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Sample records for exhibit morphological differences

  1. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learning styles and student type. This research seeks to examine if online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and, if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Students (N = 80) were asked to complete an online survey in order…

  2. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Do online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Our ideas of best practices within this area have been evolving to keep up with our students. Various tactics have been used to make sure students understand what kinds of…

  3. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  4. Photoreactive helical nanoaggregates exhibiting morphology transition on thermal reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Mitsuaki; Ohba, Tomonori; Karatsu, Takashi; Yagai, Shiki

    2015-11-01

    The supramolecular design of photochromic molecules has produced various smart molecular assemblies that can switch their structures and/or functions in response to light stimuli. However, most of these assemblies require large structural changes of the photochromic molecules for an efficient conversion of assembled states, which often suppresses the photoreactivity within the self-assemblies. Here we report molecular assemblies, based on a photo-cross-linkable chromophoric dyad, in which a small amount of ultraviolet-generated photochemical product can guide the entire system into different assembly processes. In apolar solution, the intact dyad self-assembles into right-handed superhelical fibrils. On ultraviolet-irradiation of these fibrils, an effective photoreaction affords a sole photo-cross-linked product. When right-handed helical fibrils, containing a minor amount of the photoproduct, are thermally reconstructed, the intact molecule and the photoproduct undergo a co-assembly process that furnishes superhelical fibrils with different molecular packing structures. This molecular design principle should afford new paradigms for smart molecular assemblies.

  5. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, John W; Bucciarelli, Bruna

    2013-08-30

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252 and 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared with stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic sugar residues. These results suggest greater deposition of secondary xylem and a reduction in pith in stems of 252 compared with 1283. The stem morphology and anatomy of first-cut and second-cut harvests of field-grown 1283 and 252 were examined. For both harvests, stems of 1283 were thicker and had a higher leaf/stem ratio compared with stems of 252. Stem cross-sections of both genotypes were stained for lignin, and the proportions of stem area that were pith and secondary xylem were measured using ImageJ. Stems of 252 exhibited greater deposition of secondary xylem and a reduction in pith proportion compared with stems of 1283 for the first-cut harvest, but this difference was not statistically significant for the second-cut harvest. The results indicate that the proportions of secondary xylem and pith are not environmentally stable in these two genotypes and hence cannot be the sole basis for the differences in cell wall concentration/composition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts exhibiting rough colonies and pseudohyphal morphology with respect to alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Vanda Renata; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jessica Carolina Gomes; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2013-12-01

    Among the native yeasts found in alcoholic fermentation, rough colonies associated with pseudohyphal morphology belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very common and undesirable during the process. The aim of this work was to perform morphological and physiological characterisations of S. cerevisiae strains that exhibited rough and smooth colonies in an attempt to identify alternatives that could contribute to the management of rough colony yeasts in alcoholic fermentation. Characterisation tests for invasiveness in Agar medium, killer activity, flocculation and fermentative capacity were performed on 22 strains (11 rough and 11 smooth colonies). The effects of acid treatment at different pH values on the growth of two strains ("52"--rough and "PE-02"--smooth) as well as batch fermentation tests with cell recycling and acid treatment of the cells were also evaluated. Invasiveness in YPD Agar medium occurred at low frequency; ten of eleven rough yeasts exhibited flocculation; none of the strains showed killer activity; and the rough strains presented lower and slower fermentative capacities compared to the smooth strains in a 48-h cycle in a batch system with sugar cane juice. The growth of the rough strain was severely affected by the acid treatment at pH values of 1.0 and 1.5; however, the growth of the smooth strain was not affected. The fermentative efficiency in mixed fermentation (smooth and rough strains in the same cell mass proportion) did not differ from the efficiency obtained with the smooth strain alone, most likely because the acid treatment was conducted at pH 1.5 in a batch cell-recycle test. A fermentative efficiency as low as 60% was observed with the rough colony alone.

  7. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts exhibiting rough colonies and pseudohyphal morphology with respect to alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Vanda Renata; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jessica Carolina Gomes; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2013-01-01

    Among the native yeasts found in alcoholic fermentation, rough colonies associated with pseudohyphal morphology belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very common and undesirable during the process. The aim of this work was to perform morphological and physiological characterisations of S. cerevisiae strains that exhibited rough and smooth colonies in an attempt to identify alternatives that could contribute to the management of rough colony yeasts in alcoholic fermentation. Characterisation tests for invasiveness in Agar medium, killer activity, flocculation and fermentative capacity were performed on 22 strains (11 rough and 11 smooth colonies). The effects of acid treatment at different pH values on the growth of two strains (“52” - rough and “PE-02” - smooth) as well as batch fermentation tests with cell recycling and acid treatment of the cells were also evaluated. Invasiveness in YPD Agar medium occurred at low frequency; ten of eleven rough yeasts exhibited flocculation; none of the strains showed killer activity; and the rough strains presented lower and slower fermentative capacities compared to the smooth strains in a 48-h cycle in a batch system with sugar cane juice. The growth of the rough strain was severely affected by the acid treatment at pH values of 1.0 and 1.5; however, the growth of the smooth strain was not affected. The fermentative efficiency in mixed fermentation (smooth and rough strains in the same cell mass proportion) did not differ from the efficiency obtained with the smooth strain alone, most likely because the acid treatment was conducted at pH 1.5 in a batch cell-recycle test. A fermentative efficiency as low as 60% was observed with the rough colony alone. PMID:24688501

  8. Do different probing depths exhibit striking differences in microbial profiles?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Chaparro, P Juliana; McCulloch, John Anthony; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Moraes, Aline da Costa Lima; Faveri, Marcelo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Feres, Magda

    2017-09-04

    To perform a thorough characterization of the subgingival microbiota of shallow, moderate and deep sites in subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP) MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subgingival samples were collected from subjects with ChP (n=3/category of probing depth: ≤3, 4-6 and ≥7 mm) and periodontal health (PH). Samples were individually analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and the sequences were analyzed using mothur and R packages RESULTS: Nine subjects with ChP and seven with PH were included and 101 samples were evaluated. Thirteen phyla, 118 genera and 211 OTUs were detected. Taxa from Chloroflexi and Spirochaetes phyla were associated with initial stages of disease. Fretibacterium, Eubacterium[XI][G-6], Desulfobulbus, Peptostreptococcaceae[XI][G-1] and [G-3], Bacteroidetes[G-3], Bacteroidaceae[G-1] genera and Filifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Johnsonella sp HOT166, Peptostreptococcaceae[XIII][G-1] HOT113, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Treponema sp. HOT258, which are not conventionally associated with disease, increased with the deepening of the pockets and/or were elevated in ChP; while Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Bergeyella genera were associated with PH (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Striking differences were observed between the microbiota of shallow and moderate/deep sites in ChP subjects. Differences between shallow sites in PH and ChP were also observed. The characterized microbiota included known oral microorganisms and newly identified periodontal taxa, some of them not-yet cultivated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

  10. CRSBP-1/LYVE-1-null Mice Exhibit Identifiable Morphological and Functional Alterations of Lymphatic Capillary Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuan S.; Liu, I-Hua; Smith, Tracy; Shah, Maulik R.; Johnson, Frank E.; Huang, Jung S.

    2010-01-01

    CRSBP-1, a membrane glycoprotein, can mediate cell-surface retention of secreted growth factors containing CRS motifs such as PDGF-BB. CRSBP-1 has recently been found to be identical to LYVE-1, a specific marker for lymphatic capillary endothelial cells. The in vivo role of CRSBP-1/LYVE-1 is unknown. CRSBP-1-null mice are overtly normal and fertile but exhibit identifiable morphological and functional alterations of lymphatic capillary vessels in certain tissues, marked by the constitutively increased interstitial-lymphatic flow and lack of typical irregularly-shaped lumens. The CRSBP-1 ligands PDGF-BB and HA enhance interstitial-lymphatic flow in wild-type mice but not in CRSBP-1-null animals. PMID:17070806

  11. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252, 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared to stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic suga...

  12. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as “Kalydeco.” Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. PMID:26209275

  13. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators.

  14. Assessment of Oral Reading Which Exhibits Dialect and Language Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberg, Walter J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes specific training, using taped readings, designed to prepare teachers to accurately assess the oral reading of students who exhibit dialect or second language influences in their speech. (MKM)

  15. Chlorella Virus Encoded Deoxyuridine triphosphatases Exhibit different Temperature Optima

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,Y.; Moriyama, H.; Homma, K.; Van Etten, J.

    2005-01-01

    A putative deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) gene from chlorella virus PBCV-1 was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein has dUTPase activity and requires Mg{sup 2+} for optimal activity, while it retains some activity in the presence of other divalent cations. Kinetic studies of the enzyme revealed a K{sub m} of 11.7 {mu}M, a turnover k{sub cat} of 6.8 s{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.8 x 105 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. dUTPase genes were cloned and expressed from two other chlorella viruses IL-3A and SH-6A. The two dUTPases have similar properties to PBCV-1 dUTPase except that IL-3A dUTPase has a lower temperature optimum (37{sup o}C) than PBCV-1 dUTPase (50{sup o}C). The IL-3A dUTPase differs from the PBCV-1 enzyme by nine amino acids, including two amino acid substitutions, Glu81{yields}Ser81 and Thr84{yields}Arg84, in the highly conserved motif III of the proteins. To investigate the difference in temperature optima between the two enzymes, homology modeling and docking simulations were conducted. The results of the simulation and comparisons of amino acid sequence suggest that adjacent amino acids are important in the temperature optima. To confirm this suggestion, three site-directed amino acid substitutions were made in the IL-3A enzyme: Thr84{yields}Arg84, Glu81{yields}Ser81, and Glu81{yields}Ser81 plus Thr84{yields}Arg84. The single substitutions affected the optimal temperature for enzyme activity. The temperature optimum increased from 37 to 55{sup o}C for the enzyme containing the two amino acid substitutions. We postulate that the change in temperature optimum is due to reduction in charge and balkiness in the active cavity that allows more movement of the ligand and protein before the enzyme and substrate complex is formed.

  16. Chlorella Virus-Encoded Deoxyuridine Triphosphatases Exhibit Different Temperature Optima

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanzheng; Moriyama, Hideaki; Homma, Kohei; Van Etten, James L.

    2005-01-01

    A putative deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) gene from chlorella virus PBCV-1 was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein has dUTPase activity and requires Mg2+ for optimal activity, while it retains some activity in the presence of other divalent cations. Kinetic studies of the enzyme revealed a Km of 11.7 μM, a turnover kcat of 6.8 s−1, and a catalytic efficiency of kcat/Km = 5.8 × 105 M−1 s−1. dUTPase genes were cloned and expressed from two other chlorella viruses IL-3A and SH-6A. The two dUTPases have similar properties to PBCV-1 dUTPase except that IL-3A dUTPase has a lower temperature optimum (37°C) than PBCV-1 dUTPase (50°C). The IL-3A dUTPase differs from the PBCV-1 enzyme by nine amino acids, including two amino acid substitutions, Glu81→Ser81 and Thr84→Arg84, in the highly conserved motif III of the proteins. To investigate the difference in temperature optima between the two enzymes, homology modeling and docking simulations were conducted. The results of the simulation and comparisons of amino acid sequence suggest that adjacent amino acids are important in the temperature optima. To confirm this suggestion, three site-directed amino acid substitutions were made in the IL-3A enzyme: Thr84→Arg84, Glu81→Ser81, and Glu81→Ser81 plus Thr84→Arg84. The single substitutions affected the optimal temperature for enzyme activity. The temperature optimum increased from 37 to 55°C for the enzyme containing the two amino acid substitutions. We postulate that the change in temperature optimum is due to reduction in charge and balkiness in the active cavity that allows more movement of the ligand and protein before the enzyme and substrate complex is formed. PMID:16014955

  17. Metre-long cell-laden microfibres exhibit tissue morphologies and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Okitsu, Teru; Itou, Akane; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Gojo, Riho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Miura, Shigenori; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Matsunaga, Yukiko T.; Shimoyama, Yuto; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-06-01

    Artificial reconstruction of fibre-shaped cellular constructs could greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro. Here we show that, by using a microfluidic device with double-coaxial laminar flow, metre-long core-shell hydrogel microfibres encapsulating ECM proteins and differentiated cells or somatic stem cells can be fabricated, and that the microfibres reconstitute intrinsic morphologies and functions of living tissues. We also show that these functional fibres can be assembled, by weaving and reeling, into macroscopic cellular structures with various spatial patterns. Moreover, fibres encapsulating primary pancreatic islet cells and transplanted through a microcatheter into the subrenal capsular space of diabetic mice normalized blood glucose concentrations for about two weeks. These microfibres may find use as templates for the reconstruction of fibre-shaped functional tissues that mimic muscle fibres, blood vessels or nerve networks in vivo.

  18. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum exhibits different patterns of nuclear division at different stages in its vegetative life cycle.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Francine H; Souza, Elaine A; Read, Nick D; Roca, M Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Live-cell imaging with fluorescent protein labeling is providing major new insights into nuclear dynamics in filamentous fungi. With this approach we provide a detailed report of nuclear organization and behavior during mitosis in the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nuclear division and nuclear migration were analyzed in ungerminated conidia, conidial germlings and the mature colony. Ungerminated conidia were uninucleate and completion of mitosis was found not to be essential for germ tube formation, conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) formation or fusion. Nuclei in fused conidial germlings exhibited asynchronous mitoses, and nuclear migration through fused CATs occurred after the nuclei had divided. Different patterns of nuclear division were found in vegetative hyphae of the mature colony. Synchronous, parasynchronous and asynchronous patterns of mitosis were observed in apical hyphal compartments at the colony border, while only synchronous and asynchronous mitoses occurred in subapical hyphal compartments. These findings have revealed unexpected diversity in the patterns of mitosis in different cells of C. lindemuthianum.

  19. Morphology and Phylogeny of Prorocentrum texanum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae): A New Toxic Dinoflagellate from the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Exhibiting Two Distinct Morphologies.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Darren W; Scott, Paula S; Steidinger, Karen A; Errera, Reagan M; Abraham, Ann; Campbell, Lisa

    2013-02-01

    A new planktonic species of Prorocentrum is described from the Gulf of Mexico. First observed with the Imaging FlowCytobot, Prorocentrum texanum sp. nov. was characterized using LM, SEM, and TEM along with sequencing of the SSU, LSU, and ITS ribosomal regions and the mitochondrial cob and cox1 regions. P. texanum sp. nov. is a round to oval bivalvate dinoflagellate, with a prominent anterior, serrated solid flange on periflagellar a platelet and an opposing short, flat flange on the h platelet. The periflagellar area consists of 10 platelets. Both left and right valves have shallow round depressions and two-sized valve pores. The anterior ejectosome pore pattern differs between the left and right valve in relation to the periflagellar area and margins. Ten to eleven rows of tangential ejectosome pores are present on each valve. P. texanum sp. nov. has two varieties which exhibit distinct morphotypes, one round to oval (var. texanum) and the other pointed (var. cuspidatum). P. texanum var. cuspidatum is morphologically similar to P. micans in surface markings, but is smaller, and has a serrated periflagellar flange, and is genetically distinct from P. micans. Cytologically, P. texanum has two parietal chlo-roplasts, each with a compound, interlamellar pyrenoid, trichocysts, fibrous vesicles that resemble mucocysts, pusules, V- to U-shaped posterior nucleus, golgi, and tubular mitochondria. No genetic difference was found between the two varieties in the five genes examined. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU, LSU, and ITS ribosomal regions place P. texanum sp. nov. as a sister group to P. micans. One isolate of P. texanum var. texanum produces okadaic acid.

  20. Morphologically different WO3 nanocrystals in photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Soumya Kanti; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kong, Ki-jeong; So, Won-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Different morphologies of WO3 nanocrystals such as nanorods and nanoplates have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions using ammonium metatungstate as the precursor in presence of different organic acids such as citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid in the reaction medium. Detailed characterization of the crystal structure, particle morphology, and optical band gap of the synthesized powders have been done by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state UV-visible spectroscopy study. The as-synthesized materials are WO3 hydrates with orthorhombic phase which transform to the hexagonal WO3 through dehydration upon heating at 350 °C. The resultant products are crystalline with nanoscale dimensions. Finally, the photoactivity of the synthesized materials annealed at 500 °C has been compared employing in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under the illumination of AM 1.5G simulated solar light (100 mWcm-2). The photocurrent measurements upon irradiation of light exhibit obvious photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent of about 0.77, 0.61, and 0.65 mAcm-2 for the WO3 film derived with the oxalic acid, tartaric, and citric acid assisting agents, respectively, at 1.8 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode.

  1. Educational Value of Different Types of Exhibits in an Interactive Science and Technology Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Ana S.; Gilbert, John K.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the short-term consequences of visitors' use of different types of exhibits (i.e., "exemplars of phenomena" and "analogy based") together with the factors affecting visitors' understanding of and their evaluation of the use of such exhibits. One hundred and twenty five visitors (either alone or in groups) were observed …

  2. Human dendritic cells and macrophages. In situ immunophenotypic definition of subsets that exhibit specific morphologic and microenvironmental characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G. S.; Turner, R. R.; Shiurba, R. A.; Eng, L.; Warnke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and antisera in situ, the authors have defined subsets of human dendritic cells and macrophages that exhibit specific morphologic and microenvironmental characteristics. All subsets contained cells that reacted with antibodies directed against HLA-A,B,C, HLA-Dr, leukocyte common, Leu-M3, and Leu-3(T4) antigens. R4/23 and anti-S100 defined three major subsets. R4/23+, S100- cells constituted the B-cell-related follicular dendritic cells, which were identified only within the germinal center/mantle microenvironment of lymphoid follicles. R4/23-, S100+ cells constituted the T-cell-related dendritic cell subset. Anti-Leu-6(T6) further subdivided this group into Leu-6(T6)- interdigitating cells within the T-cell microenvironments of lymphoid organs and Leu-6(T6)+ Langerhans cells found predominantly in epithelial microenvironments, especially the skin. R4/23-, S100- cells constituted the nondendritic tissue macrophage subset which was widely distributed, primarily outside of dendritic-cell microenvironments. These data indicate that although dendritic cells and macrophages share several common antigenic features, morphologically and microenvironmentally distinct subsets express distinct immunologic phenotypes. Such data may provide insight into the ontogeny and function of these subsets and constitute a basis for the comparison of normal dendritic cells and macrophages to various histiocytic proliferative disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p78-c Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3985124

  3. Soot Combustion over Nanostructured Ceria with Different Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liqiang; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nano-structure ceria with three different morphologies (nanorod, nanoparticle and flake) have been prepared by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. The ceria samples were deeply characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and in-situ DRIFTS, and tested for soot combustion in absence/presence NO atmospheres under loose and tight contact conditions. The prepared ceria samples exhibit excellent catalytic activities, especially, the CeO2 with nanorod (Ce-R) shows the best catalytic activity, for which the peak temperature of soot combustion (Tm) is about 500 and 368 °C in loose and tight contact conditions, respectively. The catalytic activity for Ce-R is higher than that of the reported CeO2 catalysts and reaches a level that of precious metals. The characterization results reveal that the maximal amounts of adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of the nanostructure Ce-R catalyst should be the crucial role to decide the catalytic soot performance. High BET surface area may also be a positive effect on soot oxidation activity under loose contact conditions. PMID:27353143

  4. Soot Combustion over Nanostructured Ceria with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liqiang; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-06-01

    In this study, nano-structure ceria with three different morphologies (nanorod, nanoparticle and flake) have been prepared by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. The ceria samples were deeply characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and in-situ DRIFTS, and tested for soot combustion in absence/presence NO atmospheres under loose and tight contact conditions. The prepared ceria samples exhibit excellent catalytic activities, especially, the CeO2 with nanorod (Ce-R) shows the best catalytic activity, for which the peak temperature of soot combustion (Tm) is about 500 and 368 °C in loose and tight contact conditions, respectively. The catalytic activity for Ce-R is higher than that of the reported CeO2 catalysts and reaches a level that of precious metals. The characterization results reveal that the maximal amounts of adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of the nanostructure Ce-R catalyst should be the crucial role to decide the catalytic soot performance. High BET surface area may also be a positive effect on soot oxidation activity under loose contact conditions.

  5. Soot Combustion over Nanostructured Ceria with Different Morphologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liqiang; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-06-29

    In this study, nano-structure ceria with three different morphologies (nanorod, nanoparticle and flake) have been prepared by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. The ceria samples were deeply characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and in-situ DRIFTS, and tested for soot combustion in absence/presence NO atmospheres under loose and tight contact conditions. The prepared ceria samples exhibit excellent catalytic activities, especially, the CeO2 with nanorod (Ce-R) shows the best catalytic activity, for which the peak temperature of soot combustion (Tm) is about 500 and 368 °C in loose and tight contact conditions, respectively. The catalytic activity for Ce-R is higher than that of the reported CeO2 catalysts and reaches a level that of precious metals. The characterization results reveal that the maximal amounts of adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of the nanostructure Ce-R catalyst should be the crucial role to decide the catalytic soot performance. High BET surface area may also be a positive effect on soot oxidation activity under loose contact conditions.

  6. Genes overexpressed in different human solid cancers exhibit different tissue-specific expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Lotem, Joseph; Sachs, Leo; Domany, Eytan

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed gene expression in different normal human tissues and different types of solid cancers derived from these tissues. The cancers analyzed include brain (astrocytoma and glioblastoma), breast, colon, endometrium, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, skin, and thyroid cancers. Comparing gene expression in each normal tissue to 12 other normal tissues, we identified 4,917 tissue-selective genes that were selectively expressed in different normal tissues. We also identified 2,929 genes that are overexpressed at least 4-fold in the cancers compared with the normal tissue from which these cancers were derived. The overlap between these two gene groups identified 1,340 tissue-selective genes that are overexpressed in cancers. Different types of cancers, including different brain cancers arising from the same lineage, showed differences in the tissue-selective genes they overexpressed. Melanomas overexpressed the highest number of brain-selective genes and this may contribute to melanoma metastasis to the brain. Of all of the genes with tissue-selective expression, those selectively expressed in testis showed the highest frequency of genes that are overexpressed in at least two types of cancer. However, colon and prostate cancers did not overexpress any testis-selective gene. Nearly all of the genes with tissue-selective expression that are overexpressed in cancers showed selective expression in tissues different from the cancers' tissue of origin. Cancers aberrantly expressing such genes may acquire phenotypic alterations that contribute to cancer cell viability, growth, and metastasis. PMID:17664417

  7. Making connections: Listening to visitor conversations at different styles of sea jelly exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, Tamara M.

    This study sought to determine what types of connections to prior experiences and knowledge were being made at two different styles of exhibits focusing on sea jellies. Family groups, consisting of one or two adults with one or two children aged 6-11, were audio recorded and tracked as they visited a view-only or touch pool sea jelly exhibit. A short interview was given after their visit to the sea jelly exhibit. The discourse from the exhibit and survey were coded for types of learning talk. Coding was also done to determine the inspiration for the connection and the subject of the connection (structural or behavioral). Visitors made connections regardless of the seajelly.exhibit design and results showed no differences in the type or frequency of the connections made. However, visitors were more likely to make connections on the subject of the sea jelly structure at the view only exhibit. Many of the connections, regardless of subject or inspiration, were metaphoric connections, demonstrating the importance of metaphors for making prior experience connections. Findings provide useful information for future aquarium practice.

  8. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the underlying cause of differences in pathogenicity of two Eimeria maxima strains (APU1 and APU2) observed during coccidiosis infection. At identical challenge doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared...

  9. Cephalometric Analysis of the Facial Skeletal Morphology of Female Patients Exhibiting Skeletal Class II Deformity with and without Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuo; Lei, Jie; Fu, Kai-Yuan; Wang, Xing; Yi, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the differences in the facial morphological characteristics of female patients exhibiting skeletal class II deformity with and without temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis. Methods Eighty-three female patients with skeletal class II deformity were included in this study; these patients were classified into three groups on the basis of the condylar features shown in cone-beam computed tomography scans: normal group, indeterminate for osteoarthrosis group, and osteoarthrosis group. The cephalometric differences among the three groups were evaluated through one-way ANOVA. Results Of the 83 patients, 52.4% were diagnosed with osteoarthrosis, as indicated by the changes in the condylar osseous component. The cephalometric measurements that represented skeletal characteristics, including mandibular position relative to the cranial base, mandibular plane angle (MP-SN), posterior facial height (S-Go), and facial height ratio, were significantly different among the three groups (p < 0.05). The patients in the osteoarthrosis group yielded the smallest S-Go, the highest MP-SN, and the most retruded mandible. Conclusions Temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis is commonly observed in female patients with skeletal class II deformity. The morphological characteristics of the facial skeleton in patients with bilateral condylar osteoarthrosis may be altered. PMID:26474490

  10. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Dubey, J P; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2017-03-15

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens were greater by a score of 1-1.5 compared to chickens infected with E. maxima APU2. Likewise, weight gain depression in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens was 20-25% greater (equivalent to 110-130g body weight) than in E. maxima APU2-infected chickens. In order to understand the underlying cause of these observed clinical effects, 120 broiler chicks (5 oocyst levels, 6 replicates/level) were inoculated with various doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts. The dynamics of oocyst shedding was investigated by collecting fecal material every 12h from 114 to 210h post-inoculation (p.i.) and every 24h thereafter from 210 to 306h, and then processed for measuring E. maxima oocyst output. Oocysts were first observed at 138h p.i., and time of peak oocyst production was nearly identical for both E. maxima APU1 and APU2 around 150-162h. Total oocyst production was 1.1-2.6 fold higher at all dose levels for E. maxima APU1 compared to E. maxima APU2, being significantly higher (P<0.05) at the log 1.5 dose level. Other groups of chickens were infected with higher doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts, and intestinal lesions were assessed by histology at 72, 96, 120, and 144h p.i. Although schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were observed at expected time-points, no obvious differences were noted in lesions induced by the two E. maxima strains. This study showed that the greater fecundity of E. maxima APU1 compared to E

  11. Photocatalytic activity of ZNO with different morphologies synthesized by a sonochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Yayapao, Oranuch; Thongtem, Somchai; Thongtem, Titipun

    2016-05-01

    Different morphologies of ZnO structures were successfully synthesized in precursor solutions with the pH of 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 by a sonochemical method at room temperature. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of ZnO samples with different morphologies were evaluated via the degradation of methylene blue (C16H18ClN3S). In this research, the flower-like ZnO sample of densely assembled nanoplates exhibited the highest photodegradation of 64% under UV light irradiation within 300 min.

  12. Different optical properties in different periodic slot cavity geometrical morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Shen, Meng; Du, Lan; Deng, Caisong; Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, optical properties of two-dimensional periodic annular slot cavity arrays in hexagonal close-packing on a silica substrate are theoretically characterized by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation method. By simulating reflectance spectra, electric field distribution, and charge distribution, we confirm that multiple cylindrical surface plasmon resonances can be excited in annular inclined slot cavities by linearly polarized light, in which the four reflectance dips are attributed to Fabry-Perot cavity resonances in the coaxial cavity. A coaxial waveguide mode TE11 will exist in these annular cavities, and the wavelengths of these reflectance dips are effectively tailored by changing the geometrical pattern of slot cavity and the dielectric materials filled in the cavities. These resonant wavelengths are localized in annular cavities with large electric field enhancement and dissipate gradually due to metal loss. The formation of an absorption peak can be explained from the aspect of phase matching conditions. We observed that the proposed structure can be tuned over the broad spectral range of 600-4000 nm by changing the outer and inner radii of the annular gaps, gap surface topography. Meanwhile, different lengths of the cavity may cause the shift of resonance dips. Also, we study the field enhancement at different vertical locations of the slit. In addition, dielectric materials filling in the annular gaps will result in a shift of the resonance wavelengths, which make the annular cavities good candidates for refractive index sensors. The refractive index sensitivity of annular cavities can also be tuned by the geometry size and the media around the cavity. Annular cavities with novel applications can be implied as surface enhanced Raman spectra substrates, refractive index sensors, nano-lasers, and optical trappers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61178044), the Natural Science Foundation

  13. Morphological Differences Between Radopholus citrophilus and R. similis.

    PubMed

    Huettel, R N; Yaegashi, T

    1988-01-01

    SEM observations of the external morphology of populations of Radopholus citrophilus and R. similis revealed several diagnostic differences. The cloaco-spicular orifice on males of R. citrophilus had three to seven genital papillae (anterior hypoptygmata), whereas males of R. similis were either smooth or had one or two shorter genital papillae (anterior hypoptygmata). Females of R. citrophilus had four annules in the region of the vulval opening, but R. similis had five annules in the same region. The labial disc and lateral lips appeared to be of diagnostic significance, but these areas were more susceptible to artifacts due to fixation. An unknown population of Radopholus from Puerto Rico with a chromosome number of n = 4 was morphologically similar to R. similis. These morphological differences provide additional support that R. citrophilus and R. similis are distinct species.

  14. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti B.; Nayak, Nadiya Bihary; Mallik, Rahul Kumar; Mondal, Aparna

    Different morphologies (spherical, flake and rod) of cobalt ferrite were synthesized using cobalt salt, iron salts, hydrazine hydrate (as a precipitating agent) and CTAB (surfactant) in water as well as ethylene glycol solvents. Four different synthesis ways (HIS, SIH, HISCO and HISG) were adopted to synthesize cobalt ferrite nanopowders using precipitation method. The as-prepared powders obtained after different synthesis ways were calcined at 800°C and structure, microstructure as well as magnetic properties are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and magnetization studies using pulsed field loop tracer were employed to characterize these cobalt ferrite powders, prepared using different precipitation ways. All the samples are identified with single phase cobalt ferrite and the crystallite size was found to be around 40 nm. Nearly spherical (multifaceted), rod with flake-like, nearly spherical and rod-like morphologies are obtained while synthesizing using HIS, SIH, HISCO and HISG ways, respectively. Rod with flake-like (SIH sample) and rod-like morphologies (HISG sample) show higher coercivity, than the spherical-like (SIH and HISCO smaples) morphology. The highest coericivty was found to be around 925 Oe for HISG sample and highest magnetization is 67 emu/g for HISCO sample.

  15. Morphological and karyotypic differences within and among populations of Radopholussimilis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yun; Xie, Hui; Huang, Xin; Wu, Wen-Jia; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Twenty populations of Radopholussimilis from three countries and different hosts (19 populations from ornamental plants and one population from ginger) were compared using morphological characters, morphometrics and karyotype between progeny from both single females and 30 females of each population. Morphological diversity existed in and among the populations, even within the progeny nematodes from single nematodes compared to that of 30 females. The labial disc shape, the number of head annuli, the terminated position of lateral lips, the number of genital papillae before cloacal apertures and female and male tail terminal shape showed variation. In addition, genital papillae arranged in a double row before cloacal apertures was first found in two ornamental populations. The karyotype of all the 20 populations was n = 5. Combining our results and previous studies, we support that Radopholuscitrophilus is a synonym of Radopholussimilis, and that it is not possible to distinguish physiological races or pathotypes of Radopholussimilis according to morphological characters or karyotype.

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Morphological Differences between Maize and Teosinte

    PubMed Central

    Doebley, J.; Stec, A.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular marker loci were used to investigate the inheritance of morphological traits that distinguish maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from a closely related wild relative, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana). Regression and interval mapping analyses gave largely congruent results concerning the numbers of loci controlling the morphological traits and the magnitudes of their effects; however, interval mapping tended to give larger estimates for the magnitudes of the effects of the morphological trait loci. This tendency was exaggerated for traits that were non-normally distributed. Variation for most inflorescence traits is controlled by one or two regions of the genome with large effects plus several other regions with relatively small effects. As such, the data are congruent with a mode of inheritance for most traits involving one or two major loci plus several minor loci. Regions of the genome with large effects on one trait consistently had smaller effects on several other traits, possibly as a result of pleiotropy. Most of the variation for the dramatic differences in inflorescence morphology between maize and teosinte is explained by five restricted regions of the genome. One of these regions encompasses a previously described gene, tb1 (teosinte branched), and the effects of this region on inflorescence architecture are similar to the known effects of tb1. Implications of this work for the genetic basis of morphological evolution in plants are discussed. PMID:1682215

  17. On the Non-Monotonic Variation of the Opposition Surge Morphology with Albedo Exhibited by Satellites' Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deau, E. A.; Spilker, L. J.; Flandes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We used well know phase functions of satellites and rings around the giant planets of our Solar System to study the morphology of the opposition effect (at phase angles alpha < 20 degrees. To avoid the effect of the variable finite size of the Sun, we use a deconvolution morphological model to retrieve the morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM). These parameters are found to have a non-monotonic variation with the single scattering albedo, similar to that observed in asteroids, which is unexplained so far. The non-monotonic variation is discussed in the framework of the coherent backscattering and shadow hiding mechanisms.

  18. Do different turbid media with matched bulk optical properties also exhibit similar polarization properties?

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Manzoor; Alali, Sanaz; Kim, Anthony; Wood, Michael F G; Ikram, Masroor; Vitkin, I Alex

    2011-12-01

    We here investigate polarimetric behavior of thick samples of porcine liver, Intralipid, and microsphere-based tissue phantoms whose absorption and scattering properties are matched. Using polarized light we measured reflection mode Mueller matrices and derived linear/circular/total depolarization rates, based on polar decomposition. According to our results, phantoms exhibit greater depolarization rates in the backscattering geometry than the liver sample. The enhanced tissue polarization preservation differs from previous reports of polarimetric transmission studies, with the likely cause of this difference being the angular dependence of the single-scattering phase function. Also, Intralipid approximated polarimetric liver behavior well, whereas the polystyrene phantoms did not.

  19. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2016-09-26

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Traveling Exhibitions as Sites for Informal Learning: Assessing Different Strategies with Field Trips to Traveling Exhibitions at Non-Museum Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harker, Richard J. W.; Badger, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of different pedagogical techniques to create an intellectually engaging experience for middle school students who visited a traveling exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum at a non-museum host site: the University of North Georgia Dahlonega's Library and Technology Center. The findings of this…

  1. Traveling Exhibitions as Sites for Informal Learning: Assessing Different Strategies with Field Trips to Traveling Exhibitions at Non-Museum Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harker, Richard J. W.; Badger, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of different pedagogical techniques to create an intellectually engaging experience for middle school students who visited a traveling exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum at a non-museum host site: the University of North Georgia Dahlonega's Library and Technology Center. The findings of this…

  2. Human cancer cells exhibit in vitro individual receptiveness towards different mistletoe extracts.

    PubMed

    Knöpfl-Sidler, F; Viviani, A; Rist, L; Hensel, A

    2005-06-01

    In vitro cytotoxic effects of three aqueous mistletoe extracts on cell physiology against different human tumor cell lines and primary cancer cells were investigated in order to compare the receptiveness of different cancer cells against different mistletoe products. Therefore cell proliferation (BrdU-incorporation assay), mitochondrial activity (MTT-testing) and necrotic cell toxicity (LDH assay) were assayed over serial dilutions of the test products. Data obtained with HELA-S3, MOLT-4, MFM-223, COR-L51, KPL-1 and VM-CUB1 tumor cell lines and Iscador M (20 mg/ml), Iscador Q (20 mg/ml) and Abnobaviscum Fraxini -2 (20 mg/ml) indicated significant growth-inhibition of all cell lines, but also different cell susceptibilities against the different extracts. These variations were not only monitored on established cell lines but also on primary mamma carcinoma cells from surgical resectates. Concerning cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity Abnobaviscum Fraxini exhibits stronger inhibitory effects compared to products from the Iscador series. In case the evaluation was standardized on the active contents of VAA-I within the different products, the Iscador extracts possess higher cytotoxic activity. Pure viscotoxins and mistletoe lectins exhibited less effects than the extracts. The simultaneous presence of pure mistletoe lectins and mistletoe polysaccharides diminished the VAA-mediated cytotoxic effects. The presence of fetal calf serum (FCS) in cultivation media during in vitro testing diminished the cytotoxic effects of mistletoe extracts. It was shown that in vivo application of mistletoe preparations led to the formation of antibodies against unknown compounds of the extracts, diminishing the cytotoxic effect.

  3. Gender and age related differences in foot morphology.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Amenta, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    This study has assessed age-related changes of foot morphology for developing appropriate footwear with particular reference to the elderly. Anatomical parameters such as foot length, circumference and height and ankle length, circumference and height were assessed in a sample of males (n=577) and females (n=528) divided into three age groups. The groups included young-adult, aged between 20 and 25 years; adult, aged between 35 and 55 years; and old, aged between 65 and 70 years individuals. In terms of gender differences, in young-adult individuals the sex-related morphological differences observed, are just related to a significantly lower length of foot in females. In adult subjects morphological parameters investigated were significantly lower in females even after normalization for foot length. In old individuals, no differences of the parameters were found after normalization for foot length. Comparative analysis of morphometric data between young-adult and adult individuals revealed that the instep length was smaller in adults. The opposite was observed for the great toe and medial foot arch height. Length of ankle was higher in adult than in young-adult individuals, whereas ankle circumference and height were smaller. In old vs adult individuals foot circumference showed the most relevant age-related differences. Feet anatomy presents specific characteristics in different ages of life. The ideal footwear should take into account these characteristics. This is true primarily for the elderly for minimizing the risk of falls or of other problems related to inappropriate footwear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Jews and Arabs in the same region in Israel exhibit major differences in dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Murad, Havi; Lubin, Flora; Freedman, Laurence S; Ziv, Arnona; Alpert, Gershon; Atamna, Ahmed; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2012-12-01

    The Jewish majority and Arab minority populations in Israel exhibit disparities in nutrition-related chronic diseases, but comparative, population-based dietary studies are lacking. We evaluated ethnic differences in dietary patterns in a population-based, cross-sectional study of Arab and Jewish urban adults (n = 1104; age 25-74 y). Dietary intake was assessed with an interviewer-administered, quantified FFQ. We used principal-component analysis to identify 4 major dietary patterns: Ethnic, Healthy, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Middle Eastern Snacks and Fast Food. The Ethnic and Healthy patterns exhibited major ethnic differences. Participants in the top Ethnic intake tertile (97% Arab) had modified Mediterranean-style Arabic dietary habits, whereas those in the bottom Ethnic tertile (98% Jewish) had central/northern European-style dietary habits. The Arab participants with less strongly ethnicity-associated dietary habits were younger [OR for 10-y decrease = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.21-1.68)] and male [OR = 2.23 (95% CI: 1.53-3.25)]. Jews with less strongly ethnicity-associated dietary habits were less recent immigrants [OR = 8.97 (95% CI: 5.05-15.92)], older [OR for 10-y decrease = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69-0.92)], had post-secondary education [OR = 2.04 (95% CI: 1.06-3.94)], and reported other healthy lifestyle behaviors. In relation to the Healthy pattern, Arabs were less likely than Jews to be in the top intake tertile, but the magnitude of the difference was less in diabetic participants. Participants reporting other healthy lifestyle behaviors were more likely to have a high intake of the Healthy pattern. Substantial differences were found between Arabs and Jews in dietary patterns and suggest a need for culturally congruent dietary interventions to address nutrition-related chronic disease disparities.

  5. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yang; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Zhiyong; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4years, 66±7.1kg & 1.68±0.13m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8years, 55±4.7kg & 1.6±0.11m) (Indians) and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6years, 66±8.2kg & 1.72±0.18m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5years, 54±5.6kg & 1.62±0.15m)(Chinese) participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system) to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians) for foot length (female p = 0.001), width (female p = 0.001), hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001) and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001) from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes. PMID:26148059

  6. Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax Isolates Exhibit Different Physiological and Expression Responses to n-dodecane

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Marta; Scoma, Alberto; Mapelli, Francesca; De Smet, Rebecca; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms inhabiting hydrocarbon polluted marine environments play a fundamental role in natural attenuation and constitute promising resources for bioremediation approaches. Alcanivorax spp. members are ubiquitous in contaminated surface waters and are the first to flourish on a wide range of alkanes after an oil-spill. Following oil contamination, a transient community of different Alcanivorax spp. develop, but whether they use a similar physiological, cellular and transcriptomic response to hydrocarbon substrates is unknown. In order to identify which cellular mechanisms are implicated in alkane degradation, we investigated the response of two isolates belonging to different Alcanivorax species, A. dieselolei KS 293 and A. borkumensis SK2 growing on n-dodecane (C12) or on pyruvate. Both strains were equally able to grow on C12 but they activated different strategies to exploit it as carbon and energy source. The membrane morphology and hydrophobicity of SK2 changed remarkably, from neat and hydrophilic on pyruvate to indented and hydrophobic on C12, while no changes were observed in KS 293. In addition, SK2 accumulated a massive amount of intracellular grains when growing on pyruvate, which might constitute a carbon reservoir. Furthermore, SK2 significantly decreased medium surface tension with respect to KS 293 when growing on C12, as a putative result of higher production of biosurfactants. The transcriptomic responses of the two isolates were also highly different. KS 293 changes were relatively balanced when growing on C12 with respect to pyruvate, giving almost the same amount of upregulated (28%), downregulated (37%) and equally regulated (36%) genes, while SK2 transcription was upregulated for most of the genes (81%) when growing on pyruvate when compared to C12. While both strains, having similar genomic background in genes related to hydrocarbon metabolism, retained the same capability to grow on C12, they nevertheless presented very

  7. Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax Isolates Exhibit Different Physiological and Expression Responses to n-dodecane.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Marta; Scoma, Alberto; Mapelli, Francesca; De Smet, Rebecca; Banat, Ibrahim M; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms inhabiting hydrocarbon polluted marine environments play a fundamental role in natural attenuation and constitute promising resources for bioremediation approaches. Alcanivorax spp. members are ubiquitous in contaminated surface waters and are the first to flourish on a wide range of alkanes after an oil-spill. Following oil contamination, a transient community of different Alcanivorax spp. develop, but whether they use a similar physiological, cellular and transcriptomic response to hydrocarbon substrates is unknown. In order to identify which cellular mechanisms are implicated in alkane degradation, we investigated the response of two isolates belonging to different Alcanivorax species, A. dieselolei KS 293 and A. borkumensis SK2 growing on n-dodecane (C12) or on pyruvate. Both strains were equally able to grow on C12 but they activated different strategies to exploit it as carbon and energy source. The membrane morphology and hydrophobicity of SK2 changed remarkably, from neat and hydrophilic on pyruvate to indented and hydrophobic on C12, while no changes were observed in KS 293. In addition, SK2 accumulated a massive amount of intracellular grains when growing on pyruvate, which might constitute a carbon reservoir. Furthermore, SK2 significantly decreased medium surface tension with respect to KS 293 when growing on C12, as a putative result of higher production of biosurfactants. The transcriptomic responses of the two isolates were also highly different. KS 293 changes were relatively balanced when growing on C12 with respect to pyruvate, giving almost the same amount of upregulated (28%), downregulated (37%) and equally regulated (36%) genes, while SK2 transcription was upregulated for most of the genes (81%) when growing on pyruvate when compared to C12. While both strains, having similar genomic background in genes related to hydrocarbon metabolism, retained the same capability to grow on C12, they nevertheless presented very

  8. Carbon Ion-Irradiated Hepatoma Cells Exhibit Coupling Interplay between Apoptotic Signaling and Morphological and Mechanical Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Li, Long; Li, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2016-01-01

    A apoptotic model was established based on the results of five hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines irradiated with carbon ions to investigate the coupling interplay between apoptotic signaling and morphological and mechanical cellular remodeling. The expression levels of key apoptotic proteins and the changes in morphological characteristics and mechanical properties were systematically examined in the irradiated HCC lines. We observed that caspase-3 was activated and that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased over time. Cellular morphology and mechanics analyses indicated monotonic decreases in spatial sizes, an increase in surface roughness, a considerable reduction in stiffness, and disassembly of the cytoskeletal architecture. A theoretical model of apoptosis revealed that mechanical changes in cells induce the characteristic cellular budding of apoptotic bodies. Statistical analysis indicated that the projected area, stiffness, and cytoskeletal density of the irradiated cells were positively correlated, whereas stiffness and caspase-3 expression were negatively correlated, suggesting a tight coupling interplay between the cellular structures, mechanical properties, and apoptotic protein levels. These results help to clarify a novel arbitration mechanism of cellular demise induced by carbon ions. This biomechanics strategy for evaluating apoptosis contributes to our understanding of cancer-killing mechanisms in the context of carbon ion radiotherapy. PMID:27731354

  9. Microscopy and Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy Characterization of Quartz Exhibiting Different Alkali-Silica Reaction Potential.

    PubMed

    Kuchařová, Aneta; Götze, Jens; Šachlová, Šárka; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Different quartz types from several localities in the Czech Republic and Sweden were examined by polarizing microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, spectroscopy, and petrographic image analysis, and tested by use of an accelerated mortar bar test (following ASTM C1260). The highest alkali-silica reaction potential was indicated by very fine-grained chert, containing significant amounts of fine-grained to cryptocrystalline matrix. The chert exhibited a dark red CL emission band at ~640 nm with a low intensity. Fine-grained orthoquartzites, as well as fine-grained metamorphic vein quartz, separated from phyllite exhibited medium expansion values. The orthoquartzites showed various CL of quartz grains, from blue through violet, red, and brown. Two CL spectral bands at ~450 and ~630 nm, with various intensities, were detected. The quartz from phyllite displayed an inhomogeneous dark red CL with two CL spectral bands of low intensities at ~460 and ~640 nm. The massive coarse-grained pegmatite quartz from pegmatite was assessed to be nonreactive and displayed a typical short-lived blue CL (~480 nm). The higher reactivity of the fine-grained hydrothermal quartz may be connected with high concentrations of defect centers, and probably with amorphized micro-regions in the quartz, respectively; indicated by a yellow CL emission (~570 nm).

  10. Three tetracyclic dibenzoazepine derivatives exhibiting different molecular conformations, different patterns of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and different modes of supramolecular aggregation.

    PubMed

    Mateus-Ruíz, Jeferson B; Acosta Quintero, Lina M; Palma, Alirio; Macías, Mario A; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The biological potential of compounds of the tricyclic dibenzo[b,e]azepine system has resulted in considerable synthetic efforts to develop efficient methods for the synthesis of new derivatives of this kind. (9RS,15RS)-9-Ethyl-11-methyl-9,13b-dihydrodibenzo[c,f]thiazolo[3,2-a]azepin-3(2H)-one, C19H19NOS, (I), crystallizes as a kryptoracemate with Z' = 2 in the space group P21, with one molecule each of the (9R,15R) and (9S,15S) configurations in the asymmetric unit, while (9RS,15RS)-9-ethyl-7,12-dimethyl-9,13b-dihydrodibenzo[c,f]thiazolo[3,2-a]azepin-3(2H)-one, C20H21NOS, (II), crystallizes with Z' = 1 in the space group C2/c. Ethyl (13RS)-2-chloro-13-ethyl-4-oxo-8,13-dihydro-4H-benzo[5,6]azepino[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-5-carboxylate, C22H20ClNO3, (III), exhibits enantiomeric disorder in the space group P-1 such that the reference site is occupied by the 13R and 13S enantiomers, with occupancies of 0.900 (6) and 0.100 (6). In each of the two independent molecules in (I), the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation, but the corresponding ring in (II) adopts a half-chair conformation, while the six-membered ring in the major form of (III) adopts a twist-boat conformation. The conformation of the seven-membered ring in each of (I), (II) and the major form of (III) approximates to the twist-boat form. The molecules of compound (I) are linked by two C-H...O hydrogen bonds to form two independent antiparallel C(5) chains, with each type containing only one enantiomer. These chains are linked into sheets by two C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds, in which the two donors are both provided by the (9R,15R) enantiomer and the two acceptor arene rings form part of a molecule of (9S,15S) configuration, precluding any additional crystallographic symmetry. The molecules of compound (II) are linked by inversion-related C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds to form isolated cyclic centrosymmetric dimers. The molecules of compound (III) are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers

  11. Functional and morphological differences between human alveolar and interstitial macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fathi, M; Johansson, A; Lundborg, M; Orre, L; Sköld, C M; Camner, P

    2001-04-01

    Macrophages play an essential role in pulmonary host defense. They are, however, a heterogeneous cell population located in different lung compartments. This study was designed to elucidate differences between two macrophage populations obtained from the human lung, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AM) and interstitial macrophages (IM). Macroscopically tumor-free lung segments from nine patients undergoing lobectomy or pulmectomy were studied. All patients had a diagnosis of primary lung cancer. AM were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage and IM were isolated by mechanical fragmentation of the lavaged lung segments followed by enzymatic treatment. The cell fractions were analyzed with respect to morphology (transmission electron microscopy) and function (phagocytosis). The cells in the IM fraction were smaller (7.6 +/- 1.8 microm (mean +/- SD) compared with 16.0 +/- 4.1 microm) and morphologically more heterogeneous than those in the AM fraction. Interestingly, a considerable portion of the cells in the IM fraction had a typical AM-like appearance. Despite this, the AM fraction had a higher phagocytic activity compared to IM, with faster attachment and ingestion processes (P <0.001 for both). We conclude that the heterogeneity of human lung macrophages must be taken into consideration when their role in the inflammatory response is studied.

  12. Pain and Personality: Do Individuals with Different Forms of Chronic Pain Exhibit a Mutual Personality?

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2016-04-01

    The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis and E. coli Lipopolysaccharide Exhibit Different Systemic but Similar Local Induction of Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rongkun; Desta, Tesfahun; Raptis, Markos; Darveau, Richard P.; Graves, Dana T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative bacterium that is an important etiologic agent of human adult periodontitis. The goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that two different isoforms, PgLPS1435/1449 and PgLPS1690 exhibit differences in their capacity to stimulate systemic versus local responses compared to E. coli LPS. Methods Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was inoculated into the scalp of mice and the response was measured locally at the site of site of inoculation and systemically in the heart/aorta. VCAM-1 was assessed at the protein level by ELISA and VCAM-1, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 at the RNA level of RNase protection assay. Serum TNF-α levels were also measured. Results E. coli LPS and both isoforms of P. gingivalis LPS groups were relatively potent in stimulating expression of inflammatory markers with E. coli LPS being somewhat more potent. In contrast, when the systemic response was measured in the heart/aorta, E. coli but not P. gingivalis LPS significantly induced inflammatory markers. At moderate to low doses (1 and 10 ug per injection) serum TNF–α levels were minimally induced by P. gingivalis LPS compared to E. coli LPS. Conclusion The results indicate that both forms of P. gingivalis LPS stimulate an inflammatory response when injected into connective tissue but are minimally stimulatory when a systemic response is measured. In contrast E. coli LPS is a potent stimulus at both the systemic and local level. PMID:18597607

  14. Sprague-Dawley rats obtained from different vendors exhibit distinct adrenocorticotropin responses to inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, A V; Rivier, C L

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), corticosterone and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses that rats of the outbred Sprague-Dawley strain obtained from two different vendors: Charles River (CR) and Harlan (HSD). Basal plasma ACTH and IL-6 concentrations were similar in rats from either vendor (HSD or CR), while CR animals exhibited slightly elevated corticosterone levels in late afternoon. Inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 microgram/kg, i.v.) or turpentine (50 microliter/100 g, i.m.) which induce the production of endogenous cytokines, produced a significantly larger ACTH response in CR, compared to HSD rats, while the overall corticosterone responses were comparable in both rat groups. This could probably not be accounted for by a greater ACTH responsiveness in CR rats per se because CR and HSD rats showed similar peak ACTH responses to electrofootshock. Furthermore, in contrast to when the stimulus was one that induced endogenous cytokine production, the administration of exogenous interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, 200 ng/kg, i.v.) produced a 2-fold greater rise in plasma ACTH concentrations in HSD rats compared to CR rats. The plasma IL-6 responses to the inflammatory stimuli showed a similar pattern to ACTH, with LPS and turpentine tending to pruduce greater IL-6 responses in CR rats, though these differences were not statistically significant. In contrast HSD rats had a significantly greater IL-6 response to IL-1beta than did CR rats. Collectively, these results show that Sprague-Dawley rats obtained from different commercial sources can differ in immune-neuroendocrine responses to inflammatory stimuli.

  15. Is supramolecular filament chirality the underlying cause of major morphology differences in amyloid fibrils?

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Lu, Xuefang; Popova, Ludmila; Wan, William; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; Stubbs, Gerald; Dukor, Rina K; Lednev, Igor K; Nafie, Laurence A

    2014-02-12

    The unique enhanced sensitivity of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) to the formation and development of amyloid fibrils in solution is extended to four additional fibril-forming proteins or peptides where it is shown that the sign of the fibril VCD pattern correlates with the sense of supramolecular filament chirality and, without exception, to the dominant fibril morphology as observed in AFM or SEM images. Previously for insulin, it has been demonstrated that the sign of the VCD band pattern from filament chirality can be controlled by adjusting the pH of the incubating solution, above pH 2 for "normal" left-hand-helical filaments and below pH 2 for "reversed" right-hand-helical filaments. From AFM or SEM images, left-helical filaments form multifilament braids of left-twisted fibrils while the right-helical filaments form parallel filament rows of fibrils with a flat tape-like morphology, the two major classes of fibril morphology that from deep UV resonance Raman scattering exhibit the same cross-β-core secondary structure. Here we investigate whether fibril supramolecular chirality is the underlying cause of the major morphology differences in all amyloid fibrils by showing that the morphology (twisted versus flat) of fibrils of lysozyme, apo-α-lactalbumin, HET-s (218-289) prion, and a short polypeptide fragment of transthyretin, TTR (105-115), directly correlates to their supramolecular chirality as revealed by VCD. The result is strong evidence that the chiral supramolecular organization of filaments is the principal underlying cause of the morphological heterogeneity of amyloid fibrils. Because fibril morphology is linked to cell toxicity, the chirality of amyloid aggregates should be explored in the widely used in vitro models of amyloid-associated diseases.

  16. Morphological differences of elite Croatian track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Vucetić, Vlatko; Matković, Branka R; Sentija, Davor

    2008-09-01

    In this study we present the morphological characteristics of 54 Croatian national level track-and-field athletes. 21 anthropometric body measures were taken on a sample of 15 sprinters (S), 16 endurance sprinters (S4), 10 middle-distance runners (MD) and 13 long-distance runners (LD). Body fat percentage, body mass index and somatotype were also calculated. Canonical discriminative analysis showed significant difference between the athletes of various running events, in the measures of body volume and body fat, while no significant difference was found in the variables of longitudinal and transversal dimensions of the skeleton. ANOVA and Student t-test for independent samples showed statistically significantly higher thigh and lower leg circumference in sprinters, as well as greater upper arm skinfold in middle-distance runners. The mesomorphic component is a dominant characteristic of somatotype of the runners in all events, whereas the ectomorphic component is the least marked.

  17. Morphological development of Morchella conica mycelium on different agar media.

    PubMed

    Guler, P; Ozkaya, E G

    2009-07-01

    The present study presents the development of mycelium of Morchella conica where different concentration of sucrose added at different agar media. For this sucrose have been added as 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25% concentration to wheat agar potato dextrose agar malt extract agar and complete medium yeast agar The radial growth speed, morphologic specifications, radial growth radius and pigmentation of mycelium were taken as criteria, the development period of mycelium in wheat agar was completed in 4 days and mycelium were very thin. The colonization period of the mycelium was determined; 7 days in potato dextrose agar 5 days in malt extract agar and 5 days at complete medium yeast agar. The development of the mycelium; at potato dextrose agar was dense and circular; at malt extract agar and at completed medium yeast agar was rhizomorphic. Mycelium has developed very well at sucrose medium and formed creamy and light yellow pigmentation.

  18. Formation of magnesium fluoride particles of different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Sevonkaev, Igor; Matijević, Egon

    2009-09-15

    Uniform dispersions of magnesium fluoride particles of different morphologies were prepared by precipitation in aqueous solutions. The resulting cubic, prismatic, and platelet-like nanosize solids had single crystal structure with X-ray pattern characteristic of the mineral sellaite. In contrast, two kinds of polycrystalline MgF2 spheres were obtained by aggregation of the nanosize subunits. The mechanisms of the formation of the resulting particles of different shapes are explained by the role of the pH and ionic strength. In addition, for prospective numerical modeling the surface tension of spherical and platelet particles of MgF2 was evaluated from the X-ray data by a lattice parameter change method.

