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Sample records for exhibit non-classical effects

  1. Non classical effects in planar waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Jansky, J.; Perina, J.; Pernova, V.; Sibilia, C.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum description of light propagation inside a planar waveguide is given. In particular, the description describes the behavior of the field inside a directions coupler. Nonclassical effects are presented and discussed.

  2. A double-slit experiment for non-classical interference effects in decision making.

    PubMed

    La Mura, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the possible nature and role of non-physical entanglement, and the classical vs. non-classical interface, in models of human decision-making. We also introduce an experimental setting designed after the double-slit experiment in physics, and discuss how it could be used to discriminate between classical and non-classical interference effects in human decisions. PMID:24259289

  3. A double-slit experiment for non-classical interference effects in decision making.

    PubMed

    La Mura, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the possible nature and role of non-physical entanglement, and the classical vs. non-classical interface, in models of human decision-making. We also introduce an experimental setting designed after the double-slit experiment in physics, and discuss how it could be used to discriminate between classical and non-classical interference effects in human decisions.

  4. A non-classical Mindlin plate model incorporating microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2016-07-01

    A non-classical model for a Mindlin plate resting on an elastic foundation is developed in a general form using a modified couple stress theory, a surface elasticity theory and a two-parameter Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. It includes all five kinematic variables possible for a Mindlin plate. The equations of motion and the complete boundary conditions are obtained simultaneously through a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle, and the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are treated in a unified manner. The newly developed model contains one material length-scale parameter to describe the microstructure effect, three surface elastic constants to account for the surface energy effect, and two foundation parameters to capture the foundation effect. The current non-classical plate model reduces to its classical elasticity-based counterpart when the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are all suppressed. In addition, the new model includes the Mindlin plate models considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect or the foundation influence alone as special cases, recovers the Kirchhoff plate model incorporating the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects, and degenerates to the Timoshenko beam model including the microstructure effect. To illustrate the new Mindlin plate model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported rectangular plate are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulae derived.

  5. A non-classical Kirchhoff plate model incorporating microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2016-03-01

    A new non-classical Kirchhoff plate model is developed using a modified couple stress theory, a surface elasticity theory and a two-parameter elastic foundation model. A variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle is employed, which leads to the simultaneous determination of the equations of motion and the complete boundary conditions and provides a unified treatment of the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects. The new plate model contains a material length scale parameter to account for the microstructure effect, three surface elastic constants to describe the surface energy effect, and two foundation moduli to represent the foundation effect. The current non-classical plate model reduces to its classical elasticity-based counterpart when the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are all suppressed. In addition, the newly developed plate model includes the models considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect or the foundation influence alone as special cases and recovers the Bernoulli-Euler beam model incorporating the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects. To illustrate the new model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported rectangular plate are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulas derived. For the static bending problem, the numerical results reveal that the deflection of the simply supported plate with or without the elastic foundation predicted by the current model is smaller than that predicted by the classical model. Also, it is observed that the difference in the deflection predicted by the new and classical plate models is very large when the plate thickness is sufficiently small, but it is diminishing with the increase of the plate thickness. For the free vibration problem, it is found that the natural frequency predicted by the new plate model with or without the elastic foundation is higher than that predicted by the

  6. The "Ram Effect": A "Non-Classical" Mechanism for Inducing LH Surges in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chanvallon, Audrey; Dupont, Joëlle; Lardic, Lionel; Lomet, Didier; Martinet, Stéphanie; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2016-01-01

    During spring sheep do not normally ovulate but exposure to a ram can induce ovulation. In some ewes an LH surge is induced immediately after exposure to a ram thus raising questions about the control of this precocious LH surge. Our first aim was to determine the plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E2) E2 in anoestrous ewes before and after the "ram effect" in ewes that had a "precocious" LH surge (starting within 6 hours), a "normal" surge (between 6 and 28h) and "late» surge (not detected by 56h). In another experiment we tested if a small increase in circulating E2 could induce an LH surge in anoestrus ewes. The concentration of E2 significantly was not different at the time of ram introduction among ewes with the three types of LH surge. "Precocious" LH surges were not preceded by a large increase in E2 unlike "normal" surges and small elevations of circulating E2 alone were unable to induce LH surges. These results show that the "precocious" LH surge was not the result of E2 positive feedback. Our second aim was to test if noradrenaline (NA) is involved in the LH response to the "ram effect". Using double labelling for Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) we showed that exposure of anoestrous ewes to a ram induced a higher density of cells positive for both in the A1 nucleus and the Locus Coeruleus complex compared to unstimulated controls. Finally, the administration by retrodialysis into the preoptic area, of NA increased the proportion of ewes with an LH response to ram odor whereas treatment with the α1 antagonist Prazosin decreased the LH pulse frequency and amplitude induced by a sexually active ram. Collectively these results suggest that in anoestrous ewes NA is involved in ram-induced LH secretion as observed in other induced ovulators. PMID:27384667

  7. The "Ram Effect": A "Non-Classical" Mechanism for Inducing LH Surges in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chanvallon, Audrey; Dupont, Joëlle; Lardic, Lionel; Lomet, Didier; Martinet, Stéphanie; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2016-01-01

    During spring sheep do not normally ovulate but exposure to a ram can induce ovulation. In some ewes an LH surge is induced immediately after exposure to a ram thus raising questions about the control of this precocious LH surge. Our first aim was to determine the plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E2) E2 in anoestrous ewes before and after the "ram effect" in ewes that had a "precocious" LH surge (starting within 6 hours), a "normal" surge (between 6 and 28h) and "late» surge (not detected by 56h). In another experiment we tested if a small increase in circulating E2 could induce an LH surge in anoestrus ewes. The concentration of E2 significantly was not different at the time of ram introduction among ewes with the three types of LH surge. "Precocious" LH surges were not preceded by a large increase in E2 unlike "normal" surges and small elevations of circulating E2 alone were unable to induce LH surges. These results show that the "precocious" LH surge was not the result of E2 positive feedback. Our second aim was to test if noradrenaline (NA) is involved in the LH response to the "ram effect". Using double labelling for Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) we showed that exposure of anoestrous ewes to a ram induced a higher density of cells positive for both in the A1 nucleus and the Locus Coeruleus complex compared to unstimulated controls. Finally, the administration by retrodialysis into the preoptic area, of NA increased the proportion of ewes with an LH response to ram odor whereas treatment with the α1 antagonist Prazosin decreased the LH pulse frequency and amplitude induced by a sexually active ram. Collectively these results suggest that in anoestrous ewes NA is involved in ram-induced LH secretion as observed in other induced ovulators.

