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Sample records for exhaust systems

  1. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Minoura, M.; Yorioka, K.

    1980-11-18

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the exhaust gas pressure while the ratio of the exhaust gas flow rate to the air intake into the engine is varied in correspondence to the intake pipe negative pressure. This exhaust gas recirculation system can be adapted to a fuel injection type intake system as well as other intake systems provided with an air valve for regulating air intake or having no venturi constriction such as employed in an su type carburetor.

  2. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  3. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  4. Debris exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    McBride, D.D.; Bua, D.; Domankevitz, Y.; Nishioka, N.

    1998-06-23

    A debris removal system removes debris from a work site by flowing fluid away from the work site toward the periphery of a structure. The fluid flow can be kept constant around the periphery so that debris is removed evenly. The structure can have a reduced cross section between the fluid inlet and the work site so that the resulting increased fluid velocity works to prevent debris from escaping. 9 figs.

  5. Debris exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Donald D.; Bua, Dominic; Domankevitz, Yacov; Nishioka, Norman

    1998-01-01

    A debris removal system removes debris from a work site by flowing fluid away from the work site toward the periphery of a structure. The fluid flow can be kept constant around the periphery so that debris is removed evenly. The structure can have a reduced cross section between the fluid inlet and the work site so that the resulting increased fluid velocity works to prevent debris from escaping.

  6. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  7. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  8. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  9. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  10. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  11. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.

    1981-02-03

    An E.G.R. control system includes a pressure modulator operative to modulate the magnitude of the port vacuum as applied to a diaphragm type actuator of an E.G.R. valve. The modulator comprises a housing and a diaphragm assembly disposed in the housing and consisting of a pair of diaphragms and a member connecting the diaphragms so that they are deformed simultaneously. The diaphragm assembly divides the interior of the housing into first, second and third chambers which are communicated with the engine carburetor venturi, vented to the atmosphere and communicated with the E.G.R. passage between the E.G.R. valve and a fixed restriction in the E.G.R. passage upstream of the E.G.R. valve, respectively, so that the diaphragm assembly is moved in response to variation in the venturi vacuum and also in response to variation in the exhaust gas pressure in the E.G.R. passage between the restriction and the E.G.R. valve. A valve member is mounted on the diaphragm assembly for movement therewith to control the flow of the atmospheric air from the second chamber into the E.G.R. valve actuator so that the port vacuum as applied to the E.G.R. valve actuator is modulated. The controlled flow of the recirculated exhaust gases through the E.G.R. passage from the exhaust pipe into the intake pipe is in proportion to the intake air flow.

  13. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  14. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  15. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... would likely result in burning, charring, or damaging the electrical wiring, the fuel supply, or any... immediately below the fuel tank or the fuel tank filler pipe. (c) The exhaust system of a bus powered by a... bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  16. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  17. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  18. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  19. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  20. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  1. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  2. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  3. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  4. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  5. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  6. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    SciTech Connect

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-10-07

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment.

  7. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER...

  8. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER...

  9. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER...

  10. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER...

  11. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must....407 Section 90.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  12. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  13. Diesel exhaust-gas purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, B.J.

    1982-07-01

    The design of a diesel exhaust gas purification system is presented. It will provide 2000 scfm of dry, anerobic gas (essentially nitrogen) for use in air drilling operations where drill pipe corrosion is a problem, such as geothermal applications. The system is operable in the field and may be transported via highways. It will operate at ambient temperatures up to 110/sup 0/F and requires no water - diesel fuel is used to combust excess oxygen and to generate electricity for the system. Gas production costs, including capital amortization, operations, fuel and maintenance (for reasonable utilization) are about $1.50/1000 scf.

  14. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas... optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  15. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  16. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  18. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91.407 Section 91.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  19. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system. 86.1511... Procedures § 86.1511 Exhaust gas analysis system. (a) Analyzers used for this subpart shall meet the following specifications: (1) The analyzer used shall conform to the accuracy provisions of 40 CFR part...

  1. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  2. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of 15 pounds per square inch gage or employing runs passing through living or working spaces must... dry exhaust pipes are permitted if they do not pass through living or berthing spaces, terminate above the deepest load waterline, are arranged to prevent entry of cold water from rough seas, and...

  3. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of 15 pounds per square inch gage or employing runs passing through living or working spaces must... dry exhaust pipes are permitted if they do not pass through living or berthing spaces, terminate above the deepest load waterline, are arranged to prevent entry of cold water from rough seas, and...

  4. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of 15 pounds per square inch gage or employing runs passing through living or working spaces must... dry exhaust pipes are permitted if they do not pass through living or berthing spaces, terminate above the deepest load waterline, are arranged to prevent entry of cold water from rough seas, and...

  5. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of 15 pounds per square inch gage or employing runs passing through living or working spaces must... dry exhaust pipes are permitted if they do not pass through living or berthing spaces, terminate above the deepest load waterline, are arranged to prevent entry of cold water from rough seas, and...

  6. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts.

  7. SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

  8. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  9. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  10. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  11. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  12. Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hoard, John W.

    1998-01-01

    An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

  13. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must consist of: A... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system...

  14. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must consist of: A... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system...

  15. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must consist of: A... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system...

  16. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must consist of: A... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system...

  17. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  18. The Design of Exhaust Systems and Discharge Stacks [With Comments].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1963-01-01

    An important part of ventilating for safety consists of providing the necessary exhaust systems to remove building contaminants safely. Further, the effluent must be cleaned within practical limits by means of filters, collectors, and scrubbers. Where recirculation is not safe or feasible, the effluent must be discharged to the outside in a manner…

  19. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier...

  20. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier...

  1. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier...

  2. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier...

  3. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier...

  4. IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows mounting brackets, concrete braces, divided portion of duct, other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 429. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106980 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following specifications: (1) The analyzer used shall conform to the accuracy provisions of 40 CFR part 1065... flow. (b) The inclusion of a raw CO2 analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required in order to... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  6. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

  7. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dilute exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute...

  8. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dilute exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute...

  9. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dilute exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute...

  10. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dilute exhaust temperature and pressure. (c) For the testing described in this subpart, a CVS must... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute...

  11. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOEpatents

    Strauser, Aaron D.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Coldren, Dana R.

    2009-04-28

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  12. Exhaust system for use with a turbine and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Dalsania, Prakash Bavanjibhai; Sadhu, Antanu

    2015-08-18

    An exhaust system for use with a steam turbine is provided. An exhaust hood includes an input and an output, the input receiving fluid from the steam turbine. The exhaust hood includes a first side wall that extends between the input and the output. The first side wall includes an aperture. An ejector is coupled to the exhaust hood. The ejector includes inlets and an outlet. At least one of the inlets receives fluid from the exhaust hood via the aperture.

  13. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  14. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air mixture. All parts of the engine and exhaust-gas cooling system shall be at their respective... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.47 Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (a) The adequacy of...

  15. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air mixture. All parts of the engine and exhaust-gas cooling system shall be at their respective... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.47 Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (a) The adequacy of...

  16. 75 FR 67634 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 57191). The direct final rule... Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT... Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems,'' published on September 20, 2010, in...

  17. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Analysis systems meeting the specifications and requirements of this subpart for dilute sampling may be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample....

  18. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. 91.420 Section 91.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system...

  19. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description... exceed the leakage rate specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (d) Venting. All vents...

  20. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description... exceed the leakage rate specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (d) Venting. All vents...

  1. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. 90.420 Section 90.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute...

  2. Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, M. Lou ); Tonkyn, Russell ); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana; Barlow, Stephen; Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M.; Hoard, John Wm.; Howden, Ken

    2000-04-01

    There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

  3. Exhaustive search system and method using space-filling curves

    DOEpatents

    Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-10-21

    A search system and method for one agent or for multiple agents using a space-filling curve provides a way to control one or more agents to cover an area of any space of any dimensionality using an exhaustive search pattern. An example of the space-filling curve is a Hilbert curve. The search area can be a physical geography, a cyberspace search area, or an area searchable by computing resources. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace.

  4. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  5. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  6. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  7. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  8. A static investigation of several STOVL exhaust system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, B. M., Jr.; Meyer, B. E.; Re, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    A static cold flow scale model test was performed in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of various STOVL exhaust systems. All of the concepts considered included a vectorable cruise nozzle and a separate vectorable vertical thrust ventral nozzle mounted on the tailpipe. The two ventral nozzle configurations tested featured vectorable constant thickness cascade vanes for area control and improved performance during transition and vertical lift flight. The best transition performance was achieved using a butterfly door type ventral nozzle and a pitch vectoring 2DCD or axisymmetric cruise nozzle. The clamshell blocker type of ventral nozzle had reduced transition performance due to the choking of the tailpipe flow upstream of the cruise nozzle.

  9. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  10. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly proposed for embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side ('bevel') did produce up to 3dB more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side ('slant') produced up to 2dB more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron ('notch') produced up to 2dB increase in the noise. Having internal walls ('septae') within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  11. QCGAT mixer compound exhaust system design and static big model test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, W. L.; Thompson, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A mixer exhaust system was designed to meet the proposed performance and exhaust jet noise goals for the AiResearch QCGAT engine. Some 0.35 scale models of the various nozzles were fabricated and aerodynamically and acoustically tested. Preliminary optimization, engine cycle matching, model test data and analysis are presented. A final mixer exhaust system is selected for optimum performance for the overall flight regime.

  12. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Analysis systems meeting the specifications and requirements of this subpart for dilute sampling may be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4...

  13. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... explosions and the adequacy of the flame arresters to prevent the propagation of an explosion shall be made... valves. (c) The temperature of the flame arresters in the intake or exhaust systems shall not exceed 212 °F. when an explosion test is conducted. Any water-spray cooling for the exhaust system shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... explosions and the adequacy of the flame arresters to prevent the propagation of an explosion shall be made... valves. (c) The temperature of the flame arresters in the intake or exhaust systems shall not exceed 212 °F. when an explosion test is conducted. Any water-spray cooling for the exhaust system shall not...

  15. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... explosions and the adequacy of the flame arresters to prevent the propagation of an explosion shall be made... valves. (c) The temperature of the flame arresters in the intake or exhaust systems shall not exceed 212 °F. when an explosion test is conducted. Any water-spray cooling for the exhaust system shall not...

  16. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  17. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance...

  18. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  19. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81. 85... Tests § 85.2224 Exhaust analysis system—EPA 81. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this subsection... probe, moisture separator and analyzers for HC and CO. (2) Dual sample probe requirements. If used,...

  1. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  3. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemically cleaned stainless steel or inert material (e.g., polytetrafluoroethylene resin). The use of “gauge... family to engine family. (c) Mixing chamber. The exhaust mixing chamber is located in the exhaust system... family to engine family. The probe must be located in a position which yields a well mixed,...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (4) For methanol-fueled engines, cooling or reaction of the exhaust gases in the exhaust duct... unless compensation for varying flow rate is made). The sample collection lines shall be heated to a... overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105 percent of the sample system flow...

  5. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94 Section 86.209-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust...

  6. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust... must be selected consecutively as they are produced. (2) Test motorcycles and test exhaust systems to... sold or offered for sale in commerce. (3) Before the official test, the test motorcycle and...

  7. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust... must be selected consecutively as they are produced. (2) Test motorcycles and test exhaust systems to... sold or offered for sale in commerce. (3) Before the official test, the test motorcycle and...

  8. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust... must be selected consecutively as they are produced. (2) Test motorcycles and test exhaust systems to... sold or offered for sale in commerce. (3) Before the official test, the test motorcycle and...

  9. An evaluation of a local exhaust ventilation control system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation.

    PubMed

    Gressel, M G

    1997-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a local exhaust ventilation system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation in which a worker cleaned gray iron castings using a variety of handheld chipping and grinding tools. The operation originally had an exhaust system consisting only of an exhaust duct terminating approximately 1 m (3 ft) above the floor and 2 m (6 ft) from the casting-cleaning workstation. An earlier evaluation of this original control system found time-weighted average exposures to respirable silica ranging from 124 to 160 micrograms/m3. The local exhaust ventilation system evaluated in this present study consisted of a downdraft booth outfitted with a turntable for manipulating the castings. The modified local exhaust ventilation system was installed at this facility and connected to the existing plant exhaust ventilation system through the original ductwork. A direct-reading instrument was used to measure the operator's respirable aerosol exposure concentrations during a single day both before and after the installation of the new workstation. The same worker was sampled both times. The operator's activities were recorded on videotape so that the exposures associated with the various tools could be determined. While day-to-day variability could not be accounted for, depending on the type of tool used the local exhaust ventilation system reduced exposures by 59 to 79% during casting cleaning by the sampled worker when compared with the original configuration. These reductions were statistically significant. PMID:9134666

  10. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.

    2012-08-07

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  11. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.

    2011-12-06

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  12. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  13. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine, burn-off unit and methods therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, A.A.; Scott, D.R.

    1984-05-22

    An exhaust system is disclosed for an internal combustion engine which burns a hydrocarbon fuel mixture and which produces a carbonaceous particle carrying exhaust gas stream that passes through a filter of the system that retains at least part of the particles therein, the system having a burn-off unit for periodically burning the retained particles in the filter to tend to periodically clean the filter of the retained particles thereof. The burn-off unit is adapted to raise the temperature of the exhaust gas stream intermediate the engine and the filter to raise the temperature of the filter to particle burning temperature thereof, the burn-off unit injecting and burning a certain amount of the hydrocarbon fuel mixture in the exhaust gas stream intermediate the engine and the filter to raise the temperature of the exhaust gas stream intermediate the engine and the filter. The fuel mixture is injected into the exhaust gas stream by an aspirating unit of the burn-off unit, and the temperature of the exhaust gas stream is raised by an electrical heater and a catalyst bed in which the injected fuel mixture is to burn.

  14. Functional requirements for portable exhauster system to be used during saltwell pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document defines functional requirements for portable exhausters used to ventilate primary tanks during saltwell pumping, and provide back-up to primary and annulus ventilation systems at C-106 and AY-102.

  15. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to...

  16. 5. West SideElevated Tank Structure with fume exhaust system and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. West Side-Elevated Tank Structure with fume exhaust system and support structure in foreground. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an automotive engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, I.

    1988-02-09

    This patent describes a diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system having an EGR passage communicating an exhaust pipe of an engine with an intake passage of the engine, an EGR valve provided in the EGR passage, control means for opening the EGR valve in accordance with enigne operating conditions comprising: first means for detecting flow rate of recirculated gas in the EGR passage and for producing an actual EGR rate signal dependent on the flow rate; second means for producing a desired EGR rate signal including an allowable range in accordance with engine operating conditions; and third means responsive to the actual EGR rate signal and the desired EGR rate signal for producing a trouble signal as an alarm signal when the actual EGR rate signal is out of the allowable range.

  18. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  19. Combustion control system adding a liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.E.

    1980-01-15

    A combustion control system is disclosed that adds a fluid and heat energy to the air-fuel mixture of the induction system of an internal combustion engine in response to engine need to improve combustion, to increase power, to improve efficiency, and to reduce emissions. The system incorporates fluidic control mechanisms which provide the control functions without any moving parts. The system incorporates one or more variable impedance flow control mechanisms, each of which produces an impedance to flow through the control mechanism which varies in a controlled relationship to the pressure differential across the control mechanism. In one embodiment, the main variable impedance control mechanism is a vortex chamber. The outlet of the vortex chamber is connected to the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) inlet to intake manifold downstream of the butterfly valve. The vortex chamber has inputs for supplying air, the liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases for mixing within the vortex chamber. The incoming liquid, air, exhaust gases, and PCV gases are transmitted into the main vortex chamber by input constructions which, in themselves, provide for controlled regulation of both the relative proportions and total amounts of the incoming liquid and gases. In a specific embodiment, the input constructions include a liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber for mixing liquid with exhaust gases and a PCV-exhaust gas vortex chamber for mixing exhaust gases with PCV gases and air and swirl producing devices for causing controlled choking of the inlets of one or more of the vortex chambers. The system also incorporates a variable impedance syphon break in the line connecting the liquid source with the liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber.