  19. Men with a complete absence of normal sperm morphology exhibit high rates of success without assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Cajipe, Miguel; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2017-01-01

    In couples with infertility, abnormal strict morphology of 0% normal forms (NF) is a criterion to proceed rapidly to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Since no data currently exist, we investigated the outcomes for men with 0% NF to determine reproductive success without the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A cohort of 24 men with 0% NF were identified (2010–2013) with 27 randomly selected men with ≥4% NF as controls. Patient charts were reviewed with men contacted and administered an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved telephone questionnaire to ascertain outcomes. After a median follow-up time of 2.5 years, 29.2% of men with 0% NF did not require ART for their first pregnancy (controls = 55.6%, P ≤ 0.05). When all pregnancies were analyzed together, men with 0% NF achieved twenty pregnancies of which 75% did not require IVF (controls = thirty pregnancies; 76.7% did not require IVF). The average age of men and female partners was similar between men with 0% NF and ≥4% NF. All men had normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol. Although, global semen parameters were worse in men with 0% NF, when a first pregnancy was a natural conception (NC), 100% of men with 0% NF (n = 7/7) and 37.5% of controls (n = 3/8) went on to have a subsequent pregnancy via NC. Men with 0% NF conceived without IVF in 29.2% of cases compared to 55.6% of controls. Strict morphology should not be used to predict fertilization, pregnancy, or live birth potential. In men with 0% NF, alternative modalities should be considered before immediate IVF. PMID:27751992

  20. Men with a complete absence of normal sperm morphology exhibit high rates of success without assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Cajipe, Miguel; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2017-01-01

    In couples with infertility, abnormal strict morphology of 0% normal forms (NF) is a criterion to proceed rapidly to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Since no data currently exist, we investigated the outcomes for men with 0% NF to determine reproductive success without the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A cohort of 24 men with 0% NF were identified (2010-2013) with 27 randomly selected men with ≥4% NF as controls. Patient charts were reviewed with men contacted and administered an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved telephone questionnaire to ascertain outcomes. After a median follow-up time of 2.5 years, 29.2% of men with 0% NF did not require ART for their first pregnancy (controls = 55.6%, P ≤ 0.05). When all pregnancies were analyzed together, men with 0% NF achieved twenty pregnancies of which 75% did not require IVF (controls = thirty pregnancies; 76.7% did not require IVF). The average age of men and female partners was similar between men with 0% NF and ≥4% NF. All men had normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol. Although, global semen parameters were worse in men with 0% NF, when a first pregnancy was a natural conception (NC), 100% of men with 0% NF (n = 7/7) and 37.5% of controls (n = 3/8) went on to have a subsequent pregnancy via NC. Men with 0% NF conceived without IVF in 29.2% of cases compared to 55.6% of controls. Strict morphology should not be used to predict fertilization, pregnancy, or live birth potential. In men with 0% NF, alternative modalities should be considered before immediate IVF.

  1. Do Young and Old Preschoolers Exhibit Response Bias Due to Different Mechanisms? Investigating Children's Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that younger preschoolers exhibit a yes bias due to underdeveloped cognitive abilities, whereas older preschoolers exhibit a response bias due to other factors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the response latency to yes-no questions pertaining to familiar and unfamiliar objects in 3- to 6-year-olds. The…

  2. Do Young and Old Preschoolers Exhibit Response Bias Due to Different Mechanisms? Investigating Children's Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that younger preschoolers exhibit a yes bias due to underdeveloped cognitive abilities, whereas older preschoolers exhibit a response bias due to other factors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the response latency to yes-no questions pertaining to familiar and unfamiliar objects in 3- to 6-year-olds. The…

  3. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little

  4. Adolescents exhibit behavioral differences from adults during instrumental learning and extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sturman, David A.; Mandell, Daniel R.; Moghaddam, Bita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with the development of brain regions linked to cognition and emotion. Such changes are thought to contribute to the behavioral and neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities of this period. We compared adolescent (P28-42) and adult (P60+) rats as they performed a simple instrumental task and extinction. Animals were trained to poke into a hole for a food-pellet reinforcer. After six days of training, animals underwent extinction sessions in which the previously rewarded behavior was no longer reinforced. During extinction we examined the effects of continued presentation of a cue light and food restriction. Adults and adolescents exhibited similar performance during training, although adolescents made more task-irrelevant pokes, consistent with increased exploration. Adults made more premature pokes, which could indicate a more exclusive focus on the task. During extinction, adolescents made more perseverative (previously reinforced) pokes than adults. This behavior was strongly modulated by the combination of motivational factors present (food restriction and cue light), indicating that adolescents were differentially sensitive to them. Furthermore, food restriction induced greater open-field activity in adolescents but not adults. Thus, as the neural circuitry of motivated behavior develops substantially during adolescence, so too does the behavioral sensitivity to motivational factors. Understanding how such factors differently affect adolescents may shed light on mechanisms that lead to the development of disorders that are manifested during this period. PMID:20141277

  5. Three scrapie prion isolates exhibit different accumulation patterns of the prion protein scrapie isoform.

    PubMed Central

    DeArmond, S J; Yang, S L; Lee, A; Bowler, R; Taraboulos, A; Groth, D; Prusiner, S B

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of prion diversity, we inoculated transgenic mice expressing the Syrian hamster prion protein (PrP) with three distinct prion isolates. We compared the three isolates designated Sc237, 139H, and Me7H in Tg(SHaPrP)7 mice with clinical signs of scrapie because the incubation times with these mice are considerably shorter than the times found with hamsters. Each prion isolate produced a distinctive pattern of the scrapie isoform of PrP (PrPSc) accumulation, as determined by histoblotting, a technique developed for the regional mapping of PrPSc deposition. The PrPSc pattern with the Me7H isolate was particularly interesting because it appeared to be confined to the hypothalamus and related structures--including the interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and periaqueductal grey. Additionally, the regions of PrPSc accumulation remained highly restricted, even though the incubation time for Me7H scrapie was significantly longer than with Sc237 and 139H isolates. Neuropathological changes characterized by neuronal vacuolation and astrocytic gliosis were confined to those regions where PrPSc accumulated. These findings argue that the cell-specific propagation of prion isolates may be responsible for different properties exhibited by each of the isolates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8101989

  6. Lean and obese pig breeds exhibit differences in prenatal gene expression profiles of muscle development.

    PubMed

    Yang, X R; Yu, B; Mao, X B; Zheng, P; He, J; Yu, J; He, Y; Reecy, J M; Chen, D W

    2015-01-01

    Muscle development in domesticated animals is important for meat production. Furthermore, intramuscular fat content is an important trait of meat intended for consumption. Here, we examined differences in the expression of factors related to myogenesis, adipogenesis and skeletal muscle growth during fetal muscle development of lean (Yorkshire) and obese (Chenghua) pig breeds. At prenatal days 50 (d50) and 90 (d90), muscles and sera were collected from pig fetuses. Histology revealed larger diameters and numbers of myofibers in Chenghua pig fetuses than those in Yorkshire pig fetuses at d50 and d90. Yorkshire fetuses had higher serum concentrations of myostatin (d90), a negative regulator for muscle development, and higher mRNA expression of the growth hormone receptor Ghr (d90), myogenic MyoG (d90) and adipogenic LPL (d50). By contrast, Chenghua fetuses exhibited higher serum concentration of growth hormone (d90), and higher mRNA expression of myogenic MyoD (d90) as well as adipogenic PPARG and FABP4 (d50). Our results revealed distinct expression patterns in the two pig breeds at each developmental stage before birth. Compared with Chenghua pigs, development and maturation of fetal skeletal muscles may occur earlier in Yorkshire pigs, but the negative regulatory effects of myostatin may suppress muscle development at the later stage.

  7. Adolescents exhibit behavioral differences from adults during instrumental learning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Sturman, David A; Mandell, Daniel R; Moghaddam, Bita

    2010-02-01

    Adolescence is associated with the development of brain regions linked to cognition and emotion. Such changes are thought to contribute to the behavioral and neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities of this period. We compared adolescent (Postnatal Days 28-42) and adult (Postnatal Day 60+) rats as they performed a simple instrumental task and extinction. Rats were trained to poke into a hole for a food-pellet reinforcer. After six days of training, rats underwent extinction sessions in which the previously rewarded behavior was no longer reinforced. During extinction, we examined the effects of continued presentation of a cue light and food restriction. Adults and adolescents exhibited similar performance during training, although adolescents made more task-irrelevant pokes, consistent with increased exploration. Adults made more premature pokes, which could indicate a more exclusive focus on the task. During extinction, adolescents made more perseverative (previously reinforced) pokes than adults. This behavior was strongly modulated by the combination of motivational factors present (food restriction and cue light), indicating that adolescents were differentially sensitive to them. Furthermore, food restriction induced greater open-field activity in adolescents but not in adults. Thus, as the neural circuitry of motivated behavior develops substantially during adolescence, so too does the behavioral sensitivity to motivational factors. Understanding how such factors differently affect adolescents may shed light on mechanisms that lead to the development of disorders that are manifested during this period.

  8. Diblock copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) exhibiting unique three-phase microdomain morphologies

    DOE PAGES

    Misichronis, Konstantinos; Chen, Jihua; Kahk, Jong K.; ...

    2016-03-29

    Here, the synthesis and molecular characterization of a series of conformationally asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PS-b-PCHD) diblock copolymers (PCHD: ~90% 1,4 and ~10% 1,2), by sequential anionic copolymerization high vacuum techniques, is reported. A wide range of volume fractions (0.27 ≤ ΦPS ≤ 0.91) was studied by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering in order to explore in detail the microphase separation behavior of these flexible/semiflexible diblock copolymers. Unusual morphologies, consisting of PCHD core(PCHD-1,4)–shell(PCHD-1,2) cylinders in PS matrix and three-phase (PS, PCHD-1,4, PCHD-1,2) four-layer lamellae, were observed suggesting that the chain stiffness of the PCHD block and the strong dependence ofmore » the interaction parameter χ on the PCHD microstructures are important factors for the formation of this unusual microphase separation behavior in PS-b-PCHD diblock copolymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 1564–1572« less

  9. Diblock copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) exhibiting unique three-phase microdomain morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Misichronis, Konstantinos; Chen, Jihua; Kahk, Jong K.; Imel, Adam; Dadmun, Mark; Hong, Kunlun; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Mays, Jimmy W.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    2016-03-29

    Here, the synthesis and molecular characterization of a series of conformationally asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PS-b-PCHD) diblock copolymers (PCHD: ~90% 1,4 and ~10% 1,2), by sequential anionic copolymerization high vacuum techniques, is reported. A wide range of volume fractions (0.27 ≤ ΦPS ≤ 0.91) was studied by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering in order to explore in detail the microphase separation behavior of these flexible/semiflexible diblock copolymers. Unusual morphologies, consisting of PCHD core(PCHD-1,4)–shell(PCHD-1,2) cylinders in PS matrix and three-phase (PS, PCHD-1,4, PCHD-1,2) four-layer lamellae, were observed suggesting that the chain stiffness of the PCHD block and the strong dependence of the interaction parameter χ on the PCHD microstructures are important factors for the formation of this unusual microphase separation behavior in PS-b-PCHD diblock copolymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 1564–1572

  10. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  11. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase-1 null mice exhibit hearing impairment and abnormal morphology of the middle ear bone joints

    PubMed Central

    Pokidysheva, Elena; Tufa, Sara; Bresee, Chris; Brigande, John V.; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prolyl 3-hydroxylase1 (P3H1) is a collagen modifying enzyme which hydroxylates certain prolines in the Xaa position of conventional GlyXaaYaa triple helical sequence. Recent investigations have revealed that mutations in the LEPRE1 (gene encoding for P3H1) cause severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in humans. Similarly LEPRE1 knockout mice display an OI-like phenotype. Significant hearing loss is a common problem for people with osteogenesis imperfecta. Here we report that hearing of the P3H1 null mice is substantially affected. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) of the P3H1 null mice show an average increase of 20–30 dB in auditory thresholds. Three dimensional reconstructions of the mutant middle ear bones by Micro-scale X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT) demonstrate abnormal morphology of the incudostapedial and incudomalleal joints. We establish the LEPRE1 knockout mouse as a valuable model system to investigate the mechanism of hearing loss in recessive OI. PMID:23186870

  12. pSTAT5 and ERK exhibit different expression in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska-Chudy, Ewa; Szylberg, Łukasz; Dworacki, Grzegorz; Mizera-Nyczak, Ewa; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic progenitor cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more hematopoietic lineages. The classical MPNs include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) entities. These disorders are characterized by bone marrow morphology typical for each disease, and by the presence of JAK2V617F mutation in the marrow and blood. However, JAK2V617F cannot account for the phenotypic heterogeneity of MPNs because approximately half of all cases of ET and PMF show no evidence of this molecular marker. Therefore, the search for novel markers of these diseases is necessary to improve pathomorphological and molecular diagnostics. This study aimed to investigate the changes in expression patterns of the proteins STAT5 (the signal transducers and activators of transcription 5) and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in bone marrow trephine specimens, derived both from patients with wild-type and mutant (V617F) forms of JAK2 kinase. Furthermore, the changes in STAT5 and ERK2 gene expression levels in the same patients were also investigated. The results of our immunohistochemical, immunoblotting and RT-qPCR studies revealed at least four major unique features of three types of MPNs. These include: i) more pronounced expression of phosphoSTAT5 protein in patients with JAK2V617F mutation compared to patients with wild-type of JAK2 kinase ii) different expression pattern of pSTAT5 in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes and other bone marrow cells; iii) approximately 5-fold higher expression level of STAT5a gene in PV in comparison to patients with PMF and approximately 2-fold higher than in ET patients; iv) different, intracellular expression patterns of ERK2 and ERK1/2 antigens allowed to distinguish each subtype of MPN. These abnormalities in expression patterns of STAT5 and ERK proteins and genes provide some novel molecular features of MPNs and

  13. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A. ); Gaynor, R.B. Wadsworth Veterans Hospital, Los Angeles, CA )

    1988-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses.

  14. Polymorphic Variants of Human Rhodanese Exhibit Differences in Thermal Stability and Sulfur Transfer Kinetics*

    PubMed Central

    Libiad, Marouane; Sriraman, Anusha; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Rhodanese is a component of the mitochondrial H2S oxidation pathway. Rhodanese catalyzes the transfer of sulfane sulfur from glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to sulfite generating thiosulfate and from thiosulfate to cyanide generating thiocyanate. Two polymorphic variations have been identified in the rhodanese coding sequence in the French Caucasian population. The first, 306A→C, has an allelic frequency of 1% and results in an E102D substitution in the encoded protein. The second polymorphism, 853C→G, has an allelic frequency of 5% and leads to a P285A substitution. In this study, we have examined differences in the stability between wild-type rhodanese and the E102D and P285A variants and in the kinetics of the sulfur transfer reactions. The Asp-102 and Ala-285 variants are more stable than wild-type rhodanese and exhibit kcat/Km,CN values that are 17- and 1.6-fold higher, respectively. All three rhodanese forms preferentially catalyze sulfur transfer from GSSH to sulfite, generating thiosulfate and glutathione. The kcat/Km,sulfite values for the variants in the sulfur transfer reaction from GSSH to sulfite were 1.6- (Asp-102) and 4-fold (Ala-285) lower than for wild-type rhodanese, whereas the kcat/Km,GSSH values were similar for all three enzymes. Thiosulfate-dependent H2S production in murine liver lysate is low, consistent with a role for rhodanese in sulfide oxidation. Our studies show that polymorphic variations that are distant from the active site differentially modulate the sulfurtransferase activity of human rhodanese to cyanide versus sulfite and might be important in differences in susceptibility to diseases where rhodanese dysfunction has been implicated, e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26269602

  15. Barchan dunes morphology dynamics under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzewski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to emphasize significance of diversified dynamics of barchans dune morphology. We analyzed and compared barchans found in two dune fields: Kharga (S Egypt) and Tarfaya-Laâyoune (S-Morocco). These dune fields are characterized by significantly different factors responsible for dunes development e.g. textural and mineralogical composition of dune sand, dune sand moisture, air humidity, inter dune vegetation cover. For each investigated dune filed and study period (2008, 2010, 2012 for Kharga and 2007, 2011, 2012 for Tarfaya-Laâyoune dune fields) detailed shape measurement of 20 simple isolated barchans of different dune sizes was made. The ± 10-2 m horizontal and ± 1,5 10-2m vertical accuracy was obtained (1 measuring point per 1m2 on average).In order to compare barchan dunes morphology and to determine depositional and erosional patterns, the 3D models were created. For better understanding of this processes, sand bulk density of barchan surface was measured (1 measuring point per 2m2 on average). The velocity of dunes in relation to dune shape was also analyzed. The results show that the relationship between typically correlated parameters change during movement of the barchans. Most values change by a few percent per year (slip face height, dune base area and dune volume) or by a dozen or so percent per year (windward side length, horns length and width). We obtain good linear relationship (with 0,05 significant level) between slip face height and the dune base area (0,77 < R2 < 0,83), dune volume (0,66 < R2 < 0,72), windward side length (0,58 < R2 < 0,87), horns length (0,71 < R2 < 0,90) or horns width (0,79 < R2 < 0,93). The linear relationship between displacement rate and the morphological parameters is not strong (0,54< R2 < 0,81) for Kharga dune field and (0,41< R2 < 0,66) for Tarfaya-Laâyoune dune field. We noted also good linear relationship between displacement rate and the angle of span of the horns (R2=0,73 on Tarfaya

  16. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) interacting proteins exhibit different expression patterns during development.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, C M; Spatuzza, M; Di Marco, B; Gloria, A; Barrancotto, G; Cupo, A; Musumeci, S A; D'Antoni, S; Bardoni, B; Catania, M V

    2015-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the lack of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and translation. FMRP is a component of mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes and it can interact with a range of proteins either directly or indirectly, as demonstrated by two-hybrid selection and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. Most of FMRP-interacting proteins are RNA-binding proteins such as FXR1P, FXR2P and 82-FIP. Interestingly, FMRP can also interact directly with the cytoplasmic proteins CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, which do not bind RNA and link FMRP to the RhoGTPase pathway. The interaction with these different proteins may modulate the functions of FMRP by influencing its affinity to RNA and by affecting the FMRP ability of cytoskeleton remodeling through Rho/Rac GTPases. To better define the relationship of FMRP with its interacting proteins during brain development, we have analyzed the expression pattern of FMRP and its interacting proteins in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum at different ages in wild type (WT) mice. FMRP and FXR2P were strongly expressed during the first week and gradually decreased thereafter, more rapidly in the cerebellum than in the cortex. FXR1P was also expressed early and showed a reduction at later stages of development with a similar developmental pattern in these two regions. CYFIP1 was expressed at all ages and peaked in the third post-natal week. In contrast, CYFIP2 and 82-FIP (only in forebrain regions) were moderately expressed at P3 and gradually increased after P7. In general, the expression pattern of each protein was similar in the regions examined, except for 82-FIP, which exhibited a strong expression at P3 and low levels at later developmental stages in the cerebellum. Our data indicate that FMRP and its interacting proteins have distinct developmental patterns of expression and suggest that FMRP may be preferentially associated to certain proteins in

  17. Differences in Lateral Line Morphology between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences. PMID:23554988

  18. Differences in lateral line morphology between hatchery- and wild-origin steelhead.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences.

  19. Allelic variation of melanocortin-1 receptor locus in Saudi indigenous sheep exhibiting different color coats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Mashaly, Ashraf M.; Rady, Ahmed M.; Al-Anazi, Khalid M.; Saleh, Amgad A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to characterize the DNA polymorphisms of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene in indigenous Saudi Arabian sheep breeds exhibiting different color coats, along with individuals of the Sawaknee breed, an exotic sheep imported from Sudan. Methods The complete coding region of MC1R gene including parts of 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions was amplified and sequenced from three the indigenous Saudi sheep; Najdi (generally black, n = 41), Naeimi (generally white with brown faces, n = 36) and Herri (generally white, n = 18), in addition to 13 Sawaknee sheep. Results Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the MC1R gene: two led to nonsynonymous mutations (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys and c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn) and three led to synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu, and c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile). Based on these five SNPs, eight haplotypes representing MC1R Ed and E+ alleles were identified among the studied sheep breeds. The most common haplotype (H3) of the dominant Ed allele was associated with either black or brown coat color in Najdi and Sawaknee sheep, respectively. Two other haplotypes (H6 and H7) of Ed allele, with only the nonsynonymous mutation A218T, were detected for the first time in Saudi indigenous sheep. Conclusion In addition to investigating the MC1R allelic variation in Saudi indigenous sheep populations, the present study supports the assumption that the two independent nonsynonymous Met73Lys and Asp121Asn mutations in MC1R gene are associated with black or red coat colors in sheep breeds. PMID:27492350

  20. Novel animal glioma models that separately exhibit two different invasive and angiogenic phenotypes of human glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Tomoko; Onishi, Manabu; Yoshida, Koichi; Fujii, Kentaro; Kambara, Hirokazu; Chiocca, E Antonio; Date, Isao

    2012-12-01

    Invasive behaviors of malignant gliomas are fundamental traits and major reasons for treatment failure. Delineation of invasive growth is important in establishing treatment for gliomas and experimental neuro-oncology could benefit from an invasive glioma model. In this study, we established two new cell line-based animal models of invasive glioma. Two cell lines, J3T-1 and J3T-2, were derived from the same parental canine glioma cell line, J3T. These cells were inoculated to establish brain tumors in athymic mice and rats. Pathologic samples of these animal gliomas were examined to analyze invasive patterns in relation to angiogenesis, and were compared with human glioblastoma samples. The molecular profiles of these cell lines were also shown. Histologically, J3T-1 and J3T-2 tumors exhibited different invasive patterns. J3T-1 cells clustered around newly developed vessels at tumor borders, whereas J3T-2 cells showed diffuse single cell infiltration into surrounding healthy parenchyma. In human malignant glioma samples, both types of invasion were observed concomitantly. Molecular profiles of these cell lines were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, hypoxia-inducible factor-1, and platelet-derived growth factor were overexpressed in J3T-1 cells rather than in J3T-2 cells, whereas integrin αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, nestin, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were overexpressed in J3T-2 cells rather than in J3T-1 cells. These animal models histologically recapitulated two invasive and angiogenic phenotypes, namely angiogenesis-dependent and angiogenesis-independent invasion, also observed in human glioblastoma. These cell lines provided a reproducible in vitro and in vivo system to analyze the mechanisms of invasion and angiogenesis in glioma progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. UCP2- and non-UCP2-mediated electric current in eukaryotic cells exhibits different properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruihua; MoYung, K C; Zhang, M H; Poon, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Using live eukaryotic cells, including cancer cells, MCF-7 and HCT-116, normal hepatocytes and red blood cells in anode and potassium ferricyanide in cathode of MFC could generate bio-based electric current. Electrons and protons generated from the metabolic reaction in both cytosol and mitochondria contributing to the leaking would mediate the generation of electric current. Both resveratrol (RVT) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) used to induce proton leak in mitochondria were found to promote electric current production in all cells except red blood cells without mitochondria. Proton leak might be important for electric current production by bringing the charge balance in cells to enhance the further electron leak. The induced electric current by RVT can be blocked by Genipin, an inhibitor of UCP2-mediated proton leak, while that induced by DNP cannot. RVT could reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in cells better than that of DNP. In addition, RVT increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), while DNP decreased it. Results highly suggested the existence of at least two types of electric current that showed different properties. They included UCP2-mediated and non-UCP2-mediated electric current. UCP2-mediated electric current exhibited higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction effect per unit electric current production than that of non-UCP2-mediated electric current. Higher UCP2-mediated electric current observed in cancer cells might contribute to the mechanism of drug resistence. Correlation could not be established between electric current production with either ROS and MMP without distinguishing the types of electric current.

  2. Mandibular symphysis morphology and dimensions in different anteroposterior jaw relationships.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Susan N; Al Maaitah, Emad F; Abu Alhaija, Elham S; Badran, Serene A

    2014-03-01

    To assess the morphology and dimensions of mandibular symphysis (MS) in different anteroposterior jaw relationships and to investigate whether craniofacial parameters have any correlation with its shape and/or dimensions. Lateral cephalograms of subjects with Class I, Class II, and Class III skeletal relationships were traced. Several craniofacial and MS parameters were measured. MS parameters were compared between the three groups using analysis of variance and were correlated with the craniofacial parameters using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Larger angle of concavity of the chin, more inclination of the alveolar bone toward the mandibular plane, and larger MS dimensions and area (P < .001) were found with a Class III skeletal relationship compared to Class I and Class II relationships. The Pearson correlation coefficient between Id-Me and AFH was r  =  0.83 and between Id-Me and LAFH it was r  =  0.81. The dimensions and configuration of MS in the Class III relationship were different than those in Class I and Class II relationships; the alveolar part of MS compensated for the skeletal relationship in the Class III pattern. MS dimensions were strongly correlated to anterior facial dimensions.

  3. Different Populations of Blacklegged Tick Nymphs Exhibit Differences in Questing Behavior That Have Implications for Human Lyme Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arsnoe, Isis M.; Hickling, Graham J.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I.

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6–11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector. PMID

  4. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.

    PubMed

    Arsnoe, Isis M; Hickling, Graham J; Ginsberg, Howard S; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector.

  5. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Isis M.; Hickling, Graham J.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I.

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector.

  6. Morphological variation in Lacuna parva (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) from different European populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Aslak

    2002-09-01

    Shells of the littorinid gastropod Lacuna parva were compared from 23 European localities and postglacial deposits in Sweden. The shells from the recent and the postglacial populations are similar with the exception of the recent population from Ellekilde Hage, Øresund, Denmark. Shells from Ellekilde Hage are different in having especially well developed whorls and only one colour morph. Differences in life-cycle and radula morphometrics further distinguish the Ellekilde Hage population from populations from the Isle of Wight, UK, and Roscoff, France. No striking differences in penial morphology were observed between the populations. It is suggested that low salinity and subtidal occurrence might be the causative agents of the conchological differences exhibited by the Øresund population.

  7. Ultrastructural morphologic changes in mycobacterial biofilm in different extreme condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Sachan, Tarun Kumar; Sharma, Pragya; Rawat, Krishna Dutta

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphologic and ultrastructural features of biofilms of slow and fast-growing mycobacteria in different stress conditions, presence and absence of oleic acid albumin dextrose catalase (OADC) enrichment and at different temperatures: 30, 37 and 42 °C. Four hundred mycobacterial isolates were taken. The biomass of each biofilm was quantified using a modified microtiter plate assay method. Isolates were divided into those that formed fully established biofilms, moderately attached biofilms and weakly adherent biofilms by comparison with a known biofilm-forming strain. The large quantity of biofilm was produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis at temperature 37 and 42 °C as compared to 30 °C. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. avium developed large amount of biofilm at 30 °C as compared to 37 and 42 °C. Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed strong biofilm at 37 °C and no biofilm at 30 and 42 °C in Sauton's media. The selected non-tuberculous mycobacteria and H37Rv developed strong biofilm in the presence of OADC enrichment in Sauton's medium. Microscopic examination of biofilms by scanning electron microscopy revealed that poorly adherent biofilm formers failed to colonize the entire surface of the microtiter well. While moderately adherent biofilm formers grew in uniform monolayers but failed to develop a mature three-dimensional structure. SEM analysis of an isolate representative of the group formed fully established biofilms with a textured, multi-layered, three-dimensional structure.

  8. Controllable Synthesis of Magnesium Oxysulfate Nanowires with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. T.; Shi, W. T.; Xiang, L.; Zhu, W. C.

    2008-10-01

    One-dimensional magnesium oxysulfate 5Mg(OH)2 · MgSO4 · 3H2O (abbreviated as 513MOS) with high aspect ratio has attracted much attention because of its distinctive properties from those of the conventional bulk materials. 513MOS nanowires with different morphologies were formed by varying the mixing ways of MgSO4 · 7H2O and NH4OH solutions at room temperature followed by hydrothermal treatment of the slurries at 150 °C for 12 h with or without EDTA. 513MOS nanowires with a length of 20 60 μm and a diameter of 60 300 nm were prepared in the case of double injection (adding MgSO4 · 7H2O and NH4OH solutions simultaneously into water), compared with the 513MOS with a length of 20 30 μm and a diameter of 0.3 1.7 μm in the case of the single injection (adding MgSO4 · 7H2O solution into NH4OH solution). The presence of minor amount of EDTA in the single injection method led to the formation of 513MOS nanowires with a length of 100 200 μm, a diameter of 80 200 nm, and an aspect ratio of up to 1000. The analysis of the experimental results indicated that the hydrothermal solutions with a lower supersaturation were favorable for the preferential growth of 513MOS nanowires along b axis.

  9. Morphological and magnetic study of CaMnO{sub 3-x} oxides obtained from different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gil de Muro, Izaskun; Insausti, Maite; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo . E-mail: qiproapt@lg.ehu.es

    2005-03-15

    The CaMnO{sub 3-x} (x=0 and 0.02) mixed oxide was synthesised from both thermal treatment of a metallo-organic precursor and ceramic method. The morphology of the different products is clearly different. The samples exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering with T{sub N} near to 120K and a weak ferromagnetic component above T{sub N}. This is slightly stronger in the phase prepared by the ceramic route.

  10. Fin-mutant female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exhibit differences in association preferences for male fin length

    PubMed Central

    Gumm, Jennifer M.; Snekser, Jennifer L.; Iovine, M. Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Females often choose to associate with males that have exaggerated traits. In fishes, this may reflect an overall preference for larger size in a potential mate. Female zebrafish (Danio rerio) prefer males with larger bodies but not longer fins. The availability of mutant and transgenic strains of zebrafish make this a unique model system in which to study the role of phenotypic variation in social and sexual behavior. We used mutant strains of zebrafish with truncated (short fin) and exaggerated (long fin) fins to further examine female preferences for fin length in dichotomous association tests. Wild type females showed no preferences between wild type males and short fin mutant males or between wild type males and long fin mutant males. short fin females also showed no preference for short fin males or wild type males while long fin females preferred to associate with long fin males over wild type males. These results suggest that the single gene long fin mutation that results in altered fin morphological may also be involved in a related female association preference. PMID:18848866

  11. Different morphology aspects of n-type porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchin, E. Yu.; Churilov, A. B.; Prokaznikov, A. V.

    1996-08-01

    Four morphology types of pore structures, that were formed with optimal values of parameters of the system consisted of silicon wafer and electrolyte mixture while changing either temperature or wavelength of initializing irradiation were discovered. The results of optical and electrophysical measurements and physical-chemical analysis are discussed. The assumption concerning possible self-similarity of morphologies of both structures: macro- and micropores is put forward. The analysis of general regularities testifies to existence of the universal fractal mechanism of pores formation process.

  12. Visible light photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 particles with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xue; Yu, Lili; Yan, Lina; Li, Hongji; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongju

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particles with different morphologies were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process and their optical and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Their crystal structure and microstructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). XRD patterns demonstrate that the as-prepared samples are monoclinic cell. FESEM shows that BiVO4 crystals can be fabricated in different morphologies by simply manipulating the reaction parameters of hydrothermal process. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) reveal that the band gaps of BiVO4 photocatalysts are about 2.07-2.21 eV. The as-prepared BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibit higher photocatalytic activities in the degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) compared with traditional N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2). Furthermore, wheat like BiVO4 sample reveals the highest photocatalytic activity. Up to 100% Rh B is decolorized after visible light irradiation for 180 min. The reason for the difference in the photocatalytic activities for BiVO4 samples obtained at different conditions were systematically studied based on their shape, size and the variation of local structure.

  13. Solvent-controlled preparation and photocatalytic properties of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Yanhui Gao, Yinyin; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Low-temperature growth of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films was presented by a solvent-controlled method. Nanoparticle structured films in anatase phase have been successfully fabricated with some adjustment. The effects of the solvent were investigated and the formation mechanism was proposed. - Highlights: • Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies were obtained at low temperature. • The effects of the solvent on the morphologies of the products were investigated. • The effects of the solvent on the phtocatalytic activity were investigated. - Abstract: A low-temperature growth method of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies was reported. Rod-like, grass-like and nanosheet structured films have been successfully fabricated just by adjusting the ratio of different solvents. The effects of the solvent on the morphologies of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were investigated. The formation mechanism of different morphologies was proposed based on the experiment results. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was evaluated under UV illumination. Results showed that the solvents exhibited important effect on the morphologies and photocatalytic activity of as-prepared nanostructured titania films.

  14. Distributional Effects and Individual Differences in L2 Morphology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; Kwoka, Nicole; Kempe, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Second language (L2) learning outcomes may depend on the structure of the input and learners' cognitive abilities. This study tested whether less predictable input might facilitate learning and generalization of L2 morphology while evaluating contributions of statistical learning ability, nonverbal intelligence, phonological short-term memory, and…

  15. Distributional Effects and Individual Differences in L2 Morphology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; Kwoka, Nicole; Kempe, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Second language (L2) learning outcomes may depend on the structure of the input and learners' cognitive abilities. This study tested whether less predictable input might facilitate learning and generalization of L2 morphology while evaluating contributions of statistical learning ability, nonverbal intelligence, phonological short-term memory, and…

  16. Two short peptidoglycan recognition proteins from Crassostrea gigas with similar structure exhibited different PAMP binding activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Zhihao; Yi, Qilin; Xu, Qingsong; Wang, Weilin; Gong, Changhao; Liu, Conghui; Song, Linsheng

    2017-05-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) is an essential molecule in innate immunity for both invertebrates and vertebrates, owing to its prominent ability in specifically recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and eliminating the invading bacteria. In the present study, the full length cDNA of two PGRP genes, CgPGRPS2 and CgPGRPS4, were cloned from oyster Crassostrea gigas. Their amino acid sequences both contained one signal peptide, one typical PGRP/amidase domain with conserved catalytic residues responsible for amidase activity (55H, 90Y, 164H, 172C in CgPGRPS2, and 98H, 133Y, 207H, 215C in CgPGRPS4), and specific PGN recognition (84R, 85W, 104R, 109V in CgPGRPS2, and 127G, 128W, 147R, 152V in CgPGRPS4), and they shared 55.9% sequence similarity. The mRNA transcripts of CgPGRPS2 and CgPGRPS4 were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues, including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, mantle, gonad, heart, adductor muscle and gill, with the highest expression level in adductor muscle and hepatopancreas, respectively. Both CgPGRPS2 and CgPGRPS4 proteins were mainly localized in the cytoplasma. The recombinant protein of CgPGRPS2 (rCgPGRPS2) could bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PGN and mannan (Man), as well as various microorganisms including Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and fungi Yarrowia lipolytica. The recombinant protein of CgPGRPS4 (rCgPGRPS4) exhibited higher binding affinity to PGN, lower binding affinity to LPS, while no binding activity to Man and Y. lipolytica. The results indicated that CgPGRPS2 and CgPGRPS4 could function as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in the innate immune response of oyster, and they exhibited a certain degree of functional differentiation in recognition of Man. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in Morphology and Traction Generation of Cell Lines Representing Different Stages of Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poellmann, Michael J; Estrada, Jonathan B; Boudou, Thomas; Berent, Zachary T; Franck, Christian; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Osteogenesis is the process by which mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to osteoblasts and form bone. The morphology and root mean squared (RMS) traction of four cell types representing different stages of osteogenesis were quantified. Undifferentiated D1, differentiated D1, MC3T3-E1, and MLO-A5 cell types were evaluated using both automated image analysis of cells stained for F-actin and by traction force microscopy (TFM). Undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell lines were small, spindly, and exerted low traction, while differentiated osteoblasts were large, had multiple processes, and exerted higher traction. Size, shape, and traction all correlated with the differentiation stage. Thus, cell morphology evolved and RMS traction increased with differentiation. The results provide a foundation for further work with these cell lines to study the mechanobiology of bone formation.

  18. [Clinical and morphological features of different types of Castleman's disease].

    PubMed

    Melikyan, A L; Egorova, E K; Kovrigina, А М; Subortseva, I N; Gilyazitdinova, E A; Karagyulyan, S R; Silaev, M A; Gemdzhian, E G; Savchenko, V G

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinical features of Castleman's disease (CD) and to elaborate therapeutic approaches in its different morphological types. The clinical and laboratory data were studied in 59 prospectively examined patients and 17 retrospectively examined ones with CD who had been treated at the Outpatient Department, Hematology Research Centre, in 1996 to 2014. There were a total of 37 men (median age, 36 years) and 39 women (median age, 34 years). The diagnosis was established from the results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of removed lymph nodes (LN) or tumors in all the cases. A hyaline vascular variant (HVV) with local LN involvement was diagnosed in 38 (50%) patients; a plasma cell variant (PCV) was in 38 (50%); among the latter, 17 (22%) patients were found to have local involvement and 21 (28%) had generalized (multicentriC) involvement (multicentric Castleman's diseases (MCD)). Five (24%) patients with MCD were established to be infected with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8). HVV was more frequently diagnosed in women (4%) than in men (29%); PCV was equally common in both men (47%) and women (53%); MCD was statistically significantly more frequently encountered in men (86%) than in women (14%) (p=0.05). The basic involvement areas in local HVV and PCV were peripheral (38%), mediastinal (29), retroperitoneal (18%), abdominal (9%), and small pelvic (6%) LNs. HVV and local PCV were benign and these were cured by surgical removal of LNs involved in the pathological process. MCD took its aggressive course with obvious constitutional symptoms, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia, autoimmune hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and involvement of extranodal foci in the pathological process. MCD transformation to plasmablastic lymphoma was observed in 4 of the 5 HHV8-positive patients and followed by a poor outcome. The prognosis of untreated MCD was unfavorable. In a number of cases prednisolone monotherapy worsened

  19. Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI exhibit different DNA damage responses during S-phase

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Archana; Chaudhury, Indrajit; Adams, Nicole; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway members, FANCD2 and FANCI, contribute to the repair of replication-stalling DNA lesions. FA pathway activation relies on phosphorylation of FANCI by the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase, followed by monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI by the FA core complex. FANCD2 and FANCI are thought to form a functional heterodimer during DNA repair, but it is unclear how dimer formation is regulated or what the functions of the FANCD2–FANCI complex versus the monomeric proteins are. We show that the FANCD2–FANCI complex forms independently of ATR and FA core complex, and represents the inactive form of both proteins. DNA damage-induced FA pathway activation triggers dissociation of FANCD2 from FANCI. Dissociation coincides with FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which significantly precedes monoubiquitination of FANCI; moreover, monoubiquitination responses of FANCD2 and FANCI exhibit distinct DNA substrate specificities. A phosphodead FANCI mutant fails to dissociate from FANCD2, whereas phosphomimetic FANCI cannot interact with FANCD2, indicating that FANCI phosphorylation is the molecular trigger for FANCD2–FANCI dissociation. Following dissociation, FANCD2 binds replicating chromatin prior to—and independently of—FANCI. Moreover, the concentration of chromatin-bound FANCD2 exceeds that of FANCI throughout replication. Our results suggest that FANCD2 and FANCI function separately at consecutive steps during DNA repair in S-phase. PMID:22753026

  20. Quantitative Proteomics of Zea mays Hybrids Exhibiting Different Levels of Heterosis.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Diwakar; Newton, Kathleen J; Mooney, Brian P

    2016-08-05

    Maize hybrids exhibiting heterosis (hybrid vigor) were generated from inbred parents with increasing genetic distance. B73 was used as the common female parent in crosses with N192 (low heterosis), MO17 (high-heterosis 1), and NC350 (high-heterosis 2). Total and mitochondria-enriched proteomes were analyzed from ear shoots of field-grown hybrids and their inbred parents. GeLCMS (1D SDS-PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion, LTQ Orbitrap nano-RP-LC MS/MS) was used to analyze proteins, and spectral counting was used for quantitation. In total, 3,568 proteins were identified and quantified in hybrids including 2,489 in the mitochondria-enriched fraction and 2,162 in the total protein fraction. Sixty-one proteins were differentially abundant (p < 0.05) in one or both of the high-heterosis hybrids compared with the low-heterosis hybrid. For the total proteome, eight of these showed similar trends in abundance in both of the higher-heterosis hybrids. Nine proteins showed this heterosis-correlated pattern in the mitochondrial proteome, including a mitochondria-associated target of rapamycin (TOR) protein. Although differentially abundant proteins belong to various pathways, protein, and RNA metabolism, and stress responsive proteins were the major classes changed in response to increasing heterosis.

  1. Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI exhibit different DNA damage responses during S-phase.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Archana; Chaudhury, Indrajit; Adams, Nicole; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2012-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway members, FANCD2 and FANCI, contribute to the repair of replication-stalling DNA lesions. FA pathway activation relies on phosphorylation of FANCI by the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase, followed by monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI by the FA core complex. FANCD2 and FANCI are thought to form a functional heterodimer during DNA repair, but it is unclear how dimer formation is regulated or what the functions of the FANCD2-FANCI complex versus the monomeric proteins are. We show that the FANCD2-FANCI complex forms independently of ATR and FA core complex, and represents the inactive form of both proteins. DNA damage-induced FA pathway activation triggers dissociation of FANCD2 from FANCI. Dissociation coincides with FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which significantly precedes monoubiquitination of FANCI; moreover, monoubiquitination responses of FANCD2 and FANCI exhibit distinct DNA substrate specificities. A phosphodead FANCI mutant fails to dissociate from FANCD2, whereas phosphomimetic FANCI cannot interact with FANCD2, indicating that FANCI phosphorylation is the molecular trigger for FANCD2-FANCI dissociation. Following dissociation, FANCD2 binds replicating chromatin prior to-and independently of-FANCI. Moreover, the concentration of chromatin-bound FANCD2 exceeds that of FANCI throughout replication. Our results suggest that FANCD2 and FANCI function separately at consecutive steps during DNA repair in S-phase.

  2. Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

    2013-09-01

    Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology.

  3. Detecting small environmental differences: risk-response curves for predator-induced behavior and morphology.

    PubMed

    Schoeppner, Nancy M; Relyea, Rick A

    2008-01-01

    Most organisms possess traits that are sensitive to changes in the environment (i.e., plastic traits) which results in the expression of environmentally induced polymorphisms. While most phenotypically plastic traits have traditionally been treated as threshold switches between induced and uninduced states, there is growing evidence that many traits can respond in a continuous fashion. In this experiment we exposed larval anurans (wood frog tadpoles, Rana sylvatica) to an increasing gradient of predation risk to determine how organisms respond to small environmental changes. We manipulated predation risk in two ways: by altering the amount of prey consumed by a constant number of predators (Dytiscus sp.) and by altering the number of predators that consume a constant amount of prey. We then quantified the expression of predator-induced behavior, morphology, and mass to determine the level of risk that induced each trait, the level of risk that induced the maximal phenotypic response for each trait, whether the different traits exhibited a plateauing response, and whether increasing risk via increasing predator number or via increasing prey consumption induced similar phenotypic changes. We found that all of the traits exhibited fine-tuned, graded responses and most of them exhibited a plateauing response with increased predation risk, suggesting either a limit to plasticity or the reflection of high costs of the defensive phenotype. For many traits, a large proportion of the maximum induction occurred at low levels of risk, suggesting that the chemical cues of predation are effective at extremely low concentrations. In contrast to earlier work, we found that behavioral and morphological responses to increased predator number were simply a response to increased total prey consumption. These results have important implications for models of plasticity evolution, models of optimal phenotypic design, expectations for how organisms respond to fine-grained changes (i

  4. Brief Communication: Buoyancy-Induced Differences in Soot Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Roma, John

    1995-01-01

    Reduction or elimination of buoyancy in flames affects the dominant mechanisms driving heat transfer, burning rates and flame shape. The absence of buoyancy produces longer residence times for soot formation, clustering and oxidation. In addition, soot pathlines are strongly affected in microgravity. We recently conducted the first experiments comparing soot morphology in normal and reduced-gravity laminar gas jet diffusion flames. Thermophoretic sampling is a relatively new but well-established technique for studying the morphology of soot primaries and aggregates. Although there have been some questions about biasing that may be induced due to sampling, recent analysis by Rosner et al. showed that the sample is not biased when the system under study is operating in the continuum limit. Furthermore, even if the sampling is preferentially biased to larger aggregates, the size-invariant premise of fractal analysis should produce a correct fractal dimension.

  5. The oxidative DNA glycosylases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit different substrate preferences from their Escherichia coli counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yin; Bandaru, Viswanath; Jaruga, Pawel; Zhao, Xiaobei; Burrows, Cynthia J.; Iwai, Shigenori; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Wallace, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    The DNA glycosylases that remove oxidized DNA bases fall into two general families: the Fpg/Nei family and the Nth superfamily. Based on protein sequence alignments, we identified four putative Fpg/Nei family members, as well as a putative Nth protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All four Fpg/Nei proteins were successfully overexpressed using a bicistronic vector created in our laboratory. The MtuNth protein was also overexpressed in soluble form. The substrate specificities of the purified enzymes were characterized in vitro with oligodeoxynucleotide substrates containing single lesions. Some were further characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of products released from γ-irradiated DNA. MtuFpg1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of EcoFpg. Both EcoFpg and MtuFpg1 are more efficient at removing spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) than 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). However, MtuFpg1 shows a substantially increased opposite base discrimination compared to EcoFpg. MtuFpg2 contains only the C-terminal domain of an Fpg protein and has no detectable DNA binding activity or DNA glycosylase/lyase activity and thus appears to be a pseudogene. MtuNei1 recognizes oxidized pyrimidines on both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA and exhibits uracil DNA glycosylase activity. MtuNth recognizes a variety of oxidized bases, including urea, 5,6-dihydrouracil (DHU), 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU), 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) and methylhydantoin (MeHyd). Both MtuNei1 and MtuNth excise thymine glycol (Tg); however, MtuNei1 strongly prefers the (5R) isomers, whereas MtuNth recognizes only the (5S) isomers. MtuNei2 did not demonstrate activity in vitro as a recombinant protein, but like MtuNei1 when expressed in Escherichia coli, it decreased the spontaneous mutation frequency of both the fpg mutY nei triple and nei nth double mutants, suggesting that MtuNei2 is functionally active in vivo recognizing both guanine and cytosine oxidation products

  6. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipooligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, M; Quiclet-Sire, B; Kondorosi, E; Virelizer, H; Glushka, J N; Endre, G; Géro, S D; Kondorosi, A

    1992-01-01

    We have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain overexpressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C(16:2) or a C(16:3) acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. One of the tetrasaccharides is identical to the previously described NodRm-1 factor. The two pentasaccharides as well as NodRm-1 were purified and tested for biological activity. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 microM, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and Melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on Medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. We suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions. Images PMID:1729688

  7. Sex differences in territorial behavior exhibited by the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae, Crocuta crocuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2001-01-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are gregarious carnivores that defend group territories against encroachment by neighboring conspecifics. Here we monitored the behavior of members of one clan of free-ranging spotted hyenas during border patrols, ‘wars’ with neighboring clans, and other interactions with alien intruders, to document differences between the sexes in territorial behavior in this species. We also examined the possibility that the probability or rate of attack on alien hyenas encountered within the clan’s territory would vary with the sex of the intruders. Initiation and leadership of most cooperative territorial behaviors were by adult female clan members, although border patrols were occasionally conducted by groups composed exclusively of resident males. The vast majority of alien intruders into the territory of the study clan were males. Resident females were more likely to attack intruding females than intruding males, but hourly rates of aggression directed by females towards aliens did not vary with intruder sex. Resident males were more likely than resident females to attack alien males, and resident males directed significantly higher hourly rates of aggression towards intruding males than females. Although female leadership in most cooperative territorial behaviors distinguishes spotted hyenas from many mammalian carnivores, other sex differences in the territorial behavior of spotted hyenas resemble those documented in other gregarious predators. Sex differences observed in hyena territoriality are consistent with the hypothesis that male and female clan members derive different selective benefits from advertisement and defense of group territories.

  8. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke; Mårtensson, Johan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic. To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min, 9 cm(2)) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application of the burn-injury) (p < 0.05). After the burn-injury, we found significant differences between responders during noxious stimulation of both primary (p < 0.01) and secondary hyperalgesia (p ≤ 0.04) skin areas. A decreased volume of the right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected in high-sensitization responders in comparison to low-sensitization responders. These findings suggest that brain-structure and neuronal activation to noxious

  9. Secondary Hyperalgesia Phenotypes Exhibit Differences in Brain Activation during Noxious Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mårtensson, Johan; Larsson, Henrik B. W.; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic. To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47°C, 7 min, 9 cm2) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application of the burn-injury) (p < 0.05). After the burn-injury, we found significant differences between responders during noxious stimulation of both primary (p < 0.01) and secondary hyperalgesia (p ≤ 0.04) skin areas. A decreased volume of the right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected in high-sensitization responders in comparison to low-sensitization responders. These findings suggest that brain-structure and neuronal activation to noxious stimulation

  10. Superimposed Pristine Limestone Aquifers with Marked Hydrochemical Differences Exhibit Distinct Fungal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Ali; Purahong, Witoon; Lehmann, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai U.; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However, further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27242696

  11. Strains in the genus Thauera exhibit remarkably different denitrification regulatory phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binbin; Mao, Yuejian; Bergaust, Linda; Bakken, Lars R; Frostegård, Asa

    2013-10-01

    Denitrifiers differ in how they handle the transition from oxic to anoxic respiration, with consequences for NO and N2O emissions. To enable stringent comparisons we defined parameters to describe denitrification regulatory phenotype (DRP) based on accumulation of NO2(-) , NO and N2O, oxic/anoxic growth and transcription of functional genes. Eight Thauera strains were divided into two distinct DRP types. Four strains were characterized by a rapid, complete onset (RCO) of all denitrification genes and no detectable nitrite accumulation. The others showed progressive onset (PO) of the different denitrification genes. The PO group accumulated nitrite, and no transcription of nirS (encoding nitrite reductase) was detected until all available nitrate (2 mM) was consumed. Addition of a new portion of nitrate to an actively denitrifying culture of a PO strain (T. terpenica) resulted in a transient halt in nitrite reduction, indicating that the electron flow was redirected to nitrate reductase. All eight strains controlled NO at nano-molar concentrations, possibly reflecting the importance of strict control for survival. Transient N2O accumulation differed by two orders of magnitude between strains, indicating that control of N2O is less essential. No correlation was seen between phylogeny (based on 16S rRNA and functional genes) and DRP.

  12. Sex-based differences in the adaptive value of social behavior contrasted against morphology and environment.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, E; Festa-Bianchet, M; Réale, D; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2015-03-01

    The adaptive nature of sociality has long been a central question in ecology and evolution. However, the relative importance of social behavior for fitness, compared to morphology and environment, remains largely unknown. We assessed the importance of sociality for fitness (lamb production and survival) in a population of mark6d bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) over 16 years (n = 1022 sheep-years). We constructed social networks from observations (n = 38,350) of group membership (n = 3150 groups). We then tested whether consistent individual differences in social behavior (centrality) exist and evaluated their relative importance compared to factors known to affect fitness: mass, age, parental effects, and population density. Sheep exhibited consistent individual differences in social centrality. Controlling for maternal carryover effects and age, the positive effect of centrality in a social network on adult female lamb production and survival was equal or greater than the effect of body mass or population density. Social centrality had less effect on male survival and no effect on adult male lamb production or lamb survival. Through its effect on lamb production and survival, sociality in fission-fusion animal societies may ultimately influence population dynamics equally or more than morphological or environmental effects.

  13. Controlled synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of BiPO4 nanostructures with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lang-Wei; Tsai, Jui-Chien; Huang, Tzu-Yun; Huang, Chang-Wei; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) nanostructures with various morphologies and phases was explored under ultrasound irradiation and hydrothermal process. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were used to characterize the BiPO4 samples. The effects of ultrasound irradiation and hydrothermal conditions on the phases and morphologies of the BiPO4 samples were studied, and the growth mechanisms of the 1D structure were investigated. The different BiPO4 samples exhibited different optical properties and photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. The experimental results suggest that the high photocatalytic activity of the sample prepared under hydrothermal conditions is due to a low electron and hole recombination rate and the high potential of the photogenerated holes in the valence band. The practicality of this BiPO4 photocatalyst was validated for the degradation of MB in environmental and industrial wastewater samples, which demonstrated the advantages of its high photocatalytic activity.

  14. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Null Mice Exhibit Female and Male Differences In Regulation of Vascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Vanella, Luca; Canestraro, Martina; Lee, Craig R.; Cao, Jian; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Schwartzman, Michal L.; Abraham, Nader G.

    2015-01-01

    Increased CYP epoxygenase activity and consequently up regulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels provides protection against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Conversion of arachidonic acid epoxides to diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) diminishes the beneficial cardiovascular properties of these epoxyeicosanoids. We therefore examined the possible biochemical consequences of sEH deletion on vascular responses in male and female mice. Through the use of the sEH KO mouse, we provide evidence of differences in the compensatory response in the balance between nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), EETs and the vasoconstrictor 20-HETE in male and female KO mice. Serum levels of adiponectin, TNFα, IL-1b and MCP1 and protein expression in vascular tissue of p-AMPK, p-AKT and p-eNOS were measured. Deletion of sEH caused a significant (p<0,05) decrease in body weight, and an increase in adiponectin, pAMPK and pAKT levels in female KO mice compared to male KO mice. Gene deletion resulted in a higher production of renal EETs in female KO compared to male KO mice and, concomitantly, we observed an increase in renal 20-HETEs levels and superoxide anion production only in male KO mice. sEH deletion increased p-AKT and p-eNOS protein expression but decreased p-AMPK levels in female KO mice. Increased levels of p-eNOS at Thr-495 were observed only in KO male mice. While p-eNOS at 1177 were not significantly different between male and female. Nitric oxide production was unaltered in male KO mice. These results provide evidence of gender differences in the preservation of vascular homeostasis in response to sEH deletion which involves regulation of phosphorylation of eNOS at the 495 site. PMID:25908301

  15. Methods and apparatus for moving and separating materials exhibiting different physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Stephen C.; Brimhall, Owen D.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Baker, Charles D.; Sparks, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for controlling the movement of materials having different physical properties when one of the materials is a fluid. The invention does not rely on flocculation, sedimentation, centrifugation, the buoyancy of the materials, or any other gravity dependent characteristic, in order to achieve its desired results. The methods of the present invention provide that a first acoustic wave is progpagated through a vessel containing the materials. A second acoustic wave, at a frequency different than the first acoustic wave, is also propagated through the vessel so that the two acoustic waves are superimposed upon each other. The superimposition of the two waves creates a beat frequency wave. The beat frequency wave comprises pressure gradients dividing regions of maximum and minimum pressure. The pressure gradients and the regions of maximum and minimum pressure move through space and time at a group velocity. The moving pressure gradients and regions of maximum and minimum pressure act upon the marterials so as to move one of the materials towards a predetermined location in the vessel. The present invention provides that the materials may be controllably moved toward a location, aggreated at a particular location, or physically separated from each other.

  16. Methods and apparatus for moving and separating materials exhibiting different physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Stephen C.; Brimhall, Owen D.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Baker, Charles D.; Sparks, Sam L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for controlling the movement of materials having different physical properties when one of the materials is a fluid. The invention does not rely on flocculation, sedimentation, centrifugation, the buoyancy of the materials, or any other gravity dependent characteristic, in order to achieve its desired results. The methods of the present invention provide that a first acoustic wave is propagated through a vessel containing the materials. A second acoustic wave, at a frequency different than the first acoustic wave, is also propagated through the vessel so that the two acoustic waves are superimposed upon each other. The superimposition of the two waves creates a beat frequency wave. The beat frequency wave comprises pressure gradients dividing regions of maximum and minimum pressure. The pressure gradients and the regions of maximum and minimum pressure move through space and time at a group velocity. The moving pressure gradients and regions of maximum and minimum pressure act upon the materials so as to move one of the materials towards a predetermined location in the vessel. The present invention provides that the materials may be controllably moved toward a location, aggregated at a particular location, or physically separated from each other.

  17. Forereef and backreef corals exhibit different responses to anthropogenic stressors in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowell, S.; Foster, G. L.; Castillo, K.; Ries, J. B.; Tyrrell, T.