  8. Enhancing non-classicality in mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Gröblacher, Simon; Paternostro, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    We study the effects of post-selection measurements on both the non-classicality of the state of a mechanical oscillator and the entanglement between two mechanical systems that are part of a distributed optomechanical network. We address the cases of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian measurements, identifying in which cases simple photon counting and Geiger-like measurements are effective in distilling a strongly non-classical mechanical state and enhancing the purely mechanical entanglement between two elements of the network.

  9. Non-classicality of the molecular vibrations assisting exciton energy transfer at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Edward J.; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the debate on quantum effects in light-initiated reactions in biology requires clear identification of non-classical features that these processes can exhibit and utilize. Here we show that in prototype dimers present in a variety of photosynthetic antennae, efficient vibration-assisted energy transfer in the sub-picosecond timescale and at room temperature can manifest and benefit from non-classical fluctuations of collective pigment motions. Non-classicality of initially thermalized vibrations is induced via coherent exciton-vibration interactions and is unambiguously indicated by negativities in the phase-space quasi-probability distribution of the effective collective mode coupled to the electronic dynamics. These quantum effects can be prompted upon incoherent input of excitation. Our results therefore suggest that investigation of the non-classical properties of vibrational motions assisting excitation and charge transport, photoreception and chemical sensing processes could be a touchstone for revealing a role for non-trivial quantum phenomena in biology.

  10. Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the 'non-classical immune cell'.

    PubMed

    Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect 'non-classical immune cells', which comprise a significant constituency of cells that reside outside of those defined as 'classical immune cells' from myeloid or lymphoid origin. Here we address the influence of specific 'non-classical immune cells' in host responses and their effects in controlling mycobacterial growth or enabling an environment conducive for bacilli persistence. The interaction of M. tuberculosis with epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, glia and neurons and downstream cellular responses that often dictate immune regulation and disease outcome are discussed. Functional integration and synergy between 'classical' and 'non-classical immune cells' are highlighted as critical for determining optimal immune outcomes that favour the host. PMID:25801479

  12. Non-classical light for quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Elizabeth Anne

    Non-classical light is both easily encoded with quantum information and robust against decoherence, making it a key resource that enables many quantum information applications including quantum computing, quantum communication, and quantum metrology. We present a wide range of experimental and theoretical research toward the generation, detection, characterization, and storage of non-classical states of light with an eye toward quantum information applications. To provide a basis for the rest of the work, we begin by discussing theoretically the role of photon number statistics in optical quantum information and the use of second-order optical coherence to characterize non-classical light. Building on that, we present an original tool for the difficult problem of reconstructing the underlying mode distribution of multi-mode optical fields using simple measurements of higher-order optical coherence. We then move on to the problem of generating and storing single photons. We do this in a solid-state medium, a rare-earth ion-doped crystal, with a long-lived spin transition ideal for storing quantum information. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by showing correlations between the optical fields that herald storage and retrieval of collective excitations. This scheme can be used for the two important and distinct applications of generating single photons on-demand and storing quantum information and entanglement. The detection of non-classical light is a task as important as its generation. To this end, we study detectors with near unity detection efficiency and photon number resolution for use in quantum-enabled metrology. We use such a detector to experimentally demonstrate compression of spatial fringes and investigate the possibility of improving measurement resolution with classical and non-classical light. Finally, we report a set of experiments using photon number statistics to characterize classical and non-classical light. We

  13. Non-classical types of loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriondo, M. H.; Kröhling, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to describe the sequence of physical and chemical processes resulting in the sediment-type named loess, a fine-grained sediment deposit of universal occurrence. Owing to historical causes, loess has been (and still is) implicitly linked to glacial/periglacial environments among most naturalists. However it is known today that most eolian dust is deflated from tropical deserts. Hence, that sequence of processes is more comprehensive than the former narrow cold scenario. Six examples of different "non-classical" cases (from South America and Europe) that fit well to the loess definition are developed: 1) volcanic loess in Ecuador: pyroclastic eruptions/valley wind/mountain praire/silica structuring; 2) tropical loess in northeastern Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: deflation of river and fan splays/savanna/iron sesquioxide structuring; 3) gypsum loess in northern Spain: destruction of anhydrite/gypsiferous layers in a dry climate/valley wind/Saharian shrub peridesert/gypsum structuring; 4) trade-wind deposits in Venezuela and Brazil: deflation in tidal flats/trade wind into the continent/savanna/iron hydroxide structuring; 5) anticyclonic gray loess in Argentina: continental anticyclone on plains/anti-clockwise winds and whirls/steppe/carbonate structuring. All these non-classical types conform to the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or sub-vertical slopes in outcrops, subfusion and others. Other cases can probably be recognized when systematically scrutinized.

  14. A Non-Classical LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator PA2206 Is Required for an Effective Oxidative Stress Response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Marlies J.; O'Gara, Fergal

    2013-01-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) are emerging as key circuit components in regulating microbial stress responses and are implicated in modulating oxidative stress in the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The oxidative stress response encapsulates several strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. However, many of the regulatory components and associated molecular mechanisms underpinning this key adaptive response remain to be characterised. Comparative analysis of publically available transcriptomic datasets led to the identification of a novel LTTR, PA2206, whose expression was altered in response to a range of host signals in addition to oxidative stress. PA2206 was found to be required for tolerance to H2O2 in vitro and lethality in vivo in the Zebrafish embryo model of infection. Transcriptomic analysis in the presence of H2O2 showed that PA2206 altered the expression of 58 genes, including a large repertoire of oxidative stress and iron responsive genes, independent of the master regulator of oxidative stress, OxyR. Contrary to the classic mechanism of LysR regulation, PA2206 did not autoregulate its own expression and did not influence expression of adjacent or divergently transcribed genes. The PA2214-15 operon was identified as a direct target of PA2206 with truncated promoter fragments revealing binding to the 5′-ATTGCCTGGGGTTAT-3′ LysR box adjacent to the predicted −35 region. PA2206 also interacted with the pvdS promoter suggesting a global dimension to the PA2206 regulon, and suggests PA2206 is an important regulatory component of P. aeruginosa adaptation during oxidative stress. PMID:23382903

  15. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  16. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  17. Atomic entanglement mediated by various non-classical cavity fields

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Papri; Majumdar, A. S.; Nayak, N

    2011-09-23

    In this paper several non-classical properties are described such as the entanglement of bipartite system in the multimode cavities, described by the Jaynes-Cummings as well as the Tavis-Cummings model. The modes are described quantum mechanically, which helps to bring out the non-classical features emerging from the interaction of atoms with the cavity modes. Effects such as the growth of the magnitude of atomic entanglement with the increase of the cavity photon number, arising out of the intensity dependent atom-cavity coupling lead to interesting dissimilarities from the case of entanglement generated by the standard Jaynes-Cummings interaction. The dynamics of a single Rydberg atom in an n-mode cavity are also described by oscillations at the rate of the interaction strength of the atom-field interaction, Finally, we investigate the entanglement dynamics in the presence of cavity dissipation under single mode Tavis-Cummings interaction. The atom-photon interactions and the generation of entanglement mediated through them are expected to play an important role in possible future practical realizations in the field of quantum communications for various atom-photon interaction models considered under single or multimode cavity.