  20. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Active Noise Controller for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Chih-Keng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Lee, Tian-Hua

    2002-10-01

    Two active noise control (ANC) algorithms for internal combustion engine exhaust systems are developed and their performances are compared in various experiments. The first controller is based on the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm with feedback neutralization, while the second is a fixed controller with a gain-scheduled active control technique for broadband attenuation with thermal effects. Both control algorithms are implemented on a digital signal processing (DSP) platform. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the attenuation performance of the proposed active noise control systems for an engine exhaust system. The results of the experiments indicate that both the adaptive controller and the gain-scheduled controller effectively suppress the noise of engine exhaust systems. The experimental comparison and analysis of the proposed controllers are also described.

  2. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  3. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  4. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  5. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  6. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  7. Experiments on Exhaust Noise of Tightly Integrated Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Brown, Clifford A.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    A wide-ranging series of tests have been completed that seek to map the effects of installation, including jet by jet interaction effects, on exhaust noise from various nozzles in forward flight. The primary data was far-field acoustic spectral directivity. The goals of the test series were (i) to generate enough data for empirical models of the different effects, and (ii) to provide data for advanced computational noise predictions methods applied to simplified yet realistic configurations. Data is presented that demonstrate several checks on data quality and that provide an overview of trends observed to date. Among the findings presented here: (i) Data was repeatable between jet rigs for single nozzles with and without surfaces to within +/- 0.5 dB. (ii) The presence of a second jet caused a strong reduction of the summed noise in the plane of the two plumes and an increase over the expected source doubling in most other azimuthal planes. (iii) The impact of the second jet was reduced when the jets were unheated. (iv) The impact of adding a second isolated rectangular jet was relatively independent of the nozzle aspect ratio up to aspect ratio 8:1. (v) Forward flight had similar impact on a high aspect ratio (8:1) jet as on an axisymmetric jet, except at the peak noise angle where the impact was less. (vi) The effect of adding a second round jet to a tightly integrated nozzle where the nozzle lip was less than a diameter from the surface was very dependent upon the length of the surface downstream of the nozzle. (vii) When the nozzles were rectangular and tightly integrated with the airframe surface the impact of a second jet was very dependent upon how close together the two jets were. This paper serves as an overview of the test; other papers presented in the same conference will give more detailed analysis of the results.

  8. Characterization of microbial communities in exhaust air treatment systems of large-scale pig housing facilities.

    PubMed

    Haneke, J; Lee, N M; Gaul, T W; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2010-01-01

    Exhaust air treatment has gained importance as an essential factor in intensive livestock areas due to the rising emissions in the environment. Wet filter walls of multi-stage exhaust air treatment systems precipitate gaseous ammonia and dust particles from exhaust air in washing water. Microbial communities in the biomass developed in the washing water of five large-scale exhaust air treatment units of pig housing facilities, were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. No "standard" nitrifying bacteria were found in the washing water. Instead mainly α-Proteobacteria, aggregating β- and χ-Proteobacteria, a large number of Actinobacteria, as well as individual Planctomycetales and Crenarchaeota were detected after more than twelve months' operation. The main Proteobacteria species present were affiliated to the families Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae. Furthermore, we investigated the consumption of inorganic nitrogen compounds in the washing water of one exhaust air treatment unit during a fattening period with and without pH control. Maintaining the pH at 6.0 resulted in a ca. fivefold higher ammonium concentration and a ca. fourfold lower concentration of oxidized nitrogen compounds after the fattening period was finished.

  9. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  10. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  11. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  13. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  14. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  15. Calibration and demonstration of a condensation nuclei counting system for airborne measurements of aircraft exhausted particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Winstead, Edward L.; Bagwell, Donald R.

    A system of multiple continuous-flow condensation nuclei counters (CNC) was assembled, calibrated, and demonstrated on a NASA T-39 Sabreliner jet aircraft. The mission was to penetrate the exhaust plumes and/or contrails of other subsonic jet aircraft and determine the concentrations of submicrometer diameter aerosol particles. Mission criteria required rapid response measurements ( ˜ 1 s) at aircraft cruise altitudes (9-12 km). The CNC sampling system was optimized to operate at 160 Torr. Aerosol samples were acquired through an externally mounted probe. Installed downstream of the probe was a critical flow orifice that provided sample to the CNC system. The orifice not only controlled volumetric flow rate, but also dampened probe pressure/flow oscillations encountered in the turbulent aircraft-wake vortex environment. Laboratory calibrations with NaCl particles under representative conditions are reported that indicate small amounts of particle loss and a maximum measurement efficiency of ˜ 75% for particles with diameters ranging from ⩾ 0.01- ⩽ 0.18 μm Data from exhaust/contrail samplings of a NASA B757 and DC-8 at cruise altitude are discussed. Data include exhaust/contrail measurements made during periods in which the B757 port jet engine burned low-sulfur fuel while the starboard engine simultaneously burned specially prepared high-sulfur fuel. The data discussed highlight the CNC systems performance, and introduce new observations pertinent to the behavior of sulfur in aircraft exhaust aerosol chemistry.

  16. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent...) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of...

  18. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and...

  19. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  20. Limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Brooks, J.; Mattas, R.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed design of a limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust has been developed for the STARFIRE tokamak power plant. It is shown that the limiter/vacuum concept is a very attractive option for power reactors. It is relatively simple and inexpensive and deserves serious experimental verification.

  1. Motor Transportation Technology: Automechanics. [Fuel and Exhaust System.] Block VII. A-VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Instructional materials on fuel and exhaust systems are provided for an auto mechanics course in the motor transportation technology program. Instructor's plans are provided for five units. Each unit consists of instructional and manipulative lessons. The format of an instructional lesson is as follows: the subject, aim, a listing of teaching aids…

  2. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  3. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  4. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  5. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the manufacturer's normal production processes, in stock configuration including exhaust system, as...'s normal production process. (d) Unless otherwise indicated in the test request, the manufacturer..., including parts and subassemblies, that will not normally be used during the production and assembly of...

  6. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be... essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted....

  7. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be... essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted....

  8. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  9. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  10. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric... and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See §§ 91.317 and...

  11. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must conform to the following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be... essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted....

  12. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. 91.414 Section 91.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... be greater than the inside diameter of the sample line + 0.03 cm. The wall thickness of the...

  13. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. 90.414 Section 90.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... diameter may not be greater than the inside diameter of the sample line +0.03 cm. The wall thickness of...

  14. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. 89.412 Section 89.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... The inside diameter shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the sample line plus 0.03 cm....

  15. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  16. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  17. Experimental Investigation of Exhaust Thermoelectric System and Application for Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, W. S.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this case study, an energy harvesting system using a thermoelectric power generator (TEG) has been constructed. Experimental investigation of the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric modules (TMs) in this system has been undertaken to assess the feasibility for automotive applications. Two test benches have been developed to analyze the TM performance and the TEG system characteristics, especially the temperature difference, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power output of the TM and TEG system. As the performance of a TM is most influenced by the applied pressure and the temperature difference, a thermostatic heater, thermostatic water tank, and clamping devices are used in our experimental apparatus, increasing the output power of the TEG system. Based on the test bench, a new system called the "four-TEGs" system was designed and assembled into a prototype vehicle called "Warrior," and the characteristics of the system such as the maximum power output have been studied in road tests. The results show great potential for application of this technology in future vehicles.

  18. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.210-08 Section 86.210-08 Protection... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... including the systems described in § 86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown...

  20. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.210-08 Section 86.210-08 Protection... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...

  1. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer. (iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be... exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC...

  2. Application of a New Selective Noncatalytic NO Reduction System to Diesel Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Yasufumi; Gong, Joon Dugk; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    The chemical gas-phase reduction process used to reduce nitric oxide (NO) in diesel engine exhaust has been applied to a high-speed, light-duty diesel engine. The chemical gas-phase reduction process involves adding methylamine (CH3NH2) in water solution to the exhaust gas as an NO reduction agent. In this study, an experimental selective noncatalytic NO reduction system designed to be used with a diesel engine was applied to evaluate this technique for practical use. The NOx reduction ratio (RNOx) of methylamine processes with and without the installation of a particulate filter was investigated. Two different mixing chambers with different volumes and residence times (0.1s and 0.17s) were also tested. Longer residence times were required to achieve a given level of NOx reduction in unfiltered exhaust, suggesting that the presence of particulate matter inhibits NO reduction. For the standard residence time (0.1s), the process achieved 64% NO reduction in unfiltered diesel exhaust, which increased to 80% NO reduction when a particle filter was fitted to the system.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  4. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A... is used of all analyzers and the single sample line system design reflects good engineering practice... with a FID, the measurement of methane shall be done in accordance with the Society of...

  5. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is used of all analyzers and the single sample line system design reflects good engineering practice... with a FID, the measurement of methane shall be done in accordance with the Society of Automotive... 1991, 1994 SAE Handbook—SAE International Cooperative Engineering Program, Volume 1: Materials,...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  7. Setting the global thermostat with an exhaustible tradeable permit system

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.G.; Quinn, K.G. |; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.

    1993-05-01

    The global warming policy debate has centered largely on near-term objectives such as freezing 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions without regard to long-run implications. A policy of freezing CO{sub 2} emissions is shown to slow but not halt global warming, while requiring expensive near-term adjustments. If the long-run temperature change outcome of the freeze policy is set as the goal of a more graduated control policy, one which allows the market to determine annual emissions, a more cost-effective solution is obtained that reduces the negative adjustment effects on the energy and other affected industries. The most cost-effective emissions time path of a graduated control policy could be achieved by an evaporative marketable CO{sub 2} emissions permit system. This paper provides a preliminary examination of an evaporative permit system used to achieve long-run stabilization of greenhouse-induced temperature change.

  8. Integrated exhaust gas analysis system for aircraft turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated exhaust gas analysis system was designed and installed in the hot-section facility at the Lewis Research Center. The system is designed to operate either manually or automatically and also to be operated from a remote station. The system measures oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Two microprocessors control the system and the analyzers, collect data and process them into engineering units, and present the data to the facility computers and the system operator. Within the design of this system there are innovative concepts and procedures that are of general interest and application to other gas analysis tasks.

  9. System interfaces control document for the Tokamak exhaust processing system PBS 3.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan J; Coons, James E; Kubic, William L

    2008-01-01

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) removes tritium from highly tritiated gas streams and returns it back to the fuel system. The largest feed streams originate from the torus, but others arrive from systems throughout the tritium plant. Tritium in the form of free hydrogen (i.e., DT, HT) is separated by Pd-Ag permeators or by cryoadsorption and directed to the Isotope Separation System (ISS). Tritium present in impurities (such as CD{sub 2}T{sub 2} and DTO) is chemically converted to free hydrogen, separated by Pd-Ag membranes, and then sent to ISS. All waste streams are processed by the Detritiation System (DS) prior to venting to the atmosphere. The stream received from Helium Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC) is returned to GDC after processing. TEP is also designed to accommodate a Tritium Plant (TP) standby mode of operation whereby gases received from fuelling are processed by TEP and returned to SDS. This S-ICD describes all process interfaces for TEP and contains tables to control their progressive definition.

  10. Influence of the exhaust system on performance of a 4-cylinder supercharged engine

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Bizjan, F.; Hribernik, A.

    1998-10-01

    Twin entry radial turbines are mostly used to drive compressors of small and medium size 6-cylinder diesel engines where the available energy of the undisturbed exhaust pulses can be efficiently used to drive the turbine of a turbocharger. Three selected cylinders feed two separated manifold branches and two turbine inlets and prevent negative interaction of pressure waves and its influence on the scavenging process of the individual cylinders. In the case of a four-stroke, 4-cylinder engine, two selected cylinders, directed by the firing order, can be connected to one (of the two) separated manifold branches that feeds one turbine entry. Good utilization of the pressure pulse energy, together with typically longer periods of reduced exhaust flow can lead to good overall efficiency of the two-pulse system. Sometimes this system can be superior to the single manifold system with four cylinders connected to one single-entry turbine. The paper describes advantages and disadvantages of the above described exhaust systems applied to a turbocharged and aftercooled 4-cylinder Diesel engine. Comparisons supported by the analyses of the numerical and experimental results are also given in the presented paper.

  11. New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions.

  12. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO2 concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems. PMID:26424250

  13. IR imaging simulation and analysis for aeroengine exhaust system based on reverse Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Lihai; Mo, Dongla; Shi, Jingcheng

    2014-11-01

    The IR radiation characteristics of aeroengine are the important basis for IR stealth design and anti-stealth detection of aircraft. With the development of IR imaging sensor technology, the importance of aircraft IR stealth increases. An effort is presented to explore target IR radiation imaging simulation based on Reverse Monte Carlo Method (RMCM), which combined with the commercial CFD software. Flow and IR radiation characteristics of an aeroengine exhaust system are investigated, which developing a full size geometry model based on the actual parameters, using a flow-IR integration structured mesh, obtaining the engine performance parameters as the inlet boundary conditions of mixer section, and constructing a numerical simulation model of engine exhaust system of IR radiation characteristics based on RMCM. With the above models, IR radiation characteristics of aeroengine exhaust system is given, and focuses on the typical detecting band of IR spectral radiance imaging at azimuth 20°. The result shows that: (1) in small azimuth angle, the IR radiation is mainly from the center cone of all hot parts; near the azimuth 15°, mixer has the biggest radiation contribution, while center cone, turbine and flame stabilizer equivalent; (2) the main radiation components and space distribution in different spectrum is different, CO2 at 4.18, 4.33 and 4.45 micron absorption and emission obviously, H2O at 3.0 and 5.0 micron absorption and emission obviously.

  14. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  15. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  16. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  17. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    DOEpatents

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou; Park, Paul W.; Panov, Alexander G.

    2007-06-26

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-burn NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  18. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    DOEpatents

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou; Park, Paul W.; Panov, Alexander G.

    2006-08-22

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-bum NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  19. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  20. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  1. An ISO 8178 correlation study between raw and dilute exhaust emission sampling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, R.; Human, D.

    1995-12-31

    Beginning in 1996 the exhaust emissions of off-highway heavy-duty diesel engines between 175--750 hp will be regulated by the EPA. Along with the emission regulations comes the difficulty of establishing a set of standard test procedures which allow engine manufacturers and regulatory agencies to compare emissions data based on similar test methods. In order to remedy this problem, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has come up with an exhaust measurement procedure, ISO 8178, that can be applied worldwide to off-highway heavy-duty diesel engines. The ISO 8178 test procedure allows the exhaust emissions to be sampled with either a full flow dilute or raw sampling system. However, the preferred sampling systems are the raw gaseous and mini dilution tunnel (MDT) particulate measurement methods. The main concern of these sampling systems is the demonstration of equivalency to the full flow dilution system that is currently used for the certification of on-highway heavy-duty diesel engines. Using an in-house full flow dilution system and a recently built raw gaseous emissions bench along with a pre-existing MDT, this research was conducted to find the correlation between the two sampling systems. For the gaseous emissions of HC, NO{sub x}, and CO the correlation between the raw and full dilution sampling systems was within 7.0%, 3.0%, and 1.0% respectively. The correlation between the MDT and full dilution particulate sampling systems was within 2.5%. Additional investigation was performed in the area of MDT transfer tube length and its effect on particulate measurement. An experiment was performed to quantify the effect of a wide range of water vapor concentrations on the measurement of NO{sub x}.