    2016-02-01

    The health of coral reefs is threatened by simultaneous anthropogenic impacts, namely ocean acidification, ocean warming, elevated nutrients (nutrification) and sedimentation. These processes have been shown to reduce the ability of corals to grow, but culturing experiments have previously demonstrated this response to vary across different reef environments and between different taxa. The absence of in-situ pH data, records of nutrient evolution and limited sea surface temperature (SST) measurements prior to the 1980s, has prevented the extent of either ocean acidification, nutrification or ocean warming to be quantified in Belize. Here, we have applied a multi-proxy approach (Li/Mg, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, δ11B, δ13C) to reconstruct these variables in corals from across the southern Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System over the last 100 years. We find that although the warming signal is spatially coherent, significant spatial variability exists in the extent of acidification and sediment input. Further investigations into the impact of such variability, and possible changes in net primary production must be conducted before we can conclude which anthropogenic stressor is responsible for the decline in forereef coral extension rates.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of solvent extrusion pumps in Pseudomonas strains exhibiting different degrees of solvent tolerance.

    PubMed

    Segura, Ana; Rojas, Antonia; Hurtado, Ana; Huertas, María-José; Ramos, Juan L

    2003-10-01

    Organic solvents are inherently toxic for microorganisms. Their effects depend not only on the nature of the compound, but also on the intrinsic tolerance of the bacterial species and strains. Three efflux pumps belonging to the RND (resistance-nodulation-cell division) family of multidrug extrusion pumps are the main factor involved in the high intrinsic tolerance to toluene of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. We have analyzed the tolerance to toluene shocks [0.1% and 0.3% (v/v)] of a number of strains belonging to different species of the genus Pseudomonas upon growth in the absence and in the presence of sublethal concentrations of toluene. The strains can be grouped in three categories: (1) highly resistant strains, in which almost 100% of the cells precultured in the presence of sublethal concentrations of toluene withstood a 0.3% (v/v) toluene shock, (2) moderately resistant strains, in which only a fraction (10(-4)-1) of the cells withstood a 0.1% (v/v) toluene shock, but fewer than 1 in 10(7) cells survived a sudden 0.3% (v/v) toluene shock regardless of the growth conditions, and (3) sensitive strains, in which regardless of the growth conditions fewer than 10(-5) cells survived a 0.1% (v/v) toluene shock. We also studied the number and type of efflux pumps in different strains in comparison with the P. putida DOT-T1E strain.

  19. Topcoat approaches for directed-assembly of copolymer films with blocks exhibiting differences in surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; in Lee, Jeong; Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Tada, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Wan, Lei; Ruiz, Ricardo; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Fabricating patterns with feature dimensions smaller than 10 nm scale using block copolymer lithography requires the use of materials with large Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Because such block copolymers (BCPs) typically show the large differences in surface energy between the blocks, one block (with lower surface energy) tends to segregate to the free surface of films and precludes the assembly of the desired through-film perpendicularly oriented structures. Here we describe a generalizable strategy to overcome this limitation. By coating the BCP film with an additional layer, a topcoat, thermodynamically favorable boundary conditions at the top surface of the film can be engineered for directed self-assembly. The allowable properties of the topcoats depend on the interfacial energies of the layer with the blocks of the copolymer, and the block-block interfacial energy. The strategy is demonstrated experimentally by directing the assembly of polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS- b-P2VP) films on chemically nanopatterned substrates with different topcoat materials.

  20. Functionally distinct tendon fascicles exhibit different creep and stress relaxation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jennifer H; Legerlotz, Kirsten; Demirci, Taylan; Klemt, Christian; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel RC

    2013-01-01

    Most overuse tendinopathies are thought to be associated with repeated microstrain below the failure threshold, analogous to the fatigue failure that affects materials placed under repetitive loading. Investigating the progression of fatigue damage within tendons is therefore of critical importance. There are obvious challenges associated with the sourcing of human tendon samples for in vitro analysis so animal models are regularly adopted. However, data indicates that fatigue life varies significantly between tendons of different species and with different stresses in life. Positional tendons such as rat tail tendon or the bovine digital extensor are commonly applied in in vitro studies of tendon overuse, but there is no evidence to suggest their behaviour is indicative of the types of human tendon particularly prone to overuse injuries. In this study, the fatigue response of the largely positional digital extensor and the more energy storing deep digital flexor tendon of the bovine hoof were compared to the semitendinosus tendon of the human hamstring. Fascicles from each tendon type were subjected to either stress or strain controlled fatigue loading (cyclic creep or cyclic stress relaxation respectively). Gross fascicle mechanics were monitored after cyclic stress relaxation and the mean number of cycles to failure investigated with creep loading. Bovine extensor fascicles demonstrated the poorest fatigue response, while the energy storing human semitendinosus was the most fatigue resistant. Despite the superior fatigue response of the energy storing tendons, confocal imaging suggested a similar degree of damage in all three tendon types; it appears the more energy storing tendons are better able to withstand damage without detriment to mechanics. PMID:24285289

  1. Functionally distinct tendon fascicles exhibit different creep and stress relaxation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer H; Legerlotz, Kirsten; Demirci, Taylan; Klemt, Christian; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel R C

    2014-01-01

    Most overuse tendinopathies are thought to be associated with repeated microstrain below the failure threshold, analogous to the fatigue failure that affects materials placed under repetitive loading. Investigating the progression of fatigue damage within tendons is therefore of critical importance. There are obvious challenges associated with the sourcing of human tendon samples for in vitro analysis so animal models are regularly adopted. However, data indicates that fatigue life varies significantly between tendons of different species and with different stresses in life. Positional tendons such as rat tail tendon or the bovine digital extensor are commonly applied in in vitro studies of tendon overuse, but there is no evidence to suggest their behaviour is indicative of the types of human tendon particularly prone to overuse injuries. In this study, the fatigue response of the largely positional digital extensor and the more energy storing deep digital flexor tendon of the bovine hoof were compared to the semitendinosus tendon of the human hamstring. Fascicles from each tendon type were subjected to either stress or strain controlled fatigue loading (cyclic creep or cyclic stress relaxation respectively). Gross fascicle mechanics were monitored after cyclic stress relaxation and the mean number of cycles to failure investigated with creep loading. Bovine extensor fascicles demonstrated the poorest fatigue response, while the energy storing human semitendinosus was the most fatigue resistant. Despite the superior fatigue response of the energy storing tendons, confocal imaging suggested a similar degree of damage in all three tendon types; it appears the more energy storing tendons are better able to withstand damage without detriment to mechanics.

  2. Evaluation of Cell Viability Dyes in Antiviral Assays with RNA Viruses that Exhibit Different Cytopathogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Smee, Donald F; Hurst, Brett L; Evans, W Joseph; Clyde, Nathan; Wright, Sean; Peterson, Christopher; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Day, Craig W

    2017-03-27

    Studies were conducted to determine the performance of four dyes in assessing antiviral activities of compounds against three RNA viruses with differing cytopathogenic properties. Dyes included alamarBlue(®) measured by absorbance (ALB-A) and fluorescence (ALB-F), neutral red (NR), Viral ToxGlo™ (VTG), and WST-1. Viruses were chikungunya, dengue type 2, and Junin, which generally cause 100, 80-90, and 50% maximal cytopathic effect (CPE), respectively, in Vero 76. Compounds evaluated were 6-azauridine, BCX-4430, 3-deazaguanine, EICAR, favipiravir, infergen, mycophenolic acid (MPA), ribavirin, and tiazofurin. The 50% virus-inhibitory (EC50) values for each inhibitor and virus combination did not vary significantly based on the dye used. However, dyes varied in distinguishing the vitality of virus-infected cultures when not all cells were killed by virus infection. For example, VTG uptake into dengue-infected cells was nearly 50% when visual examination showed only 10-20% cell survival. ALB-A measured infected cell viability differently than ALB-F as follows: 16% versus 32% (dengue-infected), respectively, and 51% versus 72% (Junin-infected), respectively. Cytotoxicity (CC50) assays with dyes in uninfected proliferating cells produced similar CC50 values for EICAR (1.5-8.9μM) and MPA (0.8-2.5μM). 6-Azauridine toxicity was 6.1-17.5μM with NR, VTG, and WST-1, compared to 48-92μM with ALB-A and ALB-F.(P<0.001). Curiously, the CC50 values for 3-deazaguanine were 83-93μM with ALB-F versus 2.4-7.0μM with all other dyes including ALB-A (P<0.001). Overall, ALB minimized the toxicities detected with these two inhibitors. Because the choice of dyes affected CC50 values, this impacted on the resulting in vitro selectivity indexes (calculated as CC50/EC50 ratio).

  3. Bispecific Antibodies Targeting Different Epitopes on the HIV-1 Envelope Exhibit Broad and Potent Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, M.; Rudicell, R. S.; Louder, M.; McKee, K.; O'Dell, S.; Stewart-Jones, G.; Wang, K.; Xu, L.; Chen, X.; Choe, M.; Chuang, G.; Georgiev, I. S.; Joyce, M. G.; Kirys, T.; Ko, S.; Pegu, A.; Shi, W.; Todd, J. P.; Yang, Z.; Bailer, R. T.; Rao, S.; Kwong, P. D.; Nabel, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potency and breadth of the recently isolated neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1 have stimulated interest in their use to prevent or to treat HIV-1 infection. Due to the antigenically diverse nature of the HIV-1 envelope (Env), no single antibody is highly active against all viral strains. While the physical combination of two broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can improve coverage against the majority of viruses, the clinical-grade manufacturing and testing of two independent antibody products are time and resource intensive. In this study, we constructed bispecific immunoglobulins (IgGs) composed of independent antigen-binding fragments with a common Fc region. We developed four different bispecific IgG variants that included antibodies targeting four major sites of HIV-1 neutralization. We show that these bispecific IgGs display features of both antibody specificities and, in some cases, display improved coverage over the individual parental antibodies. All four bispecific IgGs neutralized 94% to 97% of antigenically diverse viruses in a panel of 206 HIV-1 strains. Among the bispecific IgGs tested, VRC07 × PG9-16 displayed the most favorable neutralization profile. It was superior in breadth to either of the individual antibodies, neutralizing 97% of viruses with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.055 μg/ml. This bispecific IgG also demonstrated in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters comparable to those of the parental bNAbs when administered to rhesus macaques. These results suggest that IgG-based bispecific antibodies are promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE To prevent or treat HIV-1 infection, antibodies must potently neutralize nearly all strains of HIV-1. Thus, the physical combination of two or more antibodies may be needed to broaden neutralization coverage and diminish the possibility of viral resistance. A bispecific antibody that has two different

  4. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates with different virulence genes content exhibit similar pathologic influence on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Jamil M A S; Mansour, Samira R; Elshahedy, Mohammed S; Rabie, Tarik E; Azab, Adel M H

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli are the major causative agent of urinary tract infection--they may simultaneously express a number of virulence factors to cause disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between virulence factors content of fifteen UPEC isolates and their pathogenic potential. The isolates belonged to the five serotypes O78:K80, O114:K90, O142:K86, O164 and O157. Nine of the virulence factors have been explored, ibeA, pap, sfa/foc, cnfl, hly, fyuA, pil, ompT and traT. Virulence factors profiling of the isolates revealed a different content ranging from 22% to 100% of the virulence genes explored. The pathogenic capacity of all fifteen isolates when tested on Vero cells showed that the cytotoxicity for all tested strains on Vero cells was approximately equal and enhanced after growth in syncase broth, leading mainly to cell lysis. The toxic effects reduced slightly after heat treatment of the toxin, and greatly after formalin detoxification, but not all the deleterious effect was abolished. Endotoxin also has cytotoxic effects on Vero cells, but longer time is needed for cytolysis which is greatly diminished with formalin treatment. In conclusion, our study revealed that pathogenic strains of UPEC can exert their pathogenic effect on live cells or system with limited virulence factors gene content.

  5. Responder and nonresponder patients exhibit different peripheral transcriptional signatures during major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    Belzeaux, R; Bergon, A; Jeanjean, V; Loriod, B; Formisano-Tréziny, C; Verrier, L; Loundou, A; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Boyer, L; Gall, V; Gabert, J; Nguyen, C; Azorin, J-M; Naudin, J; Ibrahim, E C

    2012-01-01

    To date, it remains impossible to guarantee that short-term treatment given to a patient suffering from a major depressive episode (MDE) will improve long-term efficacy. Objective biological measurements and biomarkers that could help in predicting the clinical evolution of MDE are still warranted. To better understand the reason nearly half of MDE patients respond poorly to current antidepressive treatments, we examined the gene expression profile of peripheral blood samples collected from 16 severe MDE patients and 13 matched controls. Using a naturalistic and longitudinal design, we ascertained mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks later. On a genome-wide scale, we detected transcripts with roles in various biological processes as significantly dysregulated between MDE patients and controls, notably those involved in nucleotide binding and chromatin assembly. We also established putative interactions between dysregulated mRNAs and miRNAs that may contribute to MDE physiopathology. We selected a set of mRNA candidates for quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) to validate that the transcriptional signatures observed in responders is different from nonresponders. Furthermore, we identified a combination of four mRNAs (PPT1, TNF, IL1B and HIST1H1E) that could be predictive of treatment response. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of studies investigating the tight relationship between peripheral transcriptional changes and the dynamic clinical progression of MDE patients to provide biomarkers of MDE evolution and prognosis. PMID:23149449

  6. Morphology of rat testis preserved in three different fixatives.

    PubMed

    Tu, Lihui; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Huiping

    2011-04-01

    Histopathological examination of testes is important in assessing spermatogenesis and testicular function. Modified Davidson's fluid (mDF) has been proposed as a superior substitute for Bouin's fluid (BF) for fixation of adult animal testes. Besides, 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) has been commonly used to fix testes with convenience. We compared the morphology of the rat testis fixed in 4% PFA, mDF, or BF using hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections. Fixation in 4% PFA resulted in obvious tissue shrinkage artifacts, especially between seminiferous epithelium cells. Shrinkage artifacts were also observed in the central area of the testes fixed in BF. Use of mDF did not cause shrinkage artifacts between seminiferous tubules, though a small amount can be observed in seminiferous tubules between germ cells. Clarity of nuclear detail in testes fixed in mDF and BF is better compared to 4% PFA. Our study demonstrated that fixation in mDF provided better morphologic details in the rat testis as compared with 4% PFA and BF.

  7. Morphology of the fetal rat testis preserved in different fixatives.

    PubMed

    Howroyd, Paul; Hoyle-Thacker, Renee; Lyght, Otis; Williams, Delorise; Kleymenova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Histopathological examination of the testes of exposed fetuses and neonates is important in assessing the developmental effects of environmental toxins, including sex hormone modulators. Modified Davidson's fluid (mDF) has been suggested as a superior substitute for Bouin's fluid for fixation of adult animal testes. We compared the morphology of fetal rat testes stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or immunochemically after fixation in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), Bouin's fluid, or mDF. Fixation in mDF resulted in more sharply defined nuclear detail and better preservation of cellular cytoplasm on H&E-stained sections of rat testes on gestation day 19. Use of Bouin's fluid did not allow satisfactory detection of apoptotic cells by fluorescent terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxy-UTP nick labeling. Staining with the immunoperoxidase system and the conventional chromogen diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride to visualize 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells demonstrated that the number of positive nuclei and intensity of staining were similar with all 3 fixatives. Immunostaining for cytoskeletal protein vimentin was more intense and provided better details of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm with formalin fixation than with mDF. Our study demonstrates that fixation in mDF provided better morphologic detail in the fetal rat testis compared with 10% NBF and Bouin's fluid and illustrates the importance of establishing the correct fixation conditions for each immunostaining protocol.

  8. Material morphology and electrical resistivity differences in EPDM rubbers.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-03-01

    Electrical resistance anomalies noted in EPDM gaskets have been attributed to zinc-enriched surface sublayers, about 10-{micro}m thick, in the sulfur cured rubber material. Gasket over-compression provided the necessary connector pin contact and was also found to cause surprising morphological changes on the gasket surfaces. These included distributions of zinc oxide whiskers in high pressure gasket areas and cone-shaped features rich in zinc, oxygen, and sulfur primarily in low pressure protruding gasket areas. Such whiskers and cones were only found on the pin side of the gaskets in contact with a molded plastic surface and not on the back side in contact with an aluminum surface. The mechanisms by which such features are formed have not yet been defined.

  9. Synthesis and photocatalysis properties of ZnO structures with different morphologies via hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juan; Wang, Hu; Duan, Ming; Zhang, Liehui

    2011-05-01

    The special flower-like and sheet-like ZnO structures were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The photocatalytic activity of different morphologies of ZnO structures was evaluated by degradating of methyl orange (MO). The photocatalytic degradation process was monitored in terms of decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removals. The results indicated that the flower-like ZnO structures were consisted of numerous flower-like aggregates with the size of 2 μm. The sheet-like ZnO nanostructures were obtained by increasing the reaction time. They exhibited higher photodegradation efficiencies under UV light irradiation than flower-like ZnO structures due to the blue shift of the band gap. The photodegradation could be described as the pseudo-first-order kinetics with apparent rate constants ranging from 1.17 × 10 -2 to 3.42 × 10 -2 min -1, which were based on the morphology of the structures. The photodegradation was faster than the mineralization, indicating that the accumulation of by-products were resistant to photocatalytic degradation.

  10. [Morphological characteristics of resting eggs produced by different Brachionus calyciflorus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyun; Xi, Yilong

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the Qingdao and Wuhu strains of Brachionus calyciflorus were cultured at 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, and fed with 1.0 x 10(6) and 5.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1) of Scenedesmus obliquus. The morphological study of their produced resting eggs showed that at the two food concentrations, the resting eggs produced at 20 degrees C were the largest in length, width and volume, while those produced at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C were the smallest. The effects of strain on the morphological characteristics of resting eggs also depended on food concentration. When the food concentration was 1.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1), the length, width and volume of the resting eggs produced by Wuhu strain and Qingdao strain were 156.00 microm, 99.95 microm and 12 269.11 microm3, and 145. 13 microm, 91.97 microm and 10 498. 19 microm3, respectively, while when the food concentration was 5.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1), the corresponding values were 155. 68 microm, 100.85 microm and 12 348.59 microm, and 156.63 microm, 98.04 microm and 12 054. 20 microm3, respectively. For test strains, only Wuhu strain showed a marked curvilinear correlation in the length, width and volume of its resting eggs with temperature. At the same temperature, the volumes of the resting eggs produced by both Qingdao and Wuhu strains were increased with increasing food concentration, with the exception that the resting eggs produced by Wuhu strain at 30 degrees C decreased with increasing food concentration.

  11. Metabolic and morphological differences between rapidly proliferating cancerous and normal breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Adam L; Kong, Becky; Berdichevsky, Marina; Roy, Siddhartha; Rosiva, Rosiva; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic and morphological characteristics of two human epithelial breast cell populations--MCF7 cells, a cancerous cell line, and 48R human mammary epithelial cells (48R HMECs), a noncancerous, finite lifespan cell strain--were compared at identical growth rates. Both cell types were induced to grow rapidly in nutrient-rich media containing 13C-labeled glucose, and the isotopic enrichment of cellular metabolites was quantified to calculate metabolic fluxes in key pathways. Despite their similar growth rates, the cells exhibited distinctly different metabolic and morphological profiles. MCF7 cells have an 80% smaller exposed surface area and contain 26% less protein per cell than the 48R cells. Surprisingly, rapidly proliferating 48R cells exhibited a 225% higher per-cell glucose consumption rate, a 250% higher per-cell lactate production rate, and a nearly identical per-cell glutamine consumption rate relative to the cancer cell line. However, when fluxes were considered on the basis of exposed area, the cancer cells were observed to have higher glucose, lactate, and glutamine fluxes, demonstrating superior transport capabilities per unit area of cell membrane. MCF7 cells also consumed amino acids at rates much higher than are generally required for protein synthesis, whereas 48R cells generally did not. Pentose phosphate pathway activity was higher in MCF7 cells, and the flux of glutamine to glutamate was less reversible. Energy efficiency was significantly higher in MCF7 cells, as a result of a combination of their smaller size and greater reliance on the TCA cycle than the 48R cells. These observations support evolutionary models of cancer cell metabolism and suggest targets for metabolic drugs in metastatic breast cancers.

  12. Who cares and who acts? Different types of outdoor recreationists exhibit different levels of environmental concern and behavior

    Treesearch

    Mario F. Teisl; Kelly O' Brien

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between a person's level of environmental concern and behavior, and their participation in different types of outdoor recreational activities has been a matter of study for approximately 25 years. However, most of the research occurred in the mid- to late seventies and, until recently, there has been relatively little research performed since then...

  13. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods were used to examine the structural integrity of the MNS of adults with WS versus typically developing (TD) individuals. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a tool typically used to screen for social features of ASD, was also employed to assess the relationships between social functioning with the MNS morphology in WS participants. WS individuals showed reduced cortical surface area of MNS substrates yet relatively preserved cortical thickness as compared to TD adults. Increased cortical thickness of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with increased deficits in social communication, social awareness, social cognition, and autistic mannerisms. However, social motivation was not related to anatomical features of the MNS. Our findings indicate that social deficits typical to both ASD and WS may be attributed to an aberrant MNS, whereas the unusual social drive marked in WS is subserved by substrates distinct from this network.

  14. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging methods were used to examine the structural integrity of the MNS of adults with WS versus typically developing (TD) individuals. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a tool typically used to screen for social features of ASD, was also employed to assess the relationships between social functioning with the MNS morphology in WS participants. WS individuals showed reduced cortical surface area of MNS substrates yet relatively preserved cortical thickness as compared to TD adults. Increased cortical thickness of the inferior parietal lobule was associated with increased deficits in social communication, social awareness, social cognition, and autistic mannerisms. However, social motivation was not related to anatomical features of the MNS. Our findings indicate that social deficits typical to both ASD and WS may be attributed to an aberrant MNS, whereas the unusual social drive marked in WS is subserved by substrates distinct from this network. PMID:26230578

  15. Ultrastructural analyses support different morphological lineages in the phylum Placozoa Grell, 1971.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Loretta; Eitel, Michael; Cesarini, Erica; Schierwater, Bernd; Balsamo, Maria

    2011-03-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of 10 clonal placozoan lineages were studied. We scored several morphological characters at a cellular and intracellular level and identified a number of morphological differences among clones. Some differences appear clone specific and allow recognizing five distinct lineages based on morphological criteria only. These data will be crucial for a yet to be established placozoan systematics. Furthermore, we here describe three new diagnostic morphological characters for Placozoa: a new structure in the upper epithelium, called "concave disc," two distinct subpopulations of fiber cells, and especially small cells in the body margin. Besides the fiber cells appear to be arranged in several layers forming a complex, three-dimensional net not previously described. We also describe the marginal cells as the formerly suggested potential stem-cell type. The basic morphology is revised. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo–rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  17. Developmental morphology of cover crop species exhibit contrasting behaviour to changes in soil bulk density, revealed by X-ray computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Burr-Hersey, Jasmine E.; Mooney, Sacha J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Mairhofer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz. tillage radish (Raphanus sativus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and black oat (Avena strigosa). The species were grown in soil columns containing a two-layer compaction treatment featuring a 1.2 g cm-3 (uncompacted) zone overlaying a 1.4 g cm-3 (compacted) zone. Three-dimensional visualisations of the root architecture were generated via X-ray computed tomography, and an automated root-segmentation imaging algorithm. Three classes of behaviour were manifest as a result of roots encountering the compacted interface, directly related to the species. For radish, there was switch from a single tap-root to multiple perpendicular roots which penetrated the compacted zone, whilst for vetch primary roots were diverted more horizontally with limited lateral growth at less acute angles. Black oat roots penetrated the compacted zone with no apparent deviation. Smaller root volume, surface area and lateral growth were consistently observed in the compacted zone in comparison to the uncompacted zone across all species. The rapid transition in soil bulk density had a large effect on root morphology that differed greatly between species, with major implications for how these cover crops will modify and interact with soil structure. PMID:28753645

  18. Developmental morphology of cover crop species exhibit contrasting behaviour to changes in soil bulk density, revealed by X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Burr-Hersey, Jasmine E; Mooney, Sacha J; Bengough, A Glyn; Mairhofer, Stefan; Ritz, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz. tillage radish (Raphanus sativus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and black oat (Avena strigosa). The species were grown in soil columns containing a two-layer compaction treatment featuring a 1.2 g cm-3 (uncompacted) zone overlaying a 1.4 g cm-3 (compacted) zone. Three-dimensional visualisations of the root architecture were generated via X-ray computed tomography, and an automated root-segmentation imaging algorithm. Three classes of behaviour were manifest as a result of roots encountering the compacted interface, directly related to the species. For radish, there was switch from a single tap-root to multiple perpendicular roots which penetrated the compacted zone, whilst for vetch primary roots were diverted more horizontally with limited lateral growth at less acute angles. Black oat roots penetrated the compacted zone with no apparent deviation. Smaller root volume, surface area and lateral growth were consistently observed in the compacted zone in comparison to the uncompacted zone across all species. The rapid transition in soil bulk density had a large effect on root morphology that differed greatly between species, with major implications for how these cover crops will modify and interact with soil structure.

  19. Observed Differences in Social Behaviors Exhibited in Peer Interactions Between Youth With Spina Bifida and Their Peers: Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Kolbuck, Victoria D.; Zebracki, Kathy; Roache, Caitlin R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in social behaviors in observed peer interactions between children with spina bifida (SB) and peers, and to examine neuropsychological correlates of these differences. Method A total of 100 youth (aged 8–15 years) with SB and peers participated in video-recorded interaction tasks, which were coded for interaction style, affect, and collaboration. Children with SB also completed a neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with SB demonstrated less adaptive social behaviors in peer interactions, particularly within the interaction style domain. Observational items found to be different between children with SB and their peers were best predicted by social language and attention abilities. Conclusions Children with SB exhibit a less adaptive interaction style and lower levels of social dominance but are comparable with typically developing peers on other social behaviors. The observed group differences may have a neuropsychological basis. PMID:25427551

  20. Morphological Differences Between Seyfert Hosts and Normal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    Using new sub-arcsecond resolution imaging we compare large-scale stellar bar fraction in CfA sample of Seyferts and a closely matched control sample of normal galaxies. We find a difference between the samples on the 2.5σ level. We further compare the axial ratios of bars in all available samples quoted in the literature and find a deficiency of small axial ratio bars in Seyferts compared to normal galaxies.

  1. Morphological differences in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo-Chica, Mónica; Hegarty, John P.; Schneider, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint. Using high-resolution proton-density weighted MRI scans, we precisely measured the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in 13 subjects with dyslexia (five female) and 13 controls (three female), all 22–26 years old. The left LGN was significantly smaller in volume in subjects with dyslexia and also differed in shape; no differences were observed in the right LGN. The functional significance of this asymmetry is unknown, but these results are consistent with the magnocellular theory and support theories of dyslexia that involve differences in the early visual system. PMID:26082892

  2. Efficacy of evaluation of rooster sperm morphology using different staining methods.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, E; Jerysz, A; Partyka, A; Siudzińska, A

    2008-12-01

    This work focused on inexpensive methods of evaluation fowl sperm morphology, based on eosin-nigrosin smears, which can determine disorders in spermatogenesis and can be recommended for evaluating the fertilising potency and selecting males in flocks reproduced by artificial insemination. Four fowl breeds (Black Minorca, Italian Partridge, Forwerk and Greenleg Partridge) were used to determine the efficacy of sperm morphology evaluation using four eosin-nigrosin staining methods (according to Blom, Bakst and Cecil, Morisson, Jaśkowski) and three examiners of different experience (high, medium, novice). There were significant (P< or = 0.01) differences in sperm morphology between Blom's staining method and those of Bakst and Cecil, Morisson or Jaśkowski, irrespective of fowl breed and examiners experience. Blom stain caused sperm head swelling and showed a drastic reduction in the proportion of live spermatozoa with normal morphology. The staining method had a greater influence on sperm morphology evaluation than the experience of the examiners.

  3. [Morphological differences and classifications of small spines of puffer fishes].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yoshimichi; Uchida, Kenichi; Oyaizu, Makoto; Hamano, Yonekazu

    2007-08-01

    The differences among the small spines of 6 species of puffers have been clarified by means of microscopic observation. Small spines of puffers arise from the basement, which is composed of spines protruding from the surface skin, with roots extending horizontally in all directions in the layer under the surface skin. Using the characteristic shapes of the basement, we have classified the puffer group of "Sansaifugu" (Takifugu flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) as Type I and the group of "Shirosabafugu" (Lagocephalus wheeleri), "Kurosabafugu" (L. gloveri), "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) and "Motosabafugu" (L. spadiceus) as Type II. The number of fore and back roots, including the branches at the ends, further varies in each group. The length and width of each root were measured. As a result, similar species within the group comprising "Sansaifugu" (T. flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) and 4 species of the "Sabafugu" (Lagocephalus) group including "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) have been clearly distinguished. We conclude that examination of the shape of the basement of small spines can be an effective identification index.

  4. Different evolutionary pathways underlie the morphology of wrist bones in hominoids.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Tracy L; Barros, Anna P; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2013-10-23

    The hominoid wrist has been a focus of numerous morphological analyses that aim to better understand long-standing questions about the evolution of human and hominoid hand use. However, these same analyses also suggest various scenarios of complex and mosaic patterns of morphological evolution within the wrist and potentially multiple instances of homoplasy that would benefit from require formal analysis within a phylogenetic context.We identify morphological features that principally characterize primate - and, in particular, hominoid (apes, including humans) - wrist evolution and reveal the rate, process and evolutionary timing of patterns of morphological change on individual branches of the primate tree of life. Linear morphological variables of five wrist bones - the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, capitate and hamate - are analyzed in a diverse sample of extant hominoids (12 species, 332 specimens), Old World (8 species, 43 specimens) and New World (4 species, 26 specimens) monkeys, fossil Miocene apes (8 species, 20 specimens) and Plio-Pleistocene hominins (8 species, 18 specimens). Results reveal a combination of parallel and synapomorphic morphology within haplorrhines, and especially within hominoids, across individual wrist bones. Similar morphology of some wrist bones reflects locomotor behaviour shared between clades (scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate) while others (lunate and hamate) indicate clade-specific synapomorphic morphology. Overall, hominoids show increased variation in wrist bone morphology compared with other primate clades, supporting previous analyses, and demonstrate several occurrences of parallel evolution, particularly between orangutans and hylobatids, and among hominines (extant African apes, humans and fossil hominins). Our analyses indicate that different evolutionary processes can underlie the evolution of a single anatomical unit (the wrist) to produce diversity in functional and morphological adaptations across individual wrist

  5. Different evolutionary pathways underlie the morphology of wrist bones in hominoids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hominoid wrist has been a focus of numerous morphological analyses that aim to better understand long-standing questions about the evolution of human and hominoid hand use. However, these same analyses also suggest various scenarios of complex and mosaic patterns of morphological evolution within the wrist and potentially multiple instances of homoplasy that would benefit from require formal analysis within a phylogenetic context. We identify morphological features that principally characterize primate – and, in particular, hominoid (apes, including humans) - wrist evolution and reveal the rate, process and evolutionary timing of patterns of morphological change on individual branches of the primate tree of life. Linear morphological variables of five wrist bones – the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, capitate and hamate – are analyzed in a diverse sample of extant hominoids (12 species, 332 specimens), Old World (8 species, 43 specimens) and New World (4 species, 26 specimens) monkeys, fossil Miocene apes (8 species, 20 specimens) and Plio-Pleistocene hominins (8 species, 18 specimens). Result Results reveal a combination of parallel and synapomorphic morphology within haplorrhines, and especially within hominoids, across individual wrist bones. Similar morphology of some wrist bones reflects locomotor behaviour shared between clades (scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate) while others (lunate and hamate) indicate clade-specific synapomorphic morphology. Overall, hominoids show increased variation in wrist bone morphology compared with other primate clades, supporting previous analyses, and demonstrate several occurrences of parallel evolution, particularly between orangutans and hylobatids, and among hominines (extant African apes, humans and fossil hominins). Conclusions Our analyses indicate that different evolutionary processes can underlie the evolution of a single anatomical unit (the wrist) to produce diversity in functional and morphological

  6. Facile synthesis of hierarchically structured BiVO4 oriented along (010) facets with different morphologies and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guosheng; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinying; Lv, Qiuyan; Li, Wenxin; Liang, Liting

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchically structured BiVO4 oriented along (010) facets with different morphologies are synthesized by a template-free solvothermal process in glycerol (Gly)-water mixed solvent. The effects of the volume fraction of Gly aqueous solution on the crystal structure, growth degree of (010) facets, morphology and photocatalytic activity were investigated. It is found that the volume fraction of Gly aqueous solution has strong influence on the concentration of the reaction species in the self-assembly process, and consequently induces the different morphology, as well as the crystal growth of the as-prepared BiVO4 oriented along (010) facets. A possible formation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the characterization results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The four-leaved primrose-like BiVO4 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the improved separation of photogenerated electrons and holes caused by both special morphology and preferential growth of (010) facets.

  7. Controllable low-temperature chemical vapor deposition growth and morphology dependent field emission property of SnO2 nanocone arrays with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Xue-Wen; Shen, Qiong; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Hua; Yang, Fan; Yang, He-Qing

    2013-04-24

    Vertically aligned SnO2 nanocones with different morphologies have been directly grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates in a large area by heating a mixture of stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O) and anhydrous zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at 600 °C in air. Control over the SnO2 nanocone arrays with different morphologies is achieved by adjusting the heat treatment time. The SnO2 nanocones are single crystalline with the tetragonal structure. A single-layer SnO2 nanoparticle film is first formed via the vapor-solid (VS) process due to the decentralization function of ZnCl2 vapor, and the SnO2 nanoparticles served as seeds and grew into nanocone arrays via the VS process. The sharp-tipped nanostructure formation may originate from a concentration gradient of reactant in the growth process. The as-obtained whiskerlike nanocone arrays exhibit enhanced field emission properties in comparison with typical nanoconelike structure arrays and other SnO2 nanostructured materials reported previously, and the turn-on field and field-enhancement factor is 1.19 V/μm and 3110, respectively. The experimental result is consistent with the Utsumi's relative figure of merit for pillar-shaped emitters.

  8. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic amino-based polyphosphazene microspheres with different morphologies via two strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xuan; Zhang, Guangcheng; Zhou, Lisheng; Li, Jianwei

    2017-10-01

    Novel fluorinated cross-linked polyphosphazene microspheres bearing active amino groups on the surface have been successfully prepared by precipitation polymerization of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) with 2,2‧-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether (6FODA) through different strategies: ultrasonic in high temperature and water-triggered self-assembly in normal temperature. By adjusting the reaction conditions, the diameter of the microspheres were controlled from 0.5-3 μm and 0.2-1 μm respectively. The chemical structures, morphologies, thermal properties, and surface properties of these microspheres were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and water contact angles (WCA). The cross-linked structures exhibited remarkable thermal stability, and no glass transition temperatures were observed. It was found that a wafer coated with those prepared microspheres has a water contact angle around 135°, which definitely increased compared with the water contact angle of as-prepared poly(hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether) microspheres (about 8.8°).

  10. Differences in the subgingival microbiota of Swedish and USA subjects who were periodontally healthy or exhibited minimal periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Haffajee, A D; Japlit, M; Bogren, A; Kent, R L; Goodson, J M; Socransky, S S

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown differences in the mean proportions of subgingival species in samples from periodontitis subjects in different countries, which may relate to differences in diet, genetics, disease susceptibility and manifestation. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether there were differences in the subgingival microbiotas of Swedish and American subjects who exhibited periodontal health or minimal periodontal disease. One hundred and fifty eight periodontally healthy or minimally diseased subjects (N Sweden=79; USA=79) were recruited. Subjects were measured at baseline for plaque, gingivitis, BOP, suppuration, pocket depth and attachment level at 6 sites per tooth. Subgingival plaque samples taken from the mesial aspect of each tooth at baseline were individually analyzed, in one laboratory, for their content of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization (total samples=4345). % DNA probe counts comprised by each species was determined for each site and averaged across sites in each subject. Significance of differences in proportions of each species between countries was determined using ancova adjusting for age, mean pocket depth, gender and smoking status. p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Cluster analysis was performed to group subjects based on their subgingival microbial profiles using a chord coefficient and an average unweighted linkage sort. On average, all species were detected in samples from subjects in both countries. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, 5 species were in significantly higher adjusted mean percentages in Swedish than American subjects: Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 (9.7, 3.3); Streptococcus sanguis (2.5, 1.2); Eikenella corrodens (1.7, 1.0); Tannerella forsythensis (3.5, 2.3) and Prevotella melaninogenica (6.3, 1.8). Leptotrichia buccalis was in significantly higher adjusted mean percentages in American (5.5) than Swedish subjects (3.0). Cluster analysis

  11. Race- and Sex-Related Differences in Retinal Thickness and Foveal Pit Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wagner-Schuman, Melissa; Dubis, Adam M.; Nordgren, Rick N.; Lei, Yuming; Odell, Daniel; Chiao, Hellen; Weh, Eric; Fischer, William; Sulai, Yusufu; Dubra, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine sex- and race-associated differences in macular thickness and foveal pit morphology by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. One hundred eighty eyes of 90 healthy patients (43 women, 47 men) underwent retinal imaging with spectral-domain OCT. The lateral scale of each macular volume scan was corrected for individual differences in axial length by ocular biometry. From these corrected volumes, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grids of retinal thickness were generated and compared between the groups. Foveal morphology was measured with previously described algorithms. Results. Compared with the Caucasians, the Africans and African Americans had reduced central subfield thickness. Central subfield thickness was also reduced in the women compared with the men, although the women also showed significant thinning in parafoveal regions. There was no difference between the sexes in foveal pit morphology; however, the Africans/African Americans had significantly deeper and broader foveal pits than the Caucasians. Conclusions. Previous studies have reported race- and sex-associated differences in macular thickness, and the inference has been that these differences represent similar anatomic features. However, the data on pit morphology collected in the present study reveal an important and significant variation. Between the sexes, the differences are due to global variability in retinal thickness, whereas the variation in thickness observed between the races appears to be driven by differences in foveal pit morphology. These differences have important implications for the use of SD-OCT in detecting and diagnosing retinal disease. PMID:20861480

  12. The genetic basis of interspecific differences in genital morphology of closely related carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, M; Takami, Y; Sota, T

    2007-06-01

    Marked diversification of genital morphology is common in internally fertilizing animals. Although sexual selection may be the primary process controlling genital evolution, factors promoting genital evolution are controversial, and the genetic background of genital morphology is poorly understood. We analyzed the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphologies in carabid beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus, Carabidae) using two parapatric species with hybrid zones. Biometric analyses on experimental F(1) and backcross populations revealed that inheritance of genital morphology is polygenic. Applying Lande's modification of the Castle-Wright estimator to population means and variances to estimate the minimum number of genes involved, we found that a relatively small number of loci is responsible for species differences in genital morphology. In addition, joint-scaling tests indicated that the additive genetic effect accounts for most interspecific differences in genital traits, but dominance and epistatic genetic effects also play roles. Overall, the genetic basis of male and female genitalia is fairly simple, enabling these traits to respond quickly to selection pressures and to diverge rapidly. Our results provide insight into the diversification of genital morphology in carabid beetles, and will hopefully stimulate further studies on the genetic basis of genitalia, such as mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting species-specific genital morphology.

  13. Genetic and developmental analysis of differences in eye and face morphology between Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Saad; Hilbrant, Maarten; Hopfen, Corinna; Almudi, Isabel; Nunes, Maria D S; Posnien, Nico; Kuncheria, Linta; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Schlötterer, Christian; McGregor, Alistair P

    2013-01-01

    Eye and head morphology vary considerably among insects and even between closely related species of Drosophila. Species of the D. melanogaster subgroup, and other Drosophila species, exhibit a negative correlation between eye size and face width (FW); for example, D. mauritiana generally has bigger eyes composed of larger ommatidia and conversely a narrower face than its sibling species. To better understand the evolution of eye and head morphology, we investigated the genetic and developmental basis of differences in eye size and FW between male D. mauritiana and D. simulans. QTL mapping of eye size and FW showed that the major loci responsible for the interspecific variation in these traits are localized to different genomic regions. Introgression of the largest effect QTL underlying the difference in eye size resulted in flies with larger eyes but no significant difference in FW. Moreover, introgression of a QTL region on the third chromosome that contributes to the FW difference between these species affected FW, but not eye size. We also observed that this difference in FW is detectable earlier in the development of the eye-antennal disc than the difference in the size of the retinal field. Our results suggest that different loci that act at different developmental stages underlie changes in eye size and FW. Therefore, while there is a negative correlation between these traits in Drosophila, we show genetically that they also have the potential to evolve independently and this may help to explain the evolution of these traits in other insects. PMID:23809700

  14. Genetic and developmental analysis of differences in eye and face morphology between Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana.

    PubMed

    Arif, Saad; Hilbrant, Maarten; Hopfen, Corinna; Almudi, Isabel; Nunes, Maria D S; Posnien, Nico; Kuncheria, Linta; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Schlötterer, Christian; McGregor, Alistair P

    2013-01-01

    Eye and head morphology vary considerably among insects and even between closely related species of Drosophila. Species of the D. melanogaster subgroup, and other Drosophila species, exhibit a negative correlation between eye size and face width (FW); for example, D. mauritiana generally has bigger eyes composed of larger ommatidia and conversely a narrower face than its sibling species. To better understand the evolution of eye and head morphology, we investigated the genetic and developmental basis of differences in eye size and FW between male D. mauritiana and D. simulans. QTL mapping of eye size and FW showed that the major loci responsible for the interspecific variation in these traits are localized to different genomic regions. Introgression of the largest effect QTL underlying the difference in eye size resulted in flies with larger eyes but no significant difference in FW. Moreover,introgression of a QTL region on the third chromosome that contributes to the FW difference between these species affected FW, but not eye size. We also observed that this difference in FW is detectable earlier in the development of the eye‐antennal disc than the difference in the size of the retinal field. Our results suggest that different loci that act at different developmental stages underlie changes in eye size and FW. Therefore, while there is a negative correlation between these traits in Drosophila, we show genetically that they also have the potential to evolve independently and this may help to explain the evolution of these traits in other insects.

  15. Patterns of differences in brain morphology in humans as compared to extant apes

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Although human evolution is characterized by a vast increase in brain size, it is not clear whether or not certain regions of the brain are enlarged disproportionately in humans, or how this enlargement relates to differences in overall neural morphology. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not there are specific suites of features that distinguish the morphology of the human brain from that of apes. The study sample consists of whole brain, in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and five ape species (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos). Twenty-nine 3D landmarks, including surface and internal features of the brain were located on 3D MRI reconstructions of each individual using MEASURE software. Landmark coordinate data were scaled for differences in size and analyzed using Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) to statistically compare the brains of each non-human ape species to the human sample. Results of analyses show both a pattern of brain morphology that is consistently different between all apes and humans, as well as patterns that differ among species. Further, both the consistent and species-specific patterns include cortical and subcortical features. The pattern that remains consistent across species indicates a morphological reorganization of 1) relationships between cortical and subcortical frontal structures, 2) expansion of the temporal lobe and location of the amygdala, and 3) expansion of the anterior parietal region. Additionally, results demonstrate that, although there is a pattern of morphology that uniquely defines the human brain, there are also patterns that uniquely differentiate human morphology from the morphology of each non-human ape species, indicating that reorganization of neural morphology occurred at the evolutionary divergence of each of these groups. PMID:21056456

  16. Identical bacterial populations colonize premature infant gut, skin, and oral microbiomes and exhibit different in situ growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Olm, Matthew R.; Brown, Christopher T.; Brooks, Brandon; Firek, Brian; Baker, Robyn; Burstein, David; Soenjoyo, Karina; Thomas, Brian C.; Morowitz, Michael; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2017-01-01

    The initial microbiome impacts the health and future development of premature infants. Methodological limitations have led to gaps in our understanding of the habitat range and subpopulation complexity of founding strains, as well as how different body sites support microbial growth. Here, we used metagenomics to reconstruct genomes of strains that colonized the skin, mouth, and gut of two hospitalized premature infants during the first month of life. Seven bacterial populations, considered to be identical given whole-genome average nucleotide identity of >99.9%, colonized multiple body sites, yet none were shared between infants. Gut-associated Citrobacter koseri genomes harbored 47 polymorphic sites that we used to define 10 subpopulations, one of which appeared in the gut after 1 wk but did not spread to other body sites. Differential genome coverage was used to measure bacterial population replication rates in situ. In all cases where the same bacterial population was detected in multiple body sites, replication rates were faster in mouth and skin compared to the gut. The ability of identical strains to colonize multiple body sites underscores the habit flexibility of initial colonists, whereas differences in microbial replication rates between body sites suggest differences in host control and/or resource availability. Population genomic analyses revealed microdiversity within bacterial populations, implying initial inoculation by multiple individual cells with distinct genotypes. Overall, however, the overlap of strains across body sites implies that the premature infant microbiome can exhibit very low microbial diversity. PMID:28073918

  17. Morphological diversity at different spatial scales in a Neotropical bat assemblage.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Arita, Héctor T

    2014-10-01

    The morphology of species can be used to represent their ecological position and infer potential processes determining the structure of species assemblages. This ecomorphological approach has been widely applied to the study of bat assemblages which mainly focuses on a single spatial scale and particular guilds. We extended such an ecomorphological approach to a multi-scale analysis of a Neotropical bat assemblage and its constituent guilds (aerial and gleaning insectivores, frugivores, and nectarivores) to describe their structure at different spatial scales and determine the relative importance of inter-specific competition, habitat filtering, or stochastic processes shaping such structures. We measured the occupied morphological space (size) defined by wing and skull morphology independently and the nearest-neighbour distance (structure) among species within these spaces at each spatial scale. Observed patterns were compared with random expectations derived from null models for statistical inference. When controlling for species richness and regional sampling effects in the null models, we did not find a significant effect of spatial scale in the morphological structure of the studied bat assemblage and guilds. Morphological structure followed the same patterns across scales as those expected from random drawings of sample size alone. Similar results were obtained regardless of morphological complex (wing and skull) and guilds. At both the assemblage and guild levels, bat morphological structure seems to be determined by regional, abiotic processes (e.g. habitat filtering) shaping the composition and organization of the species pool.

  18. Differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between patients with anterior shoulder instability and healthy, uninjured volunteers.

    PubMed

    Peltz, Cathryn D; Zauel, Roger; Ramo, Nicole; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic glenohumeral joint (GHJ) dislocations are common, resulting in significant shoulder disability and pain. Previous research indicates that bony morphology is associated with an increased risk of injury in other joints (eg, the knee), but the extent to which bony morphology is associated with traumatic GHJ dislocation is unknown. This study assessed GHJ morphology in patients with anterior GHJ instability and in a control population of healthy volunteers. Bilateral computed tomography scans were used to measure GHJ morphology in both shoulders of 11 patients with instability and 11 control subjects. Specific outcome measures included the glenoid radius of curvature (ROC) in the anterior/posterior (A/P) and superior/inferior (S/I) directions, humeral head ROC, A/P and S/I conformity index, and A/P and S/I stability angle. Compared with the control subjects, the glenoid of the instability the injured shoulder in patients with instability was flatter (ie, higher ROC) in the A/P (P = .001) and S/I (P = .01) directions and this finding was also true for uninjured, contralateral shoulder (A/P: P = .01, S/I: P = .03). No differences in GHJ morphology were detected between the instability patients' injured and contralateral shoulders (P > .07). Similarly, no differences in GHJ morphology were detected between the control subjects' dominant and nondominant shoulders (P > .51). There are significant differences in GHJ morphology between healthy control subjects and both shoulders (injured and uninjured, contralateral) of patients diagnosed with anterior instability after GHJ dislocation. These findings are important clinically because they suggest that glenoid morphology may influence the risk of GHJ dislocation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity.

  20. Endothelial, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle exhibit different viscous and elastic properties as determined by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, A. B.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Reichert, W. M.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that, due to functional and structural differences, the apparent elastic modulus and viscous behavior of cardiac and skeletal muscle and vascular endothelium would differ. To accurately determine the elastic modulus, the contribution of probe velocity, indentation depth, and the assumed shape of the probe were examined. Hysteresis was observed at high indentation velocities arising from viscous effects. Irreversible deformation was not observed for endothelial cells and hysteresis was negligible below 1 microm/s. For skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells, hysteresis was negligible below 0.25 microm/s. Viscous dissipation for endothelial and cardiac muscle cells was higher than for skeletal muscle cells. The calculated elastic modulus was most sensitive to the assumed probe geometry for the first 60 nm of indentation for the three cell types. Modeling the probe as a blunt cone-spherical cap resulted in variation in elastic modulus with indentation depth that was less than that calculated by treating the probe as a conical tip. Substrate contributions were negligible since the elastic modulus reached a steady value for indentations above 60 nm and the probe never indented more than 10% of the cell thickness. Cardiac cells were the stiffest (100.3+/-10.7 kPa), the skeletal muscle cells were intermediate (24.7+/-3.5 kPa), and the endothelial cells were the softest with a range of elastic moduli (1.4+/-0.1 to 6.8+/-0.4 kPa) depending on the location of the cell surface tested. Cardiac and skeletal muscle exhibited nonlinear elastic behavior. These passive mechanical properties are generally consistent with the function of these different cell types.

  1. Endothelial, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle exhibit different viscous and elastic properties as determined by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, A. B.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Reichert, W. M.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that, due to functional and structural differences, the apparent elastic modulus and viscous behavior of cardiac and skeletal muscle and vascular endothelium would differ. To accurately determine the elastic modulus, the contribution of probe velocity, indentation depth, and the assumed shape of the probe were examined. Hysteresis was observed at high indentation velocities arising from viscous effects. Irreversible deformation was not observed for endothelial cells and hysteresis was negligible below 1 microm/s. For skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells, hysteresis was negligible below 0.25 microm/s. Viscous dissipation for endothelial and cardiac muscle cells was higher than for skeletal muscle cells. The calculated elastic modulus was most sensitive to the assumed probe geometry for the first 60 nm of indentation for the three cell types. Modeling the probe as a blunt cone-spherical cap resulted in variation in elastic modulus with indentation depth that was less than that calculated by treating the probe as a conical tip. Substrate contributions were negligible since the elastic modulus reached a steady value for indentations above 60 nm and the probe never indented more than 10% of the cell thickness. Cardiac cells were the stiffest (100.3+/-10.7 kPa), the skeletal muscle cells were intermediate (24.7+/-3.5 kPa), and the endothelial cells were the softest with a range of elastic moduli (1.4+/-0.1 to 6.8+/-0.4 kPa) depending on the location of the cell surface tested. Cardiac and skeletal muscle exhibited nonlinear elastic behavior. These passive mechanical properties are generally consistent with the function of these different cell types.

  2. The different morphologies of urachal adenocarcinoma do not discriminate genomically by micro-RNA expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Mei Lin Z; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tretiakova, Maria; Jimenez, Rafael E; Barkan, Güliz A; Mehta, Vikas; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont Joseph; Steinberg, Gary D; White, Kevin P; Stricker, Thomas; Paner, Gladell P

    2013-08-01

    Urachal adenocarcinoma has several morphologic presentations that include mucinous, enteric, signet ring cell, and not otherwise specified. Mixtures of these morphologies can occur, and percentage cut-offs are used for classification. The clinical significance of these morphologic types is currently unknown, and genetic analysis that could elucidate possible intertumoral differences has not been performed. In this study, we analyzed the micro-RNA expression profiles of 12 urachal adenocarcinomas classified using strict morphologic criteria (3 pure enteric, 3 pure mucinous, 2 signet ring cell [both 90% signet ring cell], 2 pure not otherwise specified, and 2 mixed cell types). Of 598 unique human micro-RNAs, 333 were expressed in more than 50% of the samples. Hierarchal clustering showed no distinct patterns in the genetic profiles of the morphologic types. However, there were individual micro-RNA differences when the different types were compared individually or grouped together, either by intracellular mucin production or by grouping enteric and signet ring cell together. In the later group, 13 messenger RNA species were differentially expressed (adjusted P value of ≤.05). However, these micro-RNA differences were small, suggesting more biologic similarity than differences among these entities. Thus, this study suggests that the different morphological subtypes may represent patterns of differentiation or a continuum of a single biological tumor type rather than several distinct types that arose from the urachal remnant epithelium. This finding, if further validated in larger studies, may have implications in future clinical therapeutic trials for urachal adenocarcinoma with regard to patient grouping and choice of therapy.

  3. Comparing the Biogeochemical Potential of Hyporheic Zones Driven by Different River Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Channel morphology controls the hydrodynamics of hyporheic exchange and its residence times. As a result, it also constrains the hyporheic zone's biogeochemical processes that transform carbon, nutrients, metals, and contaminants and the hyporheic zone's net effect at the local, reach and watershed scales. Previous studies of different morphologies (e.g., meanders, bars, and smaller bedforms such as dunes) have mainly focused on the amount of exchange or, if biogeochemistry was involved, have been specific to a particular morphology. In this work, we present a quantitative intercomparison of the amount of exchange, residence time distributions (RTDs), and biogeochemical potential for four channel morphologies: ripples, dunes, bars, and meander bends. To this end, simple two-dimensional conceptualizations and semi-analytical solutions for the hyporheic zone's flow and transport are used. In general, all morphologies are characterized by heavy-tail RTDs, implying long-term memory to solute inputs. We hypothesize that even though meander bends induce larger hyporheic exchange per unit length of channel and longer residence times, substrate limitations result in less biogeochemical processing when compared with the cumulative effect of multiple bedforms. The models presented are a function of geometric and physical properties easily measured or constrained with field or remote sensing data. The simplicity of this approach allows for practical calculations of the hyporheic zone's exchange and biogeochemical potential over a broad range of scenarios and morphologies, making it a useful tool for experimental design, sampling, and watershed scale assessment.

  4. Functional morphology and comparative anatomy of appendicular musculature in Cuban Anolis lizards with different locomotor habits.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Wataru; Omura, Ayano; Diaz, Antonio Cadiz; Kawata, Masakado; Endo, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    We examined the diversity of the musculoskeletal morphology in the limbs of Anolis lizards with different habitats and identified variations in functional and morphological adaptations to different ecologies or behaviors. Dissection and isolation of 40 muscles from the fore- and hindlimbs of five species of Anolis were performed, and the muscle mass and length of the moment arm were compared after body size effects were removed. Ecologically and behaviorally characteristic morphological differences were observed in several muscles. Well-developed hindlimb extensors were observed in ground-dwelling species, A. sagrei and A. bremeri, and were considered advantageous for running, whereas adept climber species possessed expanded femoral retractors for weight-bearing during climbing. Moreover, morphological variations were observed among arboreal species. Wider excursions of the forelimb joint characterized A. porcatus, presumably enabling branch-to-branch locomotion, while A. equestris and A. angusticeps possessed highly developed adductor muscles for grasping thick branches or twigs. These findings suggest divergent evolution of musculoskeletal characteristic in the limbs within the genus Anolis, with correlations observed among morphological traits, locomotor performance, and habitat uses.

  5. Body morphology differs in wild juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Willamette River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billman, E.J.; Whitman, L.D.; Schroeder, R.K.; Sharpe, C.S.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Body morphology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the upper Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., was analysed to determine if variation in body shape is correlated with migratory life-history tactics followed by juveniles. Body shape was compared between migrating juveniles that expressed different life-history tactics, i.e. autumn migrants and yearling smolts, and among parr sampled at three sites along a longitudinal river gradient. In the upper Willamette River, the expression of life-history tactics is associated with where juveniles rear in the basin with fish rearing in downstream locations generally completing ocean ward migrations earlier in life than fish rearing in upstream locations. The morphological differences that were apparent between autumn migrants and yearling smolts were similar to differences between parr rearing in downstream and upstream reaches, indicating that body morphology is correlated with life-history tactics. Autumn migrants and parr from downstream sampling sites had deeper bodies, shorter heads and deeper caudal peduncles compared with yearling smolts and parr from the upstream sampling site. This study did not distinguish between genetic and environmental effects on morphology; however, the results suggest that downstream movement of juveniles soon after emergence is associated with differentiation in morphology and with the expression of life-history variation.

  6. Chemical and Morphological Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered at Different Bias Voltages Cr-Al-C Coatings.