  18. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  19. Non-classical method of modelling of vibrating mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of modelling of mechatronic systems by using polar graphs. The use of such a method enables the analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems irrespective of the type and number of the elements of such a system. The method id connected with algebra of structural numbers. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechatronic system which is the reverse task of dynamics. The result of synthesis is obtaining system meeting the defined requirements. This approach is understood as design of mechatronic systems. The synthesis may also be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. The system was consisted from mechanical and electrical elements. Electrical elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. The majority of vibration occurring in devices and machines is harmful and has a disadvantageous effect on their condition. Harmful impact of vibration is caused by the occurrence of increased stresses and the loss of energy, which results in faster wear machinery. Vibration, particularly low-frequency vibration, also has a negative influence on the human organism. For this reason many scientists in various research centres conduct research aimed at the reduction or total elimination of vibration.

  20. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  1. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R C

    2014-04-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder.

  2. DHRSX, a novel non-classical secretory protein associated with starvation induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Luo, Yang; Li, Ge; Wang, Lanlan; Na, Daxiang; Wu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yingmei; Mo, Xiaoning; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) X-linked (DHRSX) is a novel human gene without any substantial functional annotation and was initially cloned and identified in our laboratory. In this study, we present evidence that it encodes a non-classical secretory protein and promotes starvation induced autophagy. Using the Baf.A1 assay and N-terminal sequencing, we showed that DHRSX is secreted in a non-classical form. We expressed and purified a recombinant human GST-DHRSX fusion protein. Functional studies revealed that HeLa and U2OS cells overexpressing DHRSX or treated with the GST-DHRSX fusion protein exhibited higher levels of starvation-induced autophagy, resulting in increased endogenous LC3-II levels, a punctate GFP-LC3 distribution, and structures associated with autophagy, with a lower accumulation of autophagy substrates such as p62 and polyQ80. Accordingly, knockdown of endogenous DHRSX through specific siRNAs reduced LC3-II levels obviously in U2OS cells induced by starvation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that DHRSX is a novel non-classical secretory protein involved in the positive regulation of starvation induced autophagy and provide a new avenue for research on this protein family and autophagy regulation.

  3. Study of higher order non-classical properties of squeezed Kerr state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Prakash and Mishra [J. Phys. B: at. Mol. Opt. Phys., 39, 2291(2006); 40, 2531(2007)] have studied higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistic conditions for non-classicality in the form of general inequalities for expectation values of products of arbitrary powers of photon number and of photon-number fluctuation. It is, therefore, vital to study the generation of these higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics (phase-insensitive behavior) in a physically realizable medium and their relations to higher order squeezing (phase-sensitive behavior). In the present paper, we study higher order non-classical properties, such as Hong and Mandel squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics, of squeezed Kerr state which is generated by squeezing the output of a Kerr medium whose input is coherent light. Such states can be realized if laser light is sent through an optical fiber and then into a degenerate parametric amplifier. It is established that the squeezed Kerr state can exhibit higher order non-classical properties.

  4. Beyond iron: non-classical biological functions of bacterial siderophores.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2015-04-14

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination chemistry studies, have provided insight into the crucial role that siderophores play in bacterial iron homeostasis. The importance of understanding the fundamental chemistry underlying bacterial life has been highlighted evermore in recent years because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need to prevent the global rise of these superbugs. Increasing reports of siderophores functioning in capacities other than iron transport have appeared recently, but reports of "non-classical" siderophore functions have long paralleled those of iron transport. One particular non-classical function of these iron chelators, namely antibiotic activity, was documented before the role of siderophores in iron transport was established. In this Perspective, we present an exposition of past and current work into non-classical functions of siderophores and highlight the directions in which we anticipate that this research is headed. Examples include the ability of siderophores to function as zincophores, chalkophores, and metallophores for a variety of other metals, sequester heavy metal toxins, transport boron, act as signalling molecules, regulate oxidative stress, and provide antibacterial activity. PMID:25764171

  5. Preparation of Entangled Coherent States and Correspondence Between Entanglement and Non-Classical Properties in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Juju; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the controllable generation of entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). In our scheme, the easy integration of solid-state quantum circuit is exploited. In particular, through manipulating the external capacitor or external classical microwave impulse, the coupling between superconducting qubits and cavity can be manipulated, the entanglement effect between qubit and field modes can be enhanced and the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed. We further discuss the correspondence between quantum entanglement and some non-classical effects such as the squeezing of entangled coherent state field, the anti-buching effect. The results show that the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between field modes is always accompanied by the synchronous changes of certain non-classical effect. When the quantum entanglement reaches maximum, the anti-bunching (or compression effect) almost reaches maximum synchronously. Once entanglement sudden death occurs, the non-classical effects disappear.

  6. Beyond Iron: Non-Classical Biological Functions of Bacterial Siderophores

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination chemistry studies, have provided insight into the crucial role that siderophores play in bacterial iron homeostasis. The importance of understanding the fundamental chemistry underlying bacterial life has been highlighted evermore in recent years because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need to prevent the global rise of these superbugs. Increasing reports of siderophores functioning in capacities other than iron transport have appeared recently, but reports of “non-classical” siderophore functions have long paralleled those of iron transport. One particular non-classical function of these iron chelators, namely antibiotic activity, was even documented before the role of siderophores in iron transport was established. In this Perspective, we present an exposition of past and current work into non-classical functions of siderophores and highlight the directions in which we anticipate that this research is headed. Examples include the ability of siderophores to function as zincophores, chalkophores, and metallophores for a variety of other metals, sequester heavy metal toxins, transport boron, act as signalling molecules, regulate oxidative stress, and provide antibacterial activity. PMID:25764171

