, temperature, gas and crystal content) as new magma is injected into the chamber. Heat is lost to the surrounding colder crust, which responds visco-elastically to the pressure accumulated during recharge and volatile exsolution. If the crystal volume fraction is lower than 0.5 and chamber overpressure reaches 20 MPa we assume an eruption occurs. We analyze what type of injection (constant, periodic, magma lensing), injection rate, and magma chamber volume yields trends consistent with the timescales found at Mount Hood.

  20. Springs on and in the vicinity of Mount Hood volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data are presented for nonthermal, thermal, and slightly thermal springs and drill holes and fumaroles on Mount Hood, Oregon. Temperatures of nonthermal springs on Mount Hood decrease with elevation and are similar to air temperatures from nearby weather stations. Dissolved constituents in nonthermal springs generally increase with spring temperatures and reflect weathering of volcanic rock from the action of dissolved carbon dioxide. Isotopic contents of nonthermal springs follow a local meteoric water line and generally become lighter with elevation. Some nonthermal springs at low-elevation have light values of isotopes indicating a high-elevation source for the water. Three hydrothermal systems have been identified on Mount Hood. Swim Warm Springs is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 187?C, re-equilibrated at 96?C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in various springs. The Meadows Spring is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 223?C, re-equilibrated at 94?C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in the spring over several years. Both systems contain water that originated as precipitation at higher elevation. The summit fumaroles have gas geothermometer temperatures generally over 300?C, indicating that they are not the steam discharge from the Swim and Meadows hydrothermal systems. Representative values of thermal discharge for the three hydrothermal systems are 10 MWt for the fumaroles, 2.2 MWt for Swim, and 1.9 MWt for the Meadows and Cascade springs.

  1. Volitional consumption of ethanol by fawn-hooded rats: effects of alternative solutions and drug treatments.

    PubMed

    McMillen, B A; Williams, H L

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral and neurochemical measures of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) function in the Fawn-Hooded rat are abnormal relative to outbred strains of rats. Fawn-Hooded rats freely drink large amounts of 10% ethanol in the presence of water and have been proposed to be an animal model for studies related to alcoholism. In this study, Fawn-Hooded rats were given solutions of ethanol increasing in concentration from 3% to 30% (w/v in tap water) over 10 days with tap water in a second drinking tube and a third tube left empty. The solutions of ethanol that produced maximal drinking with a preference (ml ethanol/ml total fluid) near 50% ranged from 5% to 13%, which became the fixed individual concentrations for each rat. After a 5-day baseline period the rats were offered a solution in the third drinking tube of either 0.5% aspartame or chocolate Ultra SlimFast (diluted with water 2:1). The chocolate drink, but not aspartame, significantly reduced the consumption of alcohol by 73%. For the drug experiments, the rats were given successive 4-day periods of: baseline drinking; drug or saline injections b.i.d.; and a posttreatment period. Neither ipsapirone, a 5-HT1a partial agonist, nor naltrexone injected inhibited the intakes of ethanol solutions. Treatment with 2.5 mg/kg of amperozide, a 5-HT2 antagonist, decreased the consumption of ethanol by 38%, but also caused a decrease in consumption of food. These results show a pattern of drinking of increasing concentrations of ethanol different than other strains of rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  3. Diesel exhaust exposure induces angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Kherada, Nisharahmed; Hong, Xinru; Quan, Chunli; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Aixia; Wold, Loren; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that exposure to whole diesel exhaust (WDE) would enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, with either scaffold implantation subcutaneously or hindlimb ischemia, were exposed to either WDE (containing diesel exhaust particle [DEP] at a concentration of about 1 mg/m3) or filtered air 6 hours/day, 5 days/week in a whole body exposure chamber for 2, 5, or 8 weeks, respectively. WDE exposure significantly increased total cell counts in the scaffolds, aortic, and perivascular fat tissues. Macrophage infiltration was enhanced and CD31 expression increased in the scaffolds, which was coupled by increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. WDE exposure led to increased CD31 expression, while decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the aortic wall. The vessel volume measured by micro-CT was increased in ischemic and non-ischemic hindlimbs in response to WDE exposure. DEP exposure induced capillary-like tube formation in endothelial cells in vitro, and caused capillary sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo. In addition, WDE exposure significantly increased mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, while decreasing prolylhydroxylase (PHD) 2 expression. WDE exposure increases inflammatory cell infiltration, enhances the vessel volume/flow, and increases capillary tube formation and sprouting, thereby inducing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The angiogenic effects may occur through increasing HIF-1α and VEGF while decreasing PHD2 expression. PMID:19683567

  4. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA.

  5. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  6. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 μg/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells.