    PubMed

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Gulyaev, Roman; Zak, Andrzej; Ratzke, Markus; Naveed, Muhammad; Dudzinski, Wlodzimierz; Weiß, Sabine

    2017-02-10

    MAX phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C/N) are of special interest because they possess a unique combination of the advantages of both metals and ceramics. Most attention is attracted to the ternary carbide Cr2AlC because of its excellent high-temperature oxidation, as well as hot corrosion resistance. Despite lots of publications, up to now the influence of bias voltage on the chemical bonding structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the film is still not well understood. In the current study, Cr-Al-C films were deposited on silicon wafers (100) and Inconel 718 super alloy by dc magnetron sputtering with different substrate bias voltages and investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze the correlation between the growth of the films and the coating microstructure. The XPS results confirm the presence of Cr2AlC MAX phase due to a negative shift of 0.6-0.9 eV of the Al2p to pure aluminum carbide peak. The XRD results reveal the presence of Cr2AlC MAX Phase and carbide phases, as well as intermetallic AlCr2. The film thickness decreases from 8.95 to 6.98 µm with increasing bias voltage. The coatings deposited at 90 V exhibit the lowest roughness (33 nm) and granular size (76 nm) combined with the highest hardness (15.9 GPa). The ratio of Al carbide to carbide-like carbon state changes from 0.12 to 0.22 and correlates with the mechanical properties of the coatings. TEM confirms the columnar structure, with a nanocrystalline substructure, of the films.

  7. Chemical and Morphological Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered at Different Bias Voltages Cr-Al-C Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Gulyaev, Roman; Zak, Andrzej; Ratzke, Markus; Naveed, Muhammad; Dudzinski, Wlodzimierz; Weiß, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    MAX phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C/N) are of special interest because they possess a unique combination of the advantages of both metals and ceramics. Most attention is attracted to the ternary carbide Cr2AlC because of its excellent high-temperature oxidation, as well as hot corrosion resistance. Despite lots of publications, up to now the influence of bias voltage on the chemical bonding structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the film is still not well understood. In the current study, Cr-Al-C films were deposited on silicon wafers (100) and Inconel 718 super alloy by dc magnetron sputtering with different substrate bias voltages and investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze the correlation between the growth of the films and the coating microstructure. The XPS results confirm the presence of Cr2AlC MAX phase due to a negative shift of 0.6–0.9 eV of the Al2p to pure aluminum carbide peak. The XRD results reveal the presence of Cr2AlC MAX Phase and carbide phases, as well as intermetallic AlCr2. The film thickness decreases from 8.95 to 6.98 µm with increasing bias voltage. The coatings deposited at 90 V exhibit the lowest roughness (33 nm) and granular size (76 nm) combined with the highest hardness (15.9 GPa). The ratio of Al carbide to carbide-like carbon state changes from 0.12 to 0.22 and correlates with the mechanical properties of the coatings. TEM confirms the columnar structure, with a nanocrystalline substructure, of the films. PMID:28772516

  8. Sex-related differences in morphological, physiological, and ultrastructural responses of Populus cathayana to chilling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Peng, Shuming; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the abiotic factors limiting plant growth and productivity. Yet, knowledge about sex-related responses to low temperature is very limited. In our study, the effects of low, non-freezing temperature on morphological, physiological, and ultrastructural traits of leaves in Populus cathayana Rehd. males and females were investigated. The results showed that 4 °C temperature caused a chilling stress, and females suffered from greater negative effects than did males. At the early growth stage of development, chilling (4 °C) significantly inhibited plant growth, decreased net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), and chlorophyll pigments (Chl), and increased intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), chlorophyll a/b (Chl a/b), proline, soluble sugar and H2O2 contents, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in both sexes, whereas peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities decreased and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content increased only in females. Chilling stress also caused chloroplast changes and an accumulation of numerous plastoglobules and small vesicles in both sexes. However, disintegrated chloroplasts and numerous tilted grana stacks were only found in chilling-stressed females. Under chilling stress, males showed higher Chl and soluble sugar contents, and higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), POD, and GR activities than did females. In addition, males exhibited a better chloroplast structure and more intact plasma membranes than did females under chilling stress. These results suggest that sexually different responses to chilling are significant and males possess a better self-protection mechanism than do females in P. cathayana. PMID:20926551

  9. Patients With Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy Exhibit Differences in Ankle Biomechanics as Opposed to Strength and Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Ruth L; Flemister, A Samuel; Tome, Joshua; McMahon, James M; Houck, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study; cross-sectional. Background Little is known about ankle range of motion (ROM) and strength among patients with insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) and whether limited ankle ROM and plantar flexor weakness impact IAT symptom severity. Objectives The purposes of the study were (1) to examine whether participants with IAT exhibit limited non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM, reduced plantar flexor strength, and/or altered ankle biomechanics during stair ascent; and (2) to determine which impairments are associated with symptom severity. Methods Participants included 20 patients with unilateral IAT (mean ± SD age, 59 ± 8 years; 55% female) and 20 individuals without tendinopathy (age, 58.2 ± 8.5 years; 55% female). A dynamometer was used to measure non-weight-bearing ROM and isometric plantar flexor strength. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to quantify ankle biomechanics during stair ascent. End-range dorsiflexion was quantified as the percentage of non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion used during stair ascent. Group differences were compared using 2-way and 1-way analyses of variance. Pearson correlations were used to test for associations among dependent variables and symptom severity. Results Groups differed in ankle biomechanics, but not non-weight-bearing ROM or strength. During stair ascent, the IAT group used greater end-range dorsiflexion (P = .03), less plantar flexion (P = .02), and lower peak ankle plantar flexor power (P = .01) than the control group. Higher end-range dorsiflexion and lower ankle power during stair ascent were associated with greater symptom severity (P<.05). Conclusion Patients with IAT do not experience restrictions in non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM or isometric plantar flexor strength. However, altered ankle biomechanics during stair ascent were linked with greater symptom severity and likely contribute to decreased function. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1051-1060. Epub

  10. Development of a real-time RT-PCR method for enumeration of viable Bifidobacterium longum cells in different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sebastian; Grattepanche, Franck; Rezzonico, Enea; Lacroix, Christophe

    2010-04-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria is traditionally assessed by plate counting which has several limitations, including underestimation of cells in aggregates or chains morphology. We describe a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based method for an accurate enumeration of viable cells of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 exhibiting different morphologies by measuring the mRNA levels of cysB and purB, two constitutively expressed housekeeping genes. Three primer-sets targeting short fragments of 57-bp of cysS and purB and one 400-bp fragment of purB were used. Cell quantification of serially diluted samples showed a good correlation coefficient of R(2) 0.984 +/- 0.003 between plate counts and qRT-PCR for all tested primer sets. Loss of viable cells exposed to a lethal heat stress (56 degrees C, 10, 20 and 30 min) was estimated by qRT-PCR and plate counts. No significant difference was observed using qRT-PCR targeting the 400-bp fragment of purB compared to plate counts indicating that this fragment is a suitable marker of cell viability. In contrast, the use of the 57-bp fragments led to a significant overestimation of viable cell counts (18 +/- 3 and 7 +/- 2 fold for cysB and purB, respectively). Decay of the mRNA fragments was studied by treatment of growing cells with rifampicin prior qRT-PCR. The 400-bp fragment of purB was faster degraded than the 57-bp fragments of cysB and purB. The 400-bp fragment of purB was further used to enumerate viable cells in aggregate state. Cell counts were more than 2 log(10) higher using the qRT-PCR method compared to plate counts. Growing interest in probiotic characteristics of aggregating bacteria cells make this technique a valuable tool to accurately quantify viable probiotic bacteria exhibiting heterogeneous morphology.

  11. Androgens regulate sex differences in signaling but are not associated with male variation in morphology in the weakly electric fish Parapteronotus hasemani.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Jacquelyn M; Smith, G Troy

    2016-02-01

    Sexually dimorphic signaling is widespread among animals and can act as an honest indicator of mate quality. Additionally, differences in signaling and morphology within a sex can be associated with different strategies for acquiring mates. Weakly electric fish communicate via self-generated electrical fields that transmit information about sex, reproductive state, and social status. The weakly electric knifefish Parapteronotus hasemani exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size as well as substantial within-male variation in body size and jaw length. We asked whether P. hasemani exhibits hormonally mediated sexual dimorphism in electrocommunication behavior. We also asked whether males with short versus long jaws differed significantly from each other in morphology, behavior, hormone levels, or reproductive maturity. Males produced longer chirps than females, but other signal parameters (electric organ discharge frequency; chirp rate and frequency modulation) were sexually monomorphic. Pharmacologically blocking androgen receptors in males reduced chirp duration, suggesting that this sexually dimorphic trait is regulated at least in part by the activational effects of androgens. Males sorted into two distinct morphological categories but did not differ in circulating 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. Short-jawed males and long-jawed males also did not differ in any aspects of signaling. Thus, chirping and high levels of 11-ketotestosterone were reliably associated with reproductively active males but do not necessarily indicate male type or quality. This contrasts with other alternative male morph systems in which males that differ in morphology also differ in androgen profiles and signaling behavior.

  12. Androgens regulate sex differences in signaling but are not associated with male variation in morphology in the weakly electric fish Parapteronotus hasemani

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Jacquelyn M.; Smith, G. Troy

    2015-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic signaling is widespread among animals and can act as an honest indicator of mate quality. Additionally, differences in signaling and morphology within a sex can be associated with different strategies for acquiring mates. Weakly electric fish communicate via self-generated electrical fields that transmit information about sex, reproductive state, and social status. The weakly electric knifefish Parapteronotus hasemani exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size as well as substantial within-male variation in body size and jaw length. We asked whether P. hasemani exhibits hormonally mediated sexual dimorphism in electrocommunication behavior. We also asked whether males with short versus long jaws differed significantly from each other in morphology, behavior, hormone levels, or reproductive maturity. Males produced longer chirps than females, but other signal parameters (electric organ discharge frequency; chirp rate and frequency modulation) were sexually monomorphic. Pharmacologically blocking androgen receptors in males reduced chirp duration, suggesting that this sexually dimorphic trait is regulated at least in part by the activational effects of androgens. Males sorted into two distinct morphological categories but did not differ in circulating 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. Short-jawed males and long-jawed males also did not differ in any aspects of signaling. Thus, chirping and high levels of 11-ketotestosterone were reliably associated with reproductively active males but do not necessarily indicate male type or quality. This contrasts with other alternative male morph systems in which males that differ in morphology also differ in androgen profiles and signaling behavior. PMID:26518663

  13. BCOR is a robust diagnostic immunohistochemical marker of genetically diverse high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, including tumors exhibiting variant morphology.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sarah; Lee, Cheng-Han; Stewart, Colin J R; Oliva, Esther; Hoang, Lien N; Ali, Rola H; Hensley, Martee L; Arias-Stella, Javier A; Frosina, Denise; Jungbluth, Achim A; Benayed, Ryma; Ladanyi, Marc; Hameed, Meera; Wang, Lu; Kao, Yu-Chien; Antonescu, Cristina R; Soslow, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Recognition of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is important because of its aggressive clinical behavior. Morphologic features of YWHAE-NUTM2 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma may overlap with other uterine sarcoma types. BCOR immunoexpression was studied in these tumors and their morphologic mimics to assess its diagnostic utility. BCOR immunohistochemical staining was performed on archival tissue from 28 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas with classic morphology (20 YWHAE-NUTM2, 5 ZC3H7B-BCOR, 3 BCOR-ZC3H7B), 3 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas with unusual morphology and unknown gene rearrangement status, 66 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, 21 endometrial stromal nodules, 38 uterine leiomyosarcomas, and 19 uterine leiomyomas. Intensity of nuclear staining and percentage of positive tumor cells were recorded. Strong diffuse nuclear BCOR staining (defined as >95% of tumor cells) was seen in the round cell component of all 20 (100%) classic YWHAE-NUTM2 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and the 3 unusual high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas which prompted FISH studies confirming YWHAE rearrangement in 2 tumors. Genomic PCR confirmed the presence of BCOR exon 16 internal tandem duplication in the third case. Diffuse BCOR staining was strong in three and weak in one BCOR-rearranged high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma while absent in the remaining four BCOR-rearranged tumors. BCOR staining was weakly positive in <5% of tumor cells in 4 of 66 (6%) low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and 1 of 18 (6%) endometrial stromal nodules and weakly to moderately positive in <5-40% of tumor cells in 6 of 31 (19%) leiomyosarcomas. No BCOR staining was seen in the remaining low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, endometrial stromal nodules, leiomyosarcomas, or any of the leiomyomas. BCOR immunohistochemical staining is a highly sensitive marker for YWHAE-NUTM2 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with both classic and unusual morphology

  14. Acquisition of english grammatical morphology by native mandarin-speaking children and adolescents: age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Jia, Gisela; Fuse, Akiko

    2007-10-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the acquisition of 6 English grammatical morphemes (i.e., regular and irregular past tense, 3rd person singular, progressive aspect -ing, copula BE, and auxiliary DO) by 10 native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents in the United States (arrived in the United States between 5 and 16 years of age). The goals were to chart and compare the acquisition trajectories and levels of mastery across the morphemes, identify when age-related differences emerged and which forms they took. Morphological proficiency was measured by the accuracy of these morphemes in obligatory contexts during spontaneous speech. The morphemes were mastered by different numbers of participants and showed different growth trajectories. Performance variance was partially predicted by age of arrival (AoAr) in the United States, with early arrivals achieving greater proficiency than late arrivals. However, such AoAr effects took several years to occur and only existed for 2 of the 6 morphemes (i.e., 3rd person singular and regular past tense). Growth curve analysis revealed that language environment was a stronger predictor of individual differences than AoAr. Results did not uncover age-related differences in the acquisition of tense versus non-tense-related morphemes, nor in regular versus irregular morphemes, nor in the error types. Findings support an Environmental account for age-related differences in 2nd language (L2) morphological acquisition. Results also indicate that the acquisition of some grammatical morphemes by school-aged immigrants takes several years to complete. As L2 learners exhibit some error types and difficulties similar to monolingual children with specific language impairment, caution needs to be taken when interpreting and using morphological errors as indicators of speech/language learning problems in this population.

  15. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 2. Synechococcus strains representative of putative ecotypes inhabiting different depths in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat exhibit different adaptive and acclimative responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie T.; Schaible, George A.; Becraft, Eric D.; Shen, Gaozhong; Klapper, Isaac; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Closely related strains of thermophilic Synechococcus were cultivated from the microbial mats found in the effluent channels of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These strains have identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA sequences but are representative of separate, predicted putative ecotype (PE) populations, which were identified by using the more highly resolving psaA locus and which predominate at different vertical positions within the 1-mm-thick upper-green layer of the mat. Pyrosequencing confirmed that each strain contained a single, predominant psaA genotype. Strains differed in growth rate as a function of irradiance. A strain with a psaA genotype corresponding to a predicted PE that predominates near the mat surface grew fastest at high irradiances, whereas strains with psaA genotypes representative of predominant subsurface populations grew faster at low irradiance and exhibited greater sensitivity to abrupt shifts to high light. The high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains also exhibited differences in pigment content and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus (photosystem ratio) when grown under different light intensities. Cells representative of the different strains had similar morphologies under low-light conditions, but under high-light conditions, cells of low-light-adapted strains became elongated and formed short chains of cells. Collectively, the results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that closely related, but distinct, ecological species of Synechococcus occupy different light niches in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat and acclimate differently to changing light environments. PMID:26175719

  16. Morphological and behavioral differences in the gastropod Trophon geversianus associated to distinct environmental conditions, as revealed by a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Federico; Nieto Vilela, Rocío Aimé; Lozada, Mariana; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The gastropod Trophon geversianus exhibits shell polymorphisms along its distribution in subtidal and intertidal habitats. Our hypothesis is that morphological and behavioral patterns of T. geversianus represent habitat-specific constrains; subsequently we expect an association between shell morphology, attachment behavior, and habitat. In order to test this hypothesis we compared individuals from intertidal and subtidal habitats, at three sites in Golfo Nuevo (Argentina). We analyzed shell morphology using classic morphometric variables, 3D geometric morphometrics and computing tomography scan. The results were complemented with field observations of attachment to substrate and turning time behavior, as well as of the number of shell scars produced by crab predation. Our results showed differences in shell size and shape between intertidal and subtidal-collected individuals. Centroid size, total weight and shell weight, as well as shell density and thickness were significantly lower in intertidal individuals than in subtidal ones. Gastropods from intertidal habitats presented a low-spired shell and an expanded aperture which might allow better attachment to the bottom substrate, while subtidal individuals presented a slender and narrower shell shape. The number of crab scars was significantly higher in shells from subtidal individuals. Observations of the behavior of gastropods placed at the intertidal splash zone showed 100% of attachment to the bottom in the intertidal individuals, while subtidal specimens only attached in average in 32% of the cases. These latter took 12 times longer to re-attach to the bottom when faced up. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene fragments showed no consistent differences among individuals sampled in both habitats. All these results suggest that T. geversianus has developed two ecomorphs with distinct morphological and behavioral responses to physically stressful conditions registered in north Patagonian intertidals, as opposed to

  17. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis.

  18. Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Development among Kindergarteners with Different Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children…

  19. [Comparative study on botanical morphologic character of different cultivated types medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Bin

    2008-12-01

    Botanical character of different cultivated types medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium were observed and compared, which can offer reference for its genetic diversity research and breeding. Based on the random blocks field experiments design, the main character of leaf and capitulum of medicinal C. morifolium were observed, it was studied on that the botanical character of different cultivated types medicinal C. mortfolium in China were comparatively study with statistical means. There are some different of botanical character among different cultivated types medicinal C. morifolium in China, which can be divided into 7 colonies according as its diversity of the botanical and morphological character. The sawtooth number of lamina, leafstalk length and leaf division number are the important laminae morphologic character of different types medicinal C. morifolium, which are relative independent characters.

  20. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  1. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  2. Ionic-liquid-assisted synthesis of YF{sub 3} with different crystalline phases and morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Haoxiang; Hong Jianming; Cao Xiaofeng; Chen Xuetai Xue Ziling

    2009-03-05

    YF{sub 3} with different crystalline phases and morphologies have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route assisted by imidazolium ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (C{sub 4}mimBF{sub 4}) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C{sub 4}mimPF{sub 6}). The microstructures and morphologies of YF{sub 3} particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cubic and orthorhombic YF{sub 3} were selectively synthesized by adjusting the molar ratio of the reagents and using C{sub 4}mimBF{sub 4} as the fluoride source, while only orthorhombic YF{sub 3} was obtained using C{sub 4}mimPF{sub 6}, indicating that the crystalline phases and morphologies of the products were significantly influenced by fluoride source and reaction media.

  3. [Study on geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds].

    PubMed

    Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Qin, Shu-Ying; Liu, Chang-Li; Zhang, Zhao-Ying; Di, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods. The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine. The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.

  4. Two genetically related strains of Tuber borchii produce Tilia mycorrhizas with different morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Sisti, D; Giomaro, G; Cecchini, M; Faccio, A; Novero, M; Bonfante, P

    2003-04-01

    Two genetically related strains of Tuber borchii Vittad. (1BO and 43BO) produce mycorrhizas with Tilia platyphyllos Scop. with a different degree of efficiency. The aim of this work was to characterize the morphology of the fungal symbiotic structures in order to examine potential relationships between the anatomical traits of the mycorrhiza, the mycorrhizal capacities of the fungal strains and their effect on the host plants. Some morphological features of mantle hyphae (small size, intense staining, vacuolization, abundance of mitochondria) led to a mantle with morphological features that were isolate-specific. There were unexpected differences, at least under our experimental conditions: 1BO strain mantle cells were larger, less reactive to staining, more highly vacuolated and poorer in mitochondria than those of 43BO. These features were found throughout the mantle in 1BO, while the inner mantle hyphae of 43BO were significantly smaller and more intensely stained than the outer cells. In the 43BO strain there was a positive relation between these features and higher infectivity (evaluated as percentage of mycorrhizal tips) as well as a slightly more effective stimulation of plant growth. These observations suggest that genetically related truffle strains produce mycorrhizas with different morphologies, which may be related to a more efficient response of the host plant to inoculation.

  5. Preparation and efficient visible light-induced photocatalytic activity of m-BiVO4 with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanjie; Shang, Huishan; Shi, Fengjuan; Chao, Cong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Bing

    2015-10-01

    The monoclinic scheelite BiVO4 crystals with peanut-like, oval, twin-quadrangle and twin-four-pointed star morphologies were synthesized via a facile one step hydrothermal method by using sodium citrate as the chelating agent. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to elucidate the structures and mophologies of the as-prepared BiVO4 samples. The results showed that the formation of m-BiVO4 with different morphologies relied on the pH value of the precursor solution. The band gaps values (Eg) of all the BiVO4 samples were around 2.37-2.45 eV according to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, which indicated that samples could strongly absorb in the visible light region. The photocatalytic activities of BiVO4 crystals were evaluated by degradation of MB in aqueous solution under artificial solar-light. The BiVO4 samples obtained at different pH values showed different photocatalytic activities during the sunlight-driven photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). The sample with peanut-like-shape prepared at pH=1 exhibited the highest activity, and the photocatalytic conversion could reach above 90% after 3 h of irradiation. The result suggested that m-BiVO4 with peanut-like-shape could be used as an effective photocatalyst in practical application for organic pollutants degradation.

  6. Hepatitis E virus derived from different sources exhibits different behaviour in virus inactivation and/or removal studies with plasma derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kadue; Urayama, Takeru; Hattori, Shinji; Ideno, Shoji; Furuki, Rie; Sakai, Kaoru; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes viral hepatitis, and is considered a risk factor for blood products. Although some HEV inactivation/removal studies have been reported, detailed investigations of different manufacturing steps as heat treatment, partitioning during cold ethanol fractionation, low pH treatment, and virus filtration have yet to be reported for plasma-derived medicinal products. In this study, human serum- and swine faeces-derived HEVs, with and without detergent treatment, were used. The kinetic patterns of inactivation, log reduction value, or partitioning during the process were evaluated. In addition, the mouse encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and canine and porcine parvoviruses (CPV/PPV) were also evaluated as model viruses for HEV. Small pore size (19 or 15 nm) virus filtration demonstrated effective removal of HEV. Middle pore size (35 nm) virus filtration and 60 °C liquid heating demonstrated moderate inactivation/removal. Ethanol fractionation steps demonstrated limited removal of HEV. Unpurified HEV exhibited different properties than the detergent-treated HEV, and both forms displayed differences when compared with EMCV, CPV, and PPV. Limited or no inactivation of HEV was observed during low pH treatment. Untreated plasma-derived HEV from humans showed different properties compared to that of HEV treated with detergent or derived from swine faeces. Therefore, HEV spike preparation requires more attention.

  7. Discrimination of Different Brain Metastases and Primary CNS Lymphomas Using Morphologic Criteria and Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bette, S; Wiestler, B; Delbridge, C; Huber, T; Boeckh-Behrens, T; Meyer, B; Zimmer, C; Gempt, J; Kirschke, J

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and occur in about 15 - 40 % of patients with malignancies. The aim of this retrospective study was to differentiate between metastases from different primary tumors/CNS lymphyomas using morphologic criteria, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Materials and Methods: Morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage, cysts, pattern of contrast enhancement and location were reported in 200 consecutive patients with brain metastases/primary CNS lymphomas. FA and ADC values were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part, the necrosis and the non-enhancing peritumoral region (NEPTR). Differences between histopathological subtypes of metastases were analyzed using non-parametric tests, decision trees and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results: Significant differences were found in morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage or pattern of contrast enhancement. In diffusion measurements, significant differences between the different tumor entities were only found in ADC analyzed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part. Among single tumor entities, primary CNS lymphomas showed significantly lower median ADC values in the contrast-enhancing tumor part (ADClymphoma 0.92 [0.83 - 1.07] vs. ADCno_lymphoma 1.35 [1.10 - 1.64] P = 0.001). Further differentiation between types of metastases was not possible using FA and ADC. Conclusion: There were morphologic differences among the main subtypes of brain metastases/CNS lymphomas. However, due to a high variability of common types of metastases and low specificity, prospective differentiation remained challenging. DTI including FA and ADC was not a reliable tool for differentiation between different histopathological subtypes of brain metastases except for CNS lymphomas showing lower ADC values. Biopsy, surgery and staging remain essential for diagnosis. Key Points:

  8. Museum Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  9. Genomic and physiological responses to strong selective pressure during late organogenesis: few gene expression changes found despite striking morphological differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    results suggest that statistically significant changes in gene expression of relatively few genes contribute to the phenotypic changes and large morphological differences exhibited by reference and resistant populations upon exposure to PAH pollutants. By correlating cardiac physiology and morphology with changes in gene expression patterns of reference and resistant embryos, we provide additional evidence for acquired resistance among embryos whose parents live at heavily contaminated sites. PMID:24215130

  10. Effect of different carbon sources on morphology and silver accumulation in Cochliobolus lunatus.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Rahul B; Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Sucheta N; Patil, Satish V

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of filamentous fungi plays very important role in uptake of metabolites and enzyme production. A filamentous fungus may be fibrous, hyphae, pellets, clumps, etc. Cochliobolus lunatus is a fungus which has previously been reported for silver accumulation and nanoparticles formation. The present study investigated the role of various carbon sources on morphology, biochemical profile, silver accumulation, and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by fungal strain C. lunatus. In this investigation, effect of different carbon sources was studied on morphology of C. lunatus and its silver accumulating ability. As a result of different carbon sources like carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), pectin, starch, agar, sucrose, and mannitol, the organism showed three kinds of morphologies like homogenous smooth branched clumps, tough short fibrous filaments, and tough pellets, as well as silver accumulating ability. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) studies showed maximum uptake of Ag(+): 87.44 ± 0.23 and 82.57 ± 0.19 % in pectin- and CMC-grown biomass, respectively. The crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of silver nanoparticles confirmed size ranging from 5 to 38 nm.

  11. Influence of different solvents on the morphology of APTMS-modified silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakša, G.; Štefane, B.; Kovač, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this study 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used for the modification of single-crystal silicon wafers (1 1 1). We deposited the self-assembled layers from a solution of APTMS in five solvents with different polarities under various reaction conditions. The influence of the different solvents on the morphology of the modified surfaces was studied, since the possible heterogeneity may significantly influence the application of such surfaces. The surface composition and the chemical bonding were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the morphology of the modified surfaces was investigated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that the amount of coatings and the morphology of the modified surface strongly depend on the type of solvent. Silanization carried out in acetonitrile and toluene leads to the formation of a rough surface with a large density of APTMS polymerized molecules in the form of islands. The surfaces modified in N,N-dimethylformamide were smoother, with a lower density of APTMS islands. When using acetone and ethanol as a solvent we prepared a smooth, thin, modified surface, with a very low density of the APTMS islands. We discuss the influence of the polarity/nature of the solvents on the morphology of the modified surfaces.

  12. Morphological changes in skin of different phototypes under the action of topical corticosteroid therapy and tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Shlivko, I L; Kamensky, V A; Donchenko, E V; Agrba, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of topical corticosteroid therapy and tacrolimus on morphological indices of different skin phototypes and to optimize topical therapy using the OCT technique. Twenty healthy volunteers aging from 20 to 30 (14 men and 6 women) took part in the study: 10 persons with skin phototype I, II and 10 persons with skin phototype V, VI. Morphological state of the skin was assessed before and during application of topical steroids of different strength and calciumneurin inhibitors for 49 days. Morphological state was studied in vivo using the optical coherence tomograph. Morphological manifestations of skin atrophy with the use of clobetasol propionate appear earlier than with the use of hydrocortisone 17-butyrate; this process was faster in representatives of groups V, VI. Epidermal thinning in the zone of tacrolimus application was not recorded in any phototype. Recording of early preclinical signs of epidermis thinning in the course of OCT follow-up may be an indication for changing the corticosteroid therapy by calciumneurin inhibitors, which will permit to individualize the therapy, to increase its efficacy, and to minimize the possibility of complications in each particular case. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Morphological characteristics of osteotomies using different piezosurgical devices. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sophie E M; Romanos, Georgios E

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare morphological characteristics of osteotomies performed by 6 Piezosurgical devices. The 6 Piezosurgical units were: (a) Piezotom, (b) SurgySonic, (c) Piezon Master Surgery, (d) VarioSurg, (e) Surgybone, and (f) Piezosurgery 3. Osteotomies on 9 freshly slaughtered cattle ribs (2 cuts by each unit, per rib) from the cortical (first cut at 5 mm) to the cancellous (second cut at 3 mm) bone layer were performed. The osteotomy margins were compared using scanning electron microscopy analysis. The cutting areas, osteotomy bottoms, and osteotomy margins were analyzed morphologically. Statistical evaluation of the 2 cuts regarding the design of the tips (a-d: tapered tool shanks, f: parallel tool shank) was performed by an unpaired t test. Morphological characteristics were different for each Piezosurgical unit and each examined area. A significant difference (P = 0.0209) of the upper width of the first cut between tapered and parallel tips was shown. The morphological characteristics of the produced Piezosurgical osteotomies vary and depend on the Piezosurgical unit and tip.

  14. Morphology and structure characterization of bacterial celluloses produced by different strains in agitated culture.

    PubMed

    Bi, J-C; Liu, S-X; Li, C-F; Li, J; Liu, L-X; Deng, J; Yang, Y-C

    2014-11-01

    The influence of bacterial species/strains in agitated culture was investigated on the morphology and structure characteristics of bacterial cellulose. Komagataeibacter nataicola Y19 and Gluconacetobacter entanii ACCC10215 were inoculated in Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium and subjected to agitated cultivation. Different kinds of BCs were obtained including flocky asterisk-like BC by G. entanii ACCC10215 and solid sphere-like BC by K. nataicola Y19. The SEM results showed that the asterisk-like BC had larger pores than the solid sphere-like BC. The FT-IR and X-ray diffraction results showed the asterisk-like BC had lower crystallinity (81·43%), higher cellulose Iα mass fraction (79·74%) and smaller crystallite size. The different species/strains can influence the morphology and structure characteristics of BC in agitated culture. We examined the influence of different species/strains on the morphology, macro- and microstructure of BCs produced in agitated culture for the first time, which suggest that different BCs with potential applications could be obtained by choosing different species or strains and fermentation method. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  16. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  17. Investigations on diamond nanostructuring of different morphologies by the reactive-ion etching process and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kunuku, Srinivasu; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Chang, Wen-Hao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan

    2013-08-14

    We report the systematic studies on the fabrication of aligned, uniform, and highly dense diamond nanostructures from diamond films of various granular structures. Self-assembled Au nanodots are used as a mask in the self-biased reactive-ion etching (RIE) process, using an O2/CF4 process plasma. The morphology of diamond nanostructures is a close function of the initial phase composition of diamond. Cone-shaped and tip-shaped diamond nanostructures result for microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, whereas pillarlike and grasslike diamond nanostructures are obtained for Ar-plasma-based and N2-plasma-based ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, respectively. While the nitrogen-incorporated UNCD (N-UNCD) nanograss shows the most-superior electron-field-emission properties, the NCD nanotips exhibit the best photoluminescence properties, viz, different applications need different morphology of diamond nanostructures to optimize the respective characteristics. The optimum diamond nanostructure can be achieved by proper choice of granular structure of the initial diamond film. The etching mechanism is explained by in situ observation of optical emission spectrum of RIE plasma. The preferential etching of sp(2)-bonded carbon contained in the diamond films is the prime factor, which forms the unique diamond nanostructures from each type of diamond films. However, the excited oxygen atoms (O*) are the main etching species of diamond film.

  18. Modern classification of neoplasms: reconciling differences between morphologic and molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jules

    2005-01-01

    Background For over 150 years, pathologists have relied on histomorphology to classify and diagnose neoplasms. Their success has been stunning, permitting the accurate diagnosis of thousands of different types of neoplasms using only a microscope and a trained eye. In the past two decades, cancer genomics has challenged the supremacy of histomorphology by identifying genetic alterations shared by morphologically diverse tumors and by finding genetic features that distinguish subgroups of morphologically homogeneous tumors. Discussion The Developmental Lineage Classification and Taxonomy of Neoplasms groups neoplasms by their embryologic origin. The putative value of this classification is based on the expectation that tumors of a common developmental lineage will share common metabolic pathways and common responses to drugs that target these pathways. The purpose of this manuscript is to show that grouping tumors according to their developmental lineage can reconcile certain fundamental discrepancies resulting from morphologic and molecular approaches to neoplasm classification. In this study, six issues in tumor classification are described that exemplify the growing rift between morphologic and molecular approaches to tumor classification: 1) the morphologic separation between epithelial and non-epithelial tumors; 2) the grouping of tumors based on shared cellular functions; 3) the distinction between germ cell tumors and pluripotent tumors of non-germ cell origin; 4) the distinction between tumors that have lost their differentiation and tumors that arise from uncommitted stem cells; 5) the molecular properties shared by morphologically disparate tumors that have a common developmental lineage, and 6) the problem of re-classifying morphologically identical but clinically distinct subsets of tumors. The discussion of these issues in the context of describing different methods of tumor classification is intended to underscore the clinical value of a robust tumor

  19. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species

    PubMed Central

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names. PMID:25955391

  20. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  1. Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Tainá CC; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. : ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

  2. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles with different morphologies as well as their possible antibacterial mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guansong; Jin, Wenxiu; Chen, Qingyuan; Cai, Yuchun; Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Wanzhong

    2016-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have good antibacterial activity and their morphologies have important influence on their activity. The relationship between their bactericidal property and morphology has not been studied thoroughly. Silver triangular nanoplates have basic {111} surface, nanospheres and nanocubes mainly have {100} planes, and nanorods have {100} side surfaces and {111} end facets. It was said that {111} crystal plane of AgNPs may play a prime role in antibacterial progress. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of nanocubes is not very clear when compared to nanoparticles with other morphologies. In this paper, we studied the antibacterial activity of nanocubes and attempted to confirm whether nanoparticles with {111} crystal facet truly had stronger antibacterial activity than other nanoparticles. We prepared four kinds of AgNPs and found silver triangle nanoplates had the best antibacterial activity, while nanospheres, nanocubes and short nanorods showed similar efficacy. It may provide a reference for safe application of AgNPs with different morphologies in the medical field.

  3. Compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi intermetallics in different diffusion couples

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tong; Liu, Guiliang; Liu, Xiangfa

    2014-09-15

    Two kinds of diffusion couples were designed to investigate the formation of ternary TiAlSi phases in Al–Si–Ti alloys. It was found that different diffusion processes result in various compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi intermetallics. The melted Al, Si and Ti atoms in the diffusion couple leads to the formation of flake-like TiAlSi phase through liquid–liquid reaction. Besides, unidirectional diffusion of Al and Si atoms into blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles or Ti powders via a liquid–solid diffusion process also results in the formation of TiAlSi, while keeping the block-like morphology. This kind of diffusion is a gradual process, driven by the concentration gradient. The reactions in the diffusion couples are helpful to understand the compositional and morphological evolutions of TiAlSi as reported in previous work. - Highlights: • Two diffusion couples were designed to investigate the formation of TiAlSi phases. • Compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi are influenced by the diffusion process. • Liquid–liquid and liquid–solid diffusions were detected. • The corresponding mechanisms were discussed.

  4. Astrocyte morphology after ischemic and hemorrhagic experimental stroke has no influence on the different recovery patterns.

    PubMed

    Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Saur, Lisiani; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Vaz, Sabrina Pereira; Ferreira, Kelly; Machado, Susane Alves; Xavier, Léder Leal; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    Stroke, broadly subdivided into ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes, is a serious health-care problem worldwide. Previous studies have suggested ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke could present different functional recovery patterns. However, little attention has been given to this neurobiological finding. Coincidently, astrocyte morphology could be related to improved sensorimotor recovery after skilled reaching training and modulated by physical exercise and environmental enrichment. Therefore, it is possible that astrocyte morphology might be linked to differential recovery patterns between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Thus, we decided to compare long-term GFAP-positive astrocyte morphology after ischemic (IS, n=5), hemorrhagic (HS, n=5) and sham (S, n=5) stroke groups (induced by endothelin-1, collagenase type IV-S and salina, respectively). Our results showed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke subtypes induced similar long-term GFAP-positive astrocyte plasticity (P>0.05) for all evaluated measures (regional and cellular optical density; astrocytic primary processes ramification and length; density of GFAP positive astrocytes) in perilesional sensorimotor cortex and striatum. These interesting negative results discourage similar studies focused on long-term plasticity of GFAP-positive astrocyte morphology and recovery comparison of stroke subtypes.

  5. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cassuto, Nino Guy; Montjean, Debbie; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Bouret, Dominique; Marzouk, Flora; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM) at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p < 10−6), OR = 2.4; and p < 0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI. PMID:27148551

  6. [Study on morphology, quality and germination characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To preliminary explore the difference of the morphological, quality and germinal characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats. Collect the wild seeds from different habitats in West Mountain, and then observe their external appearances and internal structure, and test the thousand seeds weight,water content and seed vigor. What's more, the influence to germination rates of the seeds from different temperatures and light intensities in artificial bioclimatic chamber was studied. Orthogonal test in experimental plots was carried out to screen the different sowing dates, matrix types and soil depths which may influence germination rate. The external appearances and quality characteristics of wild seeds from three habitats were different. Seeds could germinate in the both light and dark, the germination rate of the habitat II was as high as 70.5% at the optimum temperature 20 degrees C in artificial bioclimatic chamber. The optimal combination A1, B1, C1 was screened out through orthogonal test, namely, the germination rate would be the highest when the seeds sowed in autumn covering with 2 cm depth of matrix type which component of the ratio of soil, sand and organic fertilizer was 6: 3: 1. There was significant difference in the morphology and germination rate of the three habitats seeds. The habitat II seeds were the optimal choice when culture seedling. The influences of different temperatures on germination rate were different, and the dried seeds should sow in current autumn, better than the next spring.

  7. A study on different morphological structures of zinc oxide nanostructures for humidity sensing application

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, A. S. Mamat, M. H. Rusop, M.; Malek, M. F. Abdullah, M. A. R. Sin, M. D.

    2016-07-06

    Effects of different morphological structures of ZnO to the performance of the device in the humidity sensing have been studied. Two different kinds of nanostructures were obtained which are nanords and nanoflakes. From the surface morphology image, the ZnO nanoflakes has lower diameter size of 100 nm compared to ZnO nanorods of 250 nm. The ZnO nanoflakes are not aligned and has low porous structure compared to ZnO nanorods. The humidity sensor performance of ZnO nanorods has superior performance compared to ZnO nanoflakes. The sensitivity of the ZnO nanorods sensor is 3.20 which are almost two times higher than the ZnO nanoflakes of 1.65. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  8. A study on different morphological structures of zinc oxide nanostructures for humidity sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Sin, M. D.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of different morphological structures of ZnO to the performance of the device in the humidity sensing have been studied. Two different kinds of nanostructures were obtained which are nanords and nanoflakes. From the surface morphology image, the ZnO nanoflakes has lower diameter size of 100 nm compared to ZnO nanorods of 250 nm. The ZnO nanoflakes are not aligned and has low porous structure compared to ZnO nanorods. The humidity sensor performance of ZnO nanorods has superior performance compared to ZnO nanoflakes. The sensitivity of the ZnO nanorods sensor is 3.20 which are almost two times higher than the ZnO nanoflakes of 1.65. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIVE MALE SUBJECTS' THYROID BODY IN THE REPUBLIC SAKHA (YAKUTIA) IN DIFFERENT SEASONS.

    PubMed

    Egorova, A; Garmayeva, D

    2015-01-01

    Morphological analysis of macro-, microstructures of native male subjects' thyroid gland in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) in different seasons has been conducted. Macromorphometric indicators of native male subjects' thyroid gland (specific weight, total capacity, linear indicators were specified in summer and winter seasons. Micromorphometric characteristics of structural components of native male subjects' thyroid gland tissue was given in relation to different seasons. In this case native male subjects' thyroid gland was as curtained as normoplastic mixed type of structure, indicators of outer and inner thyroid gland follicles diameter in winter period were slightly bigger than in summer period. The same tendency was observed when thyroid gland follicular-colloidal index was calculated. On the data obtained the attempt to assess season temperature factor impact on the thyroid gland structural indicators were made. This assessment might be used as morphological equivalent of the body adaptation processes in northern regions.

  10. Information Generated by the Moving Pinnae of Rhinolophus rouxi: Tuning of the Morphology at Different Harmonics

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Reijniers, Jonas; Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Bats typically emit multi harmonic calls. Their head morphology shapes the emission and hearing sound fields as a function of frequency. Therefore, the sound fields are markedly different for the various harmonics. As the sound field provides bats with all necessary cues to locate objects in space, different harmonics might provide them with variable amounts of information about the location of objects. Also, the ability to locate objects in different parts of the frontal hemisphere might vary across harmonics. This paper evaluates this hypothesis in R. rouxi, using an information theoretic framework. We estimate the reflector position information transfer in the echolocation system of R. rouxi as a function of frequency. This analysis shows that localization performance reaches a global minimum and a global maximum at the two most energetic frequency components of R. rouxi call indicating tuning of morphology and harmonic structure. Using the fundamental the bat is able to locate objects in a large portion of the frontal hemisphere. In contrast, using the 1 overtone, it can only locate objects, albeit with a slightly higher accuracy, in a small portion of the frontal hemisphere by reducing sensitivity to echoes from outside this region of interest. Hence, different harmonic components provide the bat either with a wide view or a focused view of its environment. We propose these findings can be interpreted in the context of the foraging behaviour of R. rouxi, i.e., hunting in cluttered environments. Indeed, the focused view provided by the 1 overtone suggests that at this frequency its morphology is tuned for clutter rejection and accurate localization in a small region of interest while the finding that overall localization performance is best at the fundamental indicates that the morphology is simultaneously tuned to optimize overall localization performance at this frequency. PMID:21698094

  11. Information generated by the moving pinnae of Rhinolophus rouxi: tuning of the morphology at different harmonics.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Reijniers, Jonas; Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Bats typically emit multi harmonic calls. Their head morphology shapes the emission and hearing sound fields as a function of frequency. Therefore, the sound fields are markedly different for the various harmonics. As the sound field provides bats with all necessary cues to locate objects in space, different harmonics might provide them with variable amounts of information about the location of objects. Also, the ability to locate objects in different parts of the frontal hemisphere might vary across harmonics. This paper evaluates this hypothesis in R. rouxi, using an information theoretic framework. We estimate the reflector position information transfer in the echolocation system of R. rouxi as a function of frequency. This analysis shows that localization performance reaches a global minimum and a global maximum at the two most energetic frequency components of R. rouxi call indicating tuning of morphology and harmonic structure. Using the fundamental the bat is able to locate objects in a large portion of the frontal hemisphere. In contrast, using the 1st overtone, it can only locate objects, albeit with a slightly higher accuracy, in a small portion of the frontal hemisphere by reducing sensitivity to echoes from outside this region of interest. Hence, different harmonic components provide the bat either with a wide view or a focused view of its environment. We propose these findings can be interpreted in the context of the foraging behaviour of R. rouxi, i.e., hunting in cluttered environments. Indeed, the focused view provided by the 1st overtone suggests that at this frequency its morphology is tuned for clutter rejection and accurate localization in a small region of interest while the finding that overall localization performance is best at the fundamental indicates that the morphology is simultaneously tuned to optimize overall localization performance at this frequency.

  12. Population Differences in Brain Morphology and Microstructure among Chinese, Malay, and Indian Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jordan; Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates’ tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions. PMID:23112850

  13. Effects of different radiation doses on the microhardness, superficial morphology, and mineral components of human enamel.

    PubMed

    de Barros da Cunha, Sandra Ribeiro; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Ramos, Pedro Augusto Minorin Mendes; Haddad, Cecília Maria Kalil; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of three different radiotherapy doses (20, 40, and 70Gy) on the microhardness, superficial morphology, and mineral content (based on Ca and P values) of three different depths of human enamel (cervical, middle, and occlusal). Thirty-four third molars were cut, separated, and prepared. Microhardness samples (n=30) were embedded in acrylic resin and then polished, and depths were delimited. Microhardness tests were performed on cervical, middle, and occlusal enamel pre- and post-radiotherapy with a load of 50g for 30s. For the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis (n=4) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (n=12), samples were fixed in a 3% glutaraldehyde solution, washed in 0.1M cacodylate solution, and dehydrated in crescent concentrations of ethanol. Microhardness data were tested for significant differences using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (p<0.05), while SEM and EDS were evaluated qualitatively. The results showed a decrease in microhardness values only in the cervical enamel, regardless of the radiation dose used; no morphological or mineral change was observed. Radiotherapy can affect the microhardness values of only cervical enamel without compromising the morphological or mineral (Ca and P) content at any depth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. No differences in morphological characteristics between hyperplastic condyle and class III condyle.

    PubMed

    Goulart, D R; Muñoz, P; Olate, S; de Moraes, M; Fariña, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the condylar morphology of patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and patients with a class III skeletal relationship using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A prospective study was conducted on patients with facial asymmetry attending the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the study university in Chile. Fifteen patients with UCH and 15 with a class III skeletal relationship were selected. Linear measurements of the condylar processes were obtained at a scale of 1:1 using the software Ez3D Viewer Plus. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the paired t-test were used, considering P<0.05. Patients with UCH presented statistical differences between the hyperplastic condyle and non-hyperplastic condyle for anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters, condylar neck length, and ramus height. Patients with a class III skeletal relationship showed no differences between the right and left sides; the morphology of their condyles was similar to the condyles with hyperplasia and presented statistical differences when compared with the non-hyperplastic condyles (one-way ANOVA, P<0.05). The condylar morphology of UCH patients could be related to the development of a class III skeletal relationship. These findings provide an insight into the possibility of some class III patients presenting bilateral condylar hyperplasia.

  15. The differences in morphological development between the intertidal flats of the Eastern and Western Scheldt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, P. L. M.; van Prooijen, B. C.; Wang, Z. B.

    2017-03-01

    Human interventions have a large impact on estuarine morphology. The intertidal flats in the Eastern Scheldt and Western Scheldt estuaries (The Netherlands) have faced substantial morphological changes over the past decades. These changes are thought to be caused by human interventions, such as the construction of the storm surge barrier in the mouth of the Eastern Scheldt, and the deepening of the navigation channels of the Western Scheldt. This paper analyses several datasets and numerical simulations of hydrodynamics, providing an overview of the various morphological characteristics of the intertidal flats in the two estuaries over time and space. Apart from the volume, area and average height of these areas, also the integral steepness of each flat is quantified based on its full geometry. The analyses focus on the intertidal flats surrounded by water, which allows for a robust comparison between the different flats. The intertidal flats in the Western Scheldt appear to be substantially steeper compared to those in the Eastern Scheldt. The data indicates that a larger average height of a flat is related to a larger steepness. Despite variations in the evolution of the different flats, distinct characteristics of both estuaries are observed. An opposed trend is identified over time: the flats in the Western Scheldt have mainly increased in height, whereas the flats in the Eastern Scheldt have lowered after the completion of the storm surge barrier. This opposing development is associated with differences in tidal flow velocities in the estuaries, which are the result of human interventions.

  16. Sex differences in parietal lobe morphology: relationship to mental rotation performance.

    PubMed

    Koscik, Tim; O'Leary, Dan; Moser, David J; Andreasen, Nancy C; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-04-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no studies examining the relationship between the sex differences in parietal lobe structure and function. The parietal lobe is thought to be involved in spatial ability, and particularly involved in mental rotation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether sex differences in parietal lobe structure are present, and if present to relate these differences to performance on the mental rotations test (MRT). We found that women had proportionately greater gray matter volume in the parietal lobe compared to men, and this morphologic difference was disadvantageous for women in terms of performance on the MRT. In contrast, we found that men compared to women had proportionately greater parietal lobe surface area, and this morphologic difference was associated with a performance advantage for men on mental rotation. These findings support the possibility that the sexual dimorphism in the structure of the parietal lobe is a neurobiological substrate for the sex difference in performance on the mental rotations test.

  17. Fiber-type differences in masseter muscle associated with different facial morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Rowlerson, Anthea; Raoul, Gwénaël; Daniel, Yousif; Close, John; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Ferri, Joel; Sciote, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of muscle forces and associated physiologic behaviors on dental and skeletal development is well recognized but difficult to quantify because of the limited understanding of the interrelationships between physiologic and other mechanisms during growth. Methods The purpose of this study was to characterize fiber-type composition of masseter muscle in 44 subjects during surgical correction of malocclusion. Four fiber types were identified after immunostaining of biopsy sections with myosin heavy chain-specific antibodies, and the average fiber diameter and percentage of muscle occupancy of the fiber types were determined in each of 6 subject groups (Class II or Class III and open bite, normal bite, or deepbite). A 2 × 3 × 4 analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences between mean areas for fiber types, vertical relationships, and sagittal relationships. Results There were significant differences in percentage of occupancy of fiber types in masseter muscle in bite groups with different vertical dimensions. Type I fiber occupancy increased in open bites, and conversely, type II fiber occupancy increased in deepbites. The association between sagittal jaw relationships and mean fiber area was less strong, but, in the Class III group, the average fiber area was significantly different between the open bite, normal bite, and deepbite subjects. In the Class III subjects, type I and I/II hybrid fiber areas were greatly increased in subjects with deepbite. Conclusions Given the variation between subjects in fiber areas and fiber numbers, larger subject populations will be needed to demonstrate more significant associations between sagittal relationships and muscle composition. However, the robust influence of jaw-closing muscles on vertical dimension allowed us to conclude that vertical bite characteristics vary according to the fiber type composition of masseter muscle. PMID:15643413

  18. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  19. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-02-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  20. Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.W.; Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. )

    1990-10-01

    Recent evidence of a general, global decline of stratospheric ozone has heightened concern about possible ecological consequences of increases in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion. The influence of UV-B radiation (280-320 nanometers) on the morphology of 12 common dicot and monocot crop or weed species was examined to determine whether any common responses could be found that might, in turn, be useful in predicting possible changes in competitive balance under solar UV-B enhancement. Under glasshouse conditions, UV-B exposure (simulating a 20% reduction in stratospheric ozone at Logan, Utah) was found to reduce leaf blade and internode lengths and increase leaf and axillary shoot production in several species. Overall, the directions of these trends were similar in the majority of species that exhibited a significant response. These morphological changes occurred without any significant reduction in total shoot dry matter production. There was no clear distinction in the response of crops and weeds, though monocots were found to be generally more responsive than dicots. Previous work in dense canopies has shown that the photomorphogenetic effects of UV-B alter leaf placement and thereby influence competition for light. Our results suggest that, under these conditions, changes in competitive balance resulting from increased UV-B might be expected more frequently when monocots are involved in mixtures, rather than mixtures of only dicots.

  1. Splat morphology and microstructure of plasma sprayed cast iron with different preheat substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morks, M. F.; Tsunekawa, Y.; Okumiva, M.; Shoeib, M. A.

    2002-06-01

    A cast iron coating is a prime candidate for the surface modification of aluminum alloys for antiwear applications because cast iron is inexpensive and exhibits superior wear resistance arising from the self-lubricating properties of graphite. In the present study, fundamental aspects of a plasma sprayed cast iron coating on an aluminum alloy substrate, including (1) the effects of preheat substrate temperature on the splat morphology, (2) the formation of a reaction layer and pores, and (3) the splat microstructure, were investigated in low-pressure plasma spraying. With an increasing substrate temperature, the splat morphology changes from a splash type to a disk and star shape. Deformed substrate ridges mainly resulting from the slight surface melting, are recognized adjacent to the splat periphery at high substrate temperatures. The flattening ratio of disk splats decreases with substrate temperature because the ridges act as an obstacle for splat expansion. A reaction layer composed of iron, aluminum, and oxygen is ready to form at high substrate temperatures, which, along with the deformed ridges, improves the adhesive strength of splats. However, the pores appear at the splat interface at low substrate temperatures, which hinder the formation of a reaction layer. The amount of graphitized carbon increases in cast iron splats with an increase in substrate temperature.

  2. Controllable synthesis of magnetic Fe3O4 particles with different morphology by one-step hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongtao; Du, Yi; Li, Zhongfu; Yang, Kai; Lv, Xingjie

    2017-03-01

    Well-defined Fe3O4 particles were successfully fabricated by a facile triethanolamine (TEA)-assisted method under mild hydrothermal conditions. Hydrated ferric salt was employed as the single iron precursor. TEA was used as the complexing agent and/or alkaline source. The crystalline phases of the as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the morphology as well as the compositions of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicated that the products were Fe3O4 crystal phase, and the morphology and powder size of the particles were varied with adding different amount of NaOAc and keeping the content of TEA unchanged. On the basis of these results, the possible formation mechanism of Fe3O4 was discussed. It was observed that TEA and NaOAc affected the growth rate of crystal planes and nucleation. Besides, the magnetic property tested by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed that the products exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior and possessed the excellent saturation magnetization (Ms) at room temperature.

  3. A comparison of different models of stroke on behaviour and brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C L R; Kolb, B

    2003-10-01

    We compared the effects of three models of permanent ischemia, as well as cortical aspiration, on behaviour and brain morphology. Rats received a stroke either by devascularization or by two different procedures of medial cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; small vs. large). Animals were trained in a reaching task, forepaw asymmetry, forepaw inhibition, sunflower seed task and tongue extension. Behaviour was assessed 1 week after the lesion and at 2-week intervals for a total of 9 weeks. One week after the surgery all animals were severely impaired on all tasks and although they improved over time they only reached preoperative base lines on tongue extension. Animals with small MCAOs performed better in reaching and sunflower tasks; no other behavioural differences were detected among the groups. Pyramidal cells in forelimb and cingulate areas as well as spiny neurons of the striatum were examined for dendritic branching and spine density using a Golgi-Cox procedure. Each lesion type had a different impact on cell morphology. Overall, different changes (atrophy or hypertrophy) were observed with each kind of lesion and these changes were specific for the region (forelimb, cingulate, striatum) and the condition (intact vs. damaged hemisphere). These results suggest that: (i) different lesions to the motor cortex produce subtle differences in behaviour, and (ii) the method used to induce the lesion produces striking differences in cortical and subcortical plasticity.

  4. Adult and hatch-year blackpoll warblers exhibit radically different regional-scale movements during post-fledging dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Using a broad-scale automated telemetry array, we explored post-fledging movements of blackpoll warblers breeding in Atlantic Canada. We sought to determine the full spatial scale of post-fledging dispersal, to assess support for three hypotheses for regional-scale post-fledging movement, and to determine whether learning influenced movement during this period. We demonstrated that both young and adults moved over distances more than 200 km prior to initiating migration. Adults moved southwest, crossing the Gulf of Maine (GOM), consistent with the commencement of migration hypothesis. Hatch-year birds exhibited less directional movements constrained geographically by the GOM. Their movements were most consistent with exploration hypotheses—that young birds develop a regional-scale map to aid in habitat selection, natal dispersal and subsequent migrations. PMID:26631243

  5. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  6. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M; Vajrabukka, C; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal (B. indicus) (n=10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) (B. taurus) (n=10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% (n=10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % (n=10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm(2); 1.60 μ(3) × 10(-6)) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm(2); 0.51 μ(3)x10(-6)) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm(2); 0.68 μ(3) × 10(-6)) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm(2); 0.61 μ(3) × 10(-6)) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm(2)) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm(2)); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm(2) for HF75% and HF87.5 %) (P<0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred (P<0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction (P<0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  7. Preparation, characterization and luminescence properties of a new hydrous red phosphor CaB3 O5 (OH):Eu(3)(+) with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Huang, H S; Tang, A J; Yang, C; Jin, H F

    2017-03-01

    A new borate phosphor CaB3 O5 (OH):Eu(3)(+) with different morphologies was synthesized using a hydrothermal method and its luminescence properties were studied. The effects of surfactants on the crystal structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the samples were studied. The results showed that the surfactants play an important role in controlling the morphology and improving the luminescence properties of phosphors. The luminescence intensity and R/O(I615/I592) value were enhanced for the prepared sample by adding PEG4000. The prepared sample exhibited a higher R/O than some anhydrous calcium borate phosphors, indicating that this product could serve as a new potential red phosphor. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Ordered to isotropic morphology transition in pattern-directed dewetting of polymer thin films on substrates with different feature heights.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudeshna; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2012-10-24

    Controlled dewetting of a thin polymer film on a topographically patterned substrate is an interesting approach for aligning isotropic dewetted structures. In this article, we investigate the influence of substrate feature height (H(S)) on the dewetting pathway and final pattern morphology by studying the dewetting of polystyrene (PS) thin films on grating substrates with identical periodicity (λ(P) = 1.5 μm), but H(S) varying between 10 nm and 120 nm. We identify four distinct categories of final dewetted morphology, with different extent of ordering: (1) array of aligned droplets (H(S) ≈ 120 nm); (2) aligned undulating ribbons (H(S) ≈ 70-100 nm); (3) multilength scale structures with coexisting large droplets uncorrelated to the substrate and smaller droplets/ribbons aligned along the stripes (H(S) ≈ 40-60 nm); and (4) large droplets completely uncorrelated to the substrate (H(S) < 25 nm). The distinct morphologies across the categories are attributed to two major factors: (a) whether the as-cast film is continuous (H(S)≤ 80 nm) or discontinuous (H(S)≥ 100 nm) and (b) in case of a continuous film, whether the film ruptures along each substrate stripe (H(S)≥ 70 nm) or with nucleation of random holes that are not correlated to the substrate features (H(S)≤ 60 nm). While the ranges of H(S) values indicated in the parentheses are valid for PS films with an equivalent thickness (h(E)) ≈ 50.3 nm on a flat substrate, a change in h(E) merely alters the cut-off values of H(S), as the final dewetted morphologies and transition across categories remain generically unaltered. We finally show that the structures obtained by dewetting on different H(S) substrates exhibits different levels of hydrophobicity because of combined spatial variation of chemical and topographic contrast along the surface. Thus, the work reported in this article can find potential application in fabricating surfaces with controlled wettability.