  7. Kaempferol Exhibits Progestogenic Effects in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toh, May Fern; Mendonca, Emma; Eddie, Sharon L.; Endsley, Michael P.; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Petukhov, Pavel A.; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Progesterone (P4) plays a central role in women's health. Synthetic progestins are used clinically in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), oral contraceptives, and for the treatment of endometriosis and infertility. Unfortunately, synthetic progestins are associated with side effects, including cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. Botanical dietary supplements are widely consumed for the alleviation of a variety of gynecological issues, but very few studies have characterized natural compounds in terms of their ability to bind to and activate progesterone receptors (PR). Kaempferol is a flavonoid that functions as a non-steroidal selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in vitro. This study investigated the molecular and physiological effects of kaempferol in the ovariectomized rat uteri. Methods Since genistein is a phytoestrogen that was previously demonstrated to increase uterine weight and proliferation, the ability of kaempferol to block genistein action in the uterus was investigated. Analyses of proliferation, steroid receptor expression, and induction of well-established PR-regulated targets Areg and Hand2 were completed using histological analysis and qPCR gene induction experiments. In addition, kaempferol in silico binding analysis was completed for PR. The activation of estrogen and androgen receptor signalling was determined in vitro. Results Molecular docking analysis confirmed that kaempferol adopts poses that are consistent with occupying the ligand-binding pocket of PRA. Kaempferol induced expression of PR regulated transcriptional targets in the ovariectomized rat uteri, including Hand2 and Areg. Consistent with progesterone-l ke activity, kaempferol attenuated genistein-induced uterine luminal epithelial proliferation without increasing uterine weight. Kaempferol signalled without down regulating PR expression in vitro and in vivo and without activating estrogen and androgen receptors. Conclusion Taken together, these data

  8. Non-classical radiation emission by a coherent conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgues, Jean-Charles; Gasse, Gabriel; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that the microwave electromagnetic field generated by a normal conductor, here a tunnel junction placed at ultra-low temperature, can be non-classical. By measuring the quadratures of the electromagnetic field at one or two frequencies in the GHz range, we demonstrate the existence of squeezing as well as entanglement in such radiation. In one experiment, we observe that the variance of one quadrature of the photo-assisted noise generated by the junction goes below its vacuum level. In the second experiment, we demonstrate the existence of correlations between the quadratures taken at two frequencies, which can be stronger than allowed by classical mechanics, proving that the radiation at those two frequencies are entangled.

  9. New fundamental evidence of non-classical structure in the combination of natural concepts.

    PubMed

    Aerts, D; Sozzo, S; Veloz, T

    2016-01-13

    We recently performed cognitive experiments on conjunctions and negations of two concepts with the aim of investigating the combination problem of concepts. Our experiments confirmed the deviations (conceptual vagueness, underextension, overextension etc.) from the rules of classical (fuzzy) logic and probability theory observed by several scholars in concept theory, while our data were successfully modelled in a quantum-theoretic framework developed by ourselves. In this paper, we isolate a new, very stable and systematic pattern of violation of classicality that occurs in concept combinations. In addition, the strength and regularity of this non-classical effect leads us to believe that it occurs at a more fundamental level than the deviations observed up to now. It is our opinion that we have identified a deep non-classical mechanism determining not only how concepts are combined but, rather, how they are formed. We show that this effect can be faithfully modelled in a two-sector Fock space structure, and that it can be exactly explained by assuming that human thought is the superposition of two processes, a 'logical reasoning', guided by 'logic', and a 'conceptual reasoning', guided by 'emergence', and that the latter generally prevails over the former. All these findings provide new fundamental support to our quantum-theoretic approach to human cognition. PMID:26621983

  10. Structure and function of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule MR1.

    PubMed

    Krovi, S Harsha; Gapin, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the vertebrate adaptive immune system. By presenting short peptides derived from pathogen-derived proteins, these "classical" MHC molecules can alert the T cell branch of the immune system of infected cells and clear the pathogen. There exist other "non-classical" MHC molecules, which while similar in structure to classical MHC proteins, are contrasted by their limited polymorphism. While the functions of many class Ib MHC molecules have still to be elucidated, the nature and diversity of antigens (if any) that some of them might present to the immune system is expected to be more restricted and might function as another approach to distinguish self from non-self. The MHC-related 1 (MR1) molecule is a member of this family of non-classical MHC proteins. It was recently shown to present unique antigens in the form of vitamin metabolites found in certain microbes. MR1 is strongly conserved genetically, structurally, and functionally through mammalian evolution, indicating its necessity in ensuring an effective immune system for members of this class. Although MR1 will be celebrating 21 years this year since its discovery, most of our understanding of how this molecule functions has only been uncovered in the past decade. Herein, we discuss where MR1 is expressed, how it selectively is able to bind to its appropriate antigens and how it, then, is able to specifically activate a distinct population of T cells.

  11. Structure and function of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule MR1.

    PubMed

    Krovi, S Harsha; Gapin, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the vertebrate adaptive immune system. By presenting short peptides derived from pathogen-derived proteins, these "classical" MHC molecules can alert the T cell branch of the immune system of infected cells and clear the pathogen. There exist other "non-classical" MHC molecules, which while similar in structure to classical MHC proteins, are contrasted by their limited polymorphism. While the functions of many class Ib MHC molecules have still to be elucidated, the nature and diversity of antigens (if any) that some of them might present to the immune system is expected to be more restricted and might function as another approach to distinguish self from non-self. The MHC-related 1 (MR1) molecule is a member of this family of non-classical MHC proteins. It was recently shown to present unique antigens in the form of vitamin metabolites found in certain microbes. MR1 is strongly conserved genetically, structurally, and functionally through mammalian evolution, indicating its necessity in ensuring an effective immune system for members of this class. Although MR1 will be celebrating 21 years this year since its discovery, most of our understanding of how this molecule functions has only been uncovered in the past decade. Herein, we discuss where MR1 is expressed, how it selectively is able to bind to its appropriate antigens and how it, then, is able to specifically activate a distinct population of T cells. PMID:27448212

  12. The uncertainty principle enables non-classical dynamics in an interferometer.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Garner, Andrew J P; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-08-08

    The quantum uncertainty principle stipulates that when one observable is predictable there must be some other observables that are unpredictable. The principle is viewed as holding the key to many quantum phenomena and understanding it deeper is of great interest in the study of the foundations of quantum theory. Here we show that apart from being restrictive, the principle also plays a positive role as the enabler of non-classical dynamics in an interferometer. First we note that instantaneous action at a distance should not be possible. We show that for general probabilistic theories this heavily curtails the non-classical dynamics. We prove that there is a trade-off with the uncertainty principle that allows theories to evade this restriction. On one extreme, non-classical theories with maximal certainty have their non-classical dynamics absolutely restricted to only the identity operation. On the other extreme, quantum theory minimizes certainty in return for maximal non-classical dynamics.