  2. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Engine Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Evaporation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Deng, Yadong; Zhang, Hongguang; Yang, Kai

    2016-03-01

    Engine exhaust can be used by thermoelectric generators for improving thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. In his paper, the performance of a thermoelectric evaporation system is investigated. First, the thermal characteristics of diesel engines are obtained according to the experiment data. Then, mathematical models are created based on the specified conditions of the coolant cycle and the evaporator geometric parameters. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics and power performance of the thermoelectric evaporation system are estimated, and a comparison with the system in which the heat exchanger operates with all-liquid coolant is investigated. The results show that the overall heat transfer rate of the thermoelectric evaporator system increases with engine power. At the rated condition, the two-phase zone with an area of 0.8689 m2 dominates the evaporator's heat transfer area compared with the preheated zone area of 0.0055 m2, and for the thermoelectric module, the cold-side temperature is stable at 74°C while the hot-side temperature drops from 341.8°C to 304.9°C along the exhaust direction. For certain thermoelectric cells, the temperature difference between the cold side and hot side rises with the engine load, and the temperature difference drops from 266.9°C to 230.6°C along the exhaust direction. For two cold-side systems with the same heat transfer, coolant mass flow rate in the evaporator with two-phase state is much less, and the temperature difference along with equivalent heat transfer length L is significantly larger than in the all-liquid one. At rated power point, power generated by thermoelectric cells in the two-phase evaporation system is 508.4 W, while the other is only 328.8 W.

  3. A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

  4. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Paul J.; Knight, J. Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. .

  5. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Knight, J Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal.

  6. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Knight, J Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. PMID:15704399

  7. Air contaminant control investigation of a jet augmented local exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.B.; Johnston, W.L.; Konzen, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of a jet augmented local exhaust system to control air contaminants was investigated in a scale model hood. Tracer gas concentrations were mapped on top of idealized airflow streamlines to illustrate the jet's interaction with air contaminants. A key findings was the possibility of contaminant loss from the hood if the jet flow was not recaptured completely. Airflow design parameters, which had been identified previously to affect the airflow pattern, were evaluation for their effect on air contaminant control. The results indicated that tracer gas recovery was affected by a single airflow design parameters. An inverse linear relationship between the design parameter and control levels indicated that the recovery rate was controllable in design and that 100% control was achievable at a low total airflow rate. Important potential design advantages include the ability to specify the contaminant control level prior to installation, system flexibility to change contaminant control levels by adjusting airflow design parameters, and lower installation and operation costs than a comparable local exhaust system. The next research step is to test a full-scale prototype system to evaluate its performance efficiency and economy under realistic operating conditions.

  8. Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1999-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample.

  9. Energy saving exhaust siphon

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.B.

    1982-04-06

    A device is disclosed for attachment to the tailpipe of an exhaust system comprising a body portion placed around the tailpipe, but spaced apart from the tailpipe, in a manner that air may easily flow between the body portion and the tailpipe when the vehicle is moving in a forward direction, a narrowing portion operative to compress the air flow, and an exhaust discharge portion operative for the exhaust from the tailpipe and the air to be discharged therethrough.

  10. Bithermal Low-Cycle Fatigue Evaluation of Automotive Exhaust System Alloy SS409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Gui-Ying; Behling, Mike B.; Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation provides, for the first time, cyclic strainrange-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue results for the ferritic stainless steel alloy SS409. The alloy has seen extensive application for automotive exhaust system components. The data were generated to calibrate the Total Strain Version of the Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) method for eventual application to the design and durability assessment of automotive exhaust systems. The thermomechanical cyclic lifetime and cyclic stress-strain constitutive behavior for alloy SS409 were measured using bithermal tests cycling between isothermal extremes of 400 and 800 C. Lives ranged up to 10,000 cycles to failure with hold-times of 0.33 to 2.0 minutes. The bithermal fatigue behavior is compared to isothermal, strain-controlled fatigue behavior at both 400 and 800 C. Thermomechanical cycling was found to have a profound detrimental influence on the fatigue failure resistance of SS409 compared to isothermal cycling. Supplementary bithermal cyclic stress-strain constitutive tests with hold-times ranging from 40 seconds up to 1.5 hours were conducted to calibrate the TS-SRP equation for extrapolation to longer lifetime predictions. Observed thermomechanical (bithermal) fatigue lives correlated well with lives calculated using the calibrated TS-SRP equations: 70% of the bithermal fatigue data fall within a factor of 1.2 of calculated life; 85% within a factor of 1.4; and 100% within a factor of 1.8.

  11. A computational study of advanced exhaust system transition ducts with experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Farokhi, S.; Taghavi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is an application of CFD to a 'real' design and analysis environment. A subsonic, three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code is used to construct stall margin design charts for optimum-length advanced exhaust systems' circular-to-rectangular transition ducts. Computer code validation has been conducted to examine the capability of wall static pressure predictions. The comparison of measured and computed wall static pressures indicates a reasonable accuracy of the PNS computer code results. Computations have also been conducted on 15 transition ducts, three area ratios, and five aspect ratios. The three area ratios investigated are constant area ratio of unity, moderate contracting area ratio of 0.8, and highly contracting area ratio of 0.5. The degree of mean flow acceleration is identified as a dominant parameter in establishing the minimum duct length requirement. The effect of increasing aspect ratio in the minimum length transition duct is to increase the length requirement, as well as to increase the mass-averaged total pressure losses. The design guidelines constructed from this investigation may aid in the design and manufacture of advanced exhaust systems for modern fighter aircraft.

  12. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  13. Study on the irreversible thermodynamics of a marine engine exhaust-powered adsorption refrigerating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yingchun; Mei, Ning; Xu, Zhen

    2006-04-01

    This study investigates the heat and mass transfer mechanism of a marine engine exhaust-powered adsorption refrigerating system by using irreversible thermodynamics. The equations of entropy-production rate and the linear phenomenological equations of thermodynamic flux and force are established. The conventional experimental facilities of unit tube are developed and the phenomenological coefficients are obtained by fitting the experimental data. It is concluded that the thermodynamic process in the adsorbent bed is determined by the coupling effect of the heat and mass transfer; furthermore, the mass transfer is determined by the heat transfer. Taking some measures to increase heat transfer can improve the performance of the adsorption refrigerating system. The conclusions presented in this paper may be of value to the engineering applications of the system.

  14. Refined multiload method for measuring acoustical source characteristics of an intake or exhaust system

    PubMed

    Jang; Ih

    2000-06-01

    The one-port source characteristics in a duct system, viz., source impedance and strength, can be determined by using the four-load method. In this paper, to avoid the instability problem of the conventional four-load method, a new formulation for the multiload method has been proposed, which employs an error function based on the linear, time-invariant source model. It is shown that the method is less sensitive to input errors compared to the previous methods. For a 10% input error, the proposed method yields a relative error in the source resistance that is about 1/100 times smaller than for the conventional method. The effectiveness of the present method is demonstrated by two test examples, a loudspeaker and a blower, each operating in a duct. It is observed that the conventional and least-squares methods result in large errors, whereas the present method yields far better agreement with the actual source parameters, as measured by the direct method. The present method is then used to obtain the source parameters on the exhaust side of an operating internal combustion engine. The radiated sound spectrum from the exhaust opening is predicted by using the measured source parameters and the calculated result agrees very well with the measured one.

  15. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  16. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  17. TNKVNT: A model of the Tank 48 purge/ventilation exhaust system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    The waste tank purge ventilation system for Tank 48 is designed to prevent dangerous concentrations of hydrogen or benzene from accumulating in the gas space of the tank. Fans pull the gas/water vapor mixture from the tank gas space and pass it sequentially through a demister, a condenser, a reheater, and HEPA filters before discharging to the environment. Proper operation of the HEPA filters requires that the gas mixture passing through them has a low relative humidity. The ventilation system has been modified by increasing the capacity of the fans and changing the condenser from a two-pass heat exchanger to a single-pass heat exchanger. It is important to understand the impact of these modifications on the operation of the system. A hydraulic model of the ventilation exhaust system has been developed. This model predicts the properties of the air throughout the system and the flowrate through the system, as functions of the tank gas space and environmental conditions. This document serves as a Software Design Report, a Software Coding report, and a User`s Manual. All of the information required for understanding and using this code is herein contained: the governing equations are fully developed, the numerical algorithms are described in detail, and an extensively commented code listing is included. This updated version of the code models the entire purge ventilation system, and is therefore more general in its potential applications.

  18. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  19. Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Burchiel, Scott W; Lauer, Fredine T; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of subchronic diesel exposure on indicators of systemic immunity in mice. AJ mice were exposed daily for 6 months (6 h/day) to atmospheres containing one of four concentrations (30, 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3)) of diluted diesel exhaust (DE) in whole body exposure chambers. The effects of DE were compared to chamber exposure controls receiving fresh air. DE was assessed for effects on systemic immunity by measuring the proliferative response of spleen cells following stimulation with T cell (phytohemagglutinin, or PHA) or B cell (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS) mitogens. The results showed that DE at all exposure levels suppressed the proliferative response of T cells. B cell proliferation was increased at 30 microg/m(3) and was unaffected at the 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3) exposures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to suppress spleen cell mitogenic responses, and it has been hypothesized by several groups that PAHs and perhaps benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-quinones (BPQs) may be responsible for the effects of DE or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Therefore, a second purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of in vitro BPQs on AJ mouse spleen cell mitogenic responses and compare to DE in preliminary studies. Unlike DE, BPQs were found to increase T cell proliferation. In addition, analysis of chamber atmospheres showed that there was little if any PAH and BPQs in DE. Therefore, these results demonstrate that because of the absence of BPQs in DE, they are likely not responsible for the immunosuppressive effect of DE on murine spleen cell responses.

  20. [Passive detection of aeroengine exhaust based on Fourier transform infrared system].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-cheng; Zuo, Hong-fu; Xia, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Since the composition and concentration of aeroengine exhaust can reflect the combustion efficiency, they can provide the basis for condition based maintenance, and also the basis for the analysis of environment pollution caused by aeroengine exhaust. So the importance of aeroengine exhaust detection is evident. Up to now, the measurement of aeroengine exhaust is based on sampling analysis which is not convenient and can't meet the detection requirements when an aeroplane is flying-off or flying in the sky. Hence, new methods of exhaust detection must be studied. The passive measurement technology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to the measurement of aeroengine exhaust in the present paper. At first, the principle of passive measurement based on FTIR was introduced in detail. On this basis, a model algorithm for gas concentration calculation was deduced based on the principle of infrared transmission. Then the feasibility of aeroengine exhaust measurement based on passive FTIR was analyzed, and the passive measurement method of aeroengine exhaust based on FTIR was given. In the end, an experiment of aeroengine exhaust passive measurement was carried out by a FTIR with the type of Tensor 27 produced by BRUKER. Good quality spectra of the exhaust and the background were measured. Based on the model algo rithm of passive measurement, the absorbance spectra of CO and NO were obtained respectively, and the concentrations of CO and NO were figured out. To check up the veracity of this method, a comparison was made with another apparatus. There were only little differences between the results of the two experiments, showing that the passive measurement technology based on FTIR could meet the requirements of aeroengine exhaust detection.

  1. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and... cylinder displacement of the engine under test. The shape of the mixing chamber must be such that it... specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (e) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass...

  2. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and... cylinder displacement of the engine under test. The shape of the mixing chamber must be such that it... specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (e) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass...

  3. Mock-up and testing of a variable volume laboratory fume hood exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Vresk, J.; Hirsch, P. R.; Davis, S. A.; Myers, G. E.; Woodring, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A test of an ANL-designed variable volume system prototype used to displace an existing constant volume fume hood ventilation system in a laboratory of the Materials Science Division is described. Performance characteristics such as response, stability, repeatability and hood containment were tested and evaluated, with particular emphasis on containment, to clearly demonstrate that operator safety and the environment are not compromised. Results obtained clearly indicate the feasibility of implementing the prototype concept. The variable volume system enables reducing conditioned ventilation air to the laboratory room by at least 50%, dependent solely upon internal heat loads. Normal hood exhaust of 200 CFM with the face sash in a closed position can be provided by air used to condition building offices and corridors. In all modes of operation, i.e., fume hood face sash closed to fully open, the building differential pressure design criteria from office to corridor to laboratory to fume hood is maintained. Also, hood face velocity can be established to meet minimum requirements at any position of sash opening and test results indicate a hood containment efficiency equal to or better than the presently existing constant volume proportional by-pass system.

  4. The principle of wave superposition applied to the quantum well laser and the motor-bike exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovidis, Greg; McLeod, Ian D.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1990-05-01

    The use of simple ideas applied to 'real-world' situations is of considerable pedagogical value in teaching introductory physics. The principle of wave superposition is applied to understanding the physics of two very different devices: a quantum well laser and a motor-bike exhaust system. Reasonable agreement is found between the predictions of simple models, and the measured parameters of actual devices.

  5. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  6. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  7. Fluid-structure interaction study of the splitter plate in a TBCC exhaust system during mode transition phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuai; Xu, Jinglei; Mo, Jianwei; Gu, Rui; Pang, Lina

    2015-07-01

    Splitter plate plays an important role in a turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) exhaust system during the mode transition phase when turbojet engine and ramjet engine operate simultaneously. Dissimilar pressure distribution on both sides of the plate has a potential origin in the aeroelastic coupling, which is an interesting topic while few research works have devoted to that aspect. To better understand the aeroelastic behavior of the plate and the corresponding dynamic flow features, an integrated fluid-structure interaction simulation is conducted under one particular operation condition during mode transition phase in the TBCC exhaust system. A finite-volume-based CFD solver FLUENT is adopted to solve the unsteady Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations. ABAQUS, a finite-element-method-based CSD solver, is employed to compute the plate elastic deformation. A two-way interaction between the fluid and the structure is accomplished by the mesh-based parallel-code coupling interface (MpCCI) in a loosely-coupled manner. The accuracy of the coupling procedure is validated for the flutter of a flat plate in supersonic flow. Then, features of steady flow field of the TBCC exhaust system are discussed, followed by the investigation of the aeroelastic phenomenon of the splitter plate and the evolution process of the flow field pattern. Finally, performances variation of the exhaust system is obtained and discussed. The results show that the plate vibrates with decaying amplitude and reaches a dynamic stable state eventually. The thrust, lift and pitch moment of the TBCC exhaust system are increased by 0.68%, 2.82% and 5.86%, respectively, compared with the corresponding values in steady state which does not take into account the fluid-structure interaction effects. The analysis reveals the importance of considering the fluid-structure interaction effects in designing the splitter plate in the TBCC exhaust system and demonstrates the availability of the present coupled

  8. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  9. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborieau, Cécile; Sommier, Alain; Toutain, Jean; Anguy, Yannick; Crepeau, Gérald; Gobin, Benoît

    2012-04-01

    The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1) its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2) its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  10. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Thermal Spray: Application to Vehicle Exhaust Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longtin, Jon P.; Zuo, Lei; Hwang, David; Fu, Gaosheng; Tewolde, Mahder; Chen, Yikai; Sampath, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Thermoelectric devices produce electricity directly from heat; they are small, have no moving parts, and are quiet. Commercially available thermoelectric devices, however, are expensive and labor intensive to produce, and come in very limited form factors. This article presents initial results for the use of thermal spray to directly fabricate thermoelectric devices. The target application is automotive exhaust systems and other high-volume heat sources. In this work, FeSi2 and Mg2Si metal silicides were sprayed. Characterization of the Mg2Si deposits indicates that both the thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient are roughly one half the values of bulk Mg2Si. The electrical conductivity, however, is several orders of magnitude lower than bulk measurements in the literature, with likely reasons including impurities in the starting powder, oxidation during spraying, and using an undoped material. Fe x Co4- x Sb12 skutterudite material has also been sprayed; however, not enough powder was available to fabricate samples large enough for characterization. The steps required to fabricate a thermoelectric device are presented, including the formation of the bottom and top metallic layers and the thermoelectric legs using thermal spray and laser micromachining. A technique for bridging the air gap between adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer based on a sacrificial filler material has also been demonstrated.