  9. Brain morphology correlates of interindividual differences in conditioned fear acquisition and extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Tobias; Grimm, Oliver; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Nees, Frauke; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Steiger, Frauke; Wicking, Manon; Ruttorf, Michaela; Schad, Lothar R; Flor, Herta

    2016-05-01

    The neural circuits underlying fear learning have been intensively investigated in pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms across species. These studies established a predominant role for the amygdala in fear acquisition, while the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to be important in the extinction of conditioned fear. However, studies on morphological correlates of fear learning could not consistently confirm an association with these structures. The objective of the present study was to investigate if interindividual differences in morphology of the amygdala and the vmPFC are related to differences in fear acquisition and extinction learning in humans. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging in 68 healthy participants who underwent a differential cued fear conditioning paradigm. Volumes of subcortical structures as well as cortical thickness were computed by the semi-automated segmentation software Freesurfer. Stronger acquisition of fear as indexed by skin conductance responses was associated with larger right amygdala volume, while the degree of extinction learning was positively correlated with cortical thickness of the right vmPFC. Both findings could be conceptually replicated in an independent sample of 53 subjects. The data complement our understanding of the role of human brain morphology in the mechanisms of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear.

  10. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  11. [Current approaches to the morphologic diagnosis of different types of congenital epidermolysis bullosa].

    PubMed

    Smolyannikova, V A; Kubanova, A A; Albanova, V I; Nefedova, M A; Karamova, A E

    Congenital epidermolysis bullosa (CEB) is an extensive group of hereditary skin diseases, the differential diagnosis of which is a challenge due to the rarity of this pathology and the diversity of its clinical manifestations. The determination of the type of CEB makes it possible to estimate its prognosis and to facilitate a prenatal diagnosis. to optimize the morphological diagnosis of different types of CEB. 28 skin biopsies from 14 patients with different types of CEB were investigated. The investigators performed routine histological examination of skin fragments taken from a bullous area and immunofluorescence antigen mapping using the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) with antibodies against structural proteins of the dermal-epidermal junction (laminin α3, β3, and γ2 chains, keratins 5 and 14, types VII and XVII collagen, α6 and β4 integrin subunits, desmoplakin, plectin, kindlin-1, and plakophillin) of the apparently unaffected skin. The intact skin of healthy individuals, which had been obtained during cosmetic operations, was used as controls in IIFT. Immunofluorescence antigen mapping could determine the type of CEB in all cases and in 86% of cases identify the protein, the impaired production of which was responsible for the development of the disease. Immunofluorescence antigen mapping is an integral part of the comprehensive morphological diagnosis of CEB, acting as an intermediate between the morphological verification of CEB diagnosis and the targeted search for mutations by a molecular genetic method.

  12. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  13. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    DOE PAGES

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; ...

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the additionmore » of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.« less

  14. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  15. Preparation of nanoscale PbSe particles with different morphologies in diethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeping; Liu, Mingzhu; Yu, Chao; Chai, Zhanli; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale PbSe particles with different morphologies including octahedral, tetradecahedral and cubic shapes have been successfully prepared in diethylene glycol (DEG) at 240 degrees C in the presence of PVP-K30: poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), M(W) = 50 000. The formation of PbSe is believed to be an elemental recombination process of corresponding elements reduced from their precursors by the solvent. Experimental results showed that a prominent morphological variation was observed through varying the molar ratios of selenius acid to Pb(2+) when Pb(Ac)(2) was used as lead precursor, while the sizes of the final PbSe products tended to increase along with the increase of the molar ratios of selenius acid to Pb(2+) when Pb(NO(3))(2) was used as lead precursor.

  16. Insight into morphology and structure of different particle sized kaolinites with same origin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yude; Liu, Qinfu; Xiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Shilong; Frost, Ray L

    2014-07-15

    The particle size, morphology, crystallinity order and structural defects of four kaolinite samples are characterized by the techniques including particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR). The particle size of four kaolinite samples gradually increases. Four samples all belong to the ordered kaolinite and show a decrease in structural order with the increase of kaolinite particle size. The changes of structural defect are proved by the increase of the band splitting in Raman spectroscopy, the decrease of the intensity of absorption bands in infrared spectroscopy, and the decrease of equivalent silicon atom and the increase of non-equivalent aluminum atom in MAS NMR spectroscopy. The differences in morphology and structural defect are attributed to the broken bonds of Al-O-Si, Al-O-Al and Si-O-Si and the Al substitution for Si in tetrahedral sheets.

  17. Preparation of nanoscale PbSe particles with different morphologies in diethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zeping; Liu, Mingzhu; Yu, Chao; Chai, Zhanli; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale PbSe particles with different morphologies including octahedral, tetradecahedral and cubic shapes have been successfully prepared in diethylene glycol (DEG) at 240 °C in the presence of PVP-K30: poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), MW = 50 000. The formation of PbSe is believed to be an elemental recombination process of corresponding elements reduced from their precursors by the solvent. Experimental results showed that a prominent morphological variation was observed through varying the molar ratios of selenius acid to Pb2+ when Pb(Ac)2 was used as lead precursor, while the sizes of the final PbSe products tended to increase along with the increase of the molar ratios of selenius acid to Pb2+ when Pb(NO3)2 was used as lead precursor.Nanoscale PbSe particles with different morphologies including octahedral, tetradecahedral and cubic shapes have been successfully prepared in diethylene glycol (DEG) at 240 °C in the presence of PVP-K30: poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), MW = 50 000. The formation of PbSe is believed to be an elemental recombination process of corresponding elements reduced from their precursors by the solvent. Experimental results showed that a prominent morphological variation was observed through varying the molar ratios of selenius acid to Pb2+ when Pb(Ac)2 was used as lead precursor, while the sizes of the final PbSe products tended to increase along with the increase of the molar ratios of selenius acid to Pb2+ when Pb(NO3)2 was used as lead precursor. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure; tables of calculated peak area ratio (200/111) of PbSe nanoparticle from Fig. 1 (Table S1) and Effect of RSe/Pb on the morphology and particle size of PbSe using Pb(NO3)2 as lead precursor (Table S2); XRD patterns of product obtained in EG at 190 °C (Fig. S1); EDX analysis result of cube-like PbSe obtained in DEG (Fig. S2); FESEM images and XRD patterns of Pb particles reduced by DEG and their conversion to PbSe with different

  18. [The Different Phase, Morphology Controllable Synthesis and Luminescent Properties Investigation of NaYF⁴: Yb, Er].

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-ting; Xu, Jing; Qiao, Shu-liang; Yang, Bo; Li, Li; Liu, Cai-hong; Yao, Shuang; Yan, Jing-hui; Zou, Ming-qiang

    2015-12-01

    Using sodium fluoride and rare earth nitrate as raw materials and sodium citrate as surfactant, micron grade NaYF4 upconversion luminescent materials were prepared by hydrothermal method. By X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscope(SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer, the crystal phase, morphology and luminescent characteristics of the prepared samples were investigated. The results showed that the phase of the samples could generate a transition from cubic phase to hexagonal phase by adjusting the proportion (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11) of NaF/RE , and the X ray diffraction peaks for the cubic and hexagonal phase of samples exactly matched with those of the standard card of PDF# 77-2042 and PDF# 16-0334, respectively. The SEM photographs showed that the crystallinity of samples was high and the dispersibility was favourable, the morphology were translated from microrods to hexagonal microplates. The samples upconversion luminescent spectra showed the intensity enhancement of red and green light emission peaks with increasement of the ratio of NaF/RE3+. The green emission peaks of samples at 520 and 539 nm corresponded to the ²H¹¹/²-⁴-->I₁₅/₂ and ⁴S₃/₂-->⁴I₁₅/₂ level transition of Er³⁺ ion, and the red light emission peaks of samples at 653 nm corresponded to the ⁴F₉/₂-->⁴I₁₅/₂ levelt ransition of Er+ ion. The chromaticity coordinate diagram exhibited that the change of the luminescent color of samples could be achieved by adjusting the ratio of NaF/RE³⁺. With the increasing of NaF/RE³⁺ ratio, for the whole light-emitting colors of samples, the shift from yellow region to near red region could be realized. It can be concluded that through the relatively simple experimental procedure and lower cost materials, the change of phase and morphology, the moving of light-emitting color for sample NaYF4:Yb³⁺, Er³⁺ could be well controlled only by changing the single component (NaF) molar ratio in the raw materials

  19. Surface Chemical Properties of Purified Root Cell Walls from Two Tobacco Genotypes Exhibiting Different Tolerance to Manganese Toxicity 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Evangelou, Bill P.; Nielsen, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    Surface chemical characteristics of root cell walls extracted from two tobacco genotypes exhibiting differential tolerance to Mn toxicity were studied using potentiometric pH titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Mn-sensitive genotype KY 14 showed a stronger interaction of its cell wall surface with metal ions than did the Mn-tolerant genotype Tobacco Introduction (T.I.) 1112. This observation may be attributed to the relatively higher ratio of COO− to COOH in KY 14 cell walls than that found in the cell walls of T.I. 1112 in the pH range of 4 to 10. For both genotypes, the strength of binding between metal ions and cell wall surface was in the order of Cu > Ca > Mn > Mg > Na. However, a slightly higher preference of Ca over Mn was observed with the T.I. 1112 cell wall. This may explain the high accumulation of Mn in the leaves of Mn-tolerant genotype T.I. 1112 rather than the high accumulation of Mn in roots, as occurred in Mn-sensitive KY 14. It is concluded that surface chemical characteristics of cell walls may play an important role in plant metal ion uptake and tolerance. PMID:16652989

  20. [Morphological and failure mode study of different fiber posts luted with different adhesive systems to root dentin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Jin-Le; Hao, Liang

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the correlation of morphological characteristics and failure modes of two types of glass-fiber posts luted with self-adhesive resin cement and etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Thirty-six intact single-rooted premolars were collected and removed the crown. After root canal therapy, teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group A: Self-adhesive with POPO fiber post. Group B: Etch-and-rinse with POPO fiber posts. Group C: Self-adhesive with Para Post. Group D: Etch-and-rinse with Para Post. Each root was sectioned into six 1 mm-thick serial slices and a push-out test was performed. The dentin-cement-post adhesive interface of each specimen and failure modes after fracture were evaluated by stereomicroscope observation. Interface morphology observe indicated that voids present in group B (64.2%) and D (66.7%) were significantly higher than group A (5.8%) and C (13.7%) (P < 0.001). Interface gaps appeared at the resin-dentine interface in group D (41.2%) were significantly higher than group A (13.5%) and C (11.8%) (P < 0.0083), and the failure modes in each group were significantly different (P < 0.0083) except for group A and B (P = 0.69). Voids present in cement layer were associated with the luting agent involved. Morphological characteristics of the fiber post-resin luting agent-root dentin adhesive interface were discrepant with failure modes in different root region. There were interaction between adhesive systems and fiber posts.

  1. C57BL/6 Substrains Exhibit Different Responses to Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure: Implications for Work Involving Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Jennifer M; Chalise, Prabhakar; Briley, Shawn M; Dennis, Katie L; Jiang, Lu; Duncan, Francesca E; Pritchard, Michele T

    2017-07-07

    Biological differences exist between strains of laboratory mice, and it is becoming increasingly evident that there are differences between substrains. In the C57BL/6 mouse, the primary substrains are called 6J and 6N. Previous studies have demonstrated that 6J and 6N mice differ in response to many experimental models of human disease. The aim of our study was to determine if differences exist between 6J and 6N mice in terms of their response to acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) exposure. Mice were given CCl4 once and were euthanized 12 to 96 h later. Relative to 6J mice, we found that 6N mice had increased liver injury but more rapid repair. This was because of the increased speed with which necrotic hepatocytes were removed in 6N mice and was directly related to increased recruitment of macrophages to the liver. In parallel, enhanced liver regeneration was observed in 6N relative to 6J mice. Hepatic stellate cell activation occurred earlier in 6N mice, but there was no difference in matrix metabolism between substrains. Taken together, these data demonstrate specific and significant differences in how the C57BL/6 substrains respond to acute CCl4, which has important implications for all mouse studies utilizing this model.

  2. Functional morphology underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan

    2013-10-01

    The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.

  3. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  4. Comparison of solidity and fractal dimension of plasma sprayed splat with different spreading morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-ying; Ma, Guo-zheng; Wang, Hai-dou; He, Peng-fei; Liu, Ming; Wang, Hai-jun; Xu, Bin-shi

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the quantitative characterization of spreading morphologies of plasma sprayed Fe-based alloy droplets deposited on mirror polished steels with different preheated temperature. The plasma torch was utilized as heat producer. The influence of substrate temperature on the solidification mechanism of molten droplets was investigated. The image analysis method (IMA) was employed to identify single splat from the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) morphology. The result shows that the substrate preheated temperature has a significant effect on the flattening behavior of molten droplets. With the increment of substrate temperature, the solidification mode of splat changes from flower-like and splashed splat to disk-like splat due to the modification of wettability and cooling velocity between molten droplet and substrate. Compared with area and perimeter, both fractal dimension (FD) and solidity could separately detect the solidification mode of splat to a certain extent, while the FD seems to be more excellent in characterizing irregular morphology of splat in contrast with solidity. However, the combination of FD and solidity is more efficient in classifying solidification mode of splat.

  5. Different fixative methods influence histological morphology and TUNEL staining in mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Yang, Lu-Lu; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Society of Toxicologic Pathology has recommended mDF to fix testes since 2002. However, subsequent studies showed that false TUNEL-positive cells were observed in mDF-fixed testes. This study compared the effects of different fixation methods on histology and TUNEL staining in mouse testes. Results showed that fixation for 24 or 36h in mDF provided better morphologic details in untreated testes, but markedly enhanced false TUNEL-positive staining. To optimize the fixation, testes were fixed using mDF for 6h and then PFA for 18h. Interestingly, fixation using mDF/PFA manifested better morphologic details, and rarely caused false TUNEL-positive cells in testes. Finally, we examined germ cell apoptosis in testes using mDF/PFA fixation in cadmium-treated mice. As expected, cadmium triggered germ cell apoptosis which was well visualized in the mDF/PFA fixed testes. Taken together, mDF plus PFA fixation not only minimizes false TUNEL-positive cells, but also provides integrated morphologic details in testes.

  6. Electrochemical Performance of Morphologically Different Bi2WO6 Nanostructures Synthesized via a Hydrothermal Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Haimin; Su, Junyan; Wang, Xiangxian

    2017-01-01

    Morphologically different Bi2WO6 nanostructures have been synthesized via a hydrothermal route, where the morphology was tailored by varying the pH value of the precursor solution. The samples prepared at pH 1, 7, and 11 consisted of flower-like hierarchical structures with average diameter of 7 μm, irregular flake-like structures with average thickness of 90 nm, and uniform spherical structures with average size of 85 nm, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared Bi2WO6 samples was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In 1 M KOH electrolyte at current density of 0.5 mA cm-2, the specific capacitance of the Bi2WO6 with flower-like hierarchical, flake-like, and spherical structure was measured to be 255 F g-1, 214 F g-1, and 412 F g-1, respectively. After 850 charge-discharge cycles at current density of 3 mA cm-2, the capacitance of the three samples remained at 87%, 78%, and 95% of the initial value, respectively. Among the three types of Bi2WO6 morphology, the spherical structure delivered the best electrochemical performance.

  7. Morphological and karyotypic differences within and among populations of Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yun; Xie, Hui; Huang, Xin; Wu, Wen-Jia; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Twenty populations of Radopholus similis from three countries and different hosts (19 populations from ornamental plants and one population from ginger) were compared using morphological characters, morphometrics and karyotype between progeny from both single females and 30 females of each population. Morphological diversity existed in and among the populations, even within the progeny nematodes from single nematodes compared to that of 30 females. The labial disc shape, the number of head annuli, the terminated position of lateral lips, the number of genital papillae before cloacal apertures and female and male tail terminal shape showed variation. In addition, genital papillae arranged in a double row before cloacal apertures was first found in two ornamental populations. The karyotype of all the 20 populations was n = 5. Combining our results and previous studies, we support that Radopholus citrophilus is a synonym of Radopholus similis, and that it is not possible to distinguish physiological races or pathotypes of Radopholus similis according to morphological characters or karyotype. PMID:25349501

  8. Preliminary investigation of morphological differences between ten breeds of horses suggests selection for paedomorphosis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Deborah; Levine, Marsha; McGreevy, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    Paedomorphosis is the retention of juvenile morphology at maturity and is important in generating evolutionary change in domestic species and species in the wild. When comparing dogs with the wolf, this preliminary study saw paedomorphosis in their physical and behavioral traits (Goodwin, Bradshaw, & Wickens, 1997). This preliminary study compared morphological characteristics of 10 breeds from northern regions (Shetland ponies) and southern regions (Arabians) with the Exmoor pony. Twenty-three respondents from the United Kingdom and Australia rated the breeds for 7 physical traits. As evidenced by low standard deviations, the respondents demonstrated a high degree of agreement. The study ranked breeds from the most similar (Highland pony) to the least similar (Arabian) to the Exmoor pony. The least similar breeds had physical traits suggestive of paedomorphosis: small heads, long legs, and a low head-to-body ratio. This preliminary study suggests that morphological, behavioral, and physiological differences between the breeds-plus morphometric comparisons of extant breeds and faunal remains of predomestication horses-warrant further study.

  9. The RegA regulon exhibits variability in response to altered growth conditions and differs markedly between Rhodobacter species

    PubMed Central

    Schindel, Heidi S.

    2016-01-01

    The RegB/RegA two-component system from Rhodobacter capsulatus regulates global changes in gene expression in response to alterations in oxygen levels. Studies have shown that RegB/RegA controls many energy-generating and energy-utilizing systems such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, carbon fixation, hydrogen utilization, respiration, electron transport and denitrification. In this report, we utilized RNA-seq and ChIP-seq to analyse the breadth of genes indirectly and directly regulated by RegA. A comparison of mRNA transcript levels in wild type cells relative to a RegA deletion strain shows that there are 257 differentially expressed genes under photosynthetic defined minimal growth medium conditions and 591 differentially expressed genes when grown photosynthetically in a complex rich medium. ChIP-seq analysis also identified 61 unique RegA binding sites with a well-conserved recognition sequence, 33 of which exhibit changes in neighbouring gene expression. These transcriptome results define new members of the RegA regulon including genes involved in iron transport and motility. These results also reveal that the set of genes that are regulated by RegA are growth medium specific. Similar analyses under dark aerobic conditions where RegA is thought not to be phosphorylated by RegB reveal 40 genes that are differentially expressed in minimal medium and 20 in rich medium. Finally, a comparison of the R. capsulatus RegA regulon with the orthologous PrrA regulon in Rhodobacter sphaeroides shows that the number of photosystem genes regulated by RegA and PrrA are similar but that the identity of genes regulated by RegA and PrrA beyond those involved in photosynthesis are quite distinct. PMID:28348828

  10. Seafloor morphology in the different domains of the Calabrian Arc subduction complex - Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riminucci, F.; Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Mussoni, P.

    2010-05-01

    The Calabrian Arc (CA) is a subduction system that develops along the African-Eurasian plate boundary in the Ionian Sea and connects the E-W trending Sicilian Maghrebian belt with the NW-SE trending Southern Apennines. The first systematic geophysical investigation in the offshore region of the CA was conducted during the 70's by the Institute of Marine Geology (now ISMAR) with the R/V 'Bannock' [1]. In the last 30 years, further geophysical data (high penetration multichannel seismics, CHIRP and multibeam data) has been acquired in the offshore of the CA, down to the Ionian Abyssal Plain. The integrated interpretation of the existing geophysical data [2] has outlined the regional architecture of the subduction complex, the main tectonic features absorbing plate motion and variation of seafloor morphology in the different structural domains. Pre-stack depth migrated seismic profiles has revealed that the accretionary complex is constituted by two distinct wedges whose geometry, structural style and seafloor morphology widely vary. The outermost accretionary wedge has been emplaced in post-messinian times. It is a salt-bearing complex as pointed out by the internal structure of the wedge (acoustically transparent assemblage), very low taper angle and high seismic velocities. The seafloor shows a rough morphology, short wavelength folds and depressions superimposed on a rather constant gentle regional slope. Landward of the outer wedge, the evaporites are no longer present and the transition to the clastic rock assemblage is reflected in a different structural architecture, which shows steeper slopes and a succession of topographic scarps separated by sedimentary basins and mid slope terraces. The topographic scarps are controlled in depth by a series of high angle landward dipping reflectors, that we interpreted as out of sequence thrust faults absorbing shortening at the rear of the wedge. Landward of the inner wedge a mid slope terrace develops (inner plateau

  11. Morphological differences between normal and cancerous mammalian cells via multitechnique microscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saab, Marie-Belle; Estephan, Elias; Martin, Marta; Bec, Nicole; Larroque, Christian; Cloître, Thierry; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Gergely, Csilla

    2010-04-01

    Despite of the recent year's important advances in breast cancer biology, there is a continuous demand for new microscopic studies able to provide complementary information on cell shape that is an essential feature of the tumour cells affecting their proliferation and spreading. Understanding the relationship between cell shape and cellular function is important for regulation of cell phenotype modification in particular during cancerogenesis. Utilizing a multitechnique approach, we have investigated the morphological differences of normal human mammalian epithelial cells (HMEC) and cancerous breast epithelial cells (MCF7) cells, both mammalian epithelial cells, but from the same cell type, allowing us to compare them. The goal of our investigation was to combine information on morphological properties of these cells provided by imaging techniques like atomic force microscopy (AFM), brightfield microscopy with in-depth images of microtubules via the multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Cells morphology studies for both cells' types were first carried out using the contact mode AFM which has gained great potential for studying biological systems. Brightfield optical imaging was operated in correlation with the AFM measurements. Topography analyses were performed for living cells as well as fixed ones for both MCF7 and HMEC 184 A1 cells. Living cancerous cells are much softer than normal ones, smaller in shape, and more difficult to manipulate. Photonic responses of fixed cells have been then evaluated by the multiphoton microscopy. Due to light's good penetration depth (IR excitation) in biological samples, MPM has already proved to be a reliable and powerful tool in medical and biological deep tissue imaging. Moreover, MPM provides useful three-dimensional information on the structural and optical properties of the specimen due to its intrinsic optical sectioning resolution. Combination of these microscopic techniques allows us to correlate external cell morphology, with

  12. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  13. Pollen and stigma morphology of some Phaseoleae species (Leguminosae) with different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Basso-Alves, J P; Agostini, K; Teixeira, S de Pádua

    2011-07-01

    Pollen transport to a receptive stigma can be facilitated through different pollinators, which submits the pollen to different selection pressures. This study aimed to associate pollen and stigma morphology with zoophily in species of the tribe Phaseoleae. Species of the genera Erythrina, Macroptilium and Mucuna with different pollinators were chosen. Pollen grains and stigmas were examined under light microscopy (anatomy), scanning electronic microscopy (surface analyses) and transmission electronic microscopy (ultrastructure). The three genera differ in terms of pollen wall ornamentation, pollen size, pollen aperture, thickness of the pollen wall, amount of pollenkitt, pollen hydration status and dominant reserves within the pollen grain, while species within each genus are very similar in most studied characteristics. Most of these features lack relationships to pollinator type, especially in Erythrina and Mucuna. Pollen reserves are discussed on a broad scale, according to the occurrence of protein in the pollen of invertebrate- or vertebrate-pollinated species. Some pollen characteristics are more associated to semi-dry stigma requirements. This apical, compact, cuticularised and secretory stigma occurs in all species investigated. We conclude that data on pollen and stigma structure should be included together with those on floral morphology and pollinator behaviour for the establishment of functional pollination classes.

  14. Masseter thickness, endurance and exercise-induced pain in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology.

    PubMed

    Farella, Mauro; Bakke, Merete; Michelotti, Ambra; Rapuano, Alessia; Martina, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular features of the masseter muscle in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology. Fifteen short-faced (mandibular plane-Frankfurt plane angle < 15 degrees) and 15 normal- to long-faced (mandibular plane-Frankfurt plane angle > or = 23 degrees) male students participated. The thickness of the masseter was assessed by ultrasonography. Onset and endurance of exercise pain were recorded during sustained biting at a level of 15% of maximum voluntary contraction and 30 micro V electromyographic activity. Pain and fatigue was measured on visual analog scales before and after the biting, as well as before and after 10 min chewing. Statistical comparison showed that the masseter muscle was significantly thicker (+15%) in the short-faced than the normal- to long-faced subjects. The pain onset time and endurance time were also consistently shorter in short-faced subjects, whereas the intensity of pain and fatigue did not differ significantly between the two groups. Multiple stepwise regression showed positive influence from the mandibular plane inclination and the masseter thickness on the pain onset time and endurance time. The present findings support the concept that subjects with different craniofacial morphology show neuromuscular differences.

  15. Tetrandrine, an alkaloid from S. tetrandra exhibits anti-hypertensive and sleep-enhancing effects in SHR via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Cui, Su-Ying; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Cao, Qing; Ding, Hui; Song, Jin-Zhi; Hu, Xiao; Ye, Hui; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-12-15

    Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect. Sleep-wake behavior of the SHRs was detected by electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. Blood pressure was measured by noninvasive blood pressure tail cuff test. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the noradrenergic neuronal activity. The level of norepinephrine (NE) was detected by HPLC-ECD. Amlodipine (100mg/kg, i.g.), the well-known L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers (CCBs) exhibited remarkable antihypertensive activities in SHRs, but did not show effects on sleep of SHRs. Tetrandrine (30 and 60mg/kg/day, i.g.) significantly suppressed blood pressure of SHRs. Meanwhile, tetrandrine (60mg/kg/day, i.g.) remarkably increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) time, bouts and mean duration. The hypnotic effect of tetrandrine was potentiated by prazosin (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) but attenuated by yohimbine (2mg/kg, i.p.). Administration of tetrandrine (60mg/kg/day, i.g.) not only significantly decreased c-Fos positive ratio of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), but also significantly decrease NE in the endogenous sleep-wake regulating pathways including LC, hypothalamus and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). In spite of a good potency in blocking L-type Ca(2+) channel, the hypnotic effects of tetrandrine may be related to its suppressing effects on the noradrenergic system other than to block calcium channels. As a multi-targets drug, tetrandrine

  16. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipo-oligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, M.; Kondorosi, E.; Quiclet-Sire, B.; Gero, S.D. ); Virelizier, H. ); Glushka, J.N. ); Endre, G.; Kondorosi, A. Inst. of Genetics, Szeged )

    1992-01-01

    The authors have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain over expressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-{beta}-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C{sub 16:2} or a C{sub 16:3} acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 {mu}M, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. They suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions.

  17. Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers exhibit different activities on thyroid hormone receptors depending on their degree of bromination

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiao-Min Guo, Liang-Hong Gao, Yu Zhang, Bin-Tian Wan, Bin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) functions in experimental animals, and one of the proposed disruption mechanisms is direct binding of hydroxylated PBDE (OH-PBDE) to TH receptors (TRs). However, previous data on TH receptor binding and TH activity of OH-PBDEs were very limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present paper, we examined the binding potency of ten OH-PBDEs with different degrees of bromination to TR using a fluorescence competitive binding assay. The results showed that the ten OH-PBDEs bound to TR with potency that correlated to their bromination level. We further examined their effect on TR using a coactivator binding assay and GH3 cell proliferation assay. Different TR activities of OH-PBDEs were observed depending on their degree of bromination. Four low-brominated OH-PBDEs (2′-OH-BDE-28, 3′-OH-BDE-28, 5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47) were found to be TR agonists, which recruited the coactivator peptide and enhanced GH3 cell proliferation. However, three high-brominated OH-PBDEs (3-OH-BDE-100, 3′-OH-BDE-154, 4-OH-BDE-188) were tested to be antagonists. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the interactions of OH-PBDEs with TR and identify the structural determinants for TR binding and activity. According to the docking results, low-brominated OH-PBDEs, which are weak binders but TR agonists, bind with TR at the inner side of its binding pocket, whereas high-brominated compounds, which are potent binders but TR antagonists, reside at the outer region. These results indicate that OH-PBDEs have different activities on TR (agonistic or antagonistic), possibly due to their different binding geometries with the receptor. - Highlights: ► Thyroid hormone (TH) activity of OH-PBDEs with different Br number was evaluated. ► Four different experimental approaches were employed to investigate the mechanism. ► Low-brominated OH-PBDEs were agonists, but high-brominated ones were antagonists.

  18. Growth of different phases and morphological features of MnS thin films by chemical bath deposition: Effect of deposition parameters and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, Amira; Maghraoui-Meherzi, Hager

    2017-03-01

    Manganese sulfide thin films have been deposited on glass slides by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of preparative parameters such as deposition time, bath temperature, concentration of precursors, multi-layer deposition, different source of manganese, different complexing agent and thermal annealing on structural and morphological film properties have been investigated. The prepared thin films have been characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). It exhibit the metastable forms of MnS, the hexagonal γ-MnS wurtzite phase with preferential orientation in the (002) plane or the cubic β-MnS zinc blende with preferential orientation in the (200) plane. Microstructural studies revealed the formation of MnS crystals with different morphologies, such as hexagons, spheres, cubes or flowers like.

  19. Computer simulations on the initiation and morphological difference of Japan winter and summer sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Tomokazu; Hayakawa, Masashi; Cho, Mengu; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    Two-dimensional (axisymmetric) computer simulations (electromagnetic code) have been performed to study the initiation and morphological difference (summer, carrots, and winter, columns) of sprites for simulating Japan summer and winter sprites. By changing the physical parameters of a parent lightning, we have found the following findings by looking at the spatial-temporal distribution of reduced electric field, etc. (1) There are three important factors (the height where the charge is removed (ds), charge transfer (Q), and lightning current risetime (τ)) in the initiation of sprites and their morphological differences. (2) For the initiation of sprites, the charge transfer (Q) should exceed a certain value for possible charge heights (giving us a threshold of charge moment change (Qds) of the order of ~120-200 C.km), with a combination of small risetime of lightning current waveform. (3) Further, the height for positive charge is much higher than that for negative charge in a typical lightning configuration, which is the essential factor in determining the morphological difference of sprites in summer and winter. Positive charges for summer are located at a much higher altitude than those in winter in Japan, which might result in carrot-type in summer and columnar-type in winter even for the same positive polarity. (4) A combinational effect of (Ids) and (Qds) is important for having sprites. Finally, the present computer results on the initiation of sprites for Japanese lightning have been compared extensively to the well-documented properties of summer continental sprites and future subjects to study have been suggested.

  20. Correlation of proliferation, morphology and biological responses of fibroblasts on LDPE with different surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Hee; Ha, Hyun Jung; Ko, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Sun Jung; Rhee, John M; Kim, Moon Suk; Lee, Hai Bang; Khang, Gilson

    2007-01-01

    In order to find a correlation between cell adhesion, growth and biological response with different wettability, NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured on plasma-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film generated with radio frequency. Different surface wettabilities (water contact angle 90-40 degrees ) were created by varying the duration of plasma treatment between 0 and 15 s, respectively. Growth and proliferation rate of cells on LDPE surfaces was evaluated by MTT assay, and cell morphology, by means of spreading and adhesion, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The expression of particular genes in cells contacted on films with different wettability was analyzed by RT-PCR. Using the MTT assay, we confirmed that the amount of cell adhesion was higher on surface of film with a water contact angle of 60 degrees than with other water contact angle. Also, the proliferation rate of cells was highest with a water contact angle of 60 degrees . It was confirmed by SEM that the morphology of cells adhered with a water contact angle of 50-60 degrees was more flattened and activated than on other surfaces. Furthermore, c-fos mRNA in cells showed maximum expression on the film with contact angle range of 50-60 degrees and c-myc mRNA expressed highly on the film with a contact angle of 50 degrees . Finally, p53 gene expression increased as wettability increase. These results indicate that a water contact angle of the polymer surfaces of 50-60 degrees was suitable for cell adhesion and growth, as well as biological responses, and the surface properties play an important role for the morphology of adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells.

  1. [Morphological and quality difference of adult Anguilla japonica under three aquaculture models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Zheng; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wei-Dong

    2012-05-01

    Anguilla japonica adults with a snout-vent length of (25.91 +/- 3.26) cm were randomly sampled from the ponds of monoculture A. japonica (M1) and polyculture A. japonica and Macrobrachium nipponense (M2) and the proliferation site in reservoir (M3) to compare the morphological and quality indices of the adults under the three aquaculture models. Discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and factor analysis were applied to reveal the differences among the individuals of these three cultured populations. Among the test 21 biological traits and 23 morphological and quality indices, there were significant differences in 15 biological traits and 14 morphological and quality indices between M1 and M2, 19 and 18 between M1 and M3, and 11 and 8 between M2 and M3, respectively. The Euclidean distance between M1 and M2, M1 and M3, and M2 and M3 was 1.433, 3. 516, and 2. 167, respectively, and the differences were significant. The accumulative variance percentage of the first five principal components was 82.1%, and the eigenvalues of these components were all larger than 1. The principal components 1 and 2 could be regarded as fatness factor and movement factor, the other three principal components could be regarded as well-being factor, and the three populations could be clearly separated each other by principal component 1. In discriminant analysis, the five principal components, i. e., body width / anal length, body length / anal length, net volume coefficient, swim bladder coefficient, and liver coefficient, were served as independent variables to establish discriminant functions of the populations, which could clearly distinguish the populations, with the discriminant accuracy and synthetic discriminant accuracy being 100%.

  2. Sperm morphology: consistency of assessment of the same sperm by different observers.

    PubMed

    Baker, H W; Clarke, G N

    1987-01-01

    Photographic slides of 36 sperm were shown to a group of 28 observers with different lengths of experience in assessing sperm morphology. Experienced observers were generally consistent (10 or more of the 17 agreeing) in classifying sperm as normal, amorphous, small heads, lacking acrosomes, and having tail defects or cytoplasmic droplets but categorization was more variable for large, tapering and pyriform heads. This study highlights the need for more widespread agreement about definition of sperm shapes and the development of practical objective methods of assessment.

  3. The characteristics of semiconductor-to-metal transition in VO2 of different morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhova, Yu V.; Osmolowskaya, O. M.; Osmolowsky, M. G.

    2015-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) of different morphologies were obtained using the hydrothermal technique. Their shape and size were studied by SEM, XRD and SSA estimation. The functional properties, structural changes and thermal behavior of samples obtained were investigated to clarify the SMPT peculiarities. It is shown that the introduction of a doping element changes a mechanism of the nanoparticles growth and so that the SMPT becomes less expressed. The detailed study of SMPT in undoped VO2 showed the steps of the transition process. The testing of VO2 coating on glass for «smart» windows was successfully performed.

  4. Four conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds exhibit different protein profiles as revealed by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luciana S; Senna, Raquel; Sandim, Vanessa; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Perales, Jonas E A; Zingali, Russolina B; Soares, Márcia R; Fialho, Eliane

    2014-02-12

    Soybeans have several functional properties due to their composition and may exert beneficial health effects that are attributed to proteins and their derivative peptides. The present study aimed to analyze the protein profiles of four new conventional soybean seeds (BRS 257, BRS 258, BRS 267, and Embrapa 48) with the use of proteomic tools. Two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoreses were performed, followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. These two different experimental approaches allowed the identification of 117 proteins from 1D gels and 46 differentially expressed protein spots in 2D gels. BRS 267 showed the greatest diversity of identified spots in the 2D gel analyses. In the 1D gels, the major groups were storage (25-40%) and lipid metabolism (11-25%) proteins. The differences in protein composition between cultivars could indicate functional and nutritional differences and could direct the development of new cultivars.

  5. Lung Adenocarcinoma of Never Smokers and Smokers Harbor Differential Regions of Genetic Alteration and Exhibit Different Levels of Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Kelsie L.; Vucic, Emily A.; Chari, Raj; Zhang, Wei; Lockwood, William W.; English, John C.; Fu, Rong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Ziding; MacAulay, Calum E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS) extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39) and NS (n = 30) revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms. PMID:22412972

  6. Functional differences between two morphologically distinct cell subpopulations within a human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Solimene, A C; Carneiro, C R; Melati, I; Lopes, J D

    2001-05-01

    The LISP-I human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line was isolated from a hepatic metastasis at the Ludwig Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The objective of the present study was to isolate morphologically different subpopulations within the LISP-I cell line, and characterize some of their behavioral aspects such as adhesion to and migration towards extracellular matrix components, expression of intercellular adhesion molecules and tumorigenicity in vitro. Once isolated, the subpopulations were submitted to adhesion and migration assays on laminin and fibronectin (crucial proteins to invasion and metastasis), as well as to anchorage-independent growth. Two morphologically different subpopulations were isolated: LISP-A10 and LISP-E11. LISP-A10 presents a differentiated epithelial pattern, and LISP-E11 is fibroblastoid, suggesting a poorly differentiated pattern. LISP-A10 expressed the two intercellular adhesion molecules tested, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and desmoglein, while LISP-E11 expressed only low amounts of CEA. On the other hand, adhesion to laminin and fibronectin as well as migration towards these extracellular matrix proteins were higher in LISP-E11, as expected from its poorly differentiated phenotype. Both subpopulations showed anchorage-independent growth on a semi-solid substrate. These results raise the possibility that the heterogeneity found in the LISP-I cell line, which might have contributed to its ability to metastasize, was due to at least two different subpopulations herein identified.

  7. Bacillus cereus enterotoxins act as major virulence factors and exhibit distinct cytotoxicity to different human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jeßberger, Nadja; Dietrich, Richard; Bock, Stefanie; Didier, Andrea; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis on the relevance of the Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe (nonhemolytic enterotoxin), HBL (haemolysin BL) and CytK (cytotoxin K) was accomplished, concerning their toxic activity towards different target cell lines. Overall, among the components secreted by the reference strains for Nhe and HBL, the enterotoxin complexes accounted for over 90% of the total toxicity. Vero and primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) were highly susceptible to Nhe, whereas Hep-G2, Vero and A549 reacted most sensitive to Nhe plus HBL. For CytK the highest toxicity was observed on CaCo-2 cells. As HBL positive strains always produce Nhe in parallel, the specific contribution of both enterotoxin complexes to the overall observed cytotoxic effects was determined by consecutively removing their single components. While in most cell lines Nhe and HBL contributed more or less equally (40-60%) to cytotoxicity, the relative activity of Nhe was approximately 90% in HUVEC, and that of HBL 75% in A549 cells. With U937, a nearly Nhe resistant cell line was identified for the first time. This distinct susceptibility of cell lines was confirmed by investigating a set of 37 B. cereus strains. Interestingly, whereas Nhe is the enterotoxin mainly responsible for cell death as determined by WST-1 bioassays, more rapid pore formation was observed when HBL was present, pointing to a different mode of action of the two enterotoxin complexes. Furthermore, correlation was observed between cytotoxicity of solely Nhe producing strains and NheB. Cytotoxicity of Nhe/HBL producing isolates correlated with the expression of HBL L1, NheB and HBL B. In conclusion, the observed susceptibilities of target cell lines of different histological origin underline that B. cereus enterotoxins represent major virulence factors and that toxicity is not restricted to gastrointestinal infections. The varying contribution of Nhe and HBL to total cytotoxicity strongly indicates that Nhe as well as HBL specific B

  8. Two secretory protein genes in Chironomus tentans have arisen by gene duplication and exhibit different developmental expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Galli, J; Wieslander, L

    1993-05-20

    The salivary gland cells in the dipteran Chironomus tentans produce approximately 15 different secretory proteins, with relative molecular masses ranging between 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(6). Together these proteins form two types of extra corporal tubes, a larval protective housing and feeding tube or a pupation tube. The developmental change in tube formation is accompanied by a switch in production from one combination of secretory proteins to another. Here we characterize two genes, the sp38-40.A and B genes, which encode secretory proteins with relative molecular masses of 38,000 to 40,000. The two genes are located 346 base-pairs apart in the same orientation and have presumably arisen by gene duplication as the result of an illegitimate recombination event. Both genes contain two regions with cysteine codons, surrounded by regions with short repeats coding for proline and charged amino acid residues. The two genes and alleles of the genes differ in their number of repeats. This structure resembles the structure of the Balbiani ring (BR) genes, which encode the four largest salivary gland secretory proteins. The sp38-40.A and B genes are therefore likely to belong to a BR multigene family containing all or most of the 15 salivary gland secretory protein genes. The expression of the sp38-40.A and B genes are different: the A gene is expressed throughout the larval fourth instar but considerably less in the prepupal stage, while the B gene shows the opposite expression pattern. The developmental regulation of the expression of the two genes has therefore diverged after the gene duplication event.

  9. Both superficial and deep zone articular chondrocyte subpopulations exhibit the Crabtree effect but have different basal oxygen consumption rates.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Hannah K; Knight, Martin M; Lee, David A

    2010-06-01

    In the absence of in vivo measurements, the oxygen concentration within articular cartilage is calculated from the balance between cellular oxygen consumption and mass transfer. Current estimates of the oxygen tension within articular cartilage are based on oxygen consumption data from full-depth tissue samples. However, superficial and deep cell subpopulations of articular cartilage express intrinsic metabolic differences. We test the hypothesis that the subpopulations differ with respect to their intrinsic oxygen consumption rate. Chondrocytes from the full cartilage thickness demonstrate enhanced oxygen consumption when deprived of glucose, consistent with the Crabtree phenomena. Chondrocyte subpopulations differ in the prevailing availability of oxygen and glucose, which decrease with distance from the cartilage-synovial fluid interface. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the oxygen consumption of each subpopulation is modulated by nutrient availability, by examining the expression of the Crabtree effect. The deep cells had a greater oxygen consumption than the superficial cells (V(max) of 6.6 compared to 3.2 fmol/cell/h), consistent with our observations of mitochondrial volume (mean values 52.0 vs. 36.4 microm(3)/cell). Both populations expressed the Crabtree phenomena, with oxygen consumption increasing approximately 2.5-fold in response to glycolytic inhibition by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose. Over 90% of this increase was oligomycin-sensitive and thus accounted for by oxidative phosphorylation. The data contributes towards our understanding of chondrocyte energy metabolism and provides information valuable for the accurate calculation of the oxygen concentration that the cells experience in vivo. The work has further application to the optimisation of bioreactor design and engineered tissues.

  10. Drinking water biofilms on copper and stainless steel exhibit specific molecular responses towards different disinfection regimes at waterworks.

    PubMed

    Jungfer, Christina; Friedrich, Frank; Varela Villarreal, Jessica; Brändle, Katharina; Gross, Hans-Jürgen; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Biofilms growing on copper and stainless steel substrata in natural drinking water were investigated. A modular pilot-scale distribution facility was installed at four waterworks using different raw waters and disinfection regimes. Three-month-old biofilms were analysed using molecular biology and microscopy methods. High total cell numbers, low counts of actively respiring cells and low numbers of cultivable bacteria indicated the high abundance of viable but not cultivable bacteria in the biofilms. The expression of the recA SOS responsive gene was detected and underlined the presence of transcriptionally active bacteria within the biofilms. This effect was most evident after UV disinfection, UV oxidation and UV disinfection with increased turbidity at waterworks compared to chemically treated and non-disinfected systems. Furthermore, live/dead staining techniques and environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the presence of living and intact bacteria in biofilms on copper substrata. Cluster analyses of DGGE profiles demonstrated differences in the composition of biofilms on copper and steel materials.

  11. Yeast Isw1a and Isw1b exhibit similar nucleosome mobilization capacities for mononucleosomes, but differently mobilize dinucleosome templates.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wladyslaw A

    2014-03-15

    Nucleosome remodeling studies in vitro have primarily focused on the use of mononucleosome templates, which, however, can provide only limited information on how nucleosome mobilization occurs in the context of chromatin, in which internucleosome interactions might influence remodeling. We tried to evaluate whether nucleosome mobilization by yeast Isw1a, Isw1b and Isw2 could be affected by neighboring nucleosomes. We compared mono- and dinucleosomes positioned by the '601' sequence, the studied constructs contain variation in linker length between nucleosomes and variation in the length of flanking sequences. The data characterizing the remodeling were based on gel retardation of the mono and dinucleosomes, keeping in mind the observation that the relative position of the nucleosome will change the mobility of the complex in well defined ways. We found that Isw1a, Isw1b and Isw2 process nucleosomes differently whether they exist as mononucleosomes or dinucleosomes, such as, the Isw1a and Isw1b nucleosome repositioning patterns, which were very similar for mononucleosomes, appeared to be profoundly different in case of dinucleosome templates. We also examined the DNase I protection patterns of remodeled mono- and dinucleosomes. The data suggest that nucleosome mobilizing activity of Isw1a, Isw1b and Isw2 complexes could be significantly influenced by neighboring nucleosomes.

  12. Acid and rennet gels exhibit strong differences in the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Florence; Ménard, Olivia; Le Gouar, Yann; Buffière, Caroline; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Laroche, Béatrice; Feunteun, Steven Le; Rémond, Didier; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed at determining the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion by six multi-canulated mini-pigs of two gelled dairy matrices having the same composition, similar rheological and structural properties, but differing by their mode of coagulation (acidification/renneting). Duodenal, mid-jejunal effluents and plasma samples were collected at different times during 7h after meal ingestion. Ingestion of the acid gel induced a peak of caseins and β-lactoglobulin in duodenal effluents after 20min of digestion and a peak of amino acids in the plasma after 60min. The rennet gel induced lower levels of both proteins in the duodenum (with no defined peak) as well as much lower levels of amino acids in the plasma than the acid gel. Plasma ghrelin concentrations suggested a potentially more satiating effect of the rennet gel compared to the acid gel. This study clearly evidences that the gelation process can significantly impact on the nutritive value of dairy products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do individuals who develop transient low back pain exhibit different postural changes than non-pain developers during prolonged standing?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Nelson-Wong, Erika; Callaghan, Jack P

    2011-10-01

    Previous literature has shown that individuals can develop transient low back pain (LBP) during a 2-h bout of unconstrained prolonged standing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postural changes of individuals who develop LBP during standing (PD) and those who do not (NPD). Forty-one subjects (20 male, 21 female) participated in a 2-h prolonged standing occupational simulation and recorded their ratings of perceived LBP on a visual analog scale (VAS). Center of pressure changes (shifts, drifts, and fidgets) and body weight shifts were determined for each subject. All subjects showed an increase in the BW shift frequency and a decrease in average shift duration over the 2-h protocol. All NPD and female PD were consistent for many of the variables; however, male PD did not show similar patterns to the other groups, especially for anterior-posterior (AP) shift amplitude and total body weight asymmetry. Although gender differences between the pain groups were found, PD and NPD do not use different postural changes during unconstrained standing, showing that changes to postural control may be an "adaptive", rather than "causative" response to their LBP development. Future works should concentrate on bridging the literature seen in quiet standing before and after prolonged standing and the response of PD, as well as the effect of an exercise intervention on postural control, especially for male PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortisol and corticosterone exhibit different seasonal variation and responses to acute stress and captivity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum).

    PubMed

    Vera, Federico; Antenucci, C Daniel; Zenuto, Roxana R

    2011-02-01

    In this work we aimed to evaluate variations in plasma glucocorticoids (GCs, cortisol and corticosterone) levels throughout an annual cycle in free-living male tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum) and compare their responses to acute and chronic stressors (trapping, manipulation, immobilization, confinement in a novel environment, transference to captivity). In addition, we used leukocyte profiles to allow discrimination between basal and stress-induced seasonal changes in GC concentrations. Our results showed that cortisol and corticosterone are differently affected by environmental stimuli in C. talarum. Both hormones showed different patterns of variation in the field and responses to captivity. Moreover, only cortisol was responsive to acute stressors. Leukocyte profiles indicated that animals were unstressed in the field and therefore, that we were able to measure basal, stress-independent, fluctuations in GC levels. GC concentrations were low in comparison to values frequently reported for other mammals. Our results suggest differentiated physiological roles for cortisol and corticosterone in our study species and further emphasize the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals.

  15. Effects of Urban Morphology on Intra-Urban Temperature Differences: Two Squares in Glasgow City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, P. R. C.; Emmanuel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The perspective of climate change increases the necessity of tackling the urban over heating effects, by developing strategies to mitigate/adapt to changes. Analysing the influence of urban form on intra-urban temperature dynamics could be a helpful way of reducing its negative consequences. Also, it would help untangle the urban effect from the effect caused by atmospheric conditions. The present paper presents the effect of atmospheric conditions as exemplified by atmospheric stability (modified Pasquill-Gifford-Turner classification system) and urban morphology as measured by the Sky View Factor (SVF) on intra-urban variations in air temperature in a cold climate city, in and around the mature urban area of Glasgow, UK (55° 51' 57.294"N, 4° 15' 0.2628"W). The aim is to highlight their combined importance and to make preliminary investigations on the local warming effect of urban morphology under specific atmospheric stability classes. The present work indicates that the maximum intra-urban temperature differences (i.e. temperature difference between the coolest and the warmest spots in a given urban region) is strongly correlated with atmospheric stability. The spatial patterns in local temperature variations consistently show that water bodies and urban parks have lower temperature variations. Thus, greenery and urban materials could play an important role in influencing the local climate in cold cities. The knowledge of urban morphology's influence on local temperature variations could be an important tool for devising appropriate planning/design strategies to face urban overheating in the coming years as the background climate continues to warm.

  16. Morphology of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy surfaces polished by three different mechanical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Klaić, Boris; Mišić, Tea; Malina, Jadranka; Čelebić, Asja

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims at characterizing the three-dimensional (3-D) morphology of a Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy surface as a result of three different procedures used for polishing it. The sample surface morphology of the sampled surface was examined employing atomic force microscopy (AFM), statistical surface roughness parameters, and fractal analysis. An extra-hard dental alloy of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) (Wironit(®) , from BEGO, Bremen, Germany) was prepared and moulded. Different polishing treatments were carried out on three groups of six samples each--a total of 18 samples. The first group contained six electropolished (EP) samples. The second group containing six samples went through a mechanical polishing process employing green rubber discs and a high shine polishing paste applied by a rotating black brush (BB). The third group comprising six samples as well went through a mechanical polishing process by means of green rubber discs, high shine polishing paste, and a rotating deer leather brush (DL). Fractal analysis on the basis of a computational algorithm applied to the AFM data was employed for the 3-D quantitative characterization of the morphology of the sampled surfaces. The fractal dimension D (average ± standard deviation) of 3-D surfaces for BB samples (2.19 ± 0.07) is lower than that of the DL samples (2.24 ± 0.08), which is still lower than that of the EP samples (2.27 ± 0.09). The results indicated the BB samples as presenting the lowest values of statistical surface roughness parameters, thus the best surface finish, while the EP samples yielded the highest values.

  17. HNPCC and sporadic MSI-H colorectal cancer: a review of the morphological similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2004-01-01

    Morphological features may serve as diagnostically useful markers of colorectal cancer (CRC) with the microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) phenotype. The most important of these are lymphocytic infiltration, mucin secretion and poor differentiation. These features are apparent in both sporadic MSI-H CRC and CRC occurring in the context of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). There is now strong evidence that that the two principal subtypes of MSI-H CRC evolve through different pathways. Sporadic MSI-H CRC orginate within serrated polyps with BRAF mutation and DNA methylation while CRC in HNPCC arise within conventional adenomas in which there is frequent mutation of APC or beta -catenin and/or K- ras. These early differences in pathogenesis translate into multiple morphological distinctions in the cancers developing through the two pathways. Lymphocytic infiltration, tumour budding (de-differentiation), and co-existing adenomas are more evident in HNPCC while mucin secretion, poor differentiation, tumour heterogeneity and glandular serration, and co-existing serrated polyps are more evident in sporadic MSI-H CRC. Sporadic MSI-H CRC are also characterized by cytoplasmic eosinophilia and nuclei that are large, round, vesicular and contain a prominent nucleolus while in HNPCC the cytological features recapitulate the basophilia and nuclear characteristics of conventional adenomas. In practice, lymphocytic infiltration is the most sensitive marker of MSI-H status in both sporadic CRC and HNPCC. The crucial distinction between HNPCC and sporadic MSI-H CRC should be achieved by means of all available data including family history, age at onset of malignancy and molecular features. There is increasing evidence that genetic factors may predispose to DNA methylation. This can result in familial clustering of MSI-H CRC in which the underlying mechanism is methylation of hMLH1 rather than germline mutation. Morphological features can assist is distinguishing

  18. Synthesis of NiCo2O4 nanostructures with different morphologies for the removal of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yaxi; Li, Haizhen; Ruan, Zhongyuan; Cui, Guijia; Yan, Shiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the adsorption removal performance of NiCo2O4 as water purification adsorbents, magnetic materials NiCo2O4 with six different morphologies were successfully synthesized by a facile method. NiCo2O4 with six different morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry. In this study, we mainly explored the effect of specific surface area, pore volume and pore size on the performance for the removal of methyl orange, and the adsorption capacity followed an order of (b) NiCo2O4 nanorods > (e) balsam-like NiCo2O4 > (f) rose-like NiCo2O4 > (d) NiCo2O4 nanoribbons > (a) NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructures > (c) dandelion-like NiCo2O4 spheres. The results indicated that NiCo2O4 nanorods exhibited better adsorption performance. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of NiCo2O4 nanorods were also discussed in depth by analyzing scale and surface characteristics. Besides, NiCo2O4 could be easily recovered from solution, which may avoid potential secondary pollution. Moreover, adsorption kinetics, the influence of pH and adsorption mechanism were comprehensively investigated. This finding indicated that NiCo2O4 were promising adsorbents for water purification.

  19. MG63 Osteoblast-Like Cells Exhibit Different Behavior when Grown on Electrospun Collagen Matrix versus Electrospun Gelatin Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Liou, Hau-Min; Lin, Cheng-Jie; Kuo, Ko-Liang; Hung, Yi-Sheng; Weng, Ru-Chun; Hsu, Fu-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Electrospinning is a simple and efficient method of fabricating a non-woven polymeric nanofiber matrix. However, using fluorinated alcohols as a solvent for the electrospinning of proteins often results in protein denaturation. TEM and circular dichroism analysis indicated a massive loss of triple-helical collagen from an electrospun collagen (EC) matrix, and the random coils were similar to those found in gelatin. Nevertheless, from mechanical testing we found the Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stresses of EC matrices were significantly higher than electrospun gelatin (EG) matrices because matrix stiffness can affect many cell behaviors such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. We hypothesize that the difference of matrix stiffness between EC and EG will affect intracellular signaling through the mechano-transducers Rho kinase (ROCK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and subsequently regulates the osteogenic phenotype of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. From the results, we found there was no significant difference between the EC and EG matrices with respect to either cell attachment or proliferation rate. However, the gene expression levels of OPN, type I collagen, ALP, and OCN were significantly higher in MG63 osteoblast-like cells grown on the EC than in those grown on the EG. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of Y397-FAK, ERK1/2, BSP, and OPN proteins, as well as ALP activity, were also higher on the EC than on the EG. We further inhibited ROCK activation with Y27632 during differentiation to investigate its effects on matrix-mediated osteogenic differentiation. Results showed the extent of mineralization was decreased with inhibition after induction. Moreover, there is no significant difference between EC and EG. From the results of the protein levels of phosphorylated Y397-FAK, ERK1/2, BSP and OPN, ALP activity and mineral deposition, we speculate that the mechanism that influences the osteogenic differentiation of MG63 osteoblast

  20. The origins of ecotypic variation of rainbow trout: a test of environmental vs. genetically based differences in morphology.