  7. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  8. The danger of collapsing lava domes; lessons for Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.R.; Scott, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Nestled in the crater of Oregon's majestic Mount Hood volcano is Crater Rock, a prominent feature known to thousands of skiers, climbers, and tourists who journey each year to the famous Timberline Lodge located high on the volcano's south flank. Crater Rock stands about 100m above the sloping crater floor and warm fumaroles along its base emit sulfur gases and a faint steam plume that is sometimes visible from the lodge. What most visitors do not know, however, is that Crater Rock is a volcanic lava dome only 200 years old. 

  9. The potential for air flow reduction in fume hoods at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate the feasibility of reducing air flow at the face of laboratory hoods at Hanford during off shift hours for the purpose of energy conservation. Identifying strategies and systems currently available on the market that would facilitate such a reduction, should it be deemed feasible, is also an objective. This report discusses the methodology employed in performing this investigation and the findings resulting therefrom and sets forth conclusions and recommendations derived from these findings. A bibliography and list of references are included. 9 refs.

  10. Hydrologic and Geomorphologic Assessment of Debris Flow Events for Mount Hood Highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, A.

    2003-04-01

    A hydrologic and geomorphologic assessment was performed for past debris flows events for Mount Hood Highway. This highway is located on the eastern and southern flank of the Mount Hood, a dormant volcano that is part of Cascade Range in Oregon State in western United States. There are at least twelve glaciers or named snowfields located on Mount Hood containing approximately 0.35 cubic kilometers of ice. Various streams crossing this highway have glacial origin and the glacial-melt provides majority of discharge. The highway crossings, bridges or culverts, on these streams have routinely suffered severe damage due to debris flows. This paper presents assessment for two stream drainages, White River and Pollalie Creek. The primary objective of this assessment was to select a design alternative with least total life cycle cost. A range of alternatives, including relocation of the highway, were considered. Glacial outbursts and associated lahar events on Mount Hood can generate peak discharges that are one to two orders of magnitude larger than seasonal peak flow discharge. Additionally, debris flows associated with these events have the potential to permanently alter the channel morphologies of streams that emanate from the upper reaches of the mountain. A number of triggering mechanisms, including glacial, geothermal, and meteorological, have been suggested as the cause of these events; however, a strong correlation between cause and effect has not been identified. Major streams such as White River, Newton Creek, and Clark Creek, whose headwaters are located at glacier termini, can become laden with debris flow material and inflict severe damage to highway structures located downstream. These structures are typically designed to pass a specific calculated peak discharge for rain-on-snow events and are not hardened or sized to withstand the forces of these extreme debris flows. During this assessment it was evident that conventional hydrologic methods, regression

  11. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  12. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  13. Stochastic Turing patterns: analysis of compartment-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-12-01

    Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  14. Lateral compartment cartilage changes and lateral elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Aysha; Pooley, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    The aim of our study is to document the arthroscopic findings in resistant lateral elbow pain. We have reviewed the findings in a consecutive series of 117 elbow arthroscopies performed on patients with lateral elbow pain resistant to conservative treatment. We found established degenerative changes involving articular cartilage in 68 patients (59%). In 60 of these 68 patients (88%) the degenerative changes were confined to the lateral compartment and contrasted with a normal appearance of the articular cartilage of the medial compartment. Primary lateral compartment arthritis is more common than previously thought, it mostly affects a young population and could easily be misdiagnosed as lateral epicondylitis.

  15. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O'Brien, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

  16. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power section of the powerplant must— (1) Be fireproof; and (2) Meet the requirements of § 29.1191. (d... nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (e) Each rotorcraft must— (1... applicable); and (3) Have fireproof skin in areas subject to flame if a fire starts in or burns out of...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... power section of the powerplant must— (1) Be fireproof; and (2) Meet the requirements of § 29.1191. (d... nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (e) Each rotorcraft must— (1... applicable); and (3) Have fireproof skin in areas subject to flame if a fire starts in or burns out of...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... power section of the powerplant must— (1) Be fireproof; and (2) Meet the requirements of § 29.1191. (d... nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (e) Each rotorcraft must— (1... applicable); and (3) Have fireproof skin in areas subject to flame if a fire starts in or burns out of...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power section of the powerplant must— (1) Be fireproof; and (2) Meet the requirements of § 29.1191. (d... nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (e) Each rotorcraft must— (1... applicable); and (3) Have fireproof skin in areas subject to flame if a fire starts in or burns out of...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... power section of the powerplant must— (1) Be fireproof; and (2) Meet the requirements of § 29.1191. (d... nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (e) Each rotorcraft must— (1... applicable); and (3) Have fireproof skin in areas subject to flame if a fire starts in or burns out of...