  11. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system must provide sufficient secondary dilution air to maintain the double-diluted exhaust stream at a... subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust stream. In the case of primary dilution air, the... stream and the transfer tube wall should be minimized). Double-wall, thin-wall, air-gap insulated, or...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system must provide sufficient secondary dilution air to maintain the double-diluted exhaust stream at a... subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust stream. In the case of primary dilution air, the... stream and the transfer tube wall should be minimized). Double-wall, thin-wall, air-gap insulated, or...

  14. Experiments and Simulations on a Heat Exchanger of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generation System Under Coupling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yu, C. G.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y. P.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates an exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for vehicles, using thermoelectric modules and a heat exchanger to produce electric power. It proposes a new plane heat exchanger of a thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, producing electricity from a limited hot surface area. To investigate the new plane heat exchanger, we make a coupling condition of heat-flow and flow-solid coupling analysis on it to obtain the temperature, heat, and pressure field of the heat exchanger, and compared it with the old heat exchanger. These fields couple together to solve the multi-field coupling of the flow, solid, and heat, and then the simulation result is compared with the test bench experiment of TEG, providing a theoretical and experimental basis for the present exhaust gas waste heat recovery system.

  15. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2013-01-23

    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle

  16. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Filter acceptance criteria. Valid diesel particulate net filter weights shall be accepted according to... measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of either diesel light-duty.... (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter (including back-up filter) can be...

  17. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Filter acceptance criteria. Valid diesel particulate net filter weights shall be accepted according to... measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of either diesel light-duty.... (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter (including back-up filter) can be...

  18. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Filter acceptance criteria. Valid diesel particulate net filter weights shall be accepted according to... measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of either diesel light-duty.... (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter (including back-up filter) can be...

  19. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The... sample pump. (d) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass flow, and pressure relief vents of... as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, switches, and so forth, may be employed to...

  20. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The... sample pump. (d) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass flow, and pressure relief vents of... as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, switches, and so forth, may be employed to...

  1. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The... sample pump. (d) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass flow, and pressure relief vents of... as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, switches, and so forth, may be employed to...

  2. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the dilution tunnel. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (14) The dilute exhaust...

  3. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  4. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOEpatents

    Aardahl, Christopher L.; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou; Chanda, Ashok; Habeger, Craig F.; Koshkarian, Kent A.; Park, Paul W.

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  5. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-06-19

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002).

  6. Effect of exhaust nozzle configuration on aerodynamic and acoustic performance of an externally blown flap system with a quiet 6:1 bypass ratio engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Jones, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A highly suppressed TF-34 engine was used to investigate engine and flap interaction noise associated with an externally blown flap STOL powered lift system. Noise, efficiency, and velocity decay characteristics of mixed and separate flow exhaust systems including convergent, co-annular, and lobed designs were determined with the engine operating alone. Noise data were then obtained for several of the exhaust configurations with the engine blowing a wing-flap segment. Noise for both the engine alone and the engine with blown flaps showed substantial differences for the various exhaust configurations tested. The differences in observed noise are related primarily to nozzle effective exhaust velocity, flap impingement velocity, and noise spectral shape.

  7. Nitrification processes in scrubbing liquid of an exhaust air treatment system of a large-scale pig housing facility.

    PubMed

    Haneke, J; Siemers, V; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2011-01-01

    The use of multi-staged exhaust air treatment systems is an effective method of substantially reducing the emission of ammonia, dust particles and odorous substances. Wet filter walls are able to absorb large amounts of ammonia when scrubbing fluid containing sulphuric acid is used. In addition, due to their large surface areas and the permanent supply of oxygen and nutrients, wet filter walls provide a basis for the development of biofilms containing nitrogen-converting bacteria. Cyclic nitrification processes could be observed in a two-stage exhaust air treatment system, which had been converted to function as a regulated process control system (elutriation at κ = 20 mS cm(-1); pH 6.5-6.8). With this system, the sulphuric acid requirement was periodically reduced every 6-8 weeks to less than 1 kg H(2)SO(4) per fattening place and year. There was an increased formation of nitrous oxide gas during nitrification after the wet filter stage. Electron-microscopic images of the biofilm growing on the wet filter wall showed aggregates of possible ammonium-oxidising and nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  8. Test plan for N2 HEPA filters assembly shop stock used on PFP E4 exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-09-01

    At Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Self-contained HEPA filters, encased in wooden frames and boxes, are installed in the E4 Exhaust Ventilation System to provide confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. Recently during the routine testing in-leakage was discovered downstream of the Self-contained HEPA filters boxes. This Test Plan describes the approach to conduct investigation of the root causes for the in-leakage of HEPA filters.

  9. Effect of Thermoelectric Modules' Topological Connection on Automotive Exhaust Heat Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zheng, S. J.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.; Yu, C. G.; Wang, Y. P.

    2016-03-01

    In automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs), a certain number of thermoelectric modules are connected in series and/or parallel to recover energy from exhaust gas, which provides a way to improve fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Because of the temperature distribution on the surfaces of heat exchanger, several types of modules are planned for use in an AETEG; however, property disparities among modules exist and wire resistance cannot be neglected in practical application, so experiments have been carried out to research effects of the two factors on the maximum output power of series and parallel connection. The performance of series and parallel connections have been characterized, and mathematic models have been built to analyze and predict the performance of each connection. Experiments and theoretical analysis reveal that parallel connection shows a better performance than series connection when large differences of Seebeck coefficient and resistivity exist. However, wire resistance will cause more significant power dissipation in parallel connection. The authors believe the research presented in this paper is the first to carry out an examination of the impact of module property disparity and wire resistance on the output power of an array of thermoelectric modules connected in series and parallel, which provides a reference for choosing module connection in AETEGs.

  10. Shock propagation in the exhaust gas handling system of the proposed large altitude rocket cell: methods and preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.B.; Pierce, R.E.

    1984-10-04

    Numerical predictions are to be performed of the shock pressures that would result from the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT. The initial phase of the project was to develop the methodology for analyzing the problem, develop a preliminary conceptual design to use in initial simulations, and estimate over-pressures, inside the conceptual facility, resulting from the propellant detonation. This report discusses the methods of analysis used to study the problem of the detonation of the propellant, and the propagation of the shock wave inside the exhaust gas processing system, and presents preliminary results. The KOVEC computer code was used to simulate the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT and develop a boundary prescription for use in the gas dynamics code GASP which models the propagation of the shock wave through the LARC exhaust gas processing system. Results are presented showing the effect of cross-sectional area changes and variations in the initial pressure in the gas processing system on the shock wave peak pressure and propagation speed.

  11. Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

  12. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  13. Modal Analysis and Study of the Vibration Characteristics of the Thermoelectric Modules of Vehicle Exhaust Power-Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Zhai, Pengcheng; Yu, Rui; Li, Guodong; Zhang, Qingjie

    2014-06-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials and modules are important components of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems. The road and the engine, the main sources of vibration of TE modules, have substantial effects on the vibration characteristics of TE modules. In this work, modal analysis and the vibration characteristics of TE modules were investigated in detail. On the basis of the TE modules and their service environment, simulations for modal analysis were performed by use of the finite-element method, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the TE modules were obtained. The numerical results were used to compare the natural frequencies of TE modules under different contact stiffness with the range of excitation frequencies of road and engine, in an attempt to prevent severe resonance. The effects on the vibration characteristics of geometric dimensions, service temperature, and thermal stress of the TE modules are also discussed in detail. The results reveal the vibration characteristics of the TE modules and provide theoretical guidance for structure optimization in the design of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems.

  14. Exhaust pressure and density of various pulsed MPD-Arc thruster systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    Exhaust flow in a new 155-cm-i.d. vacuum facility is compared with earlier measurements in a small (15.2-cm-i.d.) duct. Reductions in post-transient impact pressure are about 5:1 in the larger facility. Corresponding reduced electron number densities (about 2 x 10 to the 13th power per cu cm) are noted. A new 125-microsec pulse-forming network power source produced no major differences in impact pressure compared to the crowbarred condenser bank used earlier. Comparing a puff gas feed of the arc chamber with a new 10-msec steady gas feed also shows no major difference in impact pressure for 125-microsec powering.

  15. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent and 12-Lobed E(exp 3) Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Babbit, R. R.; Shin, H.; Wisler, S.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this report has been funded by NASA Glenn Research Center as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) initiative. The program operates under the Large Engine Technologies (LET) as Task Order #3 1. Task Order 31 is a three year research program divided into three subtasks. Subtask A develops the experimental acoustic and aerodynamic subsonic mixed flow exhaust system databases. Subtask B seeks to develop and assess CFD-based aero-acoustic methods for subsonic mixed flow exhaust systems. Subtask B relies on the data obtained from Subtask A to direct and calibrate the aero-acoustic methods development. Subtask C then seeks to utilize both the aero-acoustic data bases developed in Subtask A and the analytical methods developed in Subtask B to define improved subsonic mixed-flow exhaust systems. The mixed flow systems defined in Subtask C will be experimentally demonstrated for improved noise reduction in a scale model aero-acoustic test conducted similarly to the test performed in Subtask A. The overall object of this Task Order is to develop and demonstrate the technology to define a -3EPNdB exhaust system relative to 1992 exhaust system technology.

  16. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  17. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  18. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance and jet noise characteristics of a one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed exhaust system were obtained in a series of static tests over a range of simulated engine operating conditions. Model acoustic data were acquired. Data were compared to predictions of coannular model nozzle performance. The model, tested with an without a hardwall ejector, had a total flow area equivalent to a 0.127 meter (5 inch) diameter conical nozzle with a 0.65 fan to primary nozzle area ratio and a 0.82 fan nozzle radius ratio. Fan stream temperatures and velocities were varied from 422 K to 1089 K (760 R to 1960 R) and 434 to 755 meters per second (1423 to 2477 feet per second). Primary stream properties were varied from 589 to 1089 K (1060 R to 1960 R) and 353 to 600 meters per second (1158 to 1968 feet per second). Exhaust plume velocity surveys were conducted at one operating condition with and without the ejector installed. Thirty aerodynamic performance data points were obtained with an unheated air supply. Fan nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.8 to 3.2 at a constant primary pressure ratio of 1.6; primary pressure ratio was varied from 1.4 to 2.4 while holding fan pressure ratio constant at 2.4. Operation with the ejector increased nozzle thrust coefficient 0.2 to 0.4 percent.

  19. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

    2006-03-01

    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were

  20. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    PubMed

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  1. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  2. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    PubMed

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-02-23

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  4. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  6. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  8. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  9. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  10. Do 'Surgical Helmet Systems' or 'Body Exhaust Suits' Affect Contamination and Deep Infection Rates in Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Zhu, Mark; Shirley, Otis C; Wu, Qing; Spangehl, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examined whether negative-pressure Charnley-type body exhaust suits (BES) or modern positive-pressure surgical helmet systems (SHS) reduce deep infection rates and/or contamination in arthroplasty. For deep infection, four studies (3990 patients) gave adjusted relative risk for deep infection of 0.11 (P = 0.09) against SHS. Five of 7 (71%) studies found less air contamination and 2 of 4 studies (50%) less wound contamination with BES. One of 4 (25%) found less air contamination with SHS and 0 of 1 (0%) less wound contamination. In contrast to BES, modern SHS designs were not shown to reduce contamination or deep infection during arthroplasty.

  11. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-05-17

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  12. Effects of diesel exhaust on the microbiota within a tuffaceous tunnel system

    SciTech Connect

    Haldeman, D.L.; Lagadinos, T.; Amy, P.S.; Hersman, L.; Meike, A.

    1996-08-01

    The abundance and distribution of microbiota that may be impacted by diesel and diesel exhaust were investigated from three depths into the walls and invert (floor) of U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, a potential geological analog of Yucca Mountain. Enumerations included total cell counts, and numbers of aerobic heterotrophic, sulfate-reducing, nitrate-reducing, and diesel-degrading bacteria. Additionally, the disappearance of total petroleum hydrocarbons was determined in microcosms containing subsurface materials that were amended with diesel fuel. Results revealed that microbes capable of utilizing diesel and diesel combustion products were present in the subsurface in both the walls and the invert of the tunnel. The abundance of specific bacterial types in the tunnel invert, a perturbed environment, was greater than that observed in the tunnel wall. Few trends of microbial distribution either into the tunnel wall or the invert were noted with the exception of aerobic heterotrophic abundance which increased with depth into the wall and decreased with depth into the invert. No correlation between microbiota and a specific introduced chemical species have yet been determined. The potential for microbial contamination of the tunnel wall during sampling was determined to be negligible by the use of fluorescently labeled latex spheres (1{mu}m in dia.) as tracers. Results indicate that additional investigations might be needed to examine the microbiota and their possible impacts on the geology and geochemistry of the subsurface, both indigenous microbiota and those microorganisms that will likely be introduced by anthropogenic activity associated with the construction of a high-level waste repository.

  13. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, cooling of the exhaust gases in the duct connecting the vehicle tailpipe to the CVS shall be... and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Procedures for.... Hearing the dilution air is also allowed, provided: (i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test period. (2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust...), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the... analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol. The variable mixture flow rate is maintained at choked...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and... a gas clothes dryer. A manufactured home may be provided with “stubbed in” equipment at the factory to supply a gas clothes dryer for future installation by the owner provided it complies with...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and... a gas clothes dryer. A manufactured home may be provided with “stubbed in” equipment at the factory to supply a gas clothes dryer for future installation by the owner provided it complies with...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and... a gas clothes dryer. A manufactured home may be provided with “stubbed in” equipment at the factory to supply a gas clothes dryer for future installation by the owner provided it complies with...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and... a gas clothes dryer. A manufactured home may be provided with “stubbed in” equipment at the factory to supply a gas clothes dryer for future installation by the owner provided it complies with...

  19. Evaluation of a local exhaust system used in the manufacture of small parts made of reinforced plastic.

    PubMed

    Lazure, L P

    2000-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced plastics are used to manufacture a large variety of products, particularly for the transportation sector. Hand lay-up molding and projection molding are the main methods of manufacture. The users of these processes are exposed to appreciable emissions of styrene; in Quebec, more than 3000 workers work in this industry. A statistical analysis of styrene concentrations measured over a five-year period by the Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST, Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute) reveals that for all of the main manufacturing sectors involved, between 40 percent and 78 percent of the results exceed the exposure standard of 50 ppm. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a ventilated table in controlling worker exposure to styrene and acetone in a shop that manufactures fiber-reinforced plastics parts. The evaluated local extraction system consists of a ventilated table with a surface area of 1.2 m x 1.2 m. During molding, the styrene emissions are exhausted through the ventilated table as well as through the slots in a lateral hood. Replacement air, introduced vertically through a supply air shower located above the worker, limits the diffusion of contaminants toward the worker's breathing zone. The reduction in worker exposure to styrene and acetone during hand lay-up molding was measured in the breathing zone for two sizes of molds. The results show that exhaust ventilation reduced the styrene concentrations by 91 percent and that the introduction of replacement air increased the efficiency of the ventilated table to 96 percent. The evaluation performed indicates that the ventilated table adequately controls worker exposure to styrene and acetone during the molding of small components.

  20. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  1. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  2. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  3. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  4. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  5. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  6. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... that a clean particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  7. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... that a clean particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  8. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Design layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The design layouts and detailed design drawings of coannular exhaust nozzle models for a supersonic propulsion system are presented. The layout drawings show the assembly of the component parts for each configuration. A listing of the component parts is also given.