    PubMed

    Keeley, E R; Parkinson, E A; Taylor, E B

    2007-03-01

    Although morphological plasticity has been observed in a variety of taxa, few experimental studies have compared the relative proportion of morphological variability that is accounted for by environmentally induced plasticity, and how much is because of genetically based differences among populations. We compared the morphology of six rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations from different ecotypic categories that were raised under flowing vs. standing-water conditions. Our data indicate that both environmental conditions and ecotypic differences account for a significant proportion of variation in morphology. Among ecotype effects, however, accounted for a much larger proportion of morphological variability than environmental conditions. Rainbow trout from stream populations had deeper caudal peduncles, and longer fins than lake populations, and rainbow trout from a piscivorous population had larger mouth and head lengths than all other ecotypes. Environmentally induced differences in morphology were primarily related to differences in mouth and head lengths, as well as fin length. Relative to morphometric differences from natural rainbow trout populations, most characteristics deviated in the same direction in our experimental populations. Our data indicate that morphological differences across rainbow trout populations have a genetic basis and may represent locally adaptive characteristics and highlight the role of ecology in promoting phenotypic divergence.

  1. Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Different Genotypes Exhibit Differential Host Responses in THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Pampi; Kulkarni, Savita; Rajan, Ramakrishna; Sainis, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. Substantial genotypic variation exists among MTB strains which correlate with their interactions with the host. The present study was designed to establish a correlation, if any, between infection and induction of innate immune response by genetically diverse drug resistant MTB isolates from India. For this purpose, three clinical isolates from ancient and modern lineages, along with H37Ra and H37Rv were evaluated for intracellular growth, phagocytic index, induction of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis following infection in THP-1 cell line. A wide variation in the induction of cytokines was revealed subsequent to infection with different strains. EAI-5 strain from ancient lineage 1, induced higher proinflammatory responses, higher apoptosis and moderate intracellular growth compared to other strains, in contrast, for Beijing strain of modern lineage 2, all three parameters were lowest among the clinical isolates. Further, the responses induced by LAM-6 from modern lineage 4 were at a moderate level, similar to the laboratory strain H37Rv which also belongs to lineage 4. Thus, these profiles were specific to their respective lineages and/or genotypes and independent of their drug resistance status. Further, a positive correlation, among TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 induced in infected THP-1 cells was demonstrated. In addition, induction of all pro-inflammatory cytokines correlated well with the host cell apoptosis. A positive correlation was observed between phagocytic index in the category of ‘>10 bacilli/cell’ and induction of apoptosis, only for virulent strains, indicating that initial accumulation of MTB strains inside the host cell may be an important determining factor for different innate responses. PMID:23667550

  2. Thermally assisted photo transfer OSL from deep traps in Al2O3:C grains exhibiting different TL peak shapes.

    PubMed

    Polymeris, George S; Kitis, George

    2012-10-01

    The present work studies the thermally assisted photo transfer OSL (TAPT OSL) signal in the case of Al(2)O(3):C samples showing double-structured main dosimetric TL peaks. The measurement signal provides indirect experimental evidence regarding the presence of deep traps along with one transfer mechanism extremely powerful and efficient. The experimental features of this signal are presented along with those yielded for samples with narrow TL peaks for the sake of comparison. In the framework of a dosimetric characterization, the straightforward relation observed between the TAPT OSL integrated intensity and the dose, even if non-linear, implies that this signal could be effectively used towards dosimetry purposes in the high dose region up to 250 Gy. Furthermore, the study on the influence of the annealing temperature on the TL glow curve shape on Al(2)O(3):C grains is attempted. The variety of glow curve shapes reported especially in the case of single grains is not affected by high temperature annealing, since its effect is dominant even after heating at 1085°C. Thus, this variety should not be correlated to the different deep trap occupancies, but rather be attributed to a possible structural defect. The main dosimetric TL peak af all grains is considered to be a composite of two unambiguously different traps of non-first-order kinetics. The low temperature part of these traps, reaching a maximum at ~190°C is an electron trap and the high temperature part with maximum at ~250°C is a hole trap. TL dose response of Al(2)O(3):C grains presenting double peak structures is presented for the first time in literature, suggesting the usefulness on the applicability of Al(2)O(3):C in the dose regime up to 100 Gy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclei-specific differences in nerve terminal distribution, morphology, and development in mouse visual thalamus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mouse visual thalamus has emerged as a powerful model for understanding the mechanisms underlying neural circuit formation and function. Three distinct nuclei within mouse thalamus receive retinal input, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and the intergeniculate nucleus (IGL). However, in each of these nuclei, retinal inputs are vastly outnumbered by nonretinal inputs that arise from cortical and subcortical sources. Although retinal and nonretinal terminals associated within dLGN circuitry have been well characterized, we know little about nerve terminal organization, distribution and development in other nuclei of mouse visual thalamus. Results Immunolabeling specific subsets of synapses with antibodies against vesicle-associated neurotransmitter transporters or neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes revealed significant differences in the composition, distribution and morphology of nonretinal terminals in dLGN, vLGN and IGL. For example, inhibitory terminals are more densely packed in vLGN, and cortical terminals are more densely distributed in dLGN. Overall, synaptic terminal density appears least dense in IGL. Similar nuclei-specific differences were observed for retinal terminals using immunolabeling, genetic labeling, axonal tracing and serial block face scanning electron microscopy: retinal terminals are smaller, less morphologically complex, and more densely distributed in vLGN than in dLGN. Since glutamatergic terminal size often correlates with synaptic function, we used in vitro whole cell recordings and optic tract stimulation in acutely prepared thalamic slices to reveal that excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) are considerably smaller in vLGN and show distinct responses following paired stimuli. Finally, anterograde labeling of retinal terminals throughout early postnatal development revealed that anatomical differences in retinal nerve terminal structure are not observable as

  4. Morphological and genetic diversity assessment of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions differing in origin.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sarita K; Das, Arna; Rai, Pooja; Dasgupta, Tapash

    2015-10-01

    Sesame is an important ancient oilseed crop of high medicinal value. In the present study, 37 characters including both quantitative and qualitative traits of sixty genotypes were characterized following IPGRI morphological descriptors for sesame. Multivariate analysis was computed to distinguish the varieties into different groups. Though thirty six microsatellite markers including genomic and Est-SSR markers were initially selected, but, finally, the accessions were genotyped by eight polymorphic primers. Altogether, 27 alleles were detected among the 60 genotypes, with an average of 3.37 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 6 alleles. From data of microsatellite markers, dissimilarity coefficients between varieties were computed following Jaccard's coefficient method. Principal co-ordinate analysis was used to represent the varieties in bi-directional space. Dendrogram was constructed using NJ method based on dissimilarity matrix. Cluster analysis based on morphological and molecular marker classified sesame genotypes into two major groups. Mantel test showed an insignificant correlation between phenotypic and molecular marker information. The genotypes belonging to the same geographical area did not always occupy the same cluster. The results confirmed that both genetic and phenotypic diversity in a combined way could efficiently evaluate the variation present in different sesame accessions in any breeding program.

  5. Differing morphologies of textured diamond films with electrical properties made with microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wen Chi; Wu, Yu-Shiang; Chang, Hou-Cheng; Lee, Yuan-Haun

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the orientation of textured diamond films produced through microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) at 1200 W, 110 Torr, CH 4/H 2 = 1/20, with depositions times of 0.5-4.0 h. After a growth period of 2.0-4.0 h, this particular morphology revealed a rectangular structure stacked regularly on the diamond film. The orientation on {1 1 1}-textured diamond films grew a preferred orientation of {1 1 0} on the surface, as measured by XRD. The formation of the diamond epitaxial film formed textured octahedrons in ball shaped (or cauliflower-like) diamonds in the early stages (0.5 h), and the surface of the diamond film extended to pile the rectangular structure at 4.0 h. The width of the tier was approximately 200 nm at the 3.0 h point of deposition, according to TEM images. The results revealed that the textured diamond films showed two different morphological structures (typical ball shaped and rectangular diamonds), at different stages of the deposition period. The I- V characteristics of the oriented diamond films after 4.0 h of deposition time showed good conformity with the ohmic contact.

  6. Sex differences in judging self-orientation: the morphological horizon and body pitch

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Luc; Elliott, Digby

    2007-01-01

    Background Sex differences exist for many spatial tasks. This is true for circular vection, field dependence, and perception of veridical vertical with body tilt. However, explanations for these sex differences is lacking in the literature. In this study, we investigated the nature of individual differences in the perception of self-orientation in humans. Male and female participants were asked to identify their Morphological Horizon (i.e., line perpendicular to saggital plane at eye-level) in different body orientations relative to gravity (i.e., 45 deg and 135 deg body pitch) with and without prior whole body rotation. Results Sex explained the observed differences in the perception of self-orientation only when blood distribution was least altered (i.e., 45 deg body pitch) and without prior whole body rotation. Specifically, females presented a more footward bias than males in these conditions. Conclusion These results add to the literature on sex differences for spatial orientation tasks. As the differences were only observed with static conditions and when blood distribution was least affected, we concluded that sex differences in the perception of self-orientation are associated with gravireceptors (e.g., otoliths). PMID:17207289

  7. Bisphenol A and its analogs exhibit different apoptotic potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Mokra, Katarzyna; Kocia, Magdalena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-10-01

    There are only a few studies that have assessed the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on human blood cells and no study has been conducted to analyze the impact of BPA analogs on human leucocytes. In this study, we have investigated the effect of BPA and its analogs like bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In order to clarify the mechanism of bisphenols-induced programmed cell death, changes in various signaling molecules of this process have been assessed. We observed an increase in cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)) level and reduction of transmembrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) in PBMCs incubated with all compounds examined, and particularly BPA and BPAF. All compounds studied changed PBMCs membrane permeability, activated caspase-8, -9, -3 and induced PARP-1 cleavage and chromatin condensation, which confirmed that they were capable of inducing apoptosis both via intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. Moreover, we have found that modus operandi of bisphenols studied was different. We noticed that BPAF and BPS caused mainly necrotic and apoptotic changes, respectively, whereas BPA induced comparable apoptotic and necrotic effects in the incubated cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultraviolet B-induced cell death in four cutaneous cell lines exhibiting different enzymatic antioxidant defences: involvement of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1998-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in the modulation of apoptosis. Antioxidant defence mechanisms against cell death involving apoptosis due to UVB irradiation were studied on three established cell lines (SCC derived from human skin squamous cell carcinoma, F-SV and F-ST derived from human skin fibroblasts) which were susceptible to cell death by UVB irradiation (12.5-250 mJ/cm2), and one cell line (N-F) derived from primary cultured human skin fibroblasts which was resistant to cell death. We compared antioxidant defences between the three established cell lines and N-F, measuring four antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) and a non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione. The greatest difference was that Cu, Zn-SOD activity in N-F was 3-4-times the three other cell lines. Though SCC had much larger amounts of glutathione and higher antioxidant enzyme activities except for Cu, Zn-SOD than N-F, SCC was very susceptible to cell death. After UVB irradiation (at 16 h after 12.5 mJ/cm2), in all cell lines, SOD activity increased 1.1-1.3-times that of non-irradiated cells, while other enzyme activities remained constant. This presumably represents a protective response against ROS generated during UVB irradiation. N-F which was resistant to UVB-induced cell death had higher Cu, Zn-SOD activity before UVB irradiation, and a larger increase of SOD (mainly Mn-SOD) after UVB exposure than the other cell lines which were susceptible to cell death. Therefore, we conclude that the most important enzymatic antioxidant to protect cells from UVB damage is SOD.

  9. A coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance exhibit different metabolic strategies to deal with drought stress.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Kleiber, Anita; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kammerer, Bernd; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress affecting growth and vitality of forest ecosystems. In the present study, foliar nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) metabolism of two Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) provenances with assumed different drought tolerance were investigated. We worked with 1-year-old seedlings of the interior provenance Fehr Lake (FEHR) originating from a dry environment and the coastal provenance Snoqualmie (SNO) from a more humid origin. Total C and N, structural N and the concentrations of soluble protein, total amino acids (TAAs) and individual amino acids as well as the relative abundance of polar, low-molecular-weight metabolites including antioxidants were determined in current-year needles exposed either to 42 days of drought or to 42 days drought plus 14 days of rewatering. The seedlings reacted in a provenance-specific manner to drought stress. Coastal provenance SNO showed considerably increased contents of TAAs, which were caused by increased abundance of the quantitatively most important amino acids arginine, ornithine and lysine. Additionally, the polyamine putrescine accumulated exclusively in drought-stressed trees of this provenance. In contrast, the interior provenance FEHR showed the opposite response, i.e., drastically reduced concentrations of these amino acids. However, FEHR showed considerably increased contents of pyruvate-derived and aromatic amino acids, and also higher drought-induced levels of the antioxidants ascorbate and α-tocopherol. In response to drought, both provenances produced large amounts of carbohydrates, such as glucose and fructose, most likely as osmolytes that can readily be metabolized for protection against osmotic stress. We conclude that FEHR and SNO cope with drought stress in a provenance-specific manner: the coastal provenance SNO was mainly synthesizing N-based osmolytes, a reaction not observed in the interior provenance FEHR; instead, the latter increased the levels of scavengers of reactive

  10. Functional Properties and Morphological Characters of Soluble Dietary Fibers in Different Edible Parts of Angelica Keiskei.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fan; Wang, Yuqiang; Wu, Jinhong; Wang, Zhengwu

    2016-09-01

    This study comparatively investigated the functional properties, chemical compositions, and morphological characters of soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) from the root, stem, and leaf of Angelica keiskei. The SDFs showed relevant functional properties, with the root SDF (RSDF) exhibiting the highest water-holding capacity (22.6 g/g), oil-holding capacity (6.29 mL/g), swelling capacity (36.6 mL/g), emulsion stability, and fat adsorption (5.66 g/g). Stem SDF (SSDF) gave the highest foam stability, toxic ions adsorption (Pb: 1.12 mg/g; As: 3.22 mg/g), and bile acid salts adsorption (sodium cholate: 85.6 mg/g; sodium glycocholate: 93.1 mg/g; sodium taurocholate: 125.7 mg/g). RSDF and SSDF presented similar monosaccharide compositions, thermal property, chemical bonds and groups, and irregular, rough, and porous surfaces. It can be concluded that the obtained SDFs, especially for RSDF and SSDF, can be used in the food industry as fiber-rich functional ingredients. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Catalytic combustion of dimethyl ether over α-MnO2 nanostructures with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gao; Yu, Lin; He, Binbin; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Bentian; Ye, Wenjin; Lan, Bang

    2017-07-01

    Herein, α-MnO2 catalysts with three well-defined morphologies (nanorod, ultra-long nanowire and microsphere) were rational designed and prepared by the hydrothermal route, and their catalytic activities were evaluated for the dimethyl ether (DME) combustion. These nanostructured α-MnO2 catalysts were characterized in detail by various analytical techniques: XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET, XPS and H2-TPR. As a result, the α-MnO2 nanorod exhibited the higher catalytic activity (T10 = 170 °C and T90 = 238 °C at WHSV = 30,000 mL g-1 h-1) than the other two α-MnO2 samples due to its larger specific surface area, higher average oxidation state of Mn, more abundant surface lattice oxygen (Olatt) species and higher reducibility, and there was no obvious decrease after the α-MnO2 nanorod was run for 50 h. Moreover, the transient response technique revealed that the Olatt species of the α-MnO2 nanorod should be the crucial role in the deep oxidation of DME.

  12. MDS/AML del(11)(q14) Share Common Morphological Features Despite Different Chromosomal Breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Dambruoso, Irene; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Boni, Marina; Zappatore, Rita; Giardini, Ilaria; Cavigliano, Maria Paola; Rocca, Barbara; Calvello, Celeste; Bastia, Raffaella; Caresana, Marilena; Pasi, Francesca; Nano, Rosanna; Bernasconi, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    In myelodysplatic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) deletion of the 11q14 region is a rare chromosomal defect (incidence: 0.6-1.0%), included within the intermediate risk criteria by the International Prognostic Scoring System. No fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study has yet been performed to identify a common breakpoint region (CBR). In our study through FISH with bacterial artificial chromosomes and commercial probes, we analyzed seven patients with MDS/AML harboring 11q14 deletion on conventional cytogenetic analysis. FISH revealed deletions in five patients and amplifications in two. Three patients with deletion carried a CBR, two had a deletion involving a more centromeric breakpoint. These five patients exhibited multilineage dysplasia, blast cells with large round nuclei, loose chromatin, small and abundant nucleoli, and vacuolated cytoplasm with very thin Auer bodies. In conclusion, the morphological features which occur independently of the extent of the deletion are of multilineage dysplasia in MDS and leukemic blasts strongly reactive to peroxidase in AML; despite the variable size of the deleted area, some patients harbor a CBR.

  13. Morphological Differences between Circulating Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients and Cultured Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunyoung; Ang, Richard R.; Duffy, Simon P.; Bazov, Jenny; Chi, Kim N.; Black, Peter C.; Ma, Hongshen

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration promises to be an important predictor of clinical outcome for a range of cancers. Established CTC enumeration methods primarily rely on affinity capture of cell surface antigens, and have been criticized for underestimation of CTC numbers due to antigenic bias. Emerging CTC capture strategies typically distinguish these cells based on their assumed biomechanical characteristics, which are often validated using cultured cancer cells. In this study, we developed a software tool to investigate the morphological properties of CTCs from patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer and cultured prostate cancer cells in order to establish whether the latter is an appropriate model for the former. We isolated both CTCs and cultured cancer cells from whole blood using the CellSearch® system and examined various cytomorphological characteristics. In contrast with cultured cancer cells, CTCs enriched by CellSearch® system were found to have significantly smaller size, larger nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, and more elongated shape. These CTCs were also found to exhibit significantly more variability than cultured cancer cells in nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and shape profile. PMID:24416373

  14. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with different aphid hosts

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Cinthya M.; Žikić, Vladimir; Stanković, Saša S.; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation). The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes) of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS), revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea) was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat) biotype. There was no significant effect of plant species on parasitoid

  15. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with different aphid hosts.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Cinthya M; Žikić, Vladimir; Stanković, Saša S; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Peñalver-Cruz, Ainara; Lavandero, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation). The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes) of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS), revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea) was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat) biotype. There was no significant effect of plant species on parasitoid wing size and shape

  16. Sex differences in the morphological failure patterns following hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Andrea; Vettorazzi, Eik; Morlock, Michael M; Rüther, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael; Zustin, Jozef

    2011-10-13

    Metal-on-metal hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty (with a cementless acetabular component and a cemented femoral component) is offered as an alternative to traditional total hip arthroplasty for the young and active adult with advanced osteoarthritis. Although it has been suggested that women are less appropriate candidates for metal-on-metal arthroplasty, the mechanisms of prosthesis failure has not been fully explained. While specific failure patterns, particularly osteonecrosis and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions have been suggested to be specifically linked to the sex of the patient, we wished to examine the potential influence of sex, clinical diagnosis, age of the patient and the size of the femoral component on morphological failure patterns in a large cohort of retrieved specimens following aseptic failure of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Femoral remnants retrieved from 173 hips with known patient's sex were morphologically analyzed for the cause of failure. The results were compared with the control group of the remaining 31 failures from patients of unknown sex. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the following morphologically defined variables were calculated using logistic regression analysis: periprosthetic fractures (n=133), osteonecrosis (n=151), the presence of excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n=11), and interface hyperosteoidosis (n=30). Logistic regression analysis was performed both unadjusted and after adjustment for sex, age, the size of the femoral component, and preoperative clinical diagnosis. Femoral remnants from female patients had a smaller OR for fracture (adjusted OR: 0.29, 95% CI 0.11, 0.80, P for difference=0.02) and for the presence of osteonecrosis (adjusted OR: 0.16, 95% CI 0.04, 0.63, P for difference=0.01). However, women had a higher OR for both the presence of excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (adjusted OR: 10.22, 95% CI 0.79, 132.57, P for difference=0.08) and

  17. Effects of two different probiotics on microflora, morphology, and morphometry of gut in organic laying hens.

    PubMed

    Forte, C; Acuti, G; Manuali, E; Casagrande Proietti, P; Pavone, S; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Moscati, L; Onofri, A; Lorenzetti, C; Franciosini, M P

    2016-11-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis, used as probiotics, on the microflora, morphology, and morphometry of the gut in organic laying hens. The birds (180 Hy-Line laying hens) were divided into 3 homogenous groups and received a pre-deposition diet from 16 to 20 wk of age and a deposition diet for the remaining 7 months of the experiment. The control group ( CTR: ) was fed a corn-soybean cake-based diet, the second group ( L: ) received the same diet supplemented with 0.1% of L. acidophilus while in the third group ( B: ) the basal diet was supplemented with 0.05% of B. subtilis At 18 wk of age ( T1: ) and at 5 ( T2: ) and 7 months ( T3: ) from the beginning of deposition, 9 subjects per group were humanely killed for microbiological, morphological and morphometric analyses of the intestinal tract. The 2 probiotic-supplemented diets increased Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts compared with the CTR diet. The lowest viable counts of E. coli, coliforms and staphylococci were observed in the L group (P < 0.001). Clostridium spp. decreased (P < 0.001) in both L and B subjects. The probiotic supplementation appeared to affect the intestinal microbial population, promoting the presence of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and reducing potential harmful bacteria such as E. coli, clostridia and staphylococci. Morphological and morphometric analyses did not reveal substantial differences among groups. At T3, the plasma cell infiltrate in the villi of the CTR hens was more severe than that observed in the L and B groups (P = 0.009).

  18. Morphology and composition of beach-cast Posidonia oceanica litter on beaches with different exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Simone; De Falco, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter is commonly found along sandy shores in the Mediterranean region, forming structures called banquettes, which are often removed in order to allow the beach to be used for tourism. This paper evaluates the relationship between the morphology and composition of banquettes and beach exposure to dominant waves. A Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System was used to evaluate the variability of banquettes and beach morphology over a period of 1 year. Banquette samples, collected at two different levels of the beach profile (i.e. foreshore and backshore), were used to evaluate the contribution of leaves, rhizomes and sediments to the total weight. Banquettes showed a higher volume, thickness and cross-shore length on exposed beaches, whereas narrower litter deposits were found on the sheltered beach. On exposed beaches, banquettes were deposited in beach zones characterized by changes in elevation. These changes in elevation were mainly due to the deposition and erosion of sediments and secondly to the deposition and or erosion of leaf litter. On sheltered beaches, the variability in beach morphology was low and was restricted to areas where the banquettes were located. The leaf/sediment ratio changed along the cross-shore profile. On the backshore, banquettes were a mixture of sediments and leaves, whereas leaves were the main component on the foreshore, independently of the beach exposure. The processes which control the morphodynamics in the swash zone could explain the variability of banquette composition along the cross-shore profile. Finally, this study highlighted that Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter plays an important role in the geomorphology of the beachface and its removal can have a harmful impact on the beaches.

  19. Morphological analysis of cavities prepared by different parameters of Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Patricia M.; Navarro, Ricardo S.; Almeida, Juliana; Imparato, Jose Carlos P.; Eduardo, Carlos P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes in cavities made by Er:YAG laser (2.94μm)(KaVo KEY 3)(LELO-FOUSP) and high-speed drill. Cavities were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 27 human molars (Banco de Dentes-FOUSP), using different laser parameters (n=3): G1-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 6Hz/200mJ dentin; G2-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 6Hz/200mJ dentin; G3-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 6Hz/250mJ dentin; G4-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 6Hz/250mJ dentin; G5-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 10Hz/180mJ dentin; G6-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 10Hz/180mJ dentin; G7-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 10Hz/160mJ dentin; G8-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 10Hz/160mJ dentin and G9-high-speed drill. Samples were fixed (2.5% glutaraldhyde, 12h, 4°C), dehydrated (25-100% ethanol), dried to a critical point and sputter-coated with gold for analysis under SEM. All laser parameters used showed no evidence of thermal damage and signs of burning and melting, Er:YAG laser ablated dental hard tissues, showing enamel prisms, like scales, dentin surface without smear layer and opened dentinal tubules. It was concluded that Er:YAG laser parameters were effective for ablation of hard tissues, promoting morphological changes in irradiated tissues, creating an irregular and microretentive morphological pattern.

  20. Morphological differences in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia, Tellinacea) from a Dutch and three southeastern United States estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamermans, Pauline; Van der Veer, Henk W.; Witte, Johannes IJ.; Adriaans, Ewout J.

    1999-05-01

    Field collections of the bivalve Macoma balthica in the Dutch Wadden Sea and three southeastern United States estuaries revealed morphological differences between populations of the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Individuals of the same age showed much larger shell lengths at the American stations. In addition, bivalves of the same body weight had higher siphon weights at the American stations than at the Dutch stations. This difference in siphon size was related to their burying depths. The American population, which invested more in heavier siphons, was able to burrow much deeper into the sediment (up to 30 cm). Deep burial may be an adaptation to avoid exposure to the high southern temperatures. Furthermore, it may serve as a refuge from blue crab predation. The results of our comparison between the southern American population and the European support the suggestion that populations of M. balthica living in these two regions should be considered separate and sibling species.

  1. Morphological and Functional Differences between Athletes and Novices in Cortical Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiao-Ying; Pi, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jue; Li, Xue-Pei; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Dai, Wen; Zhu, Hua; Ni, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yin

    2017-01-01

    The cortical structural and functional differences in athletes and novices were investigated with a cross-sectional paradigm. We measured the gray matter volumes and resting-state functional connectivity in 21 basketball players and 21 novices with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. It was found that gray matter volume in the left anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus is greater in basketball players than that in novices. These five brain regions were selected as the seed regions for testing the resting-state functional connectivity in the second experiment. We found higher functional connectivity in default mode network, salience network and executive control network in basketball players compared to novices. We conclude that the morphology and functional connectivity in cortical neuronal networks in athletes and novices are different. PMID:28101012

  2. TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with different morphology and additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Ng, Yip Hang; Leung, Yu Hang; Liu, Fangzhou; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Mao Hai; Chan, Wai Kin

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performances of different TiO2 nanostructures, TiO2/CNT composite and TiO2 with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment anode were investigated. For different TiO2 nanostructures, we investigated vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil and TiO2 nanotube-powders fabricated by rapid breakdown anodization technique. The morphology of the prepared samples was characterized by scanning probe microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical lithium storage abilities were studied by galvanostatic method. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNT) additives and solution treatment process of TiO2 anode were investigated, and the results show that the additives and treatment could enhance the cycling performance of the TiO2 anode on lithium ion batteries.

  3. Is there a difference between T- and B-lymphocyte morphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Gilev, Konstantin V.; van Bockstaele, Dirk R.; Hoekstra, Alfons G.; Rubtsov, Nikolay B.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2009-11-01

    We characterize T- and B-lymphocytes from several donors, determining cell diameter, ratio of nucleus to cell diameter, and refractive index of the nucleus and cytoplasm for each individual cell. We measure light-scattering profiles with a scanning flow cytometer and invert the signals using a coated sphere as an optical model of the cell and by relying on a global optimization technique. The main difference in morphology of T- and B-lymphocytes is found to be the larger mean diameters of the latter. However, the difference is smaller than the natural biological variability of a single cell. We propose nuclear inhomogeneity as a possible reason for the deviation of measured light-scattering profiles from real lymphocytes from those obtained from the coated sphere model.

  4. Morphological and Functional Differences between Athletes and Novices in Cortical Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Ying; Pi, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jue; Li, Xue-Pei; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Dai, Wen; Zhu, Hua; Ni, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The cortical structural and functional differences in athletes and novices were investigated with a cross-sectional paradigm. We measured the gray matter volumes and resting-state functional connectivity in 21 basketball players and 21 novices with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. It was found that gray matter volume in the left anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus is greater in basketball players than that in novices. These five brain regions were selected as the seed regions for testing the resting-state functional connectivity in the second experiment. We found higher functional connectivity in default mode network, salience network and executive control network in basketball players compared to novices. We conclude that the morphology and functional connectivity in cortical neuronal networks in athletes and novices are different.

  5. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    PubMed

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  6. A spectral graph theoretic approach to quantification and calibration of collective morphological differences in cell images

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Shi; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Ku, Tien-Chuan; Huang, Yi-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput image-based assay technologies can rapidly produce a large number of cell images for drug screening, but data analysis is still a major bottleneck that limits their utility. Quantifying a wide variety of morphological differences observed in cell images under different drug influences is still a challenging task because the result can be highly sensitive to sampling and noise. Results: We propose a graph-based approach to cell image analysis. We define graph transition energy to quantify morphological differences between image sets. A spectral graph theoretic regularization is applied to transform the feature space based on training examples of extremely different images to calibrate the quantification. Calibration is essential for a practical quantification method because we need to measure the confidence of the quantification. We applied our method to quantify the degree of partial fragmentation of mitochondria in collections of fluorescent cell images. We show that with transformation, the quantification can be more accurate and sensitive than that without transformation. We also show that our method outperforms competing methods, including neighbourhood component analysis and the multi-variate drug profiling method by Loo et al. We illustrate its utility with a study of Annonaceous acetogenins, a family of compounds with drug potential. Our result reveals that squamocin induces more fragmented mitochondria than muricin A. Availability: Mitochondrial cell images, their corresponding feature sets (SSLF and WSLF) and the source code of our proposed method are available at http://aiia.iis.sinica.edu.tw/. Contact: chunnan@iis.sinica.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20529919

  7. Phase-specific responses to different qualities of food in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: developmental, morphological and reproductive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Koutaro; Tanaka, Seiji

    2011-04-01

    Solitarious female adults are known to produce smaller hatchlings than those produced by gregarious adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. This study investigated developmental, morphological and reproductive responses to different qualities of food in hatchlings of different phases. Mortality was higher, the duration of nymphal development longer and adult body weight lighter with a low-quality food than a high-quality food. Gregarious hatchlings showed better survivorship, grew faster and became larger adults than did solitarious ones. The incidence of locusts exhibiting extra molting, which was typically observed in the solitarious phase, was dramatically increased when a low-quality food was given to the solitarious hatchlings. Low-quality food caused locusts to shift morphometric ratios toward the values typical of gregarious forms; smaller F/C (hind femur length/maximum head width) and larger E/F (elytra length/hind femur length). Solitarious hatchlings grown at either high- or low-quality foods and then given high-quality food after adult emergence revealed that food qualities during the nymphal stage influence their progeny quality and quantity via adult body size that influenced reproductive performance. Female adults showed an overshooting response to a shift from low- to high-quality food by increasing egg production that was specific to body size. This study may suggest that gregarious hatchlings are better adapted to adverse food conditions than solitarious counterparts and extra molting is induced even among gregarious hatchlings under poor food conditions.

  8. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal differences between EM and AM trees. We further assessed the evidence of convergence or divergence in root traits among the six co-occurring species. Eight fine root morphological and chemical traits were investigated in root segments of the first to fourth root order in three different soil depths and the relative importance of the factors root order, tree species and soil depth for root morphology was determined. Root order was more influential than tree species while soil depth had only a small effect on root morphology All six species showed similar decreases in specific root length and specific root area from the 1st to the 4th root order, while the species patterns differed considerably in root tissue density, root N concentration, and particularly with respect to root tip abundance. Most root morphological traits were not significantly different between EM and AM species (except for specific root area that was larger in AM species), indicating that mycorrhiza type is not a key factor influencing fine root morphology in these species. The order-based root analysis detected species differences more clearly than the simple analysis of bulked fine root mass. Despite convergence in important root traits among AM and EM species, even congeneric species may differ in certain fine root morphological traits. This suggests that, in general, species identity has a larger influence on fine root morphology than mycorrhiza type. PMID:25717334

  9. Molecular and morphological comparison of two different types of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in horse.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Shayegh, Hossein; Ahmadi, Amin

    2014-12-01

    Habronema muscae is a spirurid nematode that undergoes developmental stages in the stomach of equids, causing chronic catarrhal gastritis. Despite preceding investigations have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for molecular diagnosis, we aimed to assess the applicability of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences to identify the H. muscae infection and to assess the level of intraspecific variations in this parasite obtained from affected horses in Southern Iran. According to the morphological characterizations, two different isolates of H. muscae were identified. Although the majority of the recovered specimens had normal characterizations of H. muscae, a number of parasites showed an abnormal feature as large, asymmetrical, and thick cuticular extensions was observed at their anterior end (head region) in gross and histologic examinations. Unexpectedly, molecular assay disclosed that both morphologically distinct samples were completely identical to each other based on cox1 sequence. Multiple alignment of the cox1 amino acid sequences showed that all polymorphism sites were silent. Also, phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that H. muscae form a sister group to Spirocerca lupi and Thelazia callipaeda.

  10. Morphology, properties, and regimes of migrational-mycelial agrochernozems with different ground moistening (Belgorod oblast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, I. I.; Bazykina, G. S.; Grebennikov, A. M.; Smirnova, L. G.; Tyutyunov, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Agrochernozems of a catena (local divide, backslope, and footslope positions on a gentle slope of southern aspect) on the fields of Belgorodskoe farm were studied. The soils are developed from lithologically heterogeneous sediments with temporal accumulation of precipitation water above the lithological contact. A close correlation between the morphology and properties of the soils and the character of their water regime in different positions of the catena was found. Agrochernozems of the divide belong to the migrational-mycelial type of forest-steppe chernozems according to their humus profile, water regime, and slightly differentiated distribution of carbonates. Agrochernozems on the backslope with a higher ground moistening have a more contrasting water regime with the topsoil drying in the summer, a sharper decrease in the humus content down the soil profile, and a distinct carbonate-accumulative horizon with a smooth upper boundary, which makes them closer to the type of steppe agrochernozems. The soils of the footslope are characterized by alternation of the percolative and exudative water regimes; these soils are classified as quasigley agrochernozems with a shortened humus horizon and with dispersed and pendant forms of pedogenic carbonates. The character of moistening, morphology, and properties of the studied soils allow us to state that their genesis is controlled by the local ecological conditions with minimal influence of erosional processes on the slope.

  11. PHA storage from several substrates by different morphological types in an anoxic/aerobic SBR.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, D; Levantesi, C; Renzi, V; Tandoi, V; Majone, M

    2002-01-01

    An activated sludge was cultivated on a mixture of several soluble substrates (acetate, ethanol, glucose, glutamic acid, peptone, Tween 80, starch, yeast extract) in an anoxic/aerobic SBR. Highly dynamic conditions in the SBR (feast famine regime) caused fast removal of most COD in the anoxic phase (in particular acetate, ethanol, glutamic acid and glucose were totally removed) and relevant contribution of storage. In spite of that, filament abundance was always high, as is typical of bulking sludges. Filaments which developed in the reactor were characterized on a morphological basis and on the basis of their ability to grow and to store polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Three main filaments prevailed in the biocenosis, whose relative abundance was varyng with time: Nostocoida limicola II, (two different morphological types), Haliscomenobacter hydrossis and an unidentified one. It was found that maximum growth rate was higher for flocformers than for filaments on each of the tested substrates. Epifluorescence showed that storage ability was more widespread among flocformers than in the filaments. Only one type of Nostocoida limicola II was able to store PHAs. The obtained data show that aerobic growth on the little residual fraction of COD from the anoxic phase was enough to support high abundance of filamentous microorganisms.

  12. Morphological characterisation and agronomical parameters of different species of Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Mossi, A J; Cansian, R L; Paroul, N; Toniazzo, G; Oliveira, J V; Pierozan, M K; Pauletti, G; Rota, L; Santos, A C A; Serafini, L A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the morphological characteristics and parameters of biomass production, such as fresh and dry matter weight (FMW and DMW, g/plant), yield of dry matter (YDM) in terms of ton/ha, essential oil content (EOC, mL/100 g) and yield of essential oils (YEO) expressed as L/ha of the following plants Salvia verbenaca, Salvia argentea, Salvia lavandulifolia, Salvia pratensis, Salvia sclarea, Salvia triloba and Salvia officinalis. Except for Salvia argentea (S2) all other species have adapted to the south Brazilian climate conditions, with morphological differences among the species evaluated. In terms of DMW and YDM, S. officinalis was found to be the most productive species with 445.83 g/plant and 11.14 ton/ha. The higher essential oil content and yield was observed for S. officinalis, affording 1.99 mL/100 g and 221.74 L/ha, respectively. Chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation was performed through GC and GC/MSD analyses, which revealed for most of the species studied, α e β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole as major compounds, apart from S. sclarea, for which linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major components.

  13. Dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and fibroblasts from different layers of pig skin exhibit different profibrotic characteristics: evidence from in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Yanhai; Lu, Shuliang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the profibrotic characteristics of the autografted dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and dermal fibroblasts from superficial/deep layers of pig skin, 93 wounds were established on the dorsa of 7 pigs. 72 wounds autografted with the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix served as the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix group, respectively, and were sampled at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-wounding. 21 wounds autografted with/without superficial/deep dermal fibroblasts served as the superficial/deep dermal fibroblast group and the control group, respectively, and were sampled at 2 weeks post-wounding. The hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the wounded skin thicknesses in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) were significantly greater than those in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point, the thickness of the cutting plane in the deep dermal fibroblast group was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermal fibroblast group and the control group. The western blots showed that the α-smooth muscle actin expression in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point. In summary, the deep dermis and dermal fibroblasts exhibited more profibrotic characteristics than the superficial ones, on the contrary, the deep acellular dermal matrix exhibited less profibrotic characteristics than the superficial one. PMID:28423561

  14. Sex-related Differences in the Developmental Morphology of the Atlas: A Computed Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Asukai, Mitsuru; Fujita, Tomotada; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nishida, Tatsuya; Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-08-23

    A retrospective study. To elucidate sex-related differences in the age at synchondroses closure, the normative size of the atlas, and the ossification patterns of the atlas in Japanese children. The atlas develops from three ossification centers during childhood. The anterior and posterior synchondroses, which are separate ossification centers, mimic fracture lines on computed tomography (CT). Sex-related differences of age dependent morphological changes of the atlas in a large sample size have not been reported. This study analyzed data of 688 subjects (449 boys) between 0 to 18 years old who underwent CT examination of the head and/or neck between January 2010 and July 2016. The age at synchondroses closure, anteroposterior outer, inner, and spinal canal widths of the atlas, and variations of the ossification centers were examined. Anterior synchondroses closed by 10 years in boys and by 7 years in girls. Significant earlier closure of anterior synchondroses was observed in girls than in boys (p < 0.05 at 4 and 5 years old). Posterior synchondrosis closed by 6 years in boys and by 5 years in girls. The outer, inner, and spinal canal widths increased up to 10 to 15 years in both sexes, although all three parameters in girls peaked three years earlier than those in boys. All parameters in boys were significantly larger than those in girls, except in the 10-12-year-old age category. Two or more ossification centers in the anterior arch were observed in 18.3% subjects, and 6% had midline ossification centers in the posterior arch of the atlas. Distinct sex-related differences in the age at anterior synchondroses closure and the size of the atlas were observed in Japanese children. Knowledge of morphological features of the atlas could help distinguish fractures from synchondroses. 3.

  15. Dexamethasone induces different morphological changes in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Silva-Gómez, Adriana Berenice; Aguilar-Salgado, Yuritze; Reyes-Hernández, Diego Octavio; Flores, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid widely used in neurological illnesses because of its antiinflammatory properties, has many serious side effects, including severe psychiatric symptoms such as psychoses. The hippocampus is divided in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH) with each region having a subfield of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layers. Great interest has recently emerged showing that the DH and VH are functionally different. In our work we determined whether, and what, changes occurred, after five days of DEX (0.2mg/kg) treatment, on the dendritic morphology of the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of the DH and VH of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The dendritic morphology and characteristics were measured by using the Golgi-Cox procedure followed by a Sholl analysis. DEX decreased the number of dendritic spines of both apical and basolateral dendrites. Interestingly, this decrease was more pronounced in the VH. Only the VH neurons were affected by DEX with a decrease in their total dendritic length (TDL). An interesting point is that the VH neurons are longer that the DH neurons among the groups injected with saline only as the control. The length per branch order was only altered in the apical dendritic tree of the CA1 neurons. These data taken together show that the VH is more susceptible to DEX and its neurons are larger than the DH neurons. These results support previous observations related to differences between the DH and VH and suggest differences in the expression of the glucocorticoid receptors in connectivity and the space to elongate their dendritic arbor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Rasoulian, Abtin; Bosma, Rachael; Tong, Ryan; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011). This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008): these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation) of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria). As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16–21) and 3 males (aged 18) with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008) in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participant's structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus, and left

  17. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver nanostructures with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. C.; Wu, X. L.; Kan, C. X.; Pan, F. M.; Chen, H. T.; Zhu, J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2010-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that four different types of crystalline silver nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocubes, and bipyramids are synthesized by a solvothermal method by reducing silver nitrate with ethylene glycol using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as an adsorption agent and adding different quantities of sodium chloride to the solution. These nanostructures which exhibit different surface plasma resonance properties in the ultraviolet-visible region are shown to be good surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates using rhodamine 6G molecules. Our results demonstrate that the silver nanocubes, bipyramids with sharp corners and edges, and aggregated silver nanoparticles possess better SERS properties than the silver nanowires, indicating that they can serve as high-sensitivity substrates in SERS-based measurements.

  19. A Deep Morphological Characterization and Comparison of Different Dental Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Condò, R; Cerroni, L; Pasquantonio, G; Mancini, M; Pecora, A; Convertino, A; Mussi, V; Rinaldi, A; Maiolo, L

    2017-01-01

    Giomer is a relatively new class of restorative material with aesthetics, handling and physical properties of composite resins, and benefits of glass ionomers: high radiopacity, antiplaque effect, fluoride release, and recharge. To verify the superior properties of Giomers, in this study, a deep morphological characterization has been performed with an in vitro comparative study among a Giomer (Beautifil® II by Shofu Dental Corporation, Osaka, Japan), a Compomer (Dyract Extra by Dentsply, Caulk, Germany), glass ionomer cement (Ketac fil plus by 3M ESPE), and a composite resin (Tetric Evoceram by Ivoclar). In particular, mechanical and optical properties and ageing effects have been compared to investigate materials similarities and differences. Indentation tests, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and weight loss after storage in saliva or sugary drink have been carried out to analyze materials behavior in real conditions. The results confirm the high quality of Giomer material and indicate possible improvements in their usage.

  20. Peculiarities of molecular hydrogen behavior in palladium nanopores of different morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchuganov, A. V.; Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-11-01

    The features of molecular hydrogen adsorption in slit, cylindrical and spherical palladium nanopores were studied. Calculations were carried out in the framework of molecular dynamics method. Reduction of the nanopore size leads to decrease of the gas density in the adsorbed layer. It has been found that several adsorbed layers can be formed in palladium nanopores. This behavior is caused by sufficiently strong and long-range nature of the interaction between hydrogen molecules and the palladium nanopore wall. The molecule density in the adsorbed layers decreases with decreasing pore size. A comparison of the distribution of the gas density in the cross section of palladium and carbon nanopores of different morphology was made.

  1. Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Morphological plasticity in response to shading in three Convolvulus species of different ecological breadth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Alejandra V.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2004-12-01

    We evaluated in common-garden experiments the morphological plasticity to shading of three Convolvulus species that occur in Chile and differ in ecological breadth. Convolvulus arvensis L. is a world weed distributed along the country, and is found in open as well as in shaded habitats. Convolvulus chilensis Pers. is a Chilean endemic species typical of coastal habitats, and is found in open to partially open sites. C. demissus choisy occurs only on slopes of the Andes of Chile and Argentina, habitats with high incidence of solar radiation. We hypothesized that the magnitude of phenotypic plasticity to shading of these species would correlate with their ecological breadth. Shading had a significant effect on internode length, petiole length, stem diameter, stem length, number of branches, leaf area, leaf shape, leaf biomass, and specific leaf area. Species differed in all the morphological traits except leaf biomass. A significant Shading × Species interaction in the two-way ANOVA, i.e. differential plasticity to shading of Convolvulus species, was found for petiole length, stem length, number of branches, leaf shape, and specific leaf area. Contrary to our hypothesis, tests of parallelism showed that, in general, the plasticity to shading of C. chilensis (the species of intermediate ecological breadth) was the greatest, and that of C. arvensis (the weed) and C. demissus (the species of narrow distribution) was similar. Issues of ecotype differentiation, in the case of C. arvensis, and the role of life history traits are raised to explain the observed lack of association between ecological breadth and magnitude of phenotypic plasticity.

  3. Recognition of children on age-different images: Facial morphology and age-stable features.

    PubMed

    Caplova, Zuzana; Compassi, Valentina; Giancola, Silvio; Gibelli, Daniele M; Obertová, Zuzana; Poppa, Pasquale; Sala, Remo; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-07-01

    The situation of missing children is one of the most emotional social issues worldwide. The search for and identification of missing children is often hampered, among others, by the fact that the facial morphology of long-term missing children changes as they grow. Nowadays, the wide coverage by surveillance systems potentially provides image material for comparisons with images of missing children that may facilitate identification. The aim of study was to identify whether facial features are stable in time and can be utilized for facial recognition by comparing facial images of children at different ages as well as to test the possible use of moles in recognition. The study was divided into two phases (1) morphological classification of facial features using an Anthropological Atlas; (2) algorithm developed in MATLAB® R2014b for assessing the use of moles as age-stable features. The assessment of facial features by Anthropological Atlases showed high mismatch percentages among observers. On average, the mismatch percentages were lower for features describing shape than for those describing size. The nose tip cleft and the chin dimple showed the best agreement between observers regarding both categorization and stability over time. Using the position of moles as a reference point for recognition of the same person on age-different images seems to be a useful method in terms of objectivity and it can be concluded that moles represent age-stable facial features that may be considered for preliminary recognition. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Specific reactions of different striatal neuron types in morphology induced by quinolinic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiqi; Ma, Yuxin; Mu, Shuhua; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Si; Ouyang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological degenerative disease and quinolinic acid (QA) has been used to establish HD model in animals through the mechanism of excitotoxicity. Yet the specific pathological changes and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We aimed to reveal the specific morphological changes of different striatal neurons in the HD model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to unilaterally intrastriatal injections of QA to mimic the HD model. Behavioral tests, histochemical and immunhistochemical stainings as well as Western blots were applied in the present study. The results showed that QA-treated rats had obvious motor and cognitive impairments when compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical detection showed a great loss of NeuN+ neurons and Darpp32+ projection neurons in the transition zone in the QA group when compared with the control group. The numbers of parvalbumin (Parv)+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY)+ interneurons were both significantly reduced while those of calretinin (Cr)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ were not changed notably in the transition zone in the QA group when compared to the controls. Parv+, NPY+ and ChAT+ interneurons were not significantly increased in fiber density while Cr+ neurons displayed an obvious increase in fiber density in the transition zone in QA-treated rats. The varicosity densities of Parv+, Cr+ and NPY+ interneurons were all raised in the transition zone after QA treatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that QA induced obvious behavioral changes as well as a general loss of striatal projection neurons and specific morphological changes in different striatal interneurons, which may help further explain the underlying mechanisms and the specific functions of various striatal neurons in the pathological process of HD.

  6. Different crystal morphologies arising from different preparation methods of a same polymorphic form may result in different properties of the final materials: the case of diclofenac sodium trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Rodomonte, Andrea; Antoniella, Eleonora; Bertocchi, Paola; Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica

    2008-09-29

    Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in painful and inflammatory diseases. It can exist in different hydrate phases. Recently the physico-chemical and pharmaceutical properties of a trihydrate form, named DSH3 were reported by the same authors. This short communication discusses how samples of a same polymorphic form can display dissimilar analytical signatures when obtained by different routes. Data from hot-stage microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRDP) and thermal analysis were used to characterise the DSH3 samples prepared by different methods. Through the case study of diclofenac sodium, this work highlights how the method used to prepare a specific crystal modification can generate samples with different morphologies and therefore different properties and physical stability.

  7. Research on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2-Graphene Composites with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guang; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Ying; Cao, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The TiO2-graphene (TiO2-GR) composites have been successfully synthesized through the hydrothermal reaction. Different structures of TiO2-GR composites were modified using graphene oxide (GO) and different titanium sources in hydrothermal conditions. The structure and properties of the photocatalysts have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The results showed that due to the larger interfacial contact between TiO2 and graphene, and its greater surface area, the poriferous TiO2-GR composite exhibited the best photocatalytic properties and adsorption performance compared with the other nanocomposites.

  8. Morphologic differences in intervertebral foramina: a radiographic study of cervical spine positions in asymptomatic men.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomonori; Masui, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate morphologic differences using plain film radiographs in cervical intervertebral foramina (IVF) for the following positions: neutral; flexion combined with lateral flexion to the right, rotation to the left (FLFR-RL); and flexion combined with lateral flexion to the right, rotation to the right (FLFR-RR.) Fifteen participants (male; age, 22-29 years) with no history of neck pain were recruited to participate in this study. Radiographs were taken with participants standing and their cervical spines positioned in neutral, in FLFR-RL, and in FLFR-RR. Foraminal height and width were measured at levels C5/6 and C6/7 by a radiologist. Differences in IVF sizes between positions were analyzed. The FLFR-RL position (flexion with contralateral rotation and lateral flexion) increased IVF height at C5/6 by 2.40 mm (24%; P<.01) and C6/7 by 2.64 mm (26%; P<.01) compared with the neutral position. However, no significant increase in foraminal width was observed compared with the neutral position (P>.05), and no significant difference in foraminal height and width increase was observed between FLFR-RL and FLFR-RR. The results of this study demonstrate that the cervical FLFR-RL position increases the height of the cervical IVF as measured on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxidation behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes with different diameters and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, Ilya; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Simonova, Irina A.; Stadnichenko, Andrey I.; Ishchenko, Arkady V.; Romanenko, Anatoly I.; Tkachev, Evgeniy N.; Anikeeva, Olga B.

    2012-06-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) with three medium diameters (20-22, 9-13, and 6-8 nm) and different morphology were chemically oxidized using concentrated nitric acid, mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids ("mélange" solution) and mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide ("piranha" solution). Influence of MWNT type and structure as well as type of oxidizer on the surface composition and structure of nanotubes after oxidation was investigated. Acid-base titration, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used for quantitative and qualitative investigation of surface group composition of initial and oxidized nanotubes. Amount of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of oxidized MWNT depends on the type of initial MWNT. It was found that ratio of different oxygen containing groups is less dependent on the type of oxidizer. Electrophysical properties of initial and oxidized nanotubes were investigated in temperature range 4-293 K and main types of electrical conductivity were determined. It was shown that oxidation results in decrease in electrical conductivity of all samples with simultaneous change in the conductivity mechanism. Dispersive behavior of initial and oxidized nanotubes in different commonly used solvents was investigated. It was shown that oxidation leads to the improvement of sedimentation stability of MWNT in polar solvents.

  10. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  11. Adsorption and detection of sport doping drugs on metallic plasmonic nanoparticles of different morphology.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Lorenzo, Irene; Alda, Irene; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Garcia-Ramos, José Vicente

    2012-06-19

    A comparative study of different plasmonic nanoparticles with different morphologies (nanospheres and triangular nanoprisms) and metals (Ag and Au) was done in this work and applied to the ultrasensitive detection of aminoglutethimide (AGI) drug by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and plasmon resonance. AGI is an aromatase inhibitor used as an antitumoral drug with remarkable pharmacological interest and also in illegal sport doping. The application of very sensitive spectroscopic techniques based on the localization of an electromagnetic field on plasmonic nanoparticles confirms the previous study of the adsorption of drugs onto a metal surface due to the near field character of these techniques. The adsorption of AGI on the above substrates was investigated at different pH values and surface coverages, and the results were analyzed on the basis of AGI/metal affinity, considering the interaction mechanism, the existence of two binding sites in AGI, and the influence of the interface on the adsorption in terms of surface charge due to the presence of other ions linked to the surface. Finally, a comparative quantitative detection of AGI was performed on both spherical and triangular nanoprism nanoparticles, and a limit of detection lower than those reported so far was deduced on the latter nanoparticles.

  12. [Morphological and physiological differences of wheat genotypes at seedling stage under water stress].

    PubMed

    Tian, Meng-Yu; Li, Dan-Dan; Dai, Ting-Bo; Jiang, Dong; Jing, Qi; Cao, Wei-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Taking thirty six wheat cultivars bred in different era and ecological regions as test materials, their seedlings growth under water stress was investigated, and their drought resistance was evaluated by gray correlation grade analysis. Significant difference was observed in the drought resistance among the cultivars. The weighted drought resistance index ranged from 0.6580 to 0.2434. Among the test seventeen morphological and physiological traits, shoot dry mass had the greatest correlation degree (0.9473) with drought resistance, while SPAD had the smallest one (0.5356). The test cultivars were clustered into three groups, among which, eight cultivars belonged to strong drought resistance group, twenty three cultivars belonged to medium drought resistance group, and five cultivars belonged to drought-sensitive group. The shoot dry mass, root dry mass, plant dry mass, plant height, root nitrogen accumulation, leaf area, and tiller number per plant differed significantly among the three groups, which could be used for evaluating the drought resistance of wheat cultivars at seedling stage.

  13. Species specific effects of three morphologically different belowground seagrasses on sediment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanachot, Ekkalak; Prathep, Anchana

    2015-12-01

    Roots and rhizomes of seagrass play an important role in coastline zone by anchoring the substrate firmly which prevent resuspension and also controlling sediment biogeochemistry. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and chemical differences of sediments for 3 seagrass species, which have different root morphology between summer (February 2013) and the monsoon month (September 2013). Seven seagrass communities were studied and are: the mono stand of Halophila ovalis, Thalassia hemprichii, and Cymodocea rotundata, the mixed patches of H. ovalis with T. hemprichii, H. ovalis with C. rotundata, and T. hemprichii with C. rotundata and the mixed patches of 3 seagrass species. The roots of seagrasses were the main driver of differences in sediment properties; the branched, long root species, C. rotundata, showed an increasing redox potential by means of oxygen releasing from their roots. The unbranched, long root with dense root hair species, T. hemprichii, tended to cause more poorly sorted sediments. The carbon storage was also estimated and results showed a trend of higher organic carbon density was in the multispecific patches, the mono specific patches and bare sand, respectively. Season also influenced the sediment properties; high wave action in the monsoon stirred up the sediments, this led to lower organic carbon density and high redox potential. Our results suggest that the roots of seagrass species both increase and decrease sediment properties.

  14. Different manifestations of Class II Division 2 incisor retroclination: a morphologic study.

    PubMed

    Mariano Pereira, Pedro; Pinhão Ferreira, Afonso; Tavares, Purificação; Braga, Ana Cristina

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a different transverse morphologic pattern of dental arches among patients with different manifestations of Class II Division 2 incisor retroclination and to evaluate to what extent the pattern of smaller-than-average teeth in Class II Division 2 malocclusion is common to all groups studied. This information might clarify whether different Class II Division 2 phenotypes represent a single etiology or multiple etiologies. The sample comprised 108 subjects with Class II Division 2 malocclusions, divided into 2 groups according to the type of incisor retroclination: group I included 43 Class II Division 2 subjects with retroclination exclusively of the maxillary central incisors, and group II included 65 Class II Division 2 subjects with retroclination of the 4 maxillary incisors. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar widths as well as mesiodistal crown dimensions of the 4 maxillary and mandibular incisors were determined from the patients' initial study models. Mean values of all variables were compared between the 2 groups by sex with analysis of variance. From the comparison between these 2 groups, no statistically significant differences were found for all transverse measurements (P >0.05). For all mesiodistal measurements analyzed, statistically significant differences between the groups were only found for the mean value of both maxillary lateral incisors' mesiodistal dimensions in both sexes (P <0.05). It is not possible to attribute a characteristic pattern of dental arch-width and incisor mesiodistal dimensions to the different manifestations of incisor retroclination in Class II Division 2 malocclusion. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cycle of interstellar dust in galaxies of different morphological types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calura, F.; Pipino, A.; Matteucci, F.