  13. Interferometry with non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    van Frank, S; Negretti, A; Berrada, T; Bücker, R; Montangero, S; Schaff, J-F; Schumm, T; Calarco, T; Schmiedmayer, J

    2014-05-30

    The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation.

  14. Interferometry with non-classical motional states of a Bose–Einstein condensate

    PubMed Central

    van Frank, S.; Negretti, A.; Berrada, T.; Bücker, R.; Montangero, S.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schumm, T.; Calarco, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose–Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation. PMID:24874019

  15. Interferometry with non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Frank, S.; Negretti, A.; Berrada, T.; Bücker, R.; Montangero, S.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schumm, T.; Calarco, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2014-05-01

    The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation.

  16. Regulation of peripheral classical and non-classical monocytes on infliximab treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Aeberli, Daniel; Kamgang, Richard; Balani, Deepak; Hofstetter, Willy; Villiger, Peter M; Seitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockade with infliximab on the distribution of peripheral blood monocyte subpopulations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Purified CD11b+CD14+ monocytes from 5 patients with RA and 5 AS were analysed ex vivo before and after infliximab treatment by flow cytometry for CD16, CD163, CD11b, C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) at baseline and at days 2, 14, 84 and 168 after the first infliximab administration. Serum levels of the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and monocyte chemotactic peptide (MCP)-1 at different time points were measured in either patient group before and on infliximab treatment. Results Anti-TNF treatment with infliximab led to a significant increase of circulating CD11b+ non-classical and a concomitantly decrease of CD11b+ classical monocytes, to a decline in SDF-1 levels and reduced expression of CCR2 and CXCR4 on non-classical monocyte subpopulation. Conclusions Our study shows, that TNFα blockade by infliximab resulted in a dichotomy of the regulation of classical and non-classical monocytes that might have substantial impact on inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and of subsequent juxta-articular bone destruction and systemic bone loss in RA and AS. PMID:26819749

  17. Molecular and antimicrobial analyses of non-classical Bordetella isolated from a laboratory mouse

    PubMed Central

    LOONG, Shih Keng; MAHFODZ, Nur Hidayana; WALI, Haryanti Azura Mohamad; TALIB, Siti Aisyah A.; NASRAH, Siti Noraisah Ahmad; WONG, Pooi Fong; ABUBAKAR, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species. PMID:26782013

  18. Transcription of non-classic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in the bovine placenta throughout gestation and after Brucella abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Larissa Sarmento; da Silva Mol, Juliana Pinto; de Macedo, Auricélio Alves; Silva, Ana Patrícia Carvalho; Dos Santos Ribeiro, Diego Luiz; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Carvalho Neta, Alcina Vieira

    2015-10-15

    Transcription of non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) was assessed in the bovine placenta throughout gestation. Additionally, the effect of Brucella abortus infection on expression of non-classical MHC-I was also evaluated using a chorioallantoic membrane explant model of infection. The non-classical MHC-I genes MICB and NC3 had higher levels of transcription in the intercotyledonary region when compared to the placentome, which had higher levels of transcription at the second trimester of gestation. NC1 and classical MHC-I had very low levels of transcription throughout gestation. Trophoblastic cells of B. abortus-infected chorioallantoic membrane explants had an increase in transcription of non-classical MHC-I at 4h post infection. Therefore, this study provides an analysis of non-classical MHC-I transcription at different stages of gestation and different placental tissues, and during B. abortus infection. These findings provide additional knowledge on immune regulation in placental tissues, a known immune-privileged site.

  19. New neptunium(V) borates that exhibit the alexandrite effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    A new neptunium(V) borate, K[(NpO(2))B(10)O(14)(OH)(4)], was synthesized using boric acid as a reactive flux. The compound possesses a layered structure in which Np(V) resides in triangular holes, creating a hexagonal-bipyramidal environment around neptunium. This compound is unusual in that it exhibits the Alexandrite effect, a property that is typically restricted to neptunium(IV) compounds.

  20. Imidazolines as non-classical bioisosteres of N-acyl homoserine lactones and quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Bucio-Cano, Alejandro; Montenegro-Sustaita, Mabel; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    A series of selected 2-substituted imidazolines were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by a modification of protocols reported in the literature. They were evaluated as potential non-classical bioisosteres of AHL with the aim of counteracting bacterial pathogenicity. Imidazolines 18a, 18e and 18f at various concentrations reduced the violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum, suggesting an anti-quorum sensing profile against Gram-negative bacteria. Imidazoline 18b did not affect the production of violacein, but had a bacteriostatic effect at 100 μM and a bactericidal effect at 1 mM. Imidazoline 18a bearing a hexyl phenoxy moiety was the most active compound of the series, rendering a 72% inhibitory effect of quorum sensing at 100 μM. Imidazoline 18f bearing a phenyl nonamide substituent presented an inhibitory effect on quorum sensing at a very low concentration (1 nM), with a reduction percentage of 28%. This compound showed an irregular performance, decreasing inhibition at concentrations higher than 10 μM, until reaching 100 μM, at which concentration it increased the inhibitory effect with a 49% reduction percentage. When evaluated on Serratia marcescens, compound 18f inhibited the production of prodigiosin by 40% at 100 μM.

  1. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  2. Non-classical Rydberg states for metrology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietsche, Eva-Katharina; Facon, Adrien; Grosso, Dorian; Signoles, Adrien; Dotsenko, Igor; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sebastien

    2015-05-01

    The Stark level structure of a Rydberg atom offers a large Hilbert space in which we can implement novel complex quantum dynamics. Coupled to a well polarized radio-frequency field, the atom behaves like a large angular momentum. We have recently demonstrated that we can use Quantum Zeno dynamics to prepare the atom in a quantum superposition of coherent spin states. The atom, initially in the circular state, is driven by the radio-frequency field while a microwave field selectively addresses a given Stark sub-level. The coupling to the microwave field leads to a restricted evolution in the Hilbert space, in which the atom periodically evolves in a quantum superposition of two spins pointing in different classical directions. Those states show a Wigner function with fast oscillating interference fringes, which are very sensitive to slight changes of the atomic frequency induced by either the Stark or the Zeeman effect. We explore how such Schrodinger cat states can be used to perform metrology experiments that measure small variations of electric or magnetic fields with a sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit.