  9. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent, 22-Lobed, and Unique-Lobed Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Martens, S.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R. K.; Krejsa, Gene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a design methodology and noise reduction concepts for high bypass exhaust systems which could be applied to both existing production and new advanced engine designs. Special emphasis was given to engine cycles with bypass ratios in the range of 4:1 to 7:1, where jet mixing noise was a primary noise source at full power takeoff conditions. The goal of this effort was to develop the design methodology for mixed-flow exhaust systems and other novel noise reduction concepts that would yield 3 EPNdB noise reduction relative to 1992 baseline technology. Two multi-lobed mixers, a 22-lobed axisymmetric and a 21-lobed with a unique lobe, were designed. These mixers along with a confluent mixer were tested with several fan nozzles of different lengths with and without acoustic treatment in GEAE's Cell 41 under the current subtask (Subtask C). In addition to the acoustic and LDA tests for the model mixer exhaust systems, a semi-empirical noise prediction method for mixer exhaust system is developed. Effort was also made to implement flowfield data for noise prediction by utilizing MGB code. In general, this study established an aero and acoustic diagnostic database to calibrate and refine current aero and acoustic prediction tools.

  10. The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cell escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fernando; Domingues, Cátia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Estrela, Jéssica; Encarnação, João; Pires, Ana Salomé; Laranjo, Mafalda; Alves, Vera; Teixo, Ricardo; Sarmento, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos

    2016-04-01

    Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role in controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data a little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients.

  11. Effect of systemic pH on pH sub i and lactic acid generation in exhaustive forearm exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, V.L.; Schubert, C.; Keller, U.; Mueller, S. Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington )

    1988-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in systemic pH affect intracellular pH (pH{sub i}), energy-rich phosphates, and lactic acid generation in muscle, eight normal volunteers performed exhaustive forearm exercise with arterial blood flow occluded for 2 min on three occasions. Subjects ingested 4 mmol/kg NH{sub 4}Cl (acidosis; A) or NaHCO{sub 3} (alkalosis; B) or nothing (control; C) 3 h before the exercise. Muscle pH{sub i} and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured with {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 31}P-NMR) spectroscopy during exercise and recovery. Lactate output during 0.5-7 min of recovery was calculated as deep venous-arterial concentration differences times forearm blood flow. Before exercise, blood pH and bicarbonate were lower in acidosis than alkalosis and intermediate in control. Lactic acid output during recovery was less with A than B and intermediate in C. PCr utilization and resynthesis were not affected by extracellular pH changes. pH{sub i} did not differ before exercise or at its end. Hence systemic acidosis inhibited and alkalosis stimulated lactic acid output. These findings suggest that systemic pH regulates cellular acid production, protecting muscle pH, at the expense of energy availability.

  12. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Timothy J.; Lott, Stephen E.; Lockwood, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  13. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short... apply to short tests conducted under Emissions Performance Warranty through December 31, 1993....

  14. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system shall be filled with and surrounded by an explosive natural gas-air mixture. The mixture within...) Explosion tests shall be made with the engine at rest and with the flammable natural gas-air mixtures in the... combustion of a flammable gas-air mixture drawn into the system under test by the cooling of the...

  15. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system shall be filled with and surrounded by an explosive natural gas-air mixture. The mixture within...) Explosion tests shall be made with the engine at rest and with the flammable natural gas-air mixtures in the... combustion of a flammable gas-air mixture drawn into the system under test by the cooling of the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger, a CFV-CVS (or an EFC-CFV-CVS) with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure N90-5 is a schematic drawing of the PDP... analytical system for petroleum-fueled diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID)...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger, a CFV-CVS (or an EFC-CFV-CVS) with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure N90-5 is a schematic drawing of the PDP... analytical system for petroleum-fueled diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID)...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger, a CFV-CVS (or an EFC-CFV-CVS) with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure N90-5 is a schematic drawing of the PDP... analytical system for petroleum-fueled diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID)...

  19. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  20. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  1. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  2. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... entire length. The temperature of the system is demonstrated by profiling the thermal characteristics of... only to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature is 55 °C. (B) Coordinate...

  4. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065... entire length. The temperature of the system is demonstrated by profiling the thermal characteristics of... only to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature is 55 °C. (B) Coordinate...

  5. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.; Neele, Filip P.

    2004-08-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be achieved using a spray of cold water in the inner parts of the exhaust system. The effects are compared with the effect of cooling with air. A typical frigate size diesel engine serves as an example for gas flow, composition and temperature of the plume. The infrared emission of the cooled an un-cooled exhaust gases is calculated. Both the spectral behaviour and the integrated values over typical bands are discussed. Apart from the signature also some advantages of water exhaust gas cooling for the ship design are discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat...

  12. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  13. Simulation and Design of Vehicle Exhaust Power Generation Systems: The Interaction Between the Heat Exchanger and the Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Cong; Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Liu, Lisheng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2015-06-01

    Vehicle exhaust power generation systems (VEPGS), mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, cooling system, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and clamping device, have attracted wide interest and attention for power generation from waste heat. In this work, systematical research was conducted to investigate the thermal performance, power output, and thermal stress of a VEPGS by using the multifield coupling method. Different from previous research, this work simulates a model that integrates the heat exchanger and TEMs, focusing on the effect of the TEMs on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. It is found that the TEMs have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. When not considering the effects of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature of the TEMs would be seriously underestimated, which would result in underestimation of the power output of the VEPGS and the level of thermal stress of the TEMs. Meanwhile, when considering the effect of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature distribution exhibits significant changes, and its temperature uniformity is significantly improved. The results suggest that, in VEPGS design and optimization, the interaction between the heat exchanger and TEMs should be considered. This study also contributes to a more accurate assessment method for VEPGS design and simulation.

  14. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  15. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  16. Participation of the central noradrenergic system in the reestablishment of copulatory behavior of sexually exhausted rats by yohimbine, naloxone, and 8-OH-DPAT.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Manzo, G; Fernández-Guasti, A

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of a neurotoxic lesion of the central noradrenergic system on the pharmacological reversal of the sexual inhibition present at sexual exhaustion, by IP treatment with yohimbine (2 mg/kg), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (0.25 mg/kg), and naloxone (3 mg/kg). All drugs, at the doses tested, were able to increase the percentage of sexually exhausted intact rats showing copulatory behavior 24 h after a sexual satiation session. In N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4)-lesioned, sexually exhausted animals, naloxone and 8-OH-DPAT lost their stimulatory effect on sexual behavior; yohimbine treatment was still able to markedly increase the percentage of satiated rats mounting, intromitting, and exhibiting the ejaculatory motor pattern, but inhibited seminal emission. The data strongly suggest that the integrity of the central noradrenergic system is essential for the pharmacological reestablishment of copulatory behavior in sexually exhausted rats. Results are in line with previous data showing that the sexual behavioral variables more directly addressing motivational components are severely affected by sexual satiation. PMID:8535863

  17. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065...-alignment and dispersion specifications in 40 CFR pat 1065, subpart C. (C) Use only analytical gases conforming to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750 for calibration, zero, and span checks. (D) Use...

  18. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065...-alignment and dispersion specifications in 40 CFR pat 1065, subpart C. (C) Use only analytical gases conforming to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750 for calibration, zero, and span checks. (D) Use...

  19. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065...-alignment and dispersion specifications in 40 CFR pat 1065, subpart C. (C) Use only analytical gases conforming to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750 for calibration, zero, and span checks. (D) Use...

  20. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065...-alignment and dispersion specifications in 40 CFR pat 1065, subpart C. (C) Use only analytical gases conforming to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750 for calibration, zero, and span checks. (D) Use...

  1. Simulation study for the monitoring of industrial exhaust dispersion using a DIAL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerabuthiran, S.; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Dudeja, Jai Paul; Dubey, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2006-12-01

    Computer simulations have been carried out to optimize the IR Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system in order to measure the gaseous pollutants released by the industries. The concentration of the gaseous pollutants due to elevated sources is computed using the Gaussian dispersion model. For given atmospheric conditions and stack physical parameters, the downwind distance (x) at which the SO II reaches the safe limit of its toxicity has been computed at given other two coordinates (y, z) with respect to chimney. The gaseous pollutants released by the industries will be effectively monitored by the proposed DIAL system, which will be placed at New Delhi (28.35 degrees N, 77.12 degrees E), India. The performance of the Lidar has been optimized based on the various system parameters incorporating the atmospheric conditions and stack physical parameters. Further, the backscattered return powers at on- & -off line wavelengths, the required energy to be transmitted and the position at which the lidar system should be posted have been computed in order to monitor SO II.

  2. 76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... 4 of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the... effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14. DATES... systems for marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex VI regulation 4 of the...

  3. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine rpm. Materials that are in contact with the gases sampled may not contaminate or change the... service at the time of sale of the analyzer. (2) Temperature operating range. The sampling system and all... in paragraph (c) of this section in ambient air temperatures ranging from 41 to 110 °F. The...

  4. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine rpm. Materials that are in contact with the gases sampled may not contaminate or change the... service at the time of sale of the analyzer. (2) Temperature operating range. The sampling system and all... in paragraph (c) of this section in ambient air temperatures ranging from 41 to 110 °F. The...

  5. [Exhaustion of family caregivers: a masked domestic crisis? A psychodynamic and systemic approach].

    PubMed

    Bouati, Noureddine; Sagne, Alain; Hunsicker, Morgane; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Couturier, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    We try, from our clinical practice in a geriatric medicine department, to identify the processes involved in family crisis, especially in the relationship carer/cared. Psychodynamic and systemic determinants are highlighted to understand how family caregivers may suffer burn out, and suggest preventive measures.

  6. Flow field description of the Space Shuttle Vernier reaction control system exhaust plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Mary P.; Alred, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The flow field for the Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS) jets of the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been calculated from the nozzle throat to the far-field region. The calculations involved the use of recently improved rocket engine nozzle/plume codes. The flow field is discussed, and a brief overview of the calculation techniques is presented. In addition, a proposed on-orbit plume measurement experiment, designed to improve future estimations of the Vernier flow field, is addressed.

  7. Analysis of the load selection on the error of source characteristics identification for an engine exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sifa; Liu, Haitao; Dan, Jiabi; Lian, Xiaomin

    2015-05-01

    Linear time-invariant assumption for the determination of acoustic source characteristics, the source strength and the source impedance in the frequency domain has been proved reasonable in the design of an exhaust system. Different methods have been proposed to its identification and the multi-load method is widely used for its convenience by varying the load number and impedance. Theoretical error analysis has rarely been referred to and previous results have shown an overdetermined set of open pipes can reduce the identification error. This paper contributes a theoretical error analysis for the load selection. The relationships between the error in the identification of source characteristics and the load selection were analysed. A general linear time-invariant model was built based on the four-load method. To analyse the error of the source impedance, an error estimation function was proposed. The dispersion of the source pressure was obtained by an inverse calculation as an indicator to detect the accuracy of the results. It was found that for a certain load length, the load resistance at the frequency points of one-quarter wavelength of odd multiples results in peaks and in the maximum error for source impedance identification. Therefore, the load impedance of frequency range within the one-quarter wavelength of odd multiples should not be used for source impedance identification. If the selected loads have more similar resistance values (i.e., the same order of magnitude), the identification error of the source impedance could be effectively reduced.

  8. Unstructured grid finite volume analysis for acoustic and pulsed wave propagation characteristics in exhaust silencer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.T.; Kim, Y.M.; Maeng, J.S.; Lyu, M.S.; Ku, Y.G.

    1996-10-01

    The unstructured grid finite volume method has been applied to predict the linear and nonlinear attenuation characteristics of the expansion chamber type silencer system. In order to achieve grid flexibility and a solution adaptation for geometrically complex flow regions associated with the actual silencers, the unstructured mesh algorithm in context with the node-centered finite volume method has been employed. The validation cases for the linear and nonlinear wave propagation characteristics include the acoustic field of the concentric expansion chamber and the axisymmetric blast flow field with the open end. Effects of the chamber geometry on the nonlinear wave propagation characteristics are discussed in detail.

  9. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  10. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2010-10-12

    A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

  11. Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence indicates that diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes related to acute increases in exposures to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Methods To evaluate the possible mechanisms underlying these actions, we assessed the systemic effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in control mice, and mice with streptozotocin–induced type 1 diabetes. Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4 mg/kg) or saline, and several cardiovascular endpoints were measured 24 h thereafter. Results DEP caused leukocytosis and a significant increase in plasma C-reactive protein and 8-isoprostane concentrations in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. The arterial PO2 as well as the number of platelets and the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles assessed in vivo were significantly decreased following the i.t. instillation of DEP in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities, as well as the plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in DEP-exposed diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or DEP-exposed non-diabetic mice. The in vitro addition of DEP (0.25-1 μg/ml) to untreated mouse blood significantly and dose-dependently induced in vitro platelet aggregation, and these effects were exacerbated in blood of diabetic mice. Conclusion This study has shown that systemic and coagulation events are aggravated by type 1 diabetes in mice, acutely exposed to DEP and has described the possible mechanisms for these actions that may also be relevant to the exacerbation of cardiovascular morbidity accompanying particulate air pollution in

  12. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  13. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  14. Contrasting actions of diesel exhaust particles on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and the effects of thymoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Zia, Shaheen; Marzouqi, Fatima; Al-Dhaheri, Amna; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Dhanasekaran, Subramanian; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H; Kazzam, Elsadig E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to acute cardiopulmonary events, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the acute (at 4 and 18 h) effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on cardiopulmonary parameters in mice and the protective effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa. Mice were given, intratracheally, either saline (control) or DEP (30 µg·per mouse). KEY RESULTS At 18 h (but not 4 h) after giving DEP, there was lung inflammation and loss of lung function. At both 4 and 18 h, DEP caused systemic inflammation characterized by leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentrations and reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased only at 18 h. DEP reduced platelet numbers and aggravated in vivo thrombosis in pial arterioles. In vitro, addition of DEP (0.1–1 µg·mL−1) to untreated blood-induced platelet aggregation. Pretreatment of mice with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced decrease of SBP and leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentration and decreased plasma SOD activity. Thymoquinone also prevented the decrease in platelet numbers and the prothrombotic events but not platelet aggregation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At 4 h after DEP exposure, the cardiovascular changes did not appear to result from pulmonary inflammation but possibly from the entry of DEP and/or their associated components into blood. However, at 18 h, DEP induced significant changes in pulmonary and cardiovascular functions along with lung inflammation. Pretreatment with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced cardiovascular changes. PMID:21501145

  15. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Rachedi, S.H.

    1983-10-18

    There is disclosed an EGR assembly of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Rachedi, S.H.

    1983-08-16

    An EGR assembly is disclosed of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS... uncharacterized CVS, addition of an unknown inlet restriction on the dilution air, etc.). (2) The gas mixture... allowed. Heating is also allowed, provided: (i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does...

  18. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    SciTech Connect

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  19. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  20. Measurements of the ionospheric reaction to exhaust from dedicated burns of the space shuttle’s orbital maneuvering system engines over Kwajalein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Hysell, D. L.; Carrano, C. S.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Coster, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    In a continuation of the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) experiment, a series of Orbiting Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engine burns from the space shuttle have been carried out over Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Exhaust from the shuttle’s two OMS engines consists of CO, CO2, H2, H20, and N2, each of which interact with the background ionosphere (predominately O+) through charge exchange resulting in electron “holes.” Such interactions have been detected from the ground with radars, optical imagers, and GPS TEC measurements and from space with satellites such as the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) in the Shuttle Exhaust Ion Turbulence Experiment (SEITE). In this talk, we present signatures of ionospheric modification resulting from OMS burns during recent shuttle missions observed in incoherent scatter returns on the ARPA Long-range Tracking And Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR) and in optical data from an All-Sky Imager. GPS TEC measurements are investigated for evidence of depletions resulting from post-burn molecular recombination. Space Shuttle OMS Engine Burn

  1. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to...

  2. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to...

  3. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to...