    2008-03-01

    Aims:We used chemical evolution models for galaxies of different morphological type to perform a detailed study of the evolution of the cosmic dust properties in different environments: the solar neighbourhood, elliptical galaxies and dwarf irregular galaxies. Thanks to the uptodate observations available in the solar vicinity, we intend to study the effects of dust in the chemical evolution of different types of galaxies and, at the same time, to refine investigation of the parameter space to satisfactorily fine-tune the parameters in our study. Methods: We have considered dust production from low and intermediate mass stars, supernovae Ia, supernovae II, and both dust destruction and dust accretion processes in a detailed model of chemical evolution for the solar vicinity. Then, by means of the same dust prescriptions, but adopting different galactic models (different star formation histories and the presence of galactic winds), we extended our study to ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies. In all these systems, dust evolution was calculated by means of chemical evolution models that relax the instantaneous recycling approximation and already reproduce the main features of the various galaxies. Results: We have investigated how the assumption of different star formation histories affects the dust production rates, dust depletion, the dust accretion, and destruction rates. We predict dust-to-gas and dust-to-metal ratios in very good agreement with those observed in the solar vicinity. We show how the inclusion of the dust treatment is helpful in solving the so-called Fe discrepancy, as observed in the hot gaseous halos of local ellipticals, and in reproducing the chemical abundances observed in the Lyman Break Galaxies. Finally, our new models can be very useful in future detailed spectro-photometric studies of galaxies.

  16. Bond Strength and Interfacial Morphology of Different Dentin Adhesives in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A) For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth), with 8 teeth in each group, and (B) For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth), with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software. Results: Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50). The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763) (p<0.001) as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345), Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820) and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925). Conclusion: The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems PMID:24910694

  17. Differences in morphology and force/velocity relationship between Senegalese and Italian sprinters.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Abderrehmane; Locatelli, Elio; Lacour, Jean-Rene

    2004-04-01

    In order to investigate whether the supremacy of African sprinters is related to the leg extensor force/velocity relationship or to leg morphology, two groups of elite sprinters originating respectively from Senegal (S) and Italy (I) were compared in this respect. The groups included 13 S and 15 I male sprinters. Their mean best performances over 100 m during the preceding track and field season were 10.66 (0.3) and 10.61 (0.3) s (NS), respectively. Age, height and mass were similar in the two groups. The force/velocity relationship of the leg extensors was assessed during maximal half-squats on a guided horizontal barbell with masses of 20-140 kg added on the shoulders. Leg morphology was assessed by relating the sub-ischial length to the standing height (L/H) and by measuring the inertia in the vertical (IZ in kg.cm2), antero-posterior (IY, kg.cm2) and medio-lateral (IX, kg.m2) planes. The two groups developed non-different force and power when lifting the heaviest loads. Inversely, the lighter the load, the lower the force and power developed by S, as compared to I (P<0.001). S demonstrated greater L/H (P<0.001), and 26% lower IZ (P<0.01), 15% lower IY (P=0.09), and 14% lower IX (P=0.10). These results suggest that S and I sprinters were similar as regards the muscle abilities involved in slow maximal contractions. However, S demonstrated lower values in muscle abilities related to high-speed contractions, suggesting that S sprinters had a lower percentage of fast twitch fibres. This is likely to be compensated for by the lower level of internal work due to longer and lighter legs.

  18. Dynamic monitoring of avalanches and barchan dune morphology change at different timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, Joanna; Wiggs, Giles; Baddock, Matthew; Hipondoka, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Aeolian dune morphology responds dynamically to changing wind conditions. The lee slope avalanche dynamics of dunes are particularly sensitive to prior morphological conditions as well as the varying intensity and duration characteristics of sand transport events. Here we use terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to measure dune surface change over minutes, hours, a week and a year during conditions of variable approach flow resulting in considerable lee slope reworking. Several different avalanche patterns are recognised that can be related to slope characteristics, wind direction and slope reworking. We find that during oblique winds, horn reworking can reduce the lee slope angle. When the dominant, formative winds of the barchan return, the reworked lee slope, perpendicular to the prior oblique wind, takes longer to start avalanching. In the central region of the dune, avalanche frequency and the extent of lee slope reworking depends on wind speed. Under high winds from the dominant direction, there is continual erosion near the dune brink central area, due to the exceedance of a critical angle of repose, whilst under weaker winds the frequency of grainfall sedimentation and avalanches diminishes and net deposition in the brink area is more common. During the week of measurements, changes to the crest-brink area and lee slope form are considerable, based on the reworking of the slope by avalanche events, and this ultimately influences the dune migration rate. Over the course of a year, we demonstrate that the shape of the barchan stoss and lee slopes can change significantly, whilst the overall dune size and general planform is maintained. Our findings help elucidate dune mobility mechanics and pattern modifications at the wind storm event scale.

  19. The morphological, material-level, and ash properties of turkey femurs from 3 different genetic strains during production.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z; Muckley, M; Agcaoglu, S; Grisham, M E; Zhao, H; Orth, M; Lilburn, M S; Akkus, O; Karcher, D M

    2012-11-01

    Femoral fractures are observed in selective-bred commercial turkeys; however, the etiology of such fractures is unknown. The current study investigated the whole bone morphological, material-level mechanical, and bone ash properties to determine the effect of selective breeding on bone strength. Femora from 3 divergent strains of turkeys, a commercial line, a different selectively bred heavy line (F-line), and a lighter age or weight matched random-bred line (RBC2/R-EQ, respectively), were compared. Bone geometric properties were measured with micro-CT and bone mechanical properties were measured using 3-point bending tests. Whole bone ash quantities were also recorded. Statistics were run using a general linear model multivariate ANOVA (GLM ANOVA). Results showed that at similar ages, the faster growing birds (commercial and F-line) had femurs twice the size of the RBC2 line as measured by cross-sectional area as early as 8 wk into the study. The femurs of the commercial and F-lines also exhibited as much as 20% greater mechanical strength than femurs from the RBC2 line at 16 and 20 wk of age as measured by properties such as elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength. However, at similar BW, the slower growing R-EQ line had higher mechanical properties than the other lines, with the elastic modulus being 40% greater and the ultimate tensile strength being 37% greater at weights equivalent to those of the commercial and F-lines at 12 wk of age. Moreover, it was observed that the morphological properties (i.e., cross-sectional area, moments of inertia) are largely governed by BW, as there is little difference in the amount gained per week of age across the different lines. Conversely, the mechanical properties, as well as the related ash content, appear to be governed at least in part by time. Therefore, whereas modulation of bone geometry is the key responder for changes in BW, sufficient time for matrix mineralization or maturation or both to occur is also

  20. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  1. The Association between Morphological Awareness and Literacy in English Language Learners from Different Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Siegel, Linda S.; Mazabel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to examine whether the morphological structure of a child's first language determined the strength of association between morphological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English, their second language. Methods: The sample consisted of 888 Grade six students who had English as their first language…

  2. The Association between Morphological Awareness and Literacy in English Language Learners from Different Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Siegel, Linda S.; Mazabel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to examine whether the morphological structure of a child's first language determined the strength of association between morphological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English, their second language. Methods: The sample consisted of 888 Grade six students who had English as their first language…

  3. Morphological changes of corneal subepithelial nerve plexus in different types of herpetic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Nagasato, Daisuke; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Kojima, Takashi; Ideta, Ryuichi; Dogru, Murat

    2011-09-01

    We investigated by in vivo confocal microscopy alterations in the subepithelial nerve plexus in different types of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). Seventeen patients (seven women and ten men, mean age 63.9 years) with a history of HSK were classified into three groups according to the classification of Herpetic Keratitis Infection Research Group. Slit-lamp examinations, corneal sensitivity measurements, and corneal in vivo confocal microscopy examinations [Rostock Corneal Module attached to the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II-RCM)] were performed. Among the 17 cases, three were classified as epithelial type, ten as stromal type, and four as endothelial type HSK. The average corneal sensitivities were 11.41 ± 9.46 mm in the affected eyes and 43.24 ± 12.2 mm in controls. Decreases in three parameters in the affected eyes (long nerve-fiber density, nerve-branch density, nerve thickness) were statistically significant compared with controls. Decreases in the three parameters were more remarkable in the epithelial and stromal types than in the endothelial type. The morphology of the corneal subepithelial nerve plexus may get gradually destroyed along with recurrent episodes of epithelial and stromal HSK. However, the destruction does not seem remarkable in the endothelial type of HSK, suggesting the possibility of a different route of virus recruitment in this type.

  4. Influence of different crosslinking systems on the mechanical and morphological properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patermann, Simone; Altstädt, Volker

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) combine the elastic properties of thermoset cross-linked rubbers with the melt processability of thermoplastics. The most representative examples of this class are the TPVs based on polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). The PP/EPDM blends were produced by dynamic vulcanization in a continuous extrusion process. The influence of different crosslinking systems was studied with regard to cross-link density, compression set, tensile strength/elongation at break and morphology. With increasing peroxide concentration, the cross-link density increases, leading to a reduction of the compression set by 50 %. The same improvement is only reachable with twice the concentration of phenolic resin. Only the peroxide cross-linked blends show smaller dispersed EPDM particles with increasing peroxide concentration. With a peroxide concentration between 0.2 and 0.5 wt. %, a maximum in tensile strength and elongation at break was found. For the phenolic resin cross-linked blends, the tensile strength stays almost constant with increasing phenolic resin concentration and the elongation at break shows best results at 0.5 wt. % phenolic resin. Compared to batch processes, the results show different values, but comparable trends.

  5. Morphological and elemental properties of urban aerosols among PM events and different traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Chae, Hoseung; Lee, Kwangyul; Dan, Nguyen Phuoc; Khoi, Tran Tien; Park, Kihong

    2016-11-05

    Morphology and elemental composition of individual fine ambient particles varied among types of PM events and between two different urban environments having different major transportation systems (gasoline/diesel vehicles versus motorcycles). Carbonaceous particles were the most dominant in PM events, whereas S-rich particles were the highest in non-events at urban Gwangju in Korea. The aged soot, semi-volatile organic (SVO), and non-volatile organic (NVO) particles were more abundant in the polluted-long range transport (LTP) event than those in the dust-LTP event and non-event. In the dust-LTP event, the aged mineral dust particles outnumbered the fresh ones, suggesting the mineral dust particles were aged during their long-range transport. At HoChiMinh (HCM) in Vietnam, the fraction of carbonaceous particles was much higher than Gwangju (66% versus 30%) possibly due to more abundant two-stroke motor vehicles at HCM. Of the carbonaceous particles, combustion soot (19%) was the highest, followed by NVO (18%), SVO (17%), and biological particles (11%) at HCM, whereas SVO (11%) and NVO (10%) particles were the highest, followed by combustion soot particles (8%) at Gwangju. The higher fraction of mineral dust particles was also observed at HCM, indicating the sampling site was influenced by dust from unpaved roads and construction sites.

  6. Comparative analysis of movement characteristics of lancelet and fish spermatozoa having different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sumio

    2012-06-01

    The movement characteristics of the sperm and their flagella obtained from a lancelet and 35 species from almost all orders of fishes were examined using high-speed video microscopy. The aim was to clarify the relationship between the motility parameters of the spermatozoa having different morphologies and how these motility parameters affect the swimming speed of the spermatozoa. The motility parameters representing the flagellar waveform, the wavelength, and the amplitude were neither very different between the spermatozoa of the different species nor related to the swimming speed. In contrast, the beat frequency was remarkably changed in the different spermatozoa and was proportional to the swimming speed. The maximum shear angle of the flagellar wave, which is directly related to the maximum sliding displacement between the doublet microtubules, remained nearly constant while the beat frequency varied widely; therefore, the spermatozoa beat in the constant sliding displacement mode. An analysis of the relationship between swimming speed and flagellar length revealed that short flagella were at a disadvantage in developing swimming speed; however, so were extra-long flagella. The ratio of the swimming speed to the wave velocity calculated from the wavelength and the beat frequency depended on the distance from the glass surface. The swimming speeds calculated using the original resistive-force theory were greater than the measured values. To rationalize the measured values, the ratio between the normal and tangential drag coefficient in the resistive-force theory was corrected; namely, 1.99 at 1 μm and 1.63 at 3 μm from the glass surface.

  7. Motor unit potential morphology differences in individuals with non-specific arm pain and lateral epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Kristina M; Stashuk, Daniel W; McLean, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of non-specific arm pain (NSAP) is unclear and the diagnosis is made by excluding other specific upper limb pathologies, such as lateral epicondylitis or cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) if the quantitative parameters related to motor unit potential morphology and/or motor unit firing patterns derived from electromyographic (EMG) signals detected from an affected muscle of patients with NSAP are different from those detected in the same muscle of individuals with lateral epicondylitis (LE) and/or control subjects and (ii) if the quantitative EMG parameters suggest that the underlying pathophysiology in NSAP is either myopathic or neuropathic in nature. Methods Sixteen subjects with NSAP, 11 subjects with LE, eight subjects deemed to be at-risk for developing a repetitive strain injury, and 37 control subjects participated. A quantitative electromyography evaluation was completed using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG). Needle- and surface-detected EMG signals were collected during low-level isometric contractions of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle. DQEMG was used to extract needle-detected motor unit potential trains (MUPTs), and needle-detected motor unit potential (MUP) and surface detected motor unit potential (SMUP) morphology and motor unit (MU) firing rates were compared among the four groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's pairwise comparisons. Results Significant group differences were found for all MUP variables and for MU firing rate (p < 0.006). The post-hoc analyses revealed that patients with NSAP had smaller MUP amplitude and SMUP amplitude and area compared to the control and LE groups (p < 0.006). MUP duration and AAR values were significantly larger in the NSAP, LE and at-risk groups compared to the control group (p < 0.006); while MUP amplitude, duration and AAR values were

  8. Morphological and functional differences in the elbow extensor muscle between highly trained male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Y; Kanehisa, H; Ito, M; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle between highly trained male and female athletes who were members of the 1996 Japanese Olympic teams in each of three different events: soccer, gymnastics and judo. The thickness (TBmt) and fibre pennation angle (TBpen) of the triceps brachii muscle and force output during elbow extensions were determined using a B-mode ultrasound apparatus and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. The TBmt and its value relative to upper arm length (TBmt/l(ua)) were significantly larger in the men than in the women in all the events except judo. In all the subjects, a significant correlation was found between TBmt/l(ua)) and TBpen (r = 0.721, P < 0.05). The existence of the sex difference in TBpen within the same event was in agreement with that observed in TBmt/l(ua) except for the soccer players. The TBpen of the soccer players were similar in both sexes although a significant sex differences was found in TBmt/l(ua). The isokinetic forces measured using the two velocities 60 degrees x s(-1) (F60) and 180 degrees x s(-1) (F180) were significantly correlated to the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps brachii muscle estimated from TBmt (r = 0.702, P < 0.05 for F60, and r = 0.776, P < 0.05 for F180). No significant sex differences were found in either F60/CSA or F180/CSA in any of the events. From these results, it could be assumed, at least in the Olympic athletes tested in this study, that the fibre angulation of the triceps brachii muscle was almost the same in the two sexes if allowance was made for the difference in the muscle size, and the sex difference in force generation capability of the triceps brachii muscle could in the main be attributed to the difference in CSA rather than in the architectural characteristics.

  9. Rats with different profiles of impulsive choice behavior exhibit differences in responses to caffeine and d-amphetamine and in medial prefrontal cortex 5-HT utilization.

    PubMed

    Barbelivien, Alexandra; Billy, Erwan; Lazarus, Christine; Kelche, Christian; Majchrzak, Monique

    2008-03-05

    This study investigated if sub-populations of rats characterized by their basal level of impulsivity (BLI) in a delayed-reinforcement task, displayed differences in the functioning of neurotransmitter systems modulating impulsive choice behavior. For this, the effects of various doses of caffeine and d-amphetamine were investigated in three sub-populations of rats displaying pronounced differences in their impulsive choice behavior and their post-mortem serotonergic and dopaminergic functions were assessed. Caffeine and d-amphetamine reduce impulsive choice behavior only in the Medium BLI sub-population. Dopamine utilization was similar in the three sub-populations, but serotonin utilization was lower in the prefrontal cortex of the Medium and Very high BLI sub-populations as compared to the low BLI one. These results suggest that anti-impulsive effects of caffeine and d-amphetamine are dependent on the BLI of rats and that a low serotonergic function in the prefrontal cortex may be a trait marker of impulsivity evaluated by impulsive choice behavior.

  10. Variations in clast morphology for different till fractions: implementation of digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2014-05-01

    The form of clastic particles provides information about debris history including abrasion and transportation which are vital to geomorphological research because of its usefulness for differentiating subglacial debris form englacialy, supraglacialy and fluvially transported sediments, and for understanding subglacial processes. There are numerous attempts to clastic particles form assessment, both qualitative and quantitative and advance in technology enables the use of digital imaging and image processing in order to calculate the precise indicators of shape and roundness (small-scale surface features superimposed on shape and roundness are not a subject of this study). Computer calculations are fast, reliable and objective and its use decrease probability of errors. They are applicable to till deposits analysis and may help in understanding the processes of glacial deposition. Till deposits consist of a mixture of various fractions of sediment, where coarser and thinner grains are together activated, entrained in ice, transported, deposited and post-depositional transformed together in the same time and conditions. That implies similarity of processes acting on the particles, but not necessarily theirs effects. Physical properties of grain are of great significance for its vulnerability to acting forces. An important feature of the tills is grain size, which has a high volatility in a sample. The hypothesis of this issue suggests it is possible that different fractions of till sediment have significantly different form characteristics. Verification of the thesis is important because standardly only one fraction is selected to analysis and to draw conclusions from. Main objective is to test differences in clast morphology for different till fraction. In order to answer the research problem, the author has examined samples from a contemporary glaciated region, Nordenskiöld glacier foreland in central Spitsbergen. During the field work samples were collected from

  11. Self-referential forces are sufficient to explain different dendritic morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Memelli, Heraldo; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Kozloski, James

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic morphology constrains brain activity, as it determines first which neuronal circuits are possible and second which dendritic computations can be performed over a neuron's inputs. It is known that a range of chemical cues can influence the final shape of dendrites during development. Here, we investigate the extent to which self-referential influences, cues generated by the neuron itself, might influence morphology. To this end, we developed a phenomenological model and algorithm to generate virtual morphologies, which are then compared to experimentally reconstructed morphologies. In the model, branching probability follows a Galton–Watson process, while the geometry is determined by “homotypic forces” exerting influence on the direction of random growth in a constrained space. We model three such homotypic forces, namely an inertial force based on membrane stiffness, a soma-oriented tropism, and a force of self-avoidance, as directional biases in the growth algorithm. With computer simulations we explored how each bias shapes neuronal morphologies. We show that based on these principles, we can generate realistic morphologies of several distinct neuronal types. We discuss the extent to which homotypic forces might influence real dendritic morphologies, and speculate about the influence of other environmental cues on neuronal shape and circuitry. PMID:23386828

  12. Sex differences in outcome and associations with neonatal brain morphology in extremely preterm children.

    PubMed

    Skiöld, Béatrice; Alexandrou, Georgios; Padilla, Nelly; Blennow, Mats; Vollmer, Brigitte; Adén, Ulrika

    2014-05-01

    To investigate sex differences in neurologic and developmental outcomes in extremely preterm (EPT) children and explore associations with neonatal brain morphology. A population-based cohort of infants born at <27 weeks gestation underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (n = 107). Voxel-based morphometry (n = 27) and tract-based spatial statistics (n = 29) were performed in infants with normal MRI findings. Neurologic and developmental assessment (using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition [BSITD-III]) was performed at 30 months corrected age (n = 91). EPT boys had lower mean cognitive composite scores (P = .03) and lower mean language composite scores (P = .04) compared with EPT girls. Rates of cerebral palsy were similar in the 2 sexes. No perinatal factor explained the variance in outcomes. Visual inspection of T1- and T2-weighted MRI images found that delayed myelination was found more frequently in boys, whereas cerebellar abnormalities were more common in girls. In the subgroup of children with normal MRI findings (n = 27), boys had poorer cognitive function (P = .015) and language function (P = .008), despite larger volumes of cerebellar tissue (P = .029). In boys, cerebellar volume was positively correlated with BSITD-III cognitive and motor scores (P = .04 for both). In girls, white matter volume (P = .02) and cortical gray matter volume (P = .03) were positively correlated with BSITD-III language score. At the regional level, significant correlations with outcomes were found only in girls. Cognitive and language outcomes at age 30 months were poorer in boys. Sex-related differences were observed on neonatal structural MRI, including differences in the patterns of correlations between brain volumes and developmental scores at both global and regional levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kosyreva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10-12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose-15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats.

  14. Rearing conditions differently affect the motor performance and cerebellar morphology of prenatally stressed juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Ulupinar, Emel; Erol, Kevser; Ay, Hakan; Yucel, Ferruh

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to environmental changes. In this study, the effect of diverse environmental rearing conditions on the motor performances of prenatally stressed juvenile rats and its reflection to the cerebellar morphology were investigated. Prenatally stressed Wistar rats were grouped according to different rearing conditions (Enriched=EC, Standard=SC and Isolated=IC) after weaning. Six weeks later, male and female offspring from different litters were tested behaviorally. In rotarod and string suspension tests, females gained better scores than males. Significant gender and housing effects were observed especially on the motor functions requiring fine skills with the best performance by enriched females, but the worst by enriched males. The susceptibility of cerebellar macro- and micro-neurons to environmental conditions was compared using stereological methods. In female groups, no differences were observed in the volume proportions of cerebellar layers, soma sizes and the numerical densities of granule or Purkinje cells. However, a significant interaction between housing and gender was observed in the granule to Purkinje cell ratio of males, due to the increased numerical densities of the granule cells in enriched males. These data imply that proper functioning of the cerebellum relies on its well organized and evolutionarily conserved structure and circuitry. Although early life stress leads to long term behavioral and neurobiological consequences in the offspring, diverse rearing conditions can alter the motor skills of animals and synaptic connectivity between Purkinje and granular cells in a gender dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphologic contrasts between Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles, Mars: Evidence of different crustal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Winchell, Philip J.

    Photoclinometric measurements were made of sidewall slopes in Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles and these results were interpreted in terms of the geologic setting and a simple geomorphic model to provide insights into the physical properties of crustal materials in these areas. Nirgal was interpreted to be a runoff channel and Auqakuh to be a fretted channel. Geomorphologic arguments for the sapping origin of Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles were presented. The morphologies of the channels, however, differ greatly: the tributaries of Nirgal end abruptly in theater-headed canyons, whereas the heads of tributaries of Auqakuh shallow gradually. The plateau surface surrounding both channels appears to be covered by smooth materials, presumably lava flows; they are continuous and uneroded in the Nirgal area, but at Auqakuh they are largely eroded and several layers are exposed that total about 200 m in thickness. For Nirgal Valles, the measurements show that sidewalls in the ralatively shallow upper reaches of the channel have average slopes near 30 degrees and, in the lower reaches, sidewall slopes exceed 50 degrees. Auqakuh, on the other hand, has maximum sidewall slopes of 14 degrees and an approximate maximum depth of 1000 m. Faint, horizontal layering in portions of the lower reaches of Nirgal may indicate inhomogeneity in either composition or topography.

  16. X-ray luminosity functions of different morphological and X-ray type AGN populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Pérez García, A. M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Alfaro, E.; Castañeda, H.; González-Serrano, J. I.; González, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Luminosity functions are one of the most important observational clues when studying galaxy evolution over cosmic time. In this paper we present the X-ray luminosity functions for X-ray detected AGN in the SXDS and GWS fields. The limiting fluxes of our samples are 9.0 ×10-15 and 4.8 ×10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-7.0 keV band in the two fields, respectively. We carried out analysis in three X-ray bands and in two redshift intervals up to z≤1.4. Moreover, we derive the luminosity functions for different optical morphologies and X-ray types. We confirm strong luminosity evolution in all three bands, finding the most luminous objects at higher redshift. However, no signs of density evolution are found in any tested X-ray band. We obtain similar results for compact and early-type objects. Finally, we observe the ``Steffen effect'', where X-ray type-1 sources are more numerous at higher luminosities in comparison with type-2 sources.

  17. Morphological differences in BMP-2-induced ectopic bone between solid and crushed hyaluronan hydrogel templates.

    PubMed

    Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Piskounova, Sonya; Gedda, Lars; Andersson, Britt-Marie; Bergman, Kristoffer; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Bowden, Tim

    2013-05-01

    The possibility to affect bone formation by using crushed versus solid hydrogels as carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was studied. Hydrogels, based on chemical crosslinking between hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives, were loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite. Crushed and solid forms of the gels were analyzed both in vitro via a release study using ¹²⁵I radioactive labeling of BMP-2, and in vivo in a subcutaneous ectopic bone model in rats. Dramatically different morphologies were observed for the ectopic bone formed in vivo in the two types of gels, even though virtually identical release profiles were observed in vitro. Solid hydrogels induced formation of a dense bone shell around non-degraded hydrogel, while crushed hydrogels demonstrated a uniform bone formation throughout the entire sample. These results suggest that by crushing the hydrogel, the construct's three-dimensional network becomes disrupted. This could expose unreacted functional groups, making the fragment's surfaces reactive and enable limited chemical fusion between the crushed hydrogel fragments, leading to similar in vitro release profiles. However, in vivo these interactions could be broken by enzymatic activity, creating a macroporous structure that allows easier cell infiltration, thus, facilitating bone formation.

  18. Growth of different morphologies (quantum dots to nanorod) of Ag-nanoparticles: role of cysteine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer; Talib, Abou

    2010-03-01

    This work describes an easy chemical method for the preparation of orange-red color silver sol by the cysteine reduction of silver (I) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The obtained sol was found to have very small particles in the order of quantum dots for the first time. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the silver sol consists of aggregated as well as cross-linking arrangement of spherical silver quantum dots (size in the range ca. morphologies of the Ag-nanoparticles from quantum dots to nanorod of diameter 60nm and pearl-necklace shaped which occurred due to the cross-linking aggregation of silver quantum dots. For a certain reaction time, i.e., 100min, the absorbance of reaction mixture first increased until it reached a maximum, then decreased with [cysteine]. The rate of Ag-nanoparticles formation decreases with the increase in [cysteine] whereas [CTAB] and [Ag(+)] have no effect on the reaction rate. Interestingly, at higher [cysteine] (>or=20.0x10(-4)mol dm(-3)), white precipitate was formed instead of transparent silver sol. Cysteine acts as a reducing, cross-linking, stabilizing and buffering agent during the growth of different shape and size of silver nanoparticles.

  19. Use of colony morphology to distinguish different enterococcal strains and species in mixed culture from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Qamer, Shabnam; Sandoe, Jonathan A T; Kerr, Kevin G

    2003-06-01

    Colony morphology on kanamycin esculin azide agar was investigated as a means of selecting different species and strains of enterococci from clinical specimens. Four representative colonies of each morphotype were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, biotype, and antibiogram analysis. The optimum time for identification of different colony morphotypes was 72 h.

  20. Plant homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factors exhibit different functional AHA motifs that selectively interact with TBP or/and TFIIB.

    PubMed

    Capella, Matías; Ré, Delfina A; Arce, Agustín L; Chan, Raquel L

    2014-06-01

    Different members of the HD-Zip I family of transcription factors exhibit differential AHA-like activation motifs, able to interact with proteins of the basal transcriptional machinery. Homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins are transcription factors unique to plants, classified in four subfamilies. Subfamily I members have been mainly associated to abiotic stress responses. Several ones have been characterized using knockout or overexpressors plants, indicating that they take part in different signal transduction pathways even when their expression patterns are similar and they bind the same DNA sequence. A bioinformatic analysis has revealed the existence of conserved motifs outside the HD-Zip domain, including transactivation AHA motifs. Here, we demonstrate that these putative activation motifs are functional. Four members of the Arabidopsis family were chosen: AtHB1, AtHB7, AtHB12 and AtHB13. All of them exhibited activation activity in yeast and in plants but with different degrees. The protein segment necessary for such activation was different for these four transcription factors as well as the role of the tryptophans they present. When interaction with components of the basal transcription machinery was tested, AtHB1 was able to interact with TBP, AtHB12 interacted with TFIIB, AtHB7 interacted with both, TBP and TFIIB while AtHB13 showed weak interactions with any of them, in yeast two-hybrid as well as in pull-down assays. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis seedlings confirmed the activation capacity and specificity of these transcription factors and showed some differences with the results obtained in yeast. In conclusion, the differential activation functionality of these transcription factors adds an important level of functional divergence of these proteins, and together with their expression patterns, these differences could explain, at least in part, their functional divergence.

  1. Fractal Geometry Enables Classification of Different Lung Morphologies in a Model of Experimental Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obert, Martin; Hagner, Stefanie; Krombach, Gabriele A.; Inan, Selcuk; Renz, Harald

    2015-06-01

    Animal models represent the basis of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma and are of central importance in the preclinical development of drug therapies. The characterization of irregular lung shapes is a major issue in radiological imaging of mice in these models. The aim of this study was to find out whether differences in lung morphology can be described by fractal geometry. Healthy and asthmatic mouse groups, before and after an acute asthma attack induced by methacholine, were studied. In vivo flat-panel-based high-resolution Computed Tomography (CT) was used for mice's thorax imaging. The digital image data of the mice's lungs were segmented from the surrounding tissue. After that, the lungs were divided by image gray-level thresholds into two additional subsets. One subset contained basically the air transporting bronchial system. The other subset corresponds mainly to the blood vessel system. We estimated the fractal dimension of all sets of the different mouse groups using the mass radius relation (mrr). We found that the air transporting subset of the bronchial lung tissue enables a complete and significant differentiation between all four mouse groups (mean D of control mice before methacholine treatment: 2.64 ± 0.06; after treatment: 2.76 ± 0.03; asthma mice before methacholine treatment: 2.37 ± 0.16; after treatment: 2.71 ± 0.03; p < 0.05). We conclude that the concept of fractal geometry allows a well-defined, quantitative numerical and objective differentiation of lung shapes — applicable most likely also in human asthma diagnostics.

  2. Comparison of QTLs for rice seedling morphology under different water supply conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingsong; Yang, Ling; Mao, Chuanzao; Huang, Youjun; Wu, Ping

    2008-08-01

    The variation of seedling characteristics under different water supply conditions is strongly associated with drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a better elucidation of its genetics is helpful for improving rice drought resistance. Ninetysix doubled-haploid (DH) rice lines of an indica and japonica cross were grown in both flooding and upland conditions and QTLs for morphological traits at seedling stage were examined using 208 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 76 microsatellite (SSR) markers. A total of 32 putative QTLs were associated with the four seedling traits: average of three adventitious root lengths (ARL), shoot height (SH), shoot biomass (SW), and root to shoot dry weight ratio (RSR). Five QTLs detected were the same under control and upland conditions. The ratio between the mean value of the seedling trait under upland and flooding conditions was used for assessing drought tolerance. A total of six QTLs for drought tolerance were detected. Comparative analysis was performed for the QTLs detected in this case and those reported from two other populations with the same upland rice variety Azucena as parent. Several identical QTLs for seedling elongation across the three populations with the positive alleles from the upland rice Azucena were detected, which suggests that the alleles of Azucena might be involved in water stress-accelerated elongation of rice under different genetic backgrounds. Five cell wall-related candidate genes for OsEXP1, OsEXP2, OsEXP4, EXT, and EGase were mapped on the intervals carrying the QTLs for seedling traits.

  3. BOND STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF ENAMEL USING SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT ACIDITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Pelizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. Material and methods: Composite resin (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis) and treated (burcut or SiC-paper) enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition): Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP); AdheSe (AD); Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) and Adper Single Bond (SB). After storage in water (24 h/37°C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5), OP (11.3±2.3), AD (11.2±2.8), TY (11.1±3.0), SBMP (21.9±4.0) and SB (24.9±3.0). Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. Conclusion: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed. PMID:19668991

  4. Heterogeneous structure and spatial distribution in endosperm of high-amylose rice starch granules with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Canhui; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-10-15

    Starch granules from high-amylose cereal mutants or transgenic lines usually have different morphologies. It is not clear whether the structure and spatial distribution of starch granules with different morphologies in endosperm is homogeneous or heterogeneous. In the present study, the structure and spatial distribution in endosperm of morphologically different starch granules from high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) were investigated. The TRS endosperm had individual, aggregate, elongated, and interior hollow starch granules. The individual and interior hollow granules had the lowest and the highest amylose content and gelatinization resistance, respectively, among the four types of granules. The individual granules were mainly distributed in the middle of the endosperm; the aggregate granules in the starchy endosperm cells between the subaleurone layer and the middle of the endosperm; the elongated granules in the peripheral starchy endosperm cells adjacent to the subaleurone layer; and the interior hollow granules in the subaleurone layer cells.

  5. The novel and economical way to synthesize CuS nanomaterial of different morphologies by aqueous medium employing microwaves irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Ali, Salamat; Rasheed, Khalid; Idrees, Saima

    2012-06-01

    CuS nano/submicro materials with different morphologies were synthesized with spherical, tubular, leaf-like and strip type structures in a simple aqueous system under microwave irradiation and sunlight and employing Cu (CH3COO)2, CuSO4·5H2O, CuCl2, and as copper source and H2NCSNH2, Na2S2O3·5H2O and CH3CSNH2 as sulfur sources. The starting materials were used without assistance of any surfactant or template. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern confirms that the product was CuS with hexagonal phase. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphologies of the product. Different Phase transitions in CuS with respect to temperature are studied by DSC/TGA. The dependence of morphologies of product on different experimental conditions was also discussed.

  6. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  7. Exploring topographic methods for monitoring morphological changes in mountain channels of different size and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theule, Joshua; Bertoldi, Gabriele; Comiti, Francesco; Macconi, Pierpaolo; Mazzorana, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    High resolution digital elevation models (DEM) can easily be obtained using either laser scanning technology or photogrammetry with structure from motion (SFM). The scale, resolution, and accuracy can vary according to how the data is acquired, such as by helicopter, drone, or extendable pole. In the Autonomous Province of Bozen-Bolzano (Northern Italy), we had the opportunity to compare several of these techniques at different scales in mountain streams ranging from low-gradient braided rivers to steep debris flow channels. The main objective is to develop protocols for efficient monitoring of morphologic changes in different parts of the river systems. For SFM methods, we used the software "Photoscan Professional" (Agisoft) to generate densified point clouds. Both artificial and natural targets were used to georeference them. In some cases, targets were not even necessary and point clouds could be aligned with older point clouds by using the iterative closest point algorithm in the freeware "CloudCompare". At the Mareit/Mareta River, a restored braided river, an airborne laser scan survey (2011) was compared to a SFM DEM derived from a helicopter photo survey (2014) carried out (by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano) at approximately 100 m above ground. Photogrammetry point clouds had an alignment error of 1.5 cm and had three times more data coverage than laser scanning. Indeed, the large spacing and clustering of 2011 ALS swaths led to areas of no data when a 10-cm grid is developed. In the Gadria basin, a debris flow monitoring catchment, we used a sediment retention basin to compare debris flow volumes resulting from i) a drone (by the "Mavtech" company) survey at 10 m above ground (with GoPro camera), ii) a 5-m pole-mounted camera (with Canon EOS 700D) and iii) a 3-m pole-mounted camera (with GoPro Hero Silver3+) to a iv) TLS survey. As the drone had limited load capacity (especially at high elevations) we used the lightweight GoPro Hero 3+, but due to the

  8. The Morphologic Difference between Crater Slopes with and without Gullies on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S. J.; Mangold, N.; Balme, M. R.; Ansan, V.

    2012-04-01

    Gullies on Mars are km-scale landforms that resemble small fluvial features on Earth. Their discovery [1] challenged the paradigm that over the last ~2 Ga, Mars has been a dry, frozen desert. The gullies are found commonly in the mid-latitudes, have a pole-facing preference [e.g., 2] and are found many kinds of steep slope (valley wall, dunes, etc.). We have chosen to concentrate on gullies found on impact crater interior wall slopes, as this is the most common type [2]. The aim of our study is to determine whether the morphology of crater walls with and without gullies is different. We chose three study areas, two in the southern hemisphere (where gullies are most common), Terra Cimmeria and Noachis Terra and one in the northern hemisphere, Acidalia Planum. All study areas extend over at least 30° of latitude, from ~25° to 55° North or South. We mapped all craters using the catalog of [3] as a basis. We used HRSC elevation data at better than 100 m/pix to extract the slope and curvature of crater walls in the four cardinal directions. We mapped all the gullies on crater walls in the three areas with the aid of HiRISE, MOC, CTX and HRSC images, using polygons to delimit a slope section that contained gullies. Consistent with previous investigations we found gullies concentrated around 40° latitude, with a pole-facing preference. We also found that east-facing gullies were common in both hemispheres. Gullies were most common in Terra Cimmeria and uncommon in Noachis Terra. We found that for a given latitude band and orientation gullies tend to be found on craters with the steepest slopes and the highest curvature. The lack of gullies in Noachis Terra can be explained by the lack of steep, concave slopes in the mid-latitudes of this region. In Terra Cimmeria we found that almost all steep, concave crater slopes hosted gullies, whereas in Acidalia, in the north, only 10-20% of steep concave slopes had gullies. Crater slopes with gullies in the north are steeper

  9. Pretangles and neurofibrillary changes: similarities and differences between AD and CBD based on molecular and morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Uchihara, Toshiki

    2014-12-01

    Pretangles are cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity in neurons without apparent formation of fibrillary structures. In Alzheimer disease, such tau deposition is considered to represent a premature state prior to fibril formation (AD-pretangles), later to form neurofibrillary tangles and finally ghost tangles. This morphological evolution from pretangles to ghost tangles is in parallel with their profile shift from four repeat (4R) tau-positive pretangles to three repeat (3R) tau-positive ghost tangles with both positive neurofibrillary tangles in between. This complementary shift of tau profile from 4R to 3R suggests that these tau epitopes are represented interchangeably along tangle evolution. Similar tau immunoreactivity without fibril formation is also observed in corticobasal degeneration (CBD-pretangles). CBD-pretangles and AD-pretangles share: (i) selective 4R tau immunoreactivity without involvement of 3R tau; and (ii) argyrophilia with Gallyas silver impregnation. However, CBD-pretangles neither evolve into ghost tangles nor exhibit 3R tau immunoreactivity even at the advanced stage. Because electron microscopic studies on these pretangles are quite limited, it remains to be clarified whether such differences in later evolution are related to their primary ultrastructures, potentially distinct between AD and CBD. As double staining for 3R and 4R tau clarified complementary shift from 4R to 3R tau along evolution from pretangles to ghost tangles, double immunoelectron microscopy, if possible, may clarify similar profile shifts in relation to each tau fibril at the ultrastructural dimension. This will provide a unique viewpoint on how molecular (epitope) representations are related to pathogenesis of fibrillary components. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  10. Testing for X-Ray–SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Nurgaliev, D.; McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; ...

    2017-05-16

    We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters atmore » $$0.35\\lt z\\lt 0.9$$ selected in the X-ray with the ROSAT PSPC 400 deg(2) survey, and a sample of 90 clusters at $$0.25\\lt z\\lt 1.2$$ selected via the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts (w) and photon asymmetry ($${A}_{\\mathrm{phot}}$$). The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, suggesting that the two are probing similar populations of clusters. We find that the X-ray morphologies of simulated clusters are statistically indistinguishable from those of X-ray- or SZ-selected clusters, implying that the most important physics for dictating the large-scale gas morphology (outside of the core) is well-approximated in these simulations. Finally, we find no statistically significant redshift evolution in the X-ray morphology (both for observed and simulated clusters), over the range of $$z\\sim 0.3$$ to $$z\\sim 1$$, seemingly in contradiction with the redshift-dependent halo merger rate predicted by simulations.« less

  11. Testing for X-Ray-SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, D.; McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L.; Bocquet, S.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; Gupta, N.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Mohr, J. J.; Nagai, D.; Rapetti, D.; Stark, A. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2017-05-01

    We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters at 0.35< z< 0.9 selected in the X-ray with the ROSAT PSPC 400 deg2 survey, and a sample of 90 clusters at 0.25< z< 1.2 selected via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts (w) and photon asymmetry ({A}{phot}). The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, suggesting that the two are probing similar populations of clusters. We find that the X-ray morphologies of simulated clusters are statistically indistinguishable from those of X-ray- or SZ-selected clusters, implying that the most important physics for dictating the large-scale gas morphology (outside of the core) is well-approximated in these simulations. Finally, we find no statistically significant redshift evolution in the X-ray morphology (both for observed and simulated clusters), over the range of z˜ 0.3 to z˜ 1, seemingly in contradiction with the redshift-dependent halo merger rate predicted by simulations.

  12. Gas exchange of two CAM species of the genus Cissus (vitaceae) differing in morphological features.

    PubMed

    De Santo, A V; Fioretto, A; Bartoli, G; Alfani, A

    1987-01-01

    Pattern and magnitude of stem gas exchange were studied under controlled conditions on two CAM species of the genus Cissus differing in morphological features. In the cactus-like liana Cissus quadrangularis, at water vapour deficit of the air (VPD) lower than 400 mPa Pa(-1) during daytime, under 24/16°C and 27/16°C temperature regime, CO2 uptake occurred during daytime and nighttime but night fixation was responsible for 74 and 77% respectively of the CO2 fixed during the whole diurnal cycle; the contribution of night fixation increased up to 84% at VPD of 590 mPa Pa(-1) under 27/15°C. In Cissus sp., a slightly succulent xerophytic liana with mesophytic deciduous leaves, at 27°C day temperature and VPD of 520-540 mPa Pa(-1), under both 12 and 16°C night temperature, CO2 uptake occurred exclusively during the night; however at lower day temperatures (18-20°C) and lower VPD (169-269 mPa Pa(-1)) substantial CO2 uptake was observed in the light. Transpiration was higher in Cissus sp. than in Cissus quadrangularis under all of the conditions applied; moreover night transpiration in Cissus sp. contributed more to total day transpiration as compared with Cissus quadrangularis. The results support the opinion that the nocturnal gas exchange has a preeminent role in Cissus sp. as compared with Cissus quadrangularis. Indeed under conditions which enhance evaporative demand even well-watered plants of Cissus sp. resort totally to night fixation. In contrast Cissus quadrangularis which shows a larger resistance to water loss and possesses an abundant water storing parenchyma as compared with Cissus sp. resorts totally to night CO2 fixation only under drought stress.

  13. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    PubMed

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs.

  14. One-pot synthesis of CuInS2 nanocrystals using different anions to engineer their morphology and crystal phase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Aiwei; Hu, Zunlan; Yin, Zhe; Ye, Haihang; Yang, Chunhe; Teng, Feng

    2015-05-21

    A simple one-pot colloidal method has been described to engineer ternary CuInS2 nanocrystals with different crystal phases and morphologies, in which dodecanethiol is chosen as the sulfur source and the capping ligands. By a careful choice of the anions in the metal precursors and manipulation of the reaction conditions including the reactant molar ratios and the reaction temperature, CuInS2 nanocrystals with chalcopyrite, zincblende and wurtzite phases have been successfully synthesized. The type of anion in the metal precursors has been found to be essential for determining the crystal phase and morphology of the as-obtained CuInS2 nanocrystals. In particular, the presence of Cl(-) ions plays an important role in the formation of CuInS2 nanoplates with a wurtzite-zincblende polytypism structure. In addition, the molar ratios of Cu to In precursors have a significant effect on the crystal phase and morphology, and the intermediate Cu2S-CuInS2 heteronanostructures are formed which are critical for the anisotropic growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals. Furthermore, the optical absorption results of the as-obtained CuInS2 nanocrystals exhibit a strong dependence on the crystal phase and size.

  15. Body morphology differs in wild juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that express different migratory phenotypes in the Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Billman, E J; Whitman, L D; Schroeder, R K; Sharpe, C S; Noakes, D L G; Schreck, C B

    2014-10-01

    Body morphology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the upper Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., was analysed to determine if variation in body shape is correlated with migratory life-history tactics followed by juveniles. Body shape was compared between migrating juveniles that expressed different life-history tactics, i.e. autumn migrants and yearling smolts, and among parr sampled at three sites along a longitudinal river gradient. In the upper Willamette River, the expression of life-history tactics is associated with where juveniles rear in the basin with fish rearing in downstream locations generally completing ocean ward migrations earlier in life than fish rearing in upstream locations. The morphological differences that were apparent between autumn migrants and yearling smolts were similar to differences between parr rearing in downstream and upstream reaches, indicating that body morphology is correlated with life-history tactics. Autumn migrants and parr from downstream sampling sites had deeper bodies, shorter heads and deeper caudal peduncles compared with yearling smolts and parr from the upstream sampling site. This study did not distinguish between genetic and environmental effects on morphology; however, the results suggest that downstream movement of juveniles soon after emergence is associated with differentiation in morphology and with the expression of life-history variation.

  16. Morphology and gene analysis of hybrids between two congeneric sea stars with different modes of development.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kaori; Komatsu, Miéko; Murakami, Manabu; Hori, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    The sea star Astropecten scoparius has feeding bipinnarian larvae, whereas its congener Astropecten latespinosus has nonfeeding barrel-shaped larvae. To investigate evolutionary changes in the development of asteroids, we performed reciprocal crosses between these two species with different larval forms. In the cross between A. scoparius eggs and A. latespinosus sperm, embryos developed into bipinnaria-like larvae. The larvae exhibited either a functional digestive system (a maternal feature) or a nonfunctional digestive system with the tip of the archenteron not connected to the stomodeum (a paternal characteristic). However, in the reciprocal cross between A. latespinosus eggs and A. scoparius sperm, barrel-shaped larvae resembling those of A. latespinosus were produced, in addition to bipinnaria-like larvae, some with functional digestive systems and some with nonfunctional ones. Juveniles were produced from all types of crosses. 18S rDNA was used as a gene marker in cycle sequencing analysis to investigate the genetic features of these juveniles. The sequences of juveniles from bipinnaria-like larvae showed double-peak nucleotide signals, indicating a biparental genome. On the other hand, juveniles from barrel-shaped larvae from A. latespinosus eggs and A. scoparius sperm showed the same sequence as A. latespinosus juveniles. This suggests that bipinnaria-like larvae of both crosses are always hybrids, whereas barrel-shaped larvae develop parthenogenetically.

  17. Bacterial cellulose nanocrystals produced under different hydrolysis conditions: Properties and morphological features.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Niédja Fittipaldi; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa Andrade; da Gama, Francisco Miguel Portela; Morais, João Paulo Saraiva; Andrade, Fábia Karine; de Souza Filho, Men de Sá Moreira; Rosa, Morsyleide de Freitas

    2017-01-02

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer with interesting physical properties owing to the regular and uniform structure of its nanofibers, which are formed by amorphous (disordered) and crystalline (ordered) regions. Through hydrolysis with strong acids, it is possible to transform BC into a stable suspension of cellulose nanocrystals, adding new functionality to the material. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of inorganic acids on the production of BC nanocrystals (BCNCs). Acid hydrolysis was performed using different H2SO4 concentrations and reaction times, and combined hydrolysis with H2SO4 and HCl was also investigated. The obtained cellulose nanostructures were needle-like with lengths ranging between 622 and 1322nm, and diameters ranging between 33.7 and 44.3nm. The nanocrystals had a crystallinity index higher than native BC, and all BCNC suspensions exhibited zeta potential moduli greater than 30mV, indicating good colloidal stability. The mixture of acids resulted in improved thermal stability without decreased crystallinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MORPHOLOGY AND SIZE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LOCAL AND HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-10

    We show that the star-forming regions in high-redshift luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have similar physical scales to those in local normal star-forming galaxies. To first order, their higher infrared (IR) luminosities result from higher luminosity surface density. We also find a good correlation between the IR luminosity and IR luminosity surface density in starburst galaxies across over five orders of magnitude of IR luminosity from local normal galaxies to z {approx} 2 SMGs. The intensely star-forming regions of local ULIRGs are significantly smaller than those in their high-redshift counterparts and hence diverge significantly from this correlation, indicating that the ULIRGs found locally are a different population from the high-redshift ULIRGs and SMGs. Based on this relationship, we suggest that luminosity surface density should serve as a more accurate indicator for the IR emitting environment, and hence the observable properties, of star-forming galaxies than their IR luminosity. We demonstrate this approach by showing that ULIRGs at z {approx} 1 and a lensed galaxy at z {approx} 2.5 exhibit aromatic features agreeing with local LIRGs that are an order of magnitude less luminous, but have similar IR luminosity surface density. A consequence of this relationship is that the aromatic emission strength in star-forming galaxies will appear to increase at z>1 for a given IR luminosity compared to their local counterparts.

  19. Ancient pompeian dogs--morphological and morphometric evidence for different canine populations.

    PubMed

    Zedda, M; Manca, P; Chisu, V; Gadau, S; Lepore, G; Genovese, A; Farina, V

    2006-10-01

    This article examines the morphological features of the dog during the Roman Age on the basis of osseous and dental remains dug up in Pompeii. The material, consisting of 113 canine bones and teeth, was subjected to both morphological and morphometrical analyses and was compared with modern canine breeds. In most cases, the age at death, shoulder height and other phenotypic features were ascertained. The examined Pompeian canine population fell mainly into two categories: small- and large-sized animals. Among the former, one brachycephalic and two dolichocephalic subjects were included. Such morphological features agree with what is described in numerous texts and appears in mosaics, bas-reliefs and frescoes of the Roman Age. As small-sized dogs cannot be classified as Canes Venatici (sporting dogs), Canes Villatici (watch dogs) and Canes Pastorales (shepherd dogs) according to Columella's De re rustica, these animals may be considered as lapdogs.

  20. Integral scaling behavior of different morphologies of 3D xenon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. M.; Bilgram, J. H.

    2006-07-01

    Three-dimensional crystals have been observed in situ during the growth from supercooled melt. Depending on growth conditions three crystal morphologies were formed: dendrites, doublons and seaweed. Fractal dimensions of contour and area have been determined using correlation and box dimension techniques. Algorithms have been developed on the basis of fractal geometry to extract quantities from contour and area of projections of a crystal to characterise the crystal morphology. A method is presented to find hidden length scales in apparently scale invariant physical systems. We show that intrinsic length scales found by this method can be used to characterise morphologies of xenon crystals. It is shown that scaling relations by conventional tools of fractal geometry omit important intrinsical behavior and provide only averaged quantities.

  1. The 20kDa and 22kDa forms of human growth hormone (hGH) exhibit different intracellular signalling profiles and properties.

    PubMed

    Yao-Xia, Liu; Jing-Yan, Chen; Xia-Lian, Tang; Ping, Chen; Min, Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Human Growth Hormone (hGH) includes two main variants. The first is 22kDa GH (22K-GH), which is predominant in the blood circulation. The second most abundant variant is 20K-GH, which makes up 5-10% of the blood circulation. Both bind and activate the same receptor, called the human growth hormone receptor (GHR). However, the reason why 22K-GH and 20K-GH exhibit similar, but not identical physiological activities remains poorly understood. In this article, the intracellular signalling profiles between these two hormones were examined. Western blot analyses were performed in 3T3-F442A and CHO cells transfected with GHR (CHO-GHR). The results revealed that both 22K-GH and 20K-GH can activate Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, 3 and 5 (STATs 1/3/5). Both induced tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT/1/3/5 in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. However, there were significant differences in the intracellular signalling properties between 22K-GH and 20K-GH. In particular, the kinetics of signalling shown by 22K-GH and 20K-GH is different. In addition, we found that the 20K-GH-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of signalling proteins was weaker than that of 22K-GH. Together, these observations indicate that the levels and kinetics of phosphorylation mediated by the main signalling proteins triggered by 22K-GH or 20K-GH were not exactly the same. This may provide a possible explanation for the different biological activities exhibited by 22K-GH and 20K-GH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  3. Lung Fibroblasts from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Exhibit Genome-Wide Differences in DNA Methylation Compared to Fibroblasts from Nonfibrotic Lung

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Steven K.; Scruggs, Anne M.; McEachin, Richard C.; White, Eric S.; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2014-01-01

    results demonstrate that IPF fibroblasts exhibit global differences in DNA methylation that may contribute to the excessive fibroproliferation associated with this disease. PMID:25215577

  4. Breeding on the leading edge of a northward range expansion: differences in morphology and the stress response in the arctic Gambel's white-crowned sparrow.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jesse S; Chmura, Helen E; Pérez, Jonathan H; Quach, Lisa N; Asmus, Ashley; Word, Karen R; McGuigan, Michaela A; Sweet, Shannan K; Meddle, Simone L; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    Individuals at the forefront of a range shift are likely to exhibit phenotypic traits that distinguish them from the population breeding within the historic range. Recent studies have examined morphological, physiological and behavioral phenotypes of individuals at the edge of their range. Several studies have found differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in response to acute restraint stress in individuals at the range limits. HPA axis activation leads to elevations in glucocorticoids that regulate physiology and behavior. Here we compare the hormonal profiles and morphometrics from Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) breeding at the northern limit of the population's range to those birds breeding within the historic population range. Birds breeding at the northern limit experienced a harsher environment with colder temperatures; however, we found no differences in arthropod prey biomass between the northern limit and more southern (historic) sites. Males at the northern limit had higher body condition scores (mass corrected for body size) compared to individuals within the historic range, but no differences were found in beak and tarsus lengths, wing chord, muscle profile or fat stores. In males during the pre-parental stage, before breeding commenced, HPA axis activity was elevated in birds at the northern limit of the range, but no differences were found during the parental or molt stages. Females showed no differences in HPA axis activity during the parental stage. This study suggests that "pioneering" individuals at the limits of their breeding range exhibit physiology and morphology that are distinct from individuals within the historic range.

  5. Recombinant human IgG antibodies recognizing distinct extracellular domains of EGF receptor exhibit different degrees of growth inhibitory effects on human A431 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chialun; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we isolated 4 distinct kinds of single chain antibody against human EGF receptor (EGFR) after screening the Keio phage display scFv library by using two methods of target-guided proximity labeling. In the current study, these monovalent scFv antibodies were converted to bivalent IgGs of humanized forms (hIgGs) by recombinant technology using the specially designed expression vectors followed by protein production in CHO cells. The resulting recombinant hIgGs were examined for their binding specificity using several different transformed human BJ cell lines that express deletion mutants of EGFR, each lacking one of 4 distinct extracellular domains (L1, L2, C1 and C2). Immuno-fluorescent microscopy and immuno-precipitation assay on these cells indicated that 4 distinct kinds of hIgGs bind to one of 3 different domains (L1, C1 and C2). Then, these hIgGs were further examined for biological effects on human A431 cancer cells, which overexpress EGFR. The results indicated that hIgG38 binding to L1 and hIgG45 binding to C2 substantially suppressed the EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, resulting in the growth inhibition of A431 cancer cells. On the contrary, hIgG40 binding to C1 and hIgG42 binding to another site (epitope) of C2 exhibited no such inhibitory effects. Thus, the newly produced four recombinant hIgG antibodies recognize 4 different sites (epitopes) in 3 different extracellular domains of EGFR and exhibit different biological effects on cancer cells. These characteristics are somewhat different from the currently utilized therapeutic anti-EGFR antibodies. Hence, these hIgG antibodies will be invaluable as a research tool for the detailed molecular analysis of the EGFR-mediated signal transduction mechanism and more importantly a possible application as new therapeutic agents to treat certain types of cancers.

  6. Growth development and morphological differences among native and non-native prickly nightshades (Solanum spp.) of the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prickly nightshades are troublesome weeds of natural habitats pastures, feed lots, right-of-ways, and croplands. Native and non-native invasive weedy species of prickly nightshades were compared to determine growth, development, and morphological differences. Tables were developed from new and exis...