  3. Hydrogenation of Liquid Styrene by Alumina Supported Nickel Catalysts: Comparison between Classical and Non-Classical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. C.; Abu Bakar, N. H. H.; Tan, W. L.; Abu Bakar, M.

    2016-06-01

    Almina supported Ni catalysts (Ni/Al2O3) with different Ni weight percentages (wt%) were prepared via classical and non-classical methods. All samples were prepared via impregnation technique. The samples prepared via non-classical methods were reduced using KBH4 as the reducing agent. The catalysts were tested for the hydrogenation of styrene in liquid phase. Optimum activation conditions for the hydrogenation reaction were found to be 633 K for 2 hours. Comparison of the catalytic reactivity for all catalysts at these activation conditions showed that catalysts prepared via classical methods exhibited better activity. Furthermore the 7.6wt% Ni-Al2O3/C showed enhanced activity when compared to the 5.9wt% and 13.8wt% Ni-Al2O3/C catalyst. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the type of Ni active sites available on the catalyst. The surface properties of the catalysts investigated via H2- temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), H2-chemisorption and H2-temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD) confirm this.

  4. Generating non-classical states from spin coherent states via interaction with ancillary spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Joo, Jaewoo; Proctor, Timothy; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-02-01

    The generation of non-classical states of large quantum systems has attracted much interest from a foundational perspective, but also because of the significant potential of such states in emerging quantum technologies. In this paper we consider the possibility of generating non-classical states of a system of spins by interaction with an ancillary system, starting from an easily prepared initial state. We extend previous results for an ancillary system comprising a single spin to bigger ancillary systems and the interaction strength is enhanced by a factor of the number of ancillary spins. Depending on initial conditions, we find - by a combination of approximation and numerics - that the system of spins can evolve to spin cat states, spin squeezed states or to multiple cat states. We also discuss some candidate systems for implementation of the Hamiltonian necessary to generate these non-classical states.

  5. Non-classical adhesive-bonded joints in practical aerospace construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions are derived for adhesive-bonded joints of non-classical geometries. Particular attention is given to bonded doublers and to selective reinforcement by unidirectional composites. Non-dimensionalized charts are presented for the efficiency limit imposed on the skin as the result of the eccentricity in the load path through the doubler. It is desirable to employ a relativly large doubler to minimize the effective eccentricity in the load path. The transfer stresses associated with selective reinforcement of metal structures by advanced composites are analyzed. Reinforcement of bolt holes in composites by bonded metal doublers is covered quantitatively. Also included is the adhesive joint analysis for shear flow in a multi-cell torque box, in which the bond on one angle becomes more critical sooner than those on the others, thereby restricting the strength to less than the total of each maximum strength when acting alone. Adhesive plasticity and adherend stiffness and thermal imbalances are included. A simple analysis/design technique of solution in terms of upper and lower bounds on an all-plastic adhesive analysis is introduced.

  6. Imaging non-classical elastic nonlinearities using reciprocal time reversal and phase symmetry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Meo, Michele

    2012-04-01

    In this research work, an imaging method of the nonlinear signature in a reverberant complex anisotropic structure with hysteretic behaviour is reported. The proposed technique relies on a combination of phase symmetry analysis with frequency modulation excitation and nonlinear time reversal, and it is applied to a number of waveforms containing the nonlinear impulse responses of the medium. Phase symmetry analysis was used to characterize the third order nonlinearity of the structure due to delamination and cracks, by exploiting its invariant properties with the phase angle of the input waveforms. Then, a "virtual" reciprocal time reversal imaging process, using only two sensors in pitch-catch mode, was used to "illuminate" the damage. Taking advantage of multiple linear scattering, this methodology allows achieving the optimal focalization at the nonlinear source by a compensation of the distortion effects in a dissipative medium. The robustness of this technique was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged sandwich panel undergone to low-velocity impact loading. The nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy with little computational time (less than 1 sec). Its minimal processing requirements make this method a valid alternative to the traditional nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy techniques for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  7. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  8. Influences on the Talent Development Process of Non-Classical Musicians: Psychological, Social and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Sara; Richards, Hugh; Collins, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Twelve professional, non-classical musicians were interviewed about the impact of internal and external factors on their development as musicians. The data were qualitatively analyzed, and observations concerning psychological characteristics of developing excellence (PCDEs), social and environmental influences are reported. The insights of the…

  9. Pimecrolimus micelle exhibits excellent therapeutic effect for Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca.

    PubMed

    Yingfang, Fan; Zhuang, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xuelian; Xu, Wei; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    Poor corneal penetration and short residence time on the ocular surface are two major bottlenecks for conventional ophthalmic formulations. To overcome the foregoing dilemmas, we prepared two novel formulations of pimecrolimus nanomicelles (PNM) with particle size of 37.85 ± 1.21 nm and thermosensitive hydrogel (PTH) for treating Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS). PNM were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Malvern laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) system, and the content of drug in PNM was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency reached to 7.57% ± 0.10% and 97.9% ± 1.26%, respectively. PTH displayed special gel-sol transition behavior with temperature increasing from 4 °C to 37 °C. The in vitro release profile demonstrated that PNM and PTH exhibited sustained-release behavior compared with free pimecrolimus oil-based eye drop (FPO). In addition, we established a mouse model of KCS induced by benzalkonium chloride to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of different pimecrolimus formulations. The production of tear, fluorescein staining scores and histopathologic examinations of the cornea were assessed in detail. The results confirmed that PNM had the best therapeutic effect among all formulations based on its higher drug encapsulation capability, favourable permeability and sustained release. All these indicated that PNM could serve as a potent ophthalmologic agent for KCS. PMID:26731192

  10. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    PubMed

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  11. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    PubMed

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice.