  4. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  5. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system: Comprehensive data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    The component detail design drawings of the one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed demonstrator exhaust syatem tested are presented. Also provided are the basic acoustic and aerodynamic data acquired during the experimental model tests. The model drawings, an index to the acoustic data, an index to the aerodynamic data, tabulated and graphical acoustic data, and the tabulated aerodynamic data and graphs are discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrying flammable fluids. (b) If an exhaust heat exchanger is used for heating ventilating air— (1) There... air system; or (2) Other means must be used to preclude the harmful contamination of the ventilating... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... secondary heat exchanger between the primary exhaust gas heat exchanger and the ventilating air system; or... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat... inspecting the critical parts of each exchanger; (3) Each exchanger must have cooling provisions wherever...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carrying flammable fluids. (b) If an exhaust heat exchanger is used for heating ventilating air— (1) There... air system; or (2) Other means must be used to preclude the harmful contamination of the ventilating... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... secondary heat exchanger between the primary exhaust gas heat exchanger and the ventilating air system; or... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat... inspecting the critical parts of each exchanger; (3) Each exchanger must have cooling provisions wherever...

  10. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each...

  11. Exhaust gas purifying device

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.; Hamada, S.

    1985-04-23

    An exhaust gas purifying device for use with a diesel engine comprising a filter block disposed in an engine exhaust passage for collecting exhaust gas particulates, and a heater for incinerating the collected exhaust gas particulates. The filter block has parallel channels defined therein and separated from one another by porous partition walls, some of the channels being closed at their inlet ends with blind plugs while the other channels are closed at their outlet ends with blind plugs. The heater is supported by the blind plugs.

  12. Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.N.

    1980-10-10

    This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

  13. Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust aerosol particle and ion measurements.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Schuck, Tanja J; Pirjola, Liisa; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kulmala, Markku; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    Heavy duty EURO 4 diesel engine exhaust particle and ion size distributions were measured atthetailpipe using dynamometer testing. Measurements of particle volatility and electrical charge were undertaken to clarify diesel exhaust nucleation mode characteristics with different exhaust after-treatment systems. Nucleation mode particle volatility and charging probability were dependent on exhaust after-treatment particles were volatile and uncharged when the engine was equipped with diesel particulate filter and partly volatile and partly charged in exhaust without any after-treatment or with an oxidation catalyst only. The absence of charged particles in the nucleation mode of diesel particulate filtered exhaust excludes the ion mediated process as a nucleation particle formation mechanism.

  14. Deficiency of antigen-specific B cells results in decreased Trypanosoma cruzi systemic but not mucosal immunity due to CD8 T cell exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicole L.; Eickhoff, Christopher S.; Sagartz, John; Hoft, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against mucosally invasive, intracellular pathogens must induce a myriad of immune responses in order to provide optimal mucosal and systemic protection, including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and antibody-producing B cells. In general, CD4+ T cells are known to provide important helper functions for both CD8+ T cell and B cell responses. However, the relative importance of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells for mucosal protection is less clearly defined. We have studied these questions in detail using the murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Despite our initial hypothesis that mucosal antibodies would be important, we show that B cells are critical for systemic, but not mucosal, T. cruzi protective immunity. B cell deficient mice developed normal levels of CD8+ effector T cell responses early after mucosal T. cruzi infection and T. cruzi trans-sialidase vaccination. However, after highly virulent systemic challenge, T. cruzi immune mice lacking T. cruzi-specific B cells failed to control parasitemia or prevent death. Mechanistically, T. cruzi-specific CD8+ T cells generated in the absence of B cells expressed increased PD-1 and Lag-3 and became functionally exhausted after high-level T. cruzi systemic challenge. T. cruzi immune serum prevented CD8+ T cell functional exhaustion and reduced mortality in mice lacking B cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that T. cruzi-specific B cells are necessary during systemic, but not mucosal, parasite challenge. PMID:25595788

  15. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  16. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244....

  17. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection must be provided in...

  18. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  19. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  20. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  1. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  2. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  3. Influences of the exhaust flow on the boundary layer flow on the wafer surface in spin coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Seiichi; Munekata, Mizue; Kurishima, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Kazuyoshi; Ohba, Hideki

    2005-06-01

    Recently, development of high technology has been required for the formation of thin uniform film in manufacturing processes of semiconductor as the semiconductor become more sophisticated. Spin coating is usually used for spreading photoresist on a wafer surface. However, since rotating speed of the disk is very high in spin coating, the dropped resist scatters outward and reattaches to the film surface. So, the scattered resist is removed by the exhaust flow generated at the gap between the wafer edge and the catch cup. It is seriously concemed that the stripes called Ekman spiral vortices appears on the disk in the case of high rotating speed and the film thickness increases near the wafer edge in the case of low rotating speed, because it prevent the formation of uniform film. The purpose of this study is to make clear the generation mechanism of Ekman spiral vortices and the influence of exhaust flow on it. Moreover the influence of the catch cup geometry on the wafer surface boundary layer flow is investigated.

  4. Partly exhausted soda lime or soda lime with water added, inhibits the increase in compound A concentration in the circle system during low-flow sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, G; Bito, H; Ikeda, K

    1997-12-01

    We performed low-flow sevoflurane anaesthesia at a flow rate of 1 litre min-1 in three groups (n = 8 each) using 600 g of fresh soda lime (control group), 600 g of soda lime with 60 ml of water added (water group) or 600 g of soda lime saturated with carbon dioxide, that is partly exhausted soda lime (carbon dioxide group). Degradation products in the system were measured hourly. Inspired and end-tidal carbon dioxide and sevoflurane concentrations, carbon dioxide and temperature of the soda lime were monitored. CF2 = C(CF3)-O-CH2F (compound A) was the only sevoflurane degradation product detected. The mean maximum concentration of compound A was significantly higher in the control group (mean 16.0 (SD 5.0) ppm) than in the water (1.4 (1.0) ppm) or carbon dioxide (4.0 (1.8) ppm) group, and the maximum temperature of the soda lime was significantly lower in the carbon dioxide group (30.7 (3.5) degrees C) than in the control (43.4 (1.8) degrees C) or water (40.8 (1.8) degrees C) group (P < 0.05). The use of partly exhausted soda lime or soda lime with water added reduced compound A concentrations in the system during low-flow sevoflurane anaesthesia.

  5. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  6. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  7. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  8. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  9. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  10. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  11. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: chronic effects of diesel exhaust on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-10-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three (283) male diesel bus garage workers from four garages in two cities were examined to determine if there was excess chronic respiratory morbidity related to diesel exposure. The dependent variables were respiratory symptoms, radiographic interpretation for pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and flow rates). Independent variables included race, age, smoking, drinking, height, and tenure (as surrogate measure of exposure). Exposure-effect relationships within the study population showed no detectable associations of symptoms with tenure. There was an apparent association of pulmonary function and tenure. Seven workers (2.5%) had category 1 pneumoconiosis (three rounded opacities, two irregular opacities, and one with both rounded and irregular). The study population was also compared to a nonexposed blue-collar population. After indirect adjustment for age, race, and smoking, the study population had elevated prevalences of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but there was no association with tenure. Dyspnea showed a dose-response trend but no apparent increase in prevalence. Mean percent predicted pulmonary function of the study population was greater than 100%, i.e., elevated above the comparison population. These data show there is an apparent effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function but not chest radiographs. Respiratory symptoms are high compared to blue-collar workers, but there is no relationship with tenure.

  12. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculator

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.

    1983-01-04

    An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The egr valve operates in association with the carburetor throttle valve for metering the flow of egr gas. The egr controlling valve is separated by a diaphragm into an egr gas chamber communicating with the egr passage between the egr controlling valve and the egr valve and a negative pressure chamber communicating with the intake manifold. The negative pressure chamber contains a compression spring, and the diaphragm is connected with a valve member through a rod upon which is disposed a stopper to serve as a different seal in place of the valve member to close off the exhaust gas passage, which valve member and stopper are constructed to be opened and closed by pressure difference between the egr gas chamber and the negative pressure chamber and by elastic force of the compression spring. The egr controlling valve functions to control the pressure difference around the egr valve to be constant.

  14. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  15. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow meter to determine instantaneous diluted exhaust flow rates or total diluted exhaust flow over a...

  17. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  18. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remainedmore » adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  19. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  1. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  2. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detection for the HPLC analyzer. Sampling systems for all phases shall be identical. (iii) The methanol and... detection for the HPLC analyzer. Sampling systems for all phases shall be identical. (iii) The methanol...

  3. Oxidant generation and toxicity enhancement of aged-diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianfeng; Wyatt, Anna; Kamens, Richard M.

    Diesel exhaust related airborne Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease. The underlying toxicological mechanisms are of great scientific interest. A hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. In this study, the main objective was to determine whether aged-diesel exhaust PM has a higher oxidant generation and toxicity than fresh diesel exhaust PM. The diesel exhaust PM was generated from a 1980 Mercedes-Benz model 300SD, and a dual 270 m 3 Teflon film chamber was utilized to generate two test atmospheres. One side of the chamber is used to produce ozone-diesel exhaust PM system, and another side of the chamber was used to produce diesel exhaust PM only system. A newly optimized dithiothreitol (DTT) method was used to assess their oxidant generation and toxicity. The results of this study showed: (1) both fresh and aged-diesel exhaust PM had high oxidant generation and toxicity; (2) ozone-diesel exhaust PM had a higher toxicity response than diesel exhaust PM only; (3) the diesel exhaust PM toxicity increased with time; (4) the optimized DTT method could be used as a good quantitative chemical assay for oxidant generation and toxicity measurement.

  4. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  5. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of R-4360-18 Power-Plant Installation for XR60 Airplane. 3; Performance of Induction and Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, David T.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the performance of the induction and the exhaust systems on the XR60 power-plant installation as part of an investigation conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Altitude flight conditions from 5000 to 30,000 feet were simulated for a range of engine powers from 750 to 3000 brake horsepower. Slipstream rotation prevented normal pressure recoveries in the right side of the main duct in the region of the right intercooler cooling-air duct inlet. Total-pressure losses in the charge-air flow between the turbosupercharger and the intercoolers were as high as 2.1 inches of mercury. The total-pressure distribution of the charge air at the intercooler inlets was irregular and varied as much as 1.0 inch of mercury from the average value at extreme conditions, Total-pressure surveys at the carburetor top deck showed a variation from the average value of 0.3 inch of mercury at take-off power and 0.05 inch of mercury at maximum cruising power, The carburetor preheater system increased the temperature of the engine charge air a maximum of about 82 F at an average cowl-inlet air temperature of 9 F, a pressure altitude of 5000 feet, and a brake horsepower of 1240.

  6. Acceptance test procedure bldg. 271-U remote monitoring of project W-059 B-Plant canyon exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-09-01

    The test procedure provides for verifying indications and alarms The test procedure provides for verifying indications and alarms associated with the B Plant Canyon Ventilation System as they are being displayed on a remote monitoring workstation located in building 271-U. The system application software was installed by PLCS Plus under contract from B&W Hanford Company. The application software was installed on an existing operator workstation in building 271U which is owned and operated by Bechtel Hanford Inc.

  7. Outdoor smog chamber experiments: reactivity of methanol exhaust. Part 2. Quality assurance and data processing system description

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Kamens, R.M.; Holleman, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    The report describes the Quality Assurance and Data Processing procedures and systems used at the UNC Outdoor Smog Chamber Facility. The primary product of research conducted at this facility is information in the form of measurements of reactants and products in photochemical systems and measurements of the critical parameters that influence the chemical transformations system. Generating useful data begins with understanding the goals of the project and the special needs and concerns of conducting a successful smog-chamber operation. The system components are designed to collect, transfer, process, and report accurate, high-resolution data without loss or distortion. The system components in the Quality Assurance and Data Processing system are: people, hardware, software, checklists, and data bases. Quality-assurance checks are made at every level of the program. Pressurized gas-tank and liquid mixtures were used to establish experimental conditions of HC assuring consistency throughout the program. Several NBS traceable standards and liquid injections into the chamber used for calibration have been intercompared and show good agreement.

  8. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  9. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  10. Analysis on Impulse Characteristics of PDRE with Exhaust Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong-bo; Weng, Chun-sheng; Lv, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning

    2014-06-01

    The exhaust characteristics related to impulse was investigated in a pulse detonation rocket engine (PDRE) by tunable diode laser absorption sensing system. The instantaneous parameters of temperature, velocity and pressure were obtained for exhaust at engine exit. Analysis on impulse characteristics based on control volume of the PDRE was conducted for a single operation circle with experimental results. It was concluded that the impulse (3.26 N·s) achieved by exhaust measurements was in agreement with that (3.09 N·s) by a load cell. The impulse caused by exhaust momentum experienced an extremely sharp ascending, a steep rising and a slow increment in sequence. The exhausts during the sharp ascending and steep rising were under expansion with high mass weighted average temperature (>1266 K), so there was a possible promotion for exhausts utilizing.

  11. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the walls of the sampling system. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (5) The...

  12. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the walls of the sampling system. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (5) The...

  13. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  14. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine Engines To Comply with Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 AGENCY: Coast... meeting on the International Maritime Organization guidelines for exhaust gas cleaning systems for marine...-543 policy letter 09-01 that provide guidance for exhaust gas cleaning systems under MARPOL Annex...

  15. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  16. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  17. Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-10-04

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  18. Formal Verification of Safety Properties for Aerospace Systems Through Algorithms Based on Exhaustive State-Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2004-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) designed by Lockheed Martin is part of NASA's effort to reduce aviation accidents. We developed a Petri net model of the RSM protocol and used the model checking functions of our tool SMART to investigate a number of safety properties in RSM. To mitigate the impact of state-space explosion, we built a highly discretized model of the system, obtained by partitioning the monitored runway zone into a grid of smaller volumes and by considering scenarios involving only two aircraft. The model also assumes that there are no communication failures, such as bad input from radar or lack of incoming data, thus it relies on a consistent view of reality by all participants. In spite of these simplifications, we were able to expose potential problems in the RSM conceptual design. Our findings were forwarded to the design engineers, who undertook corrective action. Additionally, the results stress the efficiency attained by the new model checking algorithms implemented in SMART, and demonstrate their applicability to real-world systems. Attempts to verify RSM with NuSMV and SPIN have failed due to excessive memory consumption.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Supersonic jet exhaust impinging onto a flat surface is a fundamental flow encountered in space or with a missile launch vehicle system. The flow is important because it can endanger launch operations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a landing rocket s exhaust on soils. From numerical simulations and analysis, we developed characteristic expressions and curves, which we can use, along with rocket nozzle performance, to predict cratering effects during a soft-soil landing. We conducted a series of multiphase flow simulations with two phases: exhaust gas and sand particles. The main objective of the simulation was to obtain the numerical results as close to the experimental results as possible. After several simulating test runs, the results showed that packing limit and the angle of internal friction are the two critical and dominant factors in the simulations.

  20. Improved Exhaust Diffuser for Jet-Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P. G.; Sarohia, V. S.

    1985-01-01

    High-altitude simulator reduced power requirements. Test cell uses its exhaust-capture duct only to remove gases from engine; cooling air evacuated through separate path by auxiliary suction system. This way, capture duct cross-sectional area kept close to exhaust jet area, leading to greatly improved recovery performance.

  1. The Benefits of Mixed Flow Technology: Roof Exhaust Fans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with laboratory workstation exhaust faced by most colleges and universities and explains how the selection of a proper fume hood exhaust system can prevent or eliminate these problems and provide a clean and safe lab environment. Also highlighted are indoor air quality legal implications. (GR)

  2. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involve a laminar flow element or a thermal-mass meter. Note that your overall system for measuring raw... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the...

  3. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  4. Aero-acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Packman, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several exhaust systems suitable for duct burning turbofan engines are evaluated. Scale models representing unsuppressed coannular exhaust systems are examined statically under varying exhaust conditions. Ejectors with both hardwall and acoustically treated inserts are investigated.

  5. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  6. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    SciTech Connect

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  7. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  8. Removal of nitric oxide from exhaust gas with cyanuric acid--

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, D.L. . Combustion Research Faclity); Caton, J.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Addition of gaseous isocyanic acid (HNCO) to the exhaust of combustion systems or chemical process is proposed as a method for reducing nitric oxide (NO) emissions. The HNCO selectively reduces NO in the exhaust through a multistep chemical reaction mechanism. This article presents an experimental investigation of the proposed NO reduction process using cyanuric acid as the source of HNCO. At elevated temperature cyanuric acid decomposes and forms HNCO. The effects of temperature, exhaust gas composition, cyanuric acid concentration (i.e., HNCO concentration), and surfaces were examined. The experiments were conducted in an electrically heated quartz flow reactor using either exhaust from a diesel engine or simulated exhaust gas. The results demonstrate that gas phase NO reduction approaching 100% can be obtained.