  7. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  8. Differences in spatial distribution, morphology, and communities of herbivorous insects among three cytotypes of Solidago altissima (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Richardson, Matthew L; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2011-10-01

    Polyploidy in plants can result in genetic isolation, ecological differences among cytotypes, and, ultimately, speciation. Cytotypes should be sympatric only if they are segregated in an ecological niche or through prezygotic isolation. We tested whether sympatric diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid ramets of Solidago altissima L. (Asteraceae) differ in their ecological niche. We measured how cytotypes were distributed within habitats, their morphology, and the composition of their communities of herbivorous insects at 10 natural field sites. We also conducted a common garden experiment to confirm whether observed differences in morphology or communities of herbivores were due to cytotype or environmental effects. Diploid ramets often grew in open areas, relatively far from woody plants, and were associated with a high species richness of herbaceous plants, especially grasses. Hexaploids often grew in heavy shading under woody plants where grasses were scarce. Finally, tetraploids usually grew in transition areas between diploids and hexaploids. Hexaploid ramets also were taller than ramets of the other cytotypes and had larger leaves. Two species of insects, the leaf-galling fly Asteromyia carbonifera and the phloem-tapping aphid Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum, were more abundant on hexaploid ramets than on ramets of other cytotypes in the field. When grown in a common garden, however, cytotypes were similar in morphology and communities of herbivores. We conclude that cytotypes of S. altissima differ in their spatial distribution within habitats and that spatial variation in environmental factors influence plant morphology and communities of herbivorous insects.

  9. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  10. Shipibo-Spanish: Differences in Residual Transfer at the Syntax-Morphology and the Syntax-Pragmatics Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO WHITE-FOOTED MICE, PEROMYSCUS BOYU AND PEROMYSCUS CALIFORNICUS, IN OAK WOODLANDS OF FRESNO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Treesearch

    ROBERTA J. FARGO; William F. Laudenslayer

    1995-01-01

    Identification ofPeromyscus species in the field can often be time consuming and inaccurate. Determination of several morphological characteristics is usually required for reliable identification. Characteristics may differ only slightly, can be highly variable, or can overlap among species. In oak woodlands of the southern Sierra Nevada in Fresno county, most...

  12. Shipibo-Spanish: Differences in Residual Transfer at the Syntax-Morphology and the Syntax-Pragmatics Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…

  13. Evolution of morphology and structure of Pb thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lorusso, Antonella Maiolo, Berlinda; Perrone, Alessio; Gontad, Francisco; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Tasco, Vittorianna

    2014-03-15

    Pb thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on a Si (100) substrate at different growth temperatures to investigate their morphology and structure. The morphological analysis of the thin metal films showed the formation of spherical submicrometer grains whose average size decreased with temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that growth temperature influences the Pb polycrystalline film structure. A preferred orientation of Pb (111) normal to the substrate was achieved at 30 °C and became increasingly pronounced along the Pb (200) plane as the substrate temperature increased. These thin films could be used to synthesize innovative materials, such as metallic photocathodes, with improved photoemission performances.

  14. Middle-aged overweight South Asian men exhibit a different metabolic adaptation to short-term energy restriction compared with Europeans.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Leontine E H; Guigas, Bruno; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Streefland, Trea C M; van Klinken, Jan B; Jonker, Jacqueline T; Lamb, Hildo J; Smit, Johannes W A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2015-01-01

    South Asians have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than Europeans. The underlying cause of this excess risk is still poorly understood but might be related to differences in the regulation of energy/nutrient-sensing pathways in metabolic tissues and subsequent changes in whole-body substrate metabolism. In this study, we investigated the whole-body and skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations to short-term energy restriction in South Asian and European volunteers. Twenty-four middle-aged overweight South Asian and European men underwent a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, with skeletal muscle biopsies and indirect calorimetry before and after an 8 day diet very low in energy (very low calorie diet [VLCD]). Abdominal fat distribution and hepatic triacylglycerol content were assessed using MRI and MR spectroscopy. South Asian men had higher hepatic triacylglycerol content than European men, and exhibited elevated clamp insulin levels that probably reflect a lower insulin clearance rate. Despite higher insulin levels, endogenous glucose production rate was similar and glucose disposal rate (Rd) and nonoxidative glucose disposal rate (NOGD) were significantly lower in South Asian than European men, indicating impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity. Energy restriction decreased abdominal fat mass and hepatic triacylglycerol content in both groups. However, the shift induced by energy restriction from glucose towards lipid oxidation observed in European men was impaired in South Asian men, indicating whole-body metabolic inflexibility. Remarkably, although energy restriction improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in both groups, Rd improved only in South Asian men owing to higher NOGD. At the molecular level, an increase in insulin-induced activation of the skeletal muscle mTOR pathway was found in South Asian men, showing that skeletal muscle energy/nutrient-sensing pathways were differentially affected by energy restriction. We conclude that South

  15. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor eIFiso4G1 and eIFiso4G2 Are Isoforms Exhibiting Distinct Functional Differences in Supporting Translation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2016-01-15

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G is required during protein synthesis to promote the assembly of several factors involved in the recruitment of a 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two eIF4G isoforms that are highly similar, the eIF4G isoforms in plants, referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G, are highly divergent in size, sequence, and domain organization but both can interact with eIF4A, eIF4B, eIF4E isoforms, and the poly(A)-binding protein. Nevertheless, eIF4G and eIFiso4G from wheat exhibit preferences in the mRNAs they translate optimally. For example, mRNA containing the 5'-leader (called Ω) of tobacco mosaic virus preferentially uses eIF4G in wheat germ lysate. In this study, the eIF4G isoform specificity of Ω was used to examine functional differences of the eIF4G isoforms in Arabidopsis. As in wheat, Ω-mediated translation was reduced in an eif4g null mutant. Loss of the eIFiso4G1 isoform, which is similar in sequence to wheat eIFiso4G, did not substantially affect Ω-mediated translation. However, loss of the eIFiso4G2 isoform substantially reduced Ω-mediated translation. eIFiso4G2 is substantially divergent from eIFiso4G1 and is present only in the Brassicaceae, suggesting a recent evolution. eIFiso4G2 isoforms exhibit sequence-specific differences in regions representing partner protein and RNA binding sites. Loss of any eIF4G isoform also resulted in a substantial reduction in reporter transcript level. These results suggest that eIFiso4G2 appeared late in plant evolution and exhibits more functional similarity with eIF4G than with eIFiso4G1 during Ω-mediated translation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor eIFiso4G1 and eIFiso4G2 Are Isoforms Exhibiting Distinct Functional Differences in Supporting Translation in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G is required during protein synthesis to promote the assembly of several factors involved in the recruitment of a 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two eIF4G isoforms that are highly similar, the eIF4G isoforms in plants, referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G, are highly divergent in size, sequence, and domain organization but both can interact with eIF4A, eIF4B, eIF4E isoforms, and the poly(A)-binding protein. Nevertheless, eIF4G and eIFiso4G from wheat exhibit preferences in the mRNAs they translate optimally. For example, mRNA containing the 5′-leader (called Ω) of tobacco mosaic virus preferentially uses eIF4G in wheat germ lysate. In this study, the eIF4G isoform specificity of Ω was used to examine functional differences of the eIF4G isoforms in Arabidopsis. As in wheat, Ω-mediated translation was reduced in an eif4g null mutant. Loss of the eIFiso4G1 isoform, which is similar in sequence to wheat eIFiso4G, did not substantially affect Ω-mediated translation. However, loss of the eIFiso4G2 isoform substantially reduced Ω-mediated translation. eIFiso4G2 is substantially divergent from eIFiso4G1 and is present only in the Brassicaceae, suggesting a recent evolution. eIFiso4G2 isoforms exhibit sequence-specific differences in regions representing partner protein and RNA binding sites. Loss of any eIF4G isoform also resulted in a substantial reduction in reporter transcript level. These results suggest that eIFiso4G2 appeared late in plant evolution and exhibits more functional similarity with eIF4G than with eIFiso4G1 during Ω-mediated translation. PMID:26578519

  17. Morphology and bacterial colonisation of tooth/ceramic restoration interface after different cement excess removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Anami, Lilian Costa; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Guerra, Elen; Assunção e Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de; Jorge, Antônio Olavo Cardoso; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of different protocols for resin cement removal during cementation on biofilm formation. Twenty-eight ceramic blocks, which were injected under pressure, were placed over enamel blocks obtained from freshly extracted bovine incisors. The ceramic blocks were cemented to the enamel blocks using a dual-cured resin cement and the excess resin was removed according to the experimental group: TS: Teflon spatula; BR: brush; BR+: brush and polishing; SB+: scalpel blade and polishing. After autoclaving, the samples were colonised by incubation in a sucrose broth suspension standardised with Streptococcus mutans in microaerophilic stove. Specimens were quantitatively analysed for bacterial adherence at the adhesive interface using confocal laser scanning microscopy and counting the colony forming units, and qualitatively analysed using SEM. The roughness (Ra/Rz/RSm) was also analysed. Data were analysed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The roughness values ranged from 0.96 to 1.69 μm for Ra (p>0.05), from 11.59 to 22.80 μm for Rz (p=0.02<0.05) and from 293.2 to 534.3 μm for RSm (p=0.00). Bacterial adhesion varied between 1,974,000 and 2,814,000 CFU/ml (p=0.00). Biofilm mean thickness ranged from 0.477 and 0.556 μm (p>0.05), whilst the biovolume values were between 0.388 and 0.547 μm(3)/μm(2) (p=0.04). Lower values for roughness, bacterial adhesion, biofilm thickness and biovolume were found with BR, whilst TS presented the highest values for most of the parameters. SEM images confirmed the quantitative values. The restoration margin morphology and interface roughness affects bacterial accumulation. The brush technique promoted less bacterial colonisation at the adhesive interface than did the other removal methods. The brush technique seems to be a good option for removing the excess resin cement after adhesive cementation in clinical practice, as indicated by its better results with lower bacterial colonisation. Copyright © 2012

  18. Diabetic Macular Edema With and Without Subfoveal Neuroretinal Detachment: Two Different Morphologic and Functional Entities.

    PubMed

    Vujosevic, Stela; Torresin, Tommaso; Berton, Marianna; Bini, Silvia; Convento, Enrica; Midena, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    To assess specific morphologic and functional characteristics in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) with subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND+) vs DME without SND (SND-). Cross-sectional, prospective, comparative case series. Seventy-two patients (72 eyes: 22 eyes SND+ and 50 eyes SND-) with treatment-naïve, center-involving DME were evaluated. Data gathering included fundus color photographs, fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and microperimetry. The following parameters were evaluated with SD-OCT: central macular thickness (CMT [including SND]); central retinal thickness (CRT [excluding SND]); choroidal thickness (CT); nasal and temporal retinal thickness (RT) at 500 μm and 1500 μm from the fovea; the number of hyperreflective retinal spots (HRS) in the central 3000 μm; and the presence of SND and integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM). Retinal sensitivity (RS) was evaluated within 4 degrees and 12 degrees of the fovea. Correlation among CT, RS, and HRS in patients with and without SND was determined. CMT (P = .032), temporal RT at 1500 μm (P = .03), mean CT (P = .009), and mean number of HRS (P = .0001) were all higher in SND+ vs SND- eyes. CRT, BCVA, HbA1c, and prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension were not different between the 2 groups. RS within 4 degrees (P = .002) and 12 degrees (P = .015) was lower in SND+ vs SND- eyes. SND correlated significantly with disruption of the ELM (54.55% vs 24%, P = .01) and lower RS. A direct correlation was found between the number of HRS, presence of SND, CT, and RS within 12 degrees in SND- eyes, and an inverse correlation was found between CT and RS within 12degrees in SND+ eyes. These data may improve characterization of DME in eyes with SND. DME with SND correlates with greater CT, more HRS, disruption of the ELM, and significant macular functional impairment (RS decrease) vs SND-. Copyright © 2017

  19. The microstructure and surface morphology of radiopaque tricalcium silicate cement exposed to different curing conditions.

    PubMed

    Formosa, L M; Mallia, B; Bull, T; Camilleri, J

    2012-05-01

    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this research was to evaluate the microstructure and surface characteristics of radiopaque tricalcium silicate cement exposed to different curing conditions namely at 100% humidity or immersed in either water or a simulated body fluid at 37°C. The materials under study included tricalcium silicate and Portland cements with and without the addition of bismuth oxide radiopacifier. Material characterization was performed on hydrated cements using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Surface morphology was further investigated using optical profilometry. Testing was performed on cements cured at 100% humidity or immersed in either water or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 and 28 days at 37°C. In addition leachate analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence of the storage solution. The pH of the storage solution was assessed. All the cements produced calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide on hydration. Tricalcium silicate showed a higher reaction rate than Portland cement and addition of bismuth oxide seemed to also increase the rate of reaction with more calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide being produced as demonstrated by SEM and XRD analysis and also by surface deposits viewed by the optical profilometer. Cement immersion in HBSS resulted in the deposition of calcium phosphate during the early stages following immersion and extensive calcification after 28 days. The pH of all storage solutions was alkaline. The immersion in distilled water resulted in a higher pH of the solution than when the cements were immersed in HBSS. Leachate analysis demonstrated high calcium levels in all cements tested with higher levels in tricalcium silicate and

  20. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Liu, Shao Jun; Weng, Lv Qian; Dong, Wen Yi

    2011-07-01

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO2 films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO2 with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450°C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N2 show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO2 films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoelectric properties of BiVO 4 with different morphologies: An efficient visible-light photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haimei; Wang, Dejun; Wang, Lingling; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Xie, Tengfeng

    2011-06-01

    Different morphologies of monoclinic BiVO 4 with smaller size were hydrothermal synthesized by simply adjusting the amount of surfactant (polyvinyl pyrrolidone PVP K30) added. The detailed field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis revealed that the amount of PVP added could significantly affect the morphology and size of BiVO 4. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation ( λ > 400 nm), and the as-prepared sample with well-assembled flower-like morphology showed a much higher photocatalytic activity due to larger specific surface area and higher separation efficiency of photo-induced carriers. The relationship between the behavior of photo-induced carriers and photocatalytic activity was studied using the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and corresponding phase spectra.

  2. Morphological changes in the cellulose and lignin components of biomass occur at different stages of steam pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Urban, Volker S.; Petridis, Loukas; Davison, Brian H.; Langan, Paul

    2014-01-09

    Morphological changes to the different components of lignocellulosic biomass were observed as they occurred during steam pretreatment by placing a pressure reaction cell in a neutron beam and collecting time-resolved neutron scattering data. Changes to cellulose morphology occurred mainly in the heating phase, whereas changes in lignin morphology occurred mainly in the holding and cooling phases. During the heating stage, water is irreversibly expelled from cellulose microfibrils as the elementary fibrils coalesce. During the holding phase lignin aggregates begin to appear and they increase in size most noticeably during the cooling phase. This experiment demonstrates the unique information that in situ small angle neutron scattering studies of pretreatment can provide. This approach is potentially useful in optimizing the heating, holding and cooling stages of pretreatments to allow the exact size and nature of lignin aggregates to be controlled in order to enhance enzyme accessibility to cellulose and therefore the efficiency of biomass conversion.

  3. Morphological changes in the cellulose and lignin components of biomass occur at different stages of steam pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; ...

    2014-01-09

    Morphological changes to the different components of lignocellulosic biomass were observed as they occurred during steam pretreatment by placing a pressure reaction cell in a neutron beam and collecting time-resolved neutron scattering data. Changes to cellulose morphology occurred mainly in the heating phase, whereas changes in lignin morphology occurred mainly in the holding and cooling phases. During the heating stage, water is irreversibly expelled from cellulose microfibrils as the elementary fibrils coalesce. During the holding phase lignin aggregates begin to appear and they increase in size most noticeably during the cooling phase. This experiment demonstrates the unique information that inmore » situ small angle neutron scattering studies of pretreatment can provide. This approach is potentially useful in optimizing the heating, holding and cooling stages of pretreatments to allow the exact size and nature of lignin aggregates to be controlled in order to enhance enzyme accessibility to cellulose and therefore the efficiency of biomass conversion.« less

  4. Two Different Types of Single Crystal Morphologies of the γ-Phase and Their Conversion in Isotactic Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yan; van Horn, Ryan; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Graham, Matthew; Jeong, Kwuang-Un; de Rosa, Claudio; Lotz, Bernard; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2009-03-01

    In the past, the crystallographic relationship between the γ-phase and the α-phase in isotactic polypropylene was extensively studied via oligomers of iPP. We attempt to investigate how the crystal morphological changes take place in the γ-phase using high molecular weight iPP-co-polyethylene samples. Due to the specific epitaxial growth of the γ-phase on the elongated α-phase single crystals, two different morphologies were identified via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies. The first γ-phase crystal morphology is needle-like. Selective area electron diffraction results showed that their [1 10] or [110] zone axis was parallel to the thin film normal. The growth of this type of epitaxial γ-phase crystal was due to the stem direction in the initial α-phase single crystal being parallel to the thin film normal. The second γ-phase crystal morphology was flat lamellae. This requires that the initial α-phase single crystal had to have a stem orientation tilted away from the thin film normal. Therefore, the sufficient and necessary condition for the γ-phase morphological conversion from the needle-like crystal to the flat crystal is the change of the stem orientation direction of the initial α-phase single crystals.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen and Shading on Root Morphologies, Nutrient Accumulation, and Photosynthetic Parameters in Different Rice Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shenggang; Liu, Haidong; Mo, Zhaowen; Patterson, Bob; Duan, Meiyang; Tian, Hua; Hu, Shuijing; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and illumination intensity are two key factors which affect rice growth. However, their influences on total nitrogen accumulation, photosynthetic rate, root morphologies, and yields are not fully understood. We conducted two field experiments to (1) evaluate the effects of shading under different N treatments on photosynthetic parameters, root morphologies, total nutrient accumulation, and grain yields of rice; and (2) elucidate the relationship between total nutrient accumulation and root morphologies under different shading conditions and nitrogen treatments. Three nitrogen rates, three shading treatments, and three different rice cultivars were used in two field experiments. Double shading during the grain-filling stage decreased total nutrient accumulation, altered root morphological characteristics, and decreased yields in rice. There were also significant interaction effects between nitrogen and shading on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. Significant interactions were found among cultivars and shading for photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Correlation analysis revealed that total nitrogen accumulation (TNA) and potassium accumulation (TKA) were significantly positively correlated with total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. N application could alleviate the detrimental effects of shading on total nutrient accumulation and grain yield in rice. PMID:27557779

  6. Craniofacial morphological outcome following treatment with three different surgical protocols for complete unilateral cleft lip and palate: a premilinary study.

    PubMed

    Kulewicz, M; Dudkiewicz, Z

    2010-02-01

    This study compared craniofacial morphology between three groups of children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, treated with different surgical protocols. The study included 66 10-year-old children (42 boys and 20 girls) with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (22 patients in each of the three groups). Children aged 7 months underwent one-stage surgery, performed by a single surgeon. During surgery, the soft and hard palate and the lip underwent correction. The difference between the groups depended on the hard palate closure. Group I patients had the mucoperiosteal flap elevated on both sides of the cleft. Group II patients had the mucoperiosteal flap elevated on the non-cleft side, and had only a minimal 2-3mm mucoperiosteal flap elevated on the cleft side. Group III patients had mucoperiostium elevated from the septum vomer to create a single-layered caudally pedicled flap, and had only a minimal 2-3mm palatal flap elevated on the cleft side. Craniofacial morphology was defined using lateral cephalometric analysis. Significant craniofacial morphological differences were identified between groups I, II and III. Group III demonstrated the most favourable morphology. This indicates that the technique of hard palate closure has significant influence on craniofacial growth and development. Copyright 2009 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Nitrogen and Shading on Root Morphologies, Nutrient Accumulation, and Photosynthetic Parameters in Different Rice Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shenggang; Liu, Haidong; Mo, Zhaowen; Patterson, Bob; Duan, Meiyang; Tian, Hua; Hu, Shuijing; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-08-25

    Nitrogen availability and illumination intensity are two key factors which affect rice growth. However, their influences on total nitrogen accumulation, photosynthetic rate, root morphologies, and yields are not fully understood. We conducted two field experiments to (1) evaluate the effects of shading under different N treatments on photosynthetic parameters, root morphologies, total nutrient accumulation, and grain yields of rice; and (2) elucidate the relationship between total nutrient accumulation and root morphologies under different shading conditions and nitrogen treatments. Three nitrogen rates, three shading treatments, and three different rice cultivars were used in two field experiments. Double shading during the grain-filling stage decreased total nutrient accumulation, altered root morphological characteristics, and decreased yields in rice. There were also significant interaction effects between nitrogen and shading on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. Significant interactions were found among cultivars and shading for photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Correlation analysis revealed that total nitrogen accumulation (TNA) and potassium accumulation (TKA) were significantly positively correlated with total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. N application could alleviate the detrimental effects of shading on total nutrient accumulation and grain yield in rice.

  8. Effects of morphology on the radiative properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with different aging status.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tianhai; Wu, Yu; Chen, Hao

    2014-06-30

    Light absorbing carbon aerosols play a substantial role in climate change through radiative forcing, which is the dominant absorber of solar radiation. Radiative properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols are strongly dependent on the morphological factors and the mixing mechanism of black carbon with other aerosol components. This study focuses on the morphological effects on the optical properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols using the numerically exact superposition T-matrix method. Three types aerosols with different aging status such as freshly emitted BC particles, thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols, heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols are studied. Our study showed that morphological factors change with the aging of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols to result in a dramatic change in their optical properties. The absorption properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols can be enhanced approximately a factor of 2 at 0.67 um, and these enhancements depend on the morphological factors. A larger shell/core diameter ratio of volume-equivalent shell-core spheres (S/C), which indicates the degree of coating, leads to stronger absorption. The enhancement of absorption properties accompanies a greater enhancement of scattering properties, which is reflected in an increase in single scattering albedo (SSA). The enhancement of single scattering albedo due to the morphological effects can reach a factor of 3.75 at 0.67 μm. The asymmetry parameter has a similar yet smaller enhancement. Moreover, the corresponding optical properties of shell-and-core model determined by using Lorenz -Mie solutions are presented for comparison. We found that the optical properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosol can differ fundamentally from those calculated for the Mie theory shell-and-core model, particularly for thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols. Our studies indicate that the complex morphology

  9. Structural and morphological evolution of thrust wedges above a ductile layer with different viscous behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerca, M.; Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Portillo-Pineda, R.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2007-05-01

    A series of scaled physical experiments illustrate the importance of differences in density and viscous behavior of décollement in the structural evolution of thrust wedges during shortening. In particular, we have analyzed the effect of changes in viscosity in the morphological evolution and strain of the brittle overburden surface. Ten models properly scaled in geometry and mechanical behavior of natural geological materials were deformed at the Modeling Laboratory (LAMMG) of UNAM. Mechanical stratification of the models included basal and upper brittle layers of 1 and 2 cm, respectively; separated by an intermediate viscous layer of 0.5 cm. Brittle layers were constructed with grains of quartz sand following a Mohr-Coulomb criterion of faulting and bulk density of ca. 1300 kg m-3. The viscous layer was composed of silicon-sand mixtures having differences in dynamic viscosity (Pa s) and density (kg m-3) as the following cases: (A) 2.0 e 4 and 978, (B) 3.3 e 4 and 1195, (C) 4.7 e 4 and 1270. The experiments were carried out in a Plexiglas box of 40x15x10 cm and deformed by moving a vertical wall at a constant velocity of 1.5 cm hr-1. Cross sections of the experiments were obtained for values of bulk shortening of ca. 20 and 40 percent. The modeling results suggest a close relation of structural style of the thrust wedge with the initial conditions of décollement viscosity. Low viscosity models have a structural development characterized by low angle napes and detachment folds with limb rotation indicating a predominant vergence towards foreland. High viscosity models have a greater mechanical coupling between décollement and overburden and develop preferentially detachment folds with higher elevation and undefined vergence. The evolution of the surface in two models with different initial dynamic viscosity, cases A and B, was analyzed at the optical interferometry laboratory of CIO with two full-field optical techniques: fringe projection and laser speckle

  10. A novel liquid template corrosion approach for layered silica with various morphologies and different nanolayer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanliang; Li, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    A novel liquid template corrosion (LTC) method has been developed for the synthesis of layered silica materials with a variety of morphologies, including hollow nanospheres, trilobite-like nanoparticles, spherical particles and a film resembling the van Gogh painting `Starry Night'. Lamellar micelles and microemulsion droplets are first formed in an oil-water (O/W) mixture of ethyl acetate (EA), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and water. After adding aqueous ammonia the EA becomes hydrolyzed, which results in corrosion of microemulsion droplets. These droplets subsequently act as templates for the synthesis of silica formed by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The morphological evolution of silica can be tuned by varying the concentration of aqueous ammonia which controls the degree of corrosion of the microemulsion droplet templates. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain why the LTC approach affords layered silica nanostructured materials with various morphologies and nanolayer thickness (2.6-4.5 nm), rather than the usual ordered mesostructures formed in the absence of EA. Our method provides a simple way to fabricate a variety of building blocks for assembling nanomaterials with novel structures and functionality, which are not available using conventional template methods.A novel liquid template corrosion (LTC) method has been developed for the synthesis of layered silica materials with a variety of morphologies, including hollow nanospheres, trilobite-like nanoparticles, spherical particles and a film resembling the van Gogh painting `Starry Night'. Lamellar micelles and microemulsion droplets are first formed in an oil-water (O/W) mixture of ethyl acetate (EA), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and water. After adding aqueous ammonia the EA becomes hydrolyzed, which results in corrosion of microemulsion droplets. These droplets subsequently act as templates for the synthesis of silica formed by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The

  11. Leaf morphological effects predict effective path length and enrichment of 18O in leaf water of different Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Merchant, A.; Callister, A.; Dawson, T. E.; Arndt, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Stable isotopes have been a valuable tool to study water or carbon fluxes of plants and ecosystems. In particular oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in leaf water or plant organic material are now beginning to be established as a simple and integrative measure for plant - water relations. Current δ18O models, however, are still limited in their application to a broad range of different species and ecosystems. It remains for example unclear, if species-specific effects such as different leaf morphologies need to be included in the models for a precise understanding and prediction of δ18O signals. In a common garden experiment (Currency Creek Arboretum, South Australia), where over 900 different Eucalyptus species are cultivated in four replicates, we tested effects of leaf morphology and anatomy on δ18O signals in leaf water of 25 different species. In particular, we determined for all species enrichment in 18O of mean lamina leaf water above source water (Δ18O) as related to leaf physiology as well as leaf thickness, leaf area, specific leaf area and weight and selected anatomical properties. Our data revealed that diurnal Δ18O in leaf water at steady state was significantly different among the investigated species and with differences up to 10% at midday. Fitting factors (effective path length) of leaf water Δ18O models were also significantly different among the investigated species and were highly affected by species-specific morphological parameters. For example, leaf area explained a high percentage of the differences in effective path length observed among the investigated species. Our data suggest that leaf water δ18O can act as powerful tool to estimate plant - water relations in comparative studies but that additional leaf morphological parameters need to be considered in existing δ18O models for a better interpretation of the observed δ18O signals.

  12. On the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. II. Identification of different morphological patterns of granulosa cells in evolutive follicles.

    PubMed

    Zecchi, S; Repice, F; Balboni, G C

    1981-03-15

    An attempt has been made for identifying different types of granulosa cells in the wall of cavitary ovarian follicles. Human, porcine and rat ovaries have been examined at the light and electron microscopes. Some smears of granulosa cells as well as human foetal ovaries have been also studied. These preliminary results seem to confirm that in the granulosa layer of evolutive follicles the cells may present some different morphological and histochemical features.

  13. Biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles with different morphologies for animal cell membrane penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Trewyn, B.; Nieweg, J.; Zhao, Y,; Lin, V.

    2007-11-24

    Two MCM-41 type, fluorescein-labeled mesoporous silica nanomaterials (MSNs) consisting of spherical and tube-shaped particles were synthesized and characterized. Both materials have hexagonally arranged mesopores with high surface area (>950 m{sup 2}/g) and a narrow distribution of pore diameters. The cellular uptake efficiency and kinetics of both MSNs were measured in a cancer cell line (CHO) and a noncancerous cell line (fibroblasts) by flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake was investigated. We envision that our study on the morphology dependent endocytosis of MSNs would lead to future developments of efficient transmembrane nanodevices for intracellular sensing and gene/drug delivery.

  14. Neuronal Correlates of Individual Differences in the Big Five Personality Traits: Evidences from Cortical Morphology and Functional Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Yan, Xu; Li, Yuan; Wang, Junjie; Li, Qiang; Li, Hong; Li, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    There have been many neuroimaging studies of human personality traits, and it have already provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits. And most of previous studies adopt voxel-based morphology (VBM) analysis to explore the brain-personality mechanism from two levels (vertex and regional based), the findings are mixed with great inconsistencies and the brain-personality relations are far from a full understanding. Here, we used a new method of surface-based morphology (SBM) analysis, which provides better alignment of cortical landmarks to generate about the associations between cortical morphology and the personality traits across 120 healthy individuals at both vertex and regional levels. While to further reveal local functional correlates of the morphology-personality relationships, we related surface-based functional homogeneity measures to the regions identified in the regional-based SBM correlation. Vertex-wise analysis revealed that people with high agreeableness exhibited larger areas in the left superior temporal gyrus. Based on regional parcellation we found that extroversion was negatively related with the volume of the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus and agreeableness was negatively associated with the sulcus depth of the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, increased regional homogeneity in the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus is related to the scores of extroversion, and increased regional homogeneity in the left superior parietal lobule is related to the scores of agreeableness. These findings provide supporting evidence of a link between personality and brain structural mysteries with a method of SBM, and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of personality traits has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates. PMID:28769751

  15. Morphological differences and molecular similarities between Paragonimus bangkokensis and P. harinasutai.

    PubMed

    Ngoc Doanh, Pham; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Yahiro, Shinichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Strobel, Michel; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-08-01

    Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai were found one after another in the same crab host, Potamon smithianus, in Thailand in 1967 and 1968. Both species were also recently found in China and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Those two Paragonimus spp. are distinguishable from each other by morphological features of metacercariae and adults. However, recently, the DNA sequences of second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genes of those two species in Thailand were reported to be highly similar to each other. In the present study, we collected P. bangkokensis in two provinces in Vietnam (the first record in Vietnam) and both P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai in Lao PDR for the morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses to clarify the mutual relationship between the two species. The results show that P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai were distinguishable from each other by morphology such as the size of metacercariae and the arrangement of cuticular spines of adult worms. However, the molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and CO1 genes clearly indicate that P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai make a monophyletic group.

  16. Circulation and suspended sediment dynamics in a tropical estuary under different morphological setting.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Bárbara P; Schettini, Carlos A F; Pereira, Marçal D; Siegle, Eduardo; Miranda, Luiz B; Andutta, Fernando P

    2016-09-01

    Estuarine processes are directly related to the interaction of its forcing conditions with the local morphology. In this study we assess the implications of the opening of a new inlet on the hydrodynamics and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). A set of physical parameters have been measured in the Itanhém river estuary, a small, shallow and mangrove fringed tropical estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Field surveys have been conducted in August 2007 and January 2008, separated by an important morphological change. Our observations show that even shortening the lower estuary channel in 2 km, the inlet opening did not imply in changes in the estuarine circulation. However, SSC increased after the inlet opening. General estuarine circulation showed synodical modulation of tidal asymmetry and residual suspended sediment transport. The estuary showed flood dominance at spring tide and ebb dominance at neap tide. Although not directly changing the estuarine hydrodynamics, the morphological change resulted in an important increase in SSC. This increase might be related to a facilitated import of inner shelf sediment through a shorter channel, having important implications for the estuarine sedimentation processes.

  17. Phonon properties of nanosized MnWO{sub 4} with different size and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, MirosLaw; Ptak, Maciej; Kurnatowska, Michalina; Kepinski, Leszek; Tomaszewski, PaweL; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2011-09-15

    Highly hierarchical barlike and flowerlike MnWO{sub 4} microcrystals have been synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method, where ethanolamine (EA) and cetyltrimethylamonnium bromide (CTAB) play important roles in directing growth and self-assembly of these structures. The possible formation process has been proposed. In addition, platelike nanosized MnWO{sub 4} was also synthesized by annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman and IR methods. Raman spectra showed relatively weak dependence on particle size and morphology of the particles. In contrast to this behavior, IR-active bands showed pronounced shifts and changes in relative intensities on particle size and the morphology. Origin of this behavior is discussed. - Graphical Abstract: SEM images of MnWO{sub 4} particles prepared by hydrothermal process at 150 deg. C (left panel) and 200 deg. C (right panel). Highlights: > Hydrothermal synthesis with ethanolamine enables growth of hierarchical nanosized MnWO{sub 4} particles. > Annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method enables growth of platelike MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles. > Raman and IR spectra of MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles depend on both size and morphology of the nanoparticles. > We discuss origin of this behavior.

  18. Morphological differences of the carotid body among C57/BL6 (B6), A/J, and CSS B6A1 mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Chai, Sam; Gillombardo, Carl B; Donovan, Lucas; Strohl, Kingman P

    2011-08-15

    The C57/BL6 (B6) mouse strain exhibits post-hypoxic frequency decline and periodic breathing, as well as greater amount of irregular breathing during rest in comparison to the A/J and to the B6a1, a chromosomal substitution strain whereby the A/J chromosome 1 is bred onto the B6 background (Han et al., 2002; Yamauchi et al., 2008a,b). The hypothesis was that morphological differences in the carotid body would associate with such trait variations. After confirming strain differences in post-hypoxic ventilatory behavior, histological examination (n=8 in each group) using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed equivalent, well-defined tissue structure at the bifurcation of the carotid arteries, an active secretory parenchyma (type I cells) from the supportive stromal tissue, and clustering of type I cells in all three strains. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining revealed a typical organization of type I cells and neurovascular components into glomeruli in all three strains. Image analysis from 5 μm sections from each strain generated a series of cytological metrics. The percent carotid body composition of TH+ type I cells in the A/J, B6 and B6a1 was 20±4%, 39±3%, and 44±3%, respectively (p=0.00004). However, cellular organization in terms of density and ultrastructure in the B6a1 is more similar to the B6 than to the A/J. These findings indicate that genetic mechanisms that produce strain differences in ventilatory function do not associate with carotid body structure or tyrosine hydroxylase morphology, and that A/J chromosome 1 does not contribute much to B6 carotid body morphology.

  19. Effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed diets with different levels of crude protein.

    PubMed

    Bavarsadi, M; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari-Mahyari, S; Jahanian, E

    2016-06-08

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, serum biochemical parameters, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed on diets with different levels of crude protein (CP). A total of 180 laying hens were subjected into nine dietary treatments with four cages of five birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of CP (85.0, 92.5 and 100% of Hy-Line W36 manual recommendation) and three levels of sanguinarine (0.00, 3.75 and 7.50 mg/kg) as a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of laying hens which fed during a 70-day feeding trial. The in vitro study showed that sanguinarine exhibited sevenfold and threefold decreased antioxidant activities to inhibit 2-2-diphenyl-1-picric hydrazyl free radical as well as ferric ion reducing rather than butylated hydroxyl toluene. Although using the decremental levels of CP caused the increase in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.01), dietary administration of sanguinarine could suppress the serum cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations as well as heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreasing CP content resulted in the decreased percentage of albumin (p < 0.05); however, it had no negative effects on humoral immunity. Nonetheless, feeding of at least 3.75 mg/kg sanguinarine led to the remarkable increases in serum gamma globulin concentration (p < 0.01) and secondary (p < 0.05) antibody titres against sheep red blood cells. Moreover, a decline in dietary CP content led to higher villi height and crypt depth (p < 0.05; p < 0.001) and consequently decreased villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < 0.001) than the optimum level (100% CP). In spite of the effects of sanguinarine on the suppression of Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts (p < 0.05), it markedly enhanced villi height-to-crypt depth ratio as well as lamina propria lymphatic follicles extent

  20. [K-mean cluster analysis for incisal jaw morphology of normal occlusion subjects among different vertical facial skeletal types].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhou, Li; Bai, Ding; Zhao, Mei-Ying

    2005-08-01

    To study the incisal jaw morphology of subjects with normal occlusion and to discuss the relationship between different vertical facial skeletal types and different incisal jaw cluster types. After studied by radiographic cephalometry, the incisal jaw morphology of 169 subjects with normal occlusion in early permanent dentition were analyzed by K-mean cluster analysis. Morphology of maxillary or mandibular incisal jaws could be divided into four types separately, including division I, division II, division III and division N. In maxilla or in mandible, the incisal jaw morphology of division I was characterized by wideness and shortness. In contrast, division II was characterized by thinness and length. As for division III and division IV, both of two were intermediate types between division I and division II . In maxilla, it was found that division II was the majority (86.49%) in the high-angle subjects, division III was the majority (47.67%) in the average-angle subjects, and division I and III were the majority (82.61%) in the low-angle subjects. In mandible, it was found that division II was the majority (51.35%) in the high-angle subjects, division IV was the majority (48.84%) in the average-angle subjects, and division III and IV were the majority (69.57%) in the low-angle subjects. Owing to the obvious characteristics of morphology in each cluster types and in each vertical facial skeletal types, different clinic considerations must be put forward when we want to move the incisor.

  1. Differences among Tennis Players Aged 12, 14 And 16 Years in Certain Morphological Characteristics: A Croatian Prospective.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Milanović, Dragan; Barbaros-Tudor, Petar

    2015-09-01

    A sample of young tennis players aged 12, 14 and 16 in Croatia. Sixty (60) tennis players ranked on the scale of the Croatian Tennis Association were analyzed through differences in morphological characteristics, as identified by a standard laboratory diagnostic procedure in Sports-diagnostic Centre of the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of Zagreb. Significant differences were obtained in most of the monitored measures for the assessment of the morphological characteristics but the most significant differences were reflected in the variables for assessment of longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton and body mass and voluminosity of the body. The statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. These differences may lead to decelerating the development of important fitness abilities (i.e., coordination), but also highlights the importance for changing the official propositions for the category of players between the ages due to the significant differences in certain morphological characteristics among all age categories. This study indicates an importance of understand grow characteristics of young players in order to effectively define tennis players playing style.

  2. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, R.; Ismail, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Mamat, M. H.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H. Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-06

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  3. Presynaptic mitochondria in functionally different motor neurons exhibit similar affinities for Ca2+ but exert little influence as Ca2+ buffers at nerve firing rates in situ

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Zhang, Jinhui; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria accumulate within nerve terminals and support synaptic function, most notably through ATP production. They can also sequester Ca2+ during nerve stimulation, but it is unknown whether this limits presynaptic Ca2+ levels at physiological nerve firing rates. Similarly, it is unclear whether mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration differs between functionally different nerve terminals. We addressed these questions using a combination of synthetic and genetically-encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) to examine cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels in presynaptic terminals of tonic (MN13-Ib) and phasic (MNSNb/d-Is) motor neurons in Drosophila, which, as we determined, fire during fictive locomotion at ∼42 Hz and ∼8 Hz, respectively. Mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration starts in both terminals at ∼250 nM, exhibits a similar Ca2+-uptake affinity (∼410 nM), and does not require Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Nonetheless, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in type-Is terminals is more responsive to low frequency nerve stimulation and this is due to higher cytosolic Ca2+ levels. Since type-Ib terminals have a higher mitochondrial density than Is terminals, it seemed possible that greater mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration may be responsible for the lower cytosolic Ca2+ levels in Ib terminals. However, genetic and pharmacological manipulations of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake did not significantly alter nerve-stimulated elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ levels in either terminal type within physiologically relevant rates of stimulation. Our findings indicate that presynaptic mitochondria have a similar affinity for Ca2+ in functionally different nerve terminals, but do not limit cytosolic Ca2+ levels within the range of motor neuron firing rates in situ. PMID:20130196

  4. Presynaptic mitochondria in functionally different motor neurons exhibit similar affinities for Ca2+ but exert little influence as Ca2+ buffers at nerve firing rates in situ.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Amit K; Zhang, Jinhui; Zinsmaier, Konrad E; Macleod, Gregory T

    2010-02-03

    Mitochondria accumulate within nerve terminals and support synaptic function, most notably through ATP production. They can also sequester Ca(2+) during nerve stimulation, but it is unknown whether this limits presynaptic Ca(2+) levels at physiological nerve firing rates. Similarly, it is unclear whether mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration differs between functionally different nerve terminals. We addressed these questions using a combination of synthetic and genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators to examine cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels in presynaptic terminals of tonic (MN13-Ib) and phasic (MNSNb/d-Is) motor neurons in Drosophila, which, as we determined, fire during fictive locomotion at approximately 42 Hz and approximately 8 Hz, respectively. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration starts in both terminals at approximately 250 nM, exhibits a similar Ca(2+)-uptake affinity (approximately 410 nM), and does not require Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Nonetheless, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in type Is terminals is more responsive to low-frequency nerve stimulation and this is due to higher cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Since type Ib terminals have a higher mitochondrial density than Is terminals, it seemed possible that greater mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration may be responsible for the lower cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in Ib terminals. However, genetic and pharmacological manipulations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake did not significantly alter nerve-stimulated elevations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in either terminal type within physiologically relevant rates of stimulation. Our findings indicate that presynaptic mitochondria have a similar affinity for Ca(2+) in functionally different nerve terminals, but do not limit cytosolic Ca(2+) levels within the range of motor neuron firing rates in situ.

  5. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  6. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures.

    PubMed

    Leber, M; Shandhi, M M H; Hogan, A; Solzbacher, F; Bhandari, R; Negi, S

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (Platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the Silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as Laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio Silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  7. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    PubMed Central

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-01-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (Platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode’s coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the Silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as Laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio Silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  8. Morphological differences in coronary arteries following rotational atherectomy versus balloon angioplasty: ultrasound and angioscopic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Theodore A.; Gilmore, Paul S.; White, Christopher J.; Chami, Youssef G.; Kircher, Barbara J.; Conetta, Donald A.

    1993-09-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary rotational atherectomy (PTCRA) is an exciting new device to recannulate obstructed coronary arteries. This device works as a high speed `drill,' selectively cutting hard atherosclerotic plaque while preferentially sparing the softer, less diseased vascular luminal surface. At speeds as high as 200,000 rpm the plaque is pulverized into small particles easily handled by the circulatory system with no untoward clinical sequela. Balloon angioplasty does not remove atherosclerotic plaque. It dilates the vessel by mechanically stretching, compressing and splitting the plaque and vessel lining. We compare morphological and surface luminal characteristics of vessels post PTCRA to vessels post PTCA.

  9. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer K.; Wade, Juli

    2010-01-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well as in the preoptic area and amygdala, were compared in males displaying varying degrees of sexual function. This study revealed that individual differences in behavior among unmanipulated males, in particular the extension of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship, were positively correlated with the size of fibers in the associated muscle and with soma size in the amygdala. The physiological response to testosterone, as indicated by the height of cells in an androgen-sensitive portion of the kidney, was also correlated with male sexual behavior, and predicted it better than plasma androgen levels. Androgen receptor expression was not related to the display of courtship or copulation in any of the tissues examined. The present data indicate that higher levels of male courtship behavior result in (or are the result of) enhanced courtship muscle and amygdala morphology, and that androgen-sensitive tissue in studs may be more responsive to testosterone than duds. However, some mechanism(s) other than androgen receptor expression likely confer this difference in responsiveness. PMID:17531996

  10. Oocytes from small and large follicles exhibit similar development competence following goat cloning despite their differences in meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hall, Justin; Fan, Zhiqiang; Regouski, Misha; Meng, Qinggang; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Stott, Rusty; Rood, Kerry A; Panter, Kip E; Polejaeva, Irina A

    2016-12-01

    Reduced developmental competence after IVF has been reported using oocyte derived from small follicles in several species including cattle, sheep, and goats. No information is currently available about the effect of follicle size of the cytoplast donor on in vivo development after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in goats. Oocytes collected from large (≥3 mm) and small follicles (<3 mm) were examined for maturation and in vivo developmental competence after SCNT. Significantly greater maturation rate was observed in oocytes derived from large follicles compared with that of small follicles (51.6% and 33.7%, P < 0.05). Greater percent of large follicle oocytes exhibited a low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity at germinal vesicle stage compared with small follicle oocytes (54.9% and 38.7%, P < 0.05). Relative mRNA expression analysis of 48 genes associated with embryonic and fetal development revealed that three genes (MATER, IGF2R, and GRB10) had higher level of expression in metaphase II oocytes from large follicles compared with oocytes from small follicles. Nevertheless, no difference was observed in pregnancy rates (33.3% vs. 47.1%) and birth rates (22.2% vs. 16.7%) after SCNT between the large and small follicle groups). These results indicate that metaphase II cytoplasts from small and large follicles have similar developmental competence when used in goat SCNT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human in vivo-induced spontaneous IgG-secreting cells from tonsil, blood and bone marrow exhibit different phenotype and functional level of maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Brieva, J A; Roldán, E; De la Sen, M L; Rodriguez, C

    1991-01-01

    The subset of human spontaneous IgG-secretion cells consists of mature B lymphocytes which are capable of active and high rate IgG production in vitro without the need for additional stimuli. Therefore, such a cell subset provides a useful model for studying the terminal stages of B-cell maturation. The present work analyses the phenotypic and functional characteristics of spontaneous IgG secreting cells obtained from tonsil, blood and bone marrow. The tonsilar cell subset was CD9+ CD20+ CD19+ CD38+/-, the blood cell subset CD9- CD20- CD19+ CD38+/- and bone marrow cells were CD9- CD20- CD19+/- CD38+. The three cell subsets required de novo RNA and protein synthesis for IgG secretion to occur. Tonsilar and blood, but not bone marrow, subsets also required DNA synthesis to undergo IgG secretion. Kinetics studies revealed that IgG production by tonsil and blood cells reached a plateau after 3 days of culture. In contrast, the bone marrow cell subset secreted IgG in a linear fashion for 2 weeks. These results indicate that spontaneous IgG-secreting cells from different organs exhibit functional and phenotypic heterogeneity. PMID:2037318

  12. Differences in morphological features and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient values among breast cancer subtypes using 3-tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Kato, Fumi; Kudo, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiroko; Wang, Jeff; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Mimura, Rie; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Shirato, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    To compare the morphology and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values among breast cancer subtypes. Ninety-three patients, who underwent breast MRI and collectively had 98 pathologically proven invasive carcinomas, were enrolled. Morphology was evaluated according to BIRADS-MRI. Minimum ADC was measured. Morphology and minimum ADC were compared among subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the characteristics associated with different subtypes. Oval/round shape was significantly associated with triple-negative (TN) cancer (TN vs. non-TN: 90.9% vs. 45.2%; p=0.0123). Rim enhancement was significantly less frequent in Luminal A (Luminal A vs. non-Luminal A: 34.2% vs. 76.1%; p=0.0003). The minimum ADC of Luminal A was significantly higher than that of Luminal B (HER2-negative) (834 vs. 748×10(-6)mm(2)/s; p<0.025). The minimum ADC of the TN-special type was significantly higher than that of TN-ductal (997 vs. 702×10(-6)mm(2)/s; p<0.025). On the multivariate analysis comparing the characteristics associated with Luminal A vs. Luminal B (HER2-negative), the internal enhancement characteristics of the mass and minimum ADC were significant factors. Morphology and minimum ADC would be useful in distinguishing breast cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric field of about 6 V/μm, high-intensity electron beams of 170–180 A/cm2 were emitted from the surface plasma. The production mechanism of the high-intensity electron beams emitted from the CNT arrays was plasma-induced emission. Moreover, the distribution of the electron beams was in situ characterized by the light emission from the surface plasma. PMID:27502662

  14. Comparative morphological differences between umbilical cords from chronic hypertensive and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Inan, Sevinc; Sanci, Muzaffer; Can, Deniz; Vatansever, Seda; Oztekin, Ozgur; Tinar, Sivekar

    2002-08-01

    To compare morphological changes in the umbilical cords from chronic hypertensive and preeclamptic patients having normal or pathological umbilical artery Doppler ultrasonographic results. Umbilical cords from 34 normotensive, 31 chronic hypertensive and 70 preeclamptic women with normal and abnormal Doppler flow velocity waveforms (FVW) at 35-40 gestational weeks were studied. Morphological changes in the umbilical cords were examined on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. The total umbilical cord area, total vessel area, and wall thickness of umbilical vessels were measured in systematic random samples using unbiased stereology methods. An ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. In the chronic hypertensive and preeclamptic groups with normal Doppler FVW, the thickness of the umbilical cord vessels remained nearly constant, whereas both the total area and the lumen area were reduced. These changes correlate with the histopathological findings, suggesting a mainly vasoconstrictive effect. By contrast, analysis of the preeclamptic group with pathologic Doppler FVW showed a comparable reduction of all parameters of the umbilical cord. Histopathological findings were related to smaller, contracted smooth muscle cells of the vessel wall, which is suggestive of a predominant hypoplastic mechanism. As a result of reduced uteroplacental perfusion, fetal hypoxia and intrauterine growth retardation become unavoidable in preeclampsia. The histopathological changes in the umbilical cord between the chronic hypertensive and preeclamptic patients depend on the Doppler results. In conclusion, the umbilical artery Doppler FVW indices provide good values for predicting intrauterine growth retardation in preeclamptic patients.

  15. Phosphorus adsorption on natural sediments with different pH incorporating surface morphology characterization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Fang, Hongwei; He, Guojian; Chen, Minghong

    2016-09-01

    Sediment samples from University Lake (U.L.) and Anacostia River (A.R.) were collected to study the phosphorus (P) adsorption with pH at 3.65, 4.75, and 5.65. The surface micro-morphology and pore structures of sediment particles were obtained using a scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption method, respectively. Fourier analysis was then applied to approximate the surface morphology, which was incorporated into the Langmuir isotherm to directly derive the model parameters for P adsorption simulation. Meanwhile, an empirical function of pH was introduced to represent the pH effect on P adsorption. A stronger P adsorption was observed for the A.R. sediment due to the more clay minerals, smaller median diameter, and a greater percentage of large pores, and the increasing pH resulted in a decrease of adsorption equilibrium constant as well as the P adsorption capacity, which was well reproduced by the adsorption isotherms. This study would benefit the mechanism study of the interactions between sediment particles and pollutants, providing references for understanding the pollutants' transport in aqueous systems.

  16. Variant of Helicobacter pylori CagA proteins induce different magnitude of morphological changes in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alfizah, Hanafiah; Ramelah, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with gastroduodenal diseases. The CagA protein is injected into gastric epithelial cells and supposedly induces morphological changes termed the 'hummingbird phenotype', which is associated with scattering and increased cell motility. The molecular mechanisms leading to the CagA-dependent morphological changes are only partially known. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of CagA variants on the magnitude of gastric epithelial cell morphological changes. Recombinant 3' terminal domains of cagA were cloned and expressed in a gastric epithelial cell line and the hummingbird phenotype was quantified by microscopy. The 3' region of the cagA gene of Malaysian H. pylori isolates showed six sub-genotypes that differed in the structural organization of the EPIYA repeat sequences. The percentage of hummingbird cells induced by CagA increased with duration of transfection. The hummingbird phenotype was observed to be more pronounced when CagA with 4 EPIYA motifs rather than 3 or 2 EPIYA motifs was produced. The activity of different CagA variants in the induction of the hummingbird phenotype in gastric epithelial cells depends at least in part on EPIYA motif variability. The difference in CagA genotypes might influence the potential of individual CagAs to cause morphological changes in host cells. Depending on the relative exposure of cells to CagA genotypes, this may contribute to the various disease outcomes caused by H. pylori infection in different individuals.

  17. A Rich Morphological Diversity of Biosaline Drying Patterns Is Generated by Different Bacterial Species, Different Salts and Concentrations: Astrobiological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Gómez, José María; Medina, Jesús; Rull, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Biosaline formations (BSFs) are complex self-organized biomineral patterns formed by "hibernating" bacteria as the biofilm that contains them dries out. They were initially described in drying biofilms of Escherichia coli cells + NaCl. Due to their intricate 3-D morphology and anhydrobiosis, these biomineralogical structures are of great interest in astrobiology. Here we report experimental data obtained with various alkali halide salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, LiCl, KCl, CsCl) on BSF formation with E. coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria at two saline concentrations: 9 and 18 mg/mL. Our results indicate that, except for LiCl, which is inactive, all the salts assayed are active during BSF formation and capable of promoting the generation of distinctive drying patterns at each salt concentration. Remarkably, the BSFs produced by these two bacterial species produce characteristic architectural hallmarks as the BSF dries. The potential biogenicity of these biosaline drying patterns is studied, and the astrobiological implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Three-dimensional flow structure and bed morphology in large elongate meander loops with different outer bank roughness characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsoer, Kory M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Best, James L.; Langendoen, Eddy J.; Abad, Jorge D.; Parsons, Dan R.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined the three-dimensional flow structure and bed morphology within elongate loops of large meandering channels. The present study focuses on the spatial patterns of three-dimensional flow structure and bed morphology within two elongate meander loops and examines how differences in outer bank roughness influence near-bank flow characteristics. Three-dimensional velocities were measured during two different events - a near-bankfull flow and an overbank event. Detailed data on channel bathymetry and bed form geometry were obtained during a near-bankfull event. Flow structure within the loops is characterized by strong topographic steering by the point bar, by the development of helical motion associated with flow curvature, and by acceleration of flow where bedrock is exposed along the outer bank. Near-bank velocities during the overbank event are less than those for the near-bankfull flow, highlighting the strong influence of the point bar on redistribution of mass and momentum of the flow at subbankfull stages. Multiple outer bank pools are evident within the elongate meander loop with low outer bank roughness, but are not present in the loop with high outer bank roughness, which may reflect the influence of abundant large woody debris on near-bank velocity characteristics. The positions of pools within both loops can be linked to spatial variations in planform curvature. The findings indicate that flow structure and bed morphology in these large elongate loops is similar to that in small elongate loops, but differs somewhat from flow structure and bed morphology reported for experimental elongate loops.

  19. Numerical simulation of wrinkle morphology formation and the evolution of different Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Hao, Mudong; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Wrinkle morphology is a distinctive phenomenon observed in mature biofilms that are produced by a great number of bacteria. The wrinkle pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the agar substrate and the biofilm itself, governed by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we study the macroscopic structures and the evolution of Bacillus subtilis biofilm wrinkles using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. A mechanical model and simulation are set up to analyze and evaluate bacteria biofilm's wrinkle characteristics. We uncover the wrinkle formation mechanism and enumerate the quantitative relationship between wrinkle structure and mechanical properties of biofilm and its substrate. Our work can be used to modify the wrinkle pattern and control the biofilm size.

  20. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Coelomic Gregarines (Apicomplexa) with Different Types of Motility: Urospora ovalis and U. travisiae from the Polychaete Travisia forbesii.

    PubMed

    Diakin, Andrei; Paskerova, Gita G; Simdyanov, Timur G; Aleoshin, Vladimir V; Valigurová, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Urosporids (Apicomplexa: Urosporidae) are eugregarines that parasitise marine invertebrates, such as annelids, molluscs, nemerteans and echinoderms, inhabiting their coelom and intestine. Urosporids exhibit considerable morphological plasticity, which correlates with their different modes of motility and variations in structure of their cortical zone, according to the localisation within the host. The gregarines Urospora ovalis and U. travisiae from the marine polychaete Travisia forbesii were investigated with an emphasis on their general morphology and phylogenetic position. Solitary ovoid trophozoites and syzygies of U. ovalis were located free in the host coelom and showed metabolic activity, a non-progressive movement with periodic changes of the cell shape. Solitary trophozoites of U. travisiae, attached to the host tissue or free floating in the coelom, were V-shaped. Detached trophozoites demonstrated gliding motility, a progressive movement without observable cell body changes. In both gregarines, the cortex formed numerous epicytic folds, but superfolds appeared exclusively on the surface of U. ovalis during metabolic activity. SSU rDNA sequences obtained from U. ovalis and U. travisiae revealed that they belong to the Lecudinoidea clade; however, they are not affiliated with other coelomic urosporids (Pterospora spp. and Lithocystis spp.), but surprisingly with intestinal lecudinids (Difficilina spp.) parasitising nemerteans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.