  12. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    PubMed Central

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  13. A non-classical view of the modulation of mineral precipitation by organic additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Questions persist on the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate or barium sulphate. Compared to CaCO3, the mechanisms of nucleation and growth in the CaC2O4-H2O or BaSO4-H2O systems have received less attention. These phases are important due to their relevance as biominerals and/or unwanted mineral deposits in technological applications. Growing evidence suggests that sparingly soluble salts form by non-classical nucleation and growth pathways, where pre-nucleation ion associates and amorphous (solid or liquid) precursor phase(s) play a critical role (e.g. Rodríguez-Navarro et al. (2015), Ruiz-Agudo et al. (2015)). Indeed the identification of pre-nucleation species in these systems and their strong interactions with organic compounds (Verch et al. 2011) raises the possibility that the control of organics on biomineralization may begin even earlier than previously thought. A sound knowledge of the physical mechanisms by which acidic macromolecules affect nucleation and early growth may offer general insights concerning the molecular control of biomineralization, as well as being critical for improving strategies to control unwanted mineral deposition or for the synthesis of biomimetic materials. Here we present investigations on the initial stages of the precipitation of these relevant minerals in organic-free solutions to identify the precipitation pathway and to look for any potential precursor phase(s) to the final, crystalline polymorph. As well, we explore the effects that several acidic organic compounds have on the different precipitation stages identified. We find that organic additives such as citric acid, polyacrilic acid or a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups can be active at modifying pre-nucleation stages (destabilizing of pre-nucleation species or hampering the aggregation and growth of pre-nucleation associates) and subsequently strongly

  14. Electrical stimulation of non-classical photon emission from diamond color centers by means of sub-superficial graphitic electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Jacopo; Traina, Paolo; Monticone, Daniele Gatto; Amato, Giampiero; Boarino, Luca; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Enrico, Emanuele; Moreva, Ekaterina; Grilj, Veljko; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Genovese, Marco; Olivero, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Focused MeV ion beams with micrometric resolution are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as already demonstrated for different device applications. In this work we apply this fabrication method to the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond, demonstrating the potential of electrical stimulation in diamond-based single-photon sources. Differently from optically-stimulated light emission from color centers in diamond, electroluminescence (EL) requires a high current flowing in the diamond subgap states between the electrodes. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrode pairs, 10 μm spaced, were fabricated in the bulk of a single-crystal diamond sample using a 6 MeV C microbeam. The electrical characterization of the structure showed a significant current injection above an effective voltage threshold of 150 V, which enabled the stimulation of a stable EL emission. The EL imaging allowed to identify the electroluminescent regions and the residual vacancy distribution associated with the fabrication technique. Measurements evidenced isolated electroluminescent spots where non-classical light emission in the 560–700 nm spectral range was observed. The spectral and auto-correlation features of the EL emission were investigated to qualify the non-classical properties of the color centers. PMID:26510889

  15. Contribution of a Non-classical HLA Gene, HLA-DOA, to the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Suzuki, Akari; Ikari, Katsunori; Terao, Chikashi; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Higasa, Koichiro; Akiyama, Masato; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kanai, Masahiro; Hirata, Jun; Suita, Naomasa; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Huji; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Takahashi, Atsushi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Matsuda, Koichi; Momohara, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Kubo, Michiaki; Brown, Matthew A; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Despite the progress in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) causal variant mapping, independent localization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) risk from classical HLA genes is challenging. Here, we conducted a large-scale MHC fine-mapping analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Japanese population (6,244 RA cases and 23,731 controls) population by using HLA imputation, followed by a multi-ethnic validation study including east Asian and European populations (n = 7,097 and 23,149, respectively). Our study identified an independent risk of a synonymous mutation at HLA-DOA, a non-classical HLA gene, on anti-citrullinated protein autoantibody (ACPA)-positive RA risk (p = 1.4 × 10(-9)), which demonstrated a cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) effect on HLA-DOA expression. Trans-ethnic comparison revealed different linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in HLA-DOA and HLA-DRB1, explaining the observed HLA-DOA variant risk heterogeneity among ethnicities, which was most evident in the Japanese population. Although previous HLA fine-mapping studies have identified amino acid polymorphisms of the classical HLA genes as driving genetic susceptibility to disease, our study additionally identifies the dosage contribution of a non-classical HLA gene to disease etiology. Our study contributes to the understanding of HLA immunology in human diseases and suggests the value of incorporating additional ancestry in MHC fine-mapping. PMID:27486778

  16. Studying thin film damping in a micro-beam resonator based on non-classical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Mina; Hossainpour, Siamak; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is presented for studying thin film damping of the surrounding fluid in an in-plane oscillating micro-beam resonator. The proposed model for this study is made up of a clamped-clamped micro-beam bound between two fixed layers. The micro-gap between the micro-beam and fixed layers is filled with air. As classical theories are not properly capable of predicting the size dependence behaviors of the micro-beam, and also behavior of micro-scale fluid media, hence in the presented model, equation of motion governing longitudinal displacement of the micro-beam has been extracted based on non-local elasticity theory. Furthermore, the fluid field has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. These coupled equations have been simplified using Newton-Laplace and continuity equations. After transforming to non-dimensional form and linearizing, the equations have been discretized and solved simultaneously using a Galerkin-based reduced order model. Considering slip boundary conditions and applying a complex frequency approach, the equivalent damping ratio and quality factor of the micro-beam resonator have been obtained. The obtained values for the quality factor have been compared to those based on classical theories. We have shown that applying non-classical theories underestimate the values of the quality factor obtained based on classical theories. The effects of geometrical parameters of the micro-beam and micro-scale fluid field on the quality factor of the resonator have also been investigated.

  17. [Classical and non-classical taxonomy: where does the boundary pass?].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2006-01-01

    Rise of non-classical science during XX century had certain influence upon development of biological taxonomy. Scientific pluralism (especially normative naturalism of Laudan), contrary to positivist and early post-positivist treatments, made taxonomy acknowledged scientific discipline of its own right. The present state of some schools of taxonomy makes it possible to consider them as a part of non-classical science and constituting the non-classical taxonomy. The latter is characterized by the following most important features. Ontological substantiation of both classificatory approaches and particular classifications is requested which invalidates such formal approaches as nominalistic and phenetic (numerical) schools. This substantiation takes a form of content-wise background preferably causal models which include certain axioms and presumptions about taxonomic diversity being studied, together with its causes, and thus define initial conditions of classificatory procedures. From this viewoint, phylogenetic classificatory approach is the most developed part of non-classical taxonomy. The entire taxonomic diversity is structured into several aspects of different levels of generality, each being outlined by a particular consideration aspect. The latter makes personal knowledge constituting an irremovable part of any scientific statement about taxonomic diversity, thus opposition of "objectively" and "subjectively" elaborated classifications becomes vague. Interrelation of various species concepts corresponding to its different consideration aspects is described by uncertainty relation principle. Classificatory algorithms are to be compatible with the conditions of a background model to ensure particular classifications obtained by their means are interpretable within the same model: this is provided by the correspondence principle. Classification is considered as a taxonomic hypothesis, i.e. a conjectural judgement about structure of particular fragment of

  18. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    PubMed

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  19. Investigation of Non-classical Under lap Design on Linearity of a Folded Cascode Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Kranti, A.; Armstrong, G. A.