  9. Design Analysis Report for 244-AR Interim Stabilization Exhaust Ventilation Ducting

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD, J.

    2002-11-21

    This report documents the design analysis performed for the exhaust ducting associated with the 244-AR Interim Stabilization Project. The exhaust ducting connects portable exhausters PORO5 and PORO6 to the existing east dog house of the 291-AR filter vault and the vessel ventilation system. This analysis examines loads on the ductwork and ductwork supports.

  10. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  11. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    PubMed

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    concentrations and the number of trucks and wind speed (R(2) = 0.432; p < 0.01). The presence of trucks with cooling systems and older trucks with older exhaust systems was associated with peak concentrations on the direct reading instruments. The results highlight the relevance of direct reading instruments in helping to identify sources of exposure and suggest that monitoring particle number concentrations improves understanding of workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. This study, by quantifying workers' exposure levels through a multimetric approach, contributes to the further understanding of occupational exposures to diesel engine exhaust.

  12. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    PubMed

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    concentrations and the number of trucks and wind speed (R(2) = 0.432; p < 0.01). The presence of trucks with cooling systems and older trucks with older exhaust systems was associated with peak concentrations on the direct reading instruments. The results highlight the relevance of direct reading instruments in helping to identify sources of exposure and suggest that monitoring particle number concentrations improves understanding of workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. This study, by quantifying workers' exposure levels through a multimetric approach, contributes to the further understanding of occupational exposures to diesel engine exhaust. PMID:26891343

  13. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B.

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  14. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  15. Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the results. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenicity and the genotoxicity of complete diesel exhaust compared to an organic exhaust particle extract from the same diesel exhaust in a bacterial and a eukaryotic system, that is, a complex human lung cell model. Both, complete exhaust and organic extract were found to act mutagenic/genotoxic, but the amplitudes of the effects differed considerably. Furthermore, our data indicate that the nature of the mutagenicity may not be identical for complete exhaust and particle extracts. Because in addition, differences between the responses of the different biological systems were found, we suggest that a comprehensive assessment of exhaust toxicity is preferably performed with complete exhaust and with biological systems representative for the organisms and organs of interest (i.e., human lungs) and not only with the Ames test. PMID:24697289

  16. Operational test report, 500 CFM portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-05-15

    A 500 cubic foot per minute (CFM) portable exhauster system was fabricated for use on 241-A-101 [a Hydrogen Watch List tank] during saltwell pumping activities. An operational test was performed on this unit during 9/20/96 through 1O/14/96 in the 241-A Tank Farm. This operational test was done in accordance with OTP-060-001 Rev 0 (See Appendix A of this report). The test was performed with exceptions.

  17. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  18. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  19. Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B.; Teal, J.; Oates, L.

    2008-07-01

    The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off

  20. Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

  1. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  2. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  3. Analysis, Verification, and Application of Equations and Procedures for Design of Exhaust-pipe Shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H.; Wcislo, Chester R.; Dexter, Howard E.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were made to develop a simplified method for designing exhaust-pipe shrouds to provide desired or maximum cooling of exhaust installations. Analysis of heat exchange and pressure drop of an adequate exhaust-pipe shroud system requires equations for predicting design temperatures and pressure drop on cooling air side of system. Present experiments derive such equations for usual straight annular exhaust-pipe shroud systems for both parallel flow and counter flow. Equations and methods presented are believed to be applicable under certain conditions to the design of shrouds for tail pipes of jet engines.

  4. Using Laser-Induced Incandescence To Measure Soot in Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.; Sankar, Subramanian V.

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation system exploits laser-induced incandescence (LII) to measure the concentration of soot particles in an exhaust stream from an engine, furnace, or industrial process that burns hydrocarbon fuel. In comparison with LII soot-concentration-measuring systems, this system is more complex and more capable.

  5. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  6. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  7. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  8. Probe samples components of rocket engine exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, P. E.

    1965-01-01

    Water-cooled, cantilevered probe samples the exhaust plume of rocket engines to recover particles for examination. The probe withstands the stresses of a rocket exhaust plume environment for a sufficient period to obtain a useful sample of the exhaust components.

  9. A mechanism for mercury oxidation in coat-derived exhausts.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, N; Fujita, Y; Tomura, K; Moritomi, H; Tuji, T; Takasu, S

    2002-08-01

    This paper evaluates an elementary reaction mechanism for Hg0 oxidation in coal-derived exhausts consisting of a previously formulated homogeneous mechanism with 102 steps and a new three-step heterogeneous mechanism for unburned carbon (UBC) particles. Model predictions were evaluated with the extents of Hg oxidation monitored in the exhausts from a pilot-scale coal flame fired with five different coals. Exhaust conditions in the tests were very similar to those in full-scale systems. The predictions were quantitatively consistent with the reported coal-quality impacts over the full range of residence times. The role of Cl atoms in the homogeneous mechanism is hereby supplanted with carbon sites that have been chlorinated by HCl. The large storage capacity of carbon for Cl provided a source of Cl for Hg oxidation over a broad temperature range, so initiation was not problematic. Super-equilibrium levels of Cl atoms were not required, so Hg was predicted to oxidize in systems with realistic quench rates. Whereas many fundamental aspects of the heterogeneous chemistry remain uncertain, the information needed to characterize Hg oxidation in coal-derived exhausts is now evident: complete gas compositions (CO, hydrocarbons, H2O, O2 NOx, SOx), UBC properties (size, total surface area), and the ash partitioning throughout the exhaust system are required. PMID:12184687

  10. A mechanism for mercury oxidation in coat-derived exhausts.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, N; Fujita, Y; Tomura, K; Moritomi, H; Tuji, T; Takasu, S

    2002-08-01

    This paper evaluates an elementary reaction mechanism for Hg0 oxidation in coal-derived exhausts consisting of a previously formulated homogeneous mechanism with 102 steps and a new three-step heterogeneous mechanism for unburned carbon (UBC) particles. Model predictions were evaluated with the extents of Hg oxidation monitored in the exhausts from a pilot-scale coal flame fired with five different coals. Exhaust conditions in the tests were very similar to those in full-scale systems. The predictions were quantitatively consistent with the reported coal-quality impacts over the full range of residence times. The role of Cl atoms in the homogeneous mechanism is hereby supplanted with carbon sites that have been chlorinated by HCl. The large storage capacity of carbon for Cl provided a source of Cl for Hg oxidation over a broad temperature range, so initiation was not problematic. Super-equilibrium levels of Cl atoms were not required, so Hg was predicted to oxidize in systems with realistic quench rates. Whereas many fundamental aspects of the heterogeneous chemistry remain uncertain, the information needed to characterize Hg oxidation in coal-derived exhausts is now evident: complete gas compositions (CO, hydrocarbons, H2O, O2 NOx, SOx), UBC properties (size, total surface area), and the ash partitioning throughout the exhaust system are required.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  13. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  14. The Effect of Indexing Exhaustivity on Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Describes results of a study that investigated the effect of variations in indexing exhaustivity on retrieval performance in a vector space retrieval system. The test collection of documents in the National Library of Medicine's Medline file indexed under cystic fibrosis is described, and use of the SMART information retrieval system is discussed.…

  15. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust sample analysis must...

  16. Experimental evaluation of exhaust mixers for an Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Kraft, G.

    1980-01-01

    Static scale model tests were conducted to evaluate exhaust system mixers for a high bypass ratio engine as part of the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient program. Gross thrust coefficients were measured for a series of mixer configurations which included variations in the number of mixer lobes, tailpipe length, mixer penetration, and length. All of these parameters have a significant impact on exhaust system performance. In addition, flow visualization pictures and pressure/temperature traverses were obtained for selected configurations. Parametric performance trends are discussed and the results considered relative to the Energy Efficient Engine program goals.

  17. Correlates of work exhaustion for medical technologists.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 196 medical technologists followed over a 4-year period, this study investigated if work-related demand and resource variables were related to subsequent work exhaustion. As hypothesized, increased levels of perceived work interference with family and task load and lower organizational support were related to higher subsequent work exhaustion. Distributive justice, as an intervening variable, had direct and partially mediating effects on work exhaustion. Distributive justice partially mediated the effects of work interfering with family and organizational support on work exhaustion. Distributive justice also mediated the impact of procedural justice on work exhaustion. Study limitations and future research issues are discussed. PMID:14526896

  18. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  19. Wind tunnel investigation of simulated helicopter engine exhaust interacting with windstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, C. S.; Wilson, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the windstream-engine exhaust flow interaction on a light observation helicopter model has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. The investigation utilized flow visualization techniques to determine the cause to determine the cause of exhaust shield overheating during cruise and to find a means of eliminating the problem. Exhaust flow attachment to the exhaust shield during cruise was found to cause the overheating. Several flow-altering devices were evaluated to find a suitable way to correct the problem. A flow deflector located on the model cowling upstream of the exhaust in addition to aerodynamic shield fairings provided the best solution. Also evaluated was heat transfer concept employing pin fins to cool future exhaust hardware. The primary flow visualization technique used in the investigation was a newly developed system employing neutrally buoyant helium-filled bubbles. The resultant flow patterns were recorded on motion picture film and on television magnetic tape.

  20. Wavelet analysis applied to the detection of abnormal ICE exhaust noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, M.; Frikha, S.; Hennion, P. Y.

    2000-07-01

    The "Rasping Noise" is an abnormal exhaust noise that occurs in small cars equipped with two boxes exhaust systems. It is an intermittent metallic noise that irritates the ear because of its high frequency components. It occurs during rapid acceleration or deceleration in cold conditions. Pressure signals are picked up in a critical exhaust line at Rasping conditions. Order and wavelet analysis are found to be efficient and completing tools in studying an eventual occurrence of discontinuities or shock waves in such a critical exhaust line.

  1. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  2. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  3. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  4. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated solid rocket exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from solid rocket fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.; Knott, W. M.; Stahel, E. P.; Ambrose, J. T.; Mccrimmon, J. N.; Engle, M.; Romanow, L. A.; Sawyer, A. G.; Tyson, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plants of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, the citrus production, or the beekeeping industry of the island. Conditions were simulated in greenhouse exposure chambers and field chambers constructed to model the ideal continuous stirred tank reactor. A plant exposure system was developed for dispensing and monitoring the two major chemicals in SRF exhaust, HCl and Al203, and for dispensing and monitoring SRF exhaust (controlled fuel burns). Plants native to Merritt Island, Florida were grown and used as test species. Dose-response relationships were determined for short term exposure of selected plant species to HCl, Al203, and mixtures of the two to SRF exhaust.

  5. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  6. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  7. Aerodynamic design and analysis of a highly loaded turbine exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, F. W.; Montesdeoca, X. A.; Rowey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of a turbine exhaust volute manifold is described. This turbine exhaust system will be used with an advanced gas generator oxidizer turbine designed for very high specific work. The elevated turbine stage loading results in increased discharge Mach number and swirl velocity which, along with the need for minimal circumferential variation of fluid properties at the turbine exit, represent challenging volute design requirements. The design approach, candidate geometries analyzed, and steady state/unsteady CFD analysis results are presented.

  8. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  9. Exhaust recycle to carburetor of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.R.

    1984-03-20

    A hot slipstream from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine is used directly, that is without valving it, to heat and vaporize fuel as it is sprayed from the fuel nozzle of a carburetor having a booster venturi above the throttle plate, provided the ratio of the volume of slipstream to the volume of exhaust gases is self-regulated within narrow limits at all times during the engine's operation, in accordance with the physical considerations governing gas flow. The main jets of a conventional carburetor may be changed to provide decreased flow of gasoline by about 10% to give better mileage without sacrificing performance of the engine, and without adversely affecting the exhaust emissions which are otherwise controlled by a conventional emission control system.

  10. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  11. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  12. 40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. 87.64 Section 87.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) The system...

  13. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. PMID:22561182

  14. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  15. 41 CFR 101-8.724 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 101-8.724 Section 101-8.724 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 8-NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  16. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... under Subpart 111.105 of this part; and (b) Not impinge upon any other electric device....

  17. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... under Subpart 111.105 of this part; and (b) Not impinge upon any other electric device....

  18. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... under Subpart 111.105 of this part; and (b) Not impinge upon any other electric device....

  19. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... under Subpart 111.105 of this part; and (b) Not impinge upon any other electric device....

  20. T cell exhaustion during persistent viral infections.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Shannon M; Wherry, E John; Zajac, Allan J

    2015-05-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control.

  1. Diesel exhaust exposure induces angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Kherada, Nisharahmed; Hong, Xinru; Quan, Chunli; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Aixia; Wold, Loren; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that exposure to whole diesel exhaust (WDE) would enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, with either scaffold implantation subcutaneously or hindlimb ischemia, were exposed to either WDE (containing diesel exhaust particle [DEP] at a concentration of about 1 mg/m3) or filtered air 6 hours/day, 5 days/week in a whole body exposure chamber for 2, 5, or 8 weeks, respectively. WDE exposure significantly increased total cell counts in the scaffolds, aortic, and perivascular fat tissues. Macrophage infiltration was enhanced and CD31 expression increased in the scaffolds, which was coupled by increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. WDE exposure led to increased CD31 expression, while decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the aortic wall. The vessel volume measured by micro-CT was increased in ischemic and non-ischemic hindlimbs in response to WDE exposure. DEP exposure induced capillary-like tube formation in endothelial cells in vitro, and caused capillary sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo. In addition, WDE exposure significantly increased mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, while decreasing prolylhydroxylase (PHD) 2 expression. WDE exposure increases inflammatory cell infiltration, enhances the vessel volume/flow, and increases capillary tube formation and sprouting, thereby inducing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The angiogenic effects may occur through increasing HIF-1α and VEGF while decreasing PHD2 expression. PMID:19683567

  2. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  3. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  4. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 3; Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  5. Biodiesel Exhaust: The Need for Health Effects Research

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kimberly J.; Madden, Michael C.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Biodiesel is a diesel fuel alternative that has shown potential of becoming a commercially accepted part of the United States’ energy infrastructure. In November 2004, the signing of the Jobs Creation Bill HR 4520 marked an important turning point for the future production of biodiesel in the United States because it offers a federal excise tax credit. By the end of 2005, industry production was 75 million gallons, a 300% increase in 1 year. Current industry capacity, however, stands at just over 300 million gallons/year, and current expansion and new plant construction could double the industry’s capacity within a few years. Biodiesel exhaust emission has been extensively characterized under field and laboratory conditions, but there have been limited cytotoxicity and mutagenicity studies on the effects of biodiesel exhaust in biologic systems. Objectives We reviewed pertinent medical literature and addressed recommendations on testing specific research needs in the field of biodiesel toxicity. Discussion Employment of biodiesel fuel is favorably viewed, and there are suggestions that its exhaust emissions are less likely to present any risk to human health relative to petroleum diesel emissions. Conclusion The speculative nature of a reduction in health effects based on chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust needs to be followed up with investigations in biologic systems. PMID:17450214

  6. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  7. Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, N.

    1986-05-13

    A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation chamber and to the engine intake manifold; and a cyclone drum connected to the electrostatic precipitator for removing particles from the exhaust gases in the electrostatic precipitator. The method consists of: dissociating the molecules of the exhaust gas from the engine in the dissociation chamber into monomolecules by subjecting the exhaust gas to the effects of a corona discharge in the dissociation chamber; removing carbon and other particulate matter from the exhaust in the electrostatic precipitator and cyclone drum to dedust the exhaust gas; and igniting a mixture of fuel and the dedusted exhaust gas in the combustion chamber of the engine, whereby fuel is initially oxidized solely by an oxygen component of the dissociated exhaust gas.

  8. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  9. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  10. Laser-induced incandescence measurements of particles in aeroengine exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John D.

    1999-09-01

    Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) has been demonstrated as a non-intrusive technique for measurement of particle concentration in the exhausts of aero-engines on sea level test beds as part of a European Union collaborative program (AEROJET) aimed at replacing gas sampling rakes behind development engines with non-intrusive instrumentation. Currently emissions of CO, NOx, unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke from aero-engines must be shown to be less than internationally specified limits. Measurements are made on development engines on sea level test beds by applying a number of standard analytical methods to extracted exhaust gas samples. The hardware required for exhaust gas sampling is heavy and complex and is expensive to build and install. As a result, only the minimum number of emissions tests are conducted during an engine development program, and emissions data is only available to combustion engineers late in the program. Hence, there is a need for more versatile and less costly non-intrusive measurement techniques. Molecular species can be measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while LII is a promising smoke measuring technique. The development of an LII system specifically designed for exhaust applications is described.

  11. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  12. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  13. Gas exhaust nozzle for ARC furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Buhler, K.

    1984-10-09

    Arc furnace has a furnace shell, a furnace lid with lid ring and a lid lifting and swivelling means as well as a lid opening in the furnace lid for exhausting the flue gas from the interior of the furnace and a flue gas exhaust nozzle for removing the flue gases above the lid opening, the nozzle being supported on the furnace lid ring. By means of this design feature as well as a guide arrangement and a locking means the flue gas exhaust nozzle can be completely integrated into the operating steps of the arc furnace in a simple and economical fashion.

  14. Langmuir probe surveys of an arcjet exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, Lynnette M.

    1987-01-01

    Electrostatic (Langmuir) probes of both spherical and cylindrical geometry have been used to obtain electron number density and temperature in the exhaust of a laboratory arcjet. The arcjet thruster operated on nitrogen and hydrogen mixtures to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine in a vacuum environment with background pressures less than 0.05 Pa. The exhaust appears to be only slightly ionized (less than 1 percent) with local plasma potentials near facility ground. The current-voltage characteristics of the probes indicate a Maxwellian temperature distribution. Plume data are presented as a function of arcjet operating conditions and also position in the exhaust.

  15. T-cell exhaustion, co-stimulation and clinical outcome in autoimmunity and infection.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Eoin F; Lee, James C; Jayne, David R W; Lyons, Paul A; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2015-07-30

    The clinical course of autoimmune and infectious disease varies greatly, even between individuals with the same condition. An understanding of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity could lead to significant improvements in both monitoring and treatment. During chronic infection the process of T-cell exhaustion inhibits the immune response, facilitating viral persistence. Here we show that a transcriptional signature reflecting CD8 T-cell exhaustion is associated with poor clearance of chronic viral infection, but conversely predicts better prognosis in multiple autoimmune diseases. The development of CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic infection is driven both by persistence of antigen and by a lack of accessory 'help' signals. In autoimmunity, we find that where evidence of CD4 T-cell co-stimulation is pronounced, that of CD8 T-cell exhaustion is reduced. We can reproduce the exhaustion signature by modifying the balance of persistent stimulation of T-cell antigen receptors and specific CD2-induced co-stimulation provided to human CD8 T cells in vitro, suggesting that each process plays a role in dictating outcome in autoimmune disease. The 'non-exhausted' T-cell state driven by CD2-induced co-stimulation is reduced by signals through the exhaustion-associated inhibitory receptor PD-1, suggesting that induction of exhaustion may be a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Using expression of optimal surrogate markers of co-stimulation/exhaustion signatures in independent data sets, we confirm an association with good clinical outcome or response to therapy in infection (hepatitis C virus) and vaccination (yellow fever, malaria, influenza), but poor outcome in autoimmune and inflammatory disease (type 1 diabetes, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and dengue haemorrhagic fever). Thus, T-cell exhaustion plays a central role in determining outcome in

  16. T-cell exhaustion, co-stimulation and clinical outcome in autoimmunity and infection.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Eoin F; Lee, James C; Jayne, David R W; Lyons, Paul A; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2015-07-30

    The clinical course of autoimmune and infectious disease varies greatly, even between individuals with the same condition. An understanding of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity could lead to significant improvements in both monitoring and treatment. During chronic infection the process of T-cell exhaustion inhibits the immune response, facilitating viral persistence. Here we show that a transcriptional signature reflecting CD8 T-cell exhaustion is associated with poor clearance of chronic viral infection, but conversely predicts better prognosis in multiple autoimmune diseases. The development of CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic infection is driven both by persistence of antigen and by a lack of accessory 'help' signals. In autoimmunity, we find that where evidence of CD4 T-cell co-stimulation is pronounced, that of CD8 T-cell exhaustion is reduced. We can reproduce the exhaustion signature by modifying the balance of persistent stimulation of T-cell antigen receptors and specific CD2-induced co-stimulation provided to human CD8 T cells in vitro, suggesting that each process plays a role in dictating outcome in autoimmune disease. The 'non-exhausted' T-cell state driven by CD2-induced co-stimulation is reduced by signals through the exhaustion-associated inhibitory receptor PD-1, suggesting that induction of exhaustion may be a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Using expression of optimal surrogate markers of co-stimulation/exhaustion signatures in independent data sets, we confirm an association with good clinical outcome or response to therapy in infection (hepatitis C virus) and vaccination (yellow fever, malaria, influenza), but poor outcome in autoimmune and inflammatory disease (type 1 diabetes, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and dengue haemorrhagic fever). Thus, T-cell exhaustion plays a central role in determining outcome in

  17. Dynamically Movable Exhausting Emc Sealing System

    DOEpatents

    Barringer, Dennis R.; Seminaro, Edward J.; Toffler, Harold M.

    2003-12-09

    A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit card and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a housing bezel, disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening, the housing bezel includes an outer bezel having a first plurality of openings and an inner bezel having a second plurality of apertures, the inner bezel in electrical communication with the printed circuit card, wherein said housing bezel is removable, and an EMC gasket disposed between the outer and inner bezels of said housing bezel, the EMC gasket configured to provide a removable EMC seal proximate the cable opening while still allowing airflow through the first and second plurality of apertures having the EMC gasket therebetween. A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit card and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a housing bezel, disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening, the housing bezel includes an outer bezel having a first plurality of openings and an inner bezel having a second plurality of apertures, the inner bezel in electrical communication with the printed circuit card, wherein said housing bezel is removable, and an EMC gasket disposed between the outer and inner bezels of said housing bezel, the EMC gasket configured to provide a removable EMC seal proximate the cable opening while still allowing airflow through the first and second plurality of apertures having the EMC gasket therebetween.

  18. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards, if inspection of the...) Is not equipped with either a muffler or other noise dissipative device, such as a...

  19. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  20. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  1. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER`s nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified.

  2. Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

  3. An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.

  4. Corrosion of Exhaust and Filtration Equipment in a Radioactive Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    2003-10-31

    Condensation in the exhaust gas system of an incinerator burning low activity radioactive wastes led to numerous corrosion developments and rapid failure of the discharge filters. The problem was traced to insufficient reheat of the exhaust gases following scrubbing. Rust particulate and moisture loaded the filters, leading to water accumulation, chloride cracking of the filter housings, and plugging and tearing of the filter media itself. To mitigate the problem, the exhaust gas temperature was increased, thermal insulation was installed on the ductwork, and the interiors of the ducts and new filter housings were lined with a protective coating.

  5. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

    1989-03-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

  6. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.C.; Backer, R.C.; Sopher, I.M.

    1989-03-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

  7. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  8. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  9. Particulate diesel-exhaust characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.; Cooper, C.; Deye, G.; Ong, T.

    1983-01-01

    Several analyses were made of the diesel-exhaust particulates which were used in a study made to determine the effects of long-term exposure to coal dust and exhaust from diesel engines on laboratory animals. The diesel engine used was of a type used in underground-mining operations, and was equipped with a water scrubber in the exhaust line. Lipid chromatographic fluorescence detection of the solvent extracts of the diesel exhaust components showed fluorescing compounds covering a wide range of polarity to be present in the exhaust samples. Preparative fractions of solvent extracts of particulate diesel exhaust indicated that the majority of the mass recovered was in the nonpolar fraction. Sufficient quantities of nitroarenes were isolated for identification purposes; high-resolution mass spectroscopy with selected ion monitoring was used. 1-Nitropyrene and a nitrofluorene isomer were identified in several of the extract fractions. Both direct and enzyme-activated mutagens were present in the diesel particulate and scrubber water extract and the unextracted scrubber particulate. The authors conclude that the contents of the scrubber may represent a significant health hazard due to the presence of mutagens.

  10. Exhausting Multiple Hemodialysis Access Failures

    PubMed Central

    Bolleke, Erjola; Seferi, Saimir; Rroji, Merita; Idrizi, Alma; Barbullushi, Myftar; Thereska, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular access is often considered the Achilles heel the of hemodialysis because of its impact on morbidity, all cause mortality and finally costs of these patients. The most common complication of permanent hemodialysis (HD) vascular access is thrombosis, with some cases being related to hypercoagulability states. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS) is a cause of increased thrombotic tendency, and this may complicate the management of such patients on HD. Case report: We describe a 41-year-old woman with end stage renal disease (ESRD) from Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease who was referred to our tertiary care center for treatment and selection of renal replacement therapy form. It was thought to initiate with peritoneal dialysis considering her actual conditions. She was putted on hemodialysis for several sessions, and a subclavian cathether was her first vascular access. The surgeon created an arterio-venous fistula which did not mature. After the implantation of the peritoneal cathether she started peritoneal dialysis and continued living with that for 2 years. She felt exhausted and because of a grave peritonitis episode accompanied with procedure failure and a long hospitalization she was transferred to hemodialysis. Renal transplantation was not possible because she didn’t have a kidney donation. She was maintained on regular HD, but her dialysis care was complicated by recurrent vascular access failures. She had multiple interventions for arterio-venous fistulas and grafts but almost all of them failed due to thrombosis to the extent that only one access site was available for her routine renal replacement treatment. A thorough thrombophilia screen confirmed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. A diagnosis of APAS was made and she was anticoagulated with warfarin. The AVG made in this last available site is still working from 18 months. If it fails we have no answers and solutions for her. Conclusion: The presence of

  11. [Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

    2004-07-01

    The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC.

  12. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 119.425 Section 119.425 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible...

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  14. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow...

  15. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  16. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  17. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  18. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow...

  19. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  20. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow...

  1. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  2. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  3. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  4. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  5. [Emission Factors of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-07-01

    Based on the investigation of basic data such as vehicle type composition, driving conditions, ambient temperature and oil quality, etc., emission factors of vehicle exhaust pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter(PM) were calculated using COPERT IV model. Emission factors of typical gasoline passenger cars and diesel trucks were measured using on-board measurement system on actual road. The measured and modeled emission factors were compared and the results showed that: the measured emission factors of CO, NOx and HC were 0. 96, 0. 64 and 4. 89 times of the modeled data for passenger cars conforming to the national IV emission standard. For the light, medium and heavy diesel trucks conforming to the national III emission standard, the measured data of CO emission factors were 1.61, 1. 07 and 1.76 times of the modeled data, respectively, the measured data of NOx emission factors were 1. 04, 1. 21 and 1. 18 times of the modeled data, and the measured data of HC emission factors were 3. 75, 1. 84 and 1. 47 times of the modeled data, while the model data of PM emission factors were 1. 31, 3. 42 and 6. 42 times of the measured data, respectively. PMID:26489301

  6. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  7. [Emission Factors of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-07-01

    Based on the investigation of basic data such as vehicle type composition, driving conditions, ambient temperature and oil quality, etc., emission factors of vehicle exhaust pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter(PM) were calculated using COPERT IV model. Emission factors of typical gasoline passenger cars and diesel trucks were measured using on-board measurement system on actual road. The measured and modeled emission factors were compared and the results showed that: the measured emission factors of CO, NOx and HC were 0. 96, 0. 64 and 4. 89 times of the modeled data for passenger cars conforming to the national IV emission standard. For the light, medium and heavy diesel trucks conforming to the national III emission standard, the measured data of CO emission factors were 1.61, 1. 07 and 1.76 times of the modeled data, respectively, the measured data of NOx emission factors were 1. 04, 1. 21 and 1. 18 times of the modeled data, and the measured data of HC emission factors were 3. 75, 1. 84 and 1. 47 times of the modeled data, while the model data of PM emission factors were 1. 31, 3. 42 and 6. 42 times of the measured data, respectively.

  8. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  9. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel

  10. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  11. The Chemical Exhaust Hazards of Dichlorosilane Deposits Determined with FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    JAREK, RUSSELL L.; THORNBERG, STEVEN M.

    1999-10-01

    Flammable deposits have been analyzed from the exhaust systems of tools employing dichlorosilane (DCS) as a processing gas. Exact mass determinations with a high-resolution Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer allowed the identification of various polysiloxane species present in such an exhaust flow. Ion-molecule reactions indicate the preferred reaction pathway of siloxane formation is through HCl loss, leading to the highly reactive polysiloxane that was detected in the flammable deposits.

  12. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  13. Effect of exhaustive exercise on myocardial performance

    SciTech Connect

    Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Duncan, H.W.

    1981-11-01

    Possible changes in cardiac functional capacity in the intact heart following prolonged exhaustive exercise are investigated. Cardiac output, coronary blood flow, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development and maximum rate of left ventricular pressure relaxation were measured in eight chronically instrumented adult mongrel dogs run at a constant work load to exhaustion signalled by the animals' refusal or inability to continue. All cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of stroke volume, are found to increase significantly during the transition from rest to steady-state exercise at about 75% of maximum heart rate. In the transition from steady state to exhaustion, only the maximum rates of left ventricular pressure development and relaxation are observed to increase significantly, while all other values exhibited no significant change. Similarly, no significant changes are observed in measurements of maximum cardiac parameters before and after exhaustion. Results indicate that cardiac function and hemodynamic parameters are not depressed at exhaustion in dogs despite observed ultrastructural changes.

  14. Exhaust Nozzle Materials Development for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has embarked on a national effort to develop the technology necessary to produce a Mach 2.4 High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) for entry into service by the year 2005. The viability of this aircraft is contingent upon its meeting both economic and environmental requirements. Two engine components have been identified as critical to the environmental acceptability of the HSCT. These include a combustor with significantly lower emissions than are feasible with current technology, and a lightweight exhaust nozzle that meets community noise standards. The Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program will develop the advanced structural materials, materials fabrication processes, structural analysis and life prediction tools for the HSCT combustor and low noise exhaust nozzle. This is being accomplished through the coordinated efforts of the NASA Lewis Research Center, General Electric Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney. The mission of the EPM Exhaust Nozzle Team is to develop and demonstrate this technology by the year 1999 to enable its timely incorporation into HSCT propulsion systems.

  15. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  16. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  17. Influence of increased exhaust gas recirculation ratio on the thermodynamic processes in CI DI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielecha, I.; Skowron, M.; Bueschke, W.; Cieślik, W.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the conducted research was the thermodynamic identification of combustion process involving up to 50-60% recirculated exhaust gasses in compression ignition engine. The values of the respective indicators obtained for the high share of exhaust gasses in the cylinder were compared to the values obtained in the engine working without EGR. The research was conducted on the single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine equipped with recirculated gas cooling system. The conditions of combustion process were determined using indicators of engine operation and measurements of fast-varying cylinder pressure. The evaluation of the influence of different share of exhaust gases in the cylinder on the combustion course and heat release was conducted. As a result of the conducted research the possibility of utilizing the high share of exhaust gasses (50-60%) with simultaneous ecological benefits, not only in relation to nitrogen oxides, was demonstrated.

  18. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  19. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2003-04-22

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  20. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2002-01-01

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.