    2011-08-01

    The significance of optimization of gate-source/drain extension region (also known as a non-classical underlap design) in double gate (DG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) FETs to improve the linearity performance of a low power folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is described. Based on a new figure-of-merit (FoM) involving AV, linearity, unity gain bandwidth fT and dc power consumption PDC, this article presents guideline for optimum design for underlap spacer s and film thickness Tsi to maximize the performance of OTA. It has been shown that FoM exhibited by an underlap DG MOSFET OTA gives significantly higher value (≅9) compared to a conventional single gate bulk MOSFET OTA. This is due to a combination of both higher fT, and higher gain AV for the same linearity at low power consumption of 360 μW. With gate length scaling, FoM continues to improve, primarily due to higher value of fT. A scaled bulk MOSFET OTA exhibits similar but much smaller enhancement in trend for FoM.

  20. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Parasar, Parveen; Wilhelm, Amanda; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Thomas, Aaron J; Teng, Lihong; Shi, Bi; Davis, William C; Suarez, Carlos E; New, Daniel D; White, Kenneth L; Davies, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-classical MHC-I isoforms, we expressed the MHC proteins in murine P815 and human K562 (MHC-I deficient) cells. Following antibiotic selection, stably transfected cell lines were stained with H1A or W6/32 antibodies to detect expression of the MHC-I proteins by flow cytometry. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00501 and BoLA-NC3*00101) were expressed on the cell surface in both cell lines. Surprisingly, the BoLA-NC4*00201 protein was expressed on the cell membrane of human K562 but not mouse P815 cells. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00401, which lacks a transmembrane domain, and BoLA-NC2*00102) did not exhibit cell surface expression. Nevertheless, Western blot analyses demonstrated expression of the MHC-I heavy chain in all transfected cell lines. Ammonium-sulfate precipitation of proteins from culture supernatants showed that BoLA-NC1*00401 was secreted and that all surface expressed proteins where shed from the cell membrane by the transfected cells. Interestingly, the surface expressed MHC-I proteins were present in culture supernatants at a much higher concentration than BoLA-NC1*00401. This comprehensive study shows that bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins BoLA-NC1*00501, BoLA-NC3*00101, and BoLA-NC4*00201 are expressed as surface isoforms with the latter reaching the cell membrane only in K562 cells. Furthermore, it demonstrated that BoLA-NC1*00401 is a secreted isoform and that significant quantities of membrane associated MHC-I proteins can be shed from the cell membrane. PMID:27473990

  1. Treatment of beta amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42)-induced basal forebrain cholinergic damage by a non-classical estrogen signaling activator in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Potapov, Kyoko; Kim, SooHyun; Peppercorn, Katie; Tate, Warren P.; Ábrahám, István M.

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is a loss in cholinergic innervation targets of basal forebrain which has been implicated in substantial cognitive decline. Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1–42) accumulates in AD that is highly toxic for basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons. Although the gonadal steroid estradiol is neuroprotective, the administration is associated with risk of off-target effects. Previous findings suggested that non-classical estradiol action on intracellular signaling pathways has ameliorative potential without estrogenic side effects. After Aβ1–42 injection into mouse basal forebrain, a single dose of 4-estren-3α, 17β-diol (estren), the non-classical estradiol pathway activator, restored loss of cholinergic cortical projections and also attenuated the Aβ1–42-induced learning deficits. Estren rapidly and directly phosphorylates c-AMP-response–element-binding-protein and extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1/2 in BFC neurons and restores the cholinergic fibers via estrogen receptor-α. These findings indicated that selective activation of non-classical intracellular estrogen signaling has a potential to treat the damage of cholinergic neurons in AD. PMID:26879842

  2. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-05-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  3. Linalool exhibits cytotoxic effects by activating antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Yin; Shen, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    According to recent studies, the Plantaginaceae, which are traditional Chinese herbal remedies, have potential for use in viral infection treatment and cancer therapy. Linalool and p-coumaric acid are two of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from the Plantaginaceae. This study mainly focused on investigating the bioactivity of linalool as well as the bioactivity of p-coumaric acid in terms of their cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Whether the mechanisms of such effects are generated through apoptosis and immunoregulatory activity were also investigated. By using WST-1 analysis, it was shown that linalool and p-coumaric acid have good inhibitory effects against breast, colorectal and liver cancer cells. The IC50 values of linalool for those cancer cell types were 224 μM, 222 μM, and 290 μM, respectively, and the IC50 values of p-coumaric acid were 693 μM, 215 μM and 87 μM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis also confirmed that linalool and p-coumaric acid can lead to apoptosis. By using flow cytometry, it was determined that treatment with linalool rather than p-coumaric acid significantly increased the sub-G1 phase and that there were more cells concentrated in the G1 phase. Furthermore, by using cytokine array analysis, we found that linalool can stimulate IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-2, IL-21, IL-21R, IL-4, IL-6sR and TNF-α secretion. This demonstrated that in addition to the bidirectional regulation capabilities found in linalool, it also induces Th1 cellular immune response in T-47D cells. These results showed that linalool holds great potential for use in cancer therapy, and we believe that it could provide an alternative way to take action against tumors.

  4. Controlling chaos experimentally in systems exhibiting large effective Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübinger, B.; Doerner, R.; Martienssen, W.; Herdering, M.; Pitka, R.; Dressler, U.

    1994-08-01

    We investigate experimentally the performance of the Ott, Grebogi, and Yorke [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1989)] feedback concept to control chaotic motion. The experimental systems are a driven pendulum and a driven bronze ribbon. Both setups have unstable periodic orbits characterized by large effective Lyapunov exponents. All control vectors for the feedback control are extracted from the experimental data. To do this for the pendulum a global model obtained by the flow field analysis of Cremers and Hübler [Z. Naturforsch. 42a, 797 (1987)] is used, and for the bronze ribbon linear approximations in embedding space are exploited. We analyze the problems that arise due to the amplification of noise by large effective Lyapunov exponents in the determination of the control values as well as in the performance of the experimental control. Successful control can be achieved in our experiments by applying the ``local control method'' which allows a quasicontinuous adjustment of the control parameter in contrast to adjusting the control parameter only once per return time of the Poincaré map.

  5. Olive oil exhibits osteoprotection in ovariectomized rats without estrogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive

  6. Pauses and durations exhibit a serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Karl; Lawrence, Holly; Krohn, Talia; Bower, Katherine; Thomas, J Graham

    2005-02-01

    This article reports evidence of two kinds of serial position effects in immediate serial recall: One involves interresponse pauses, and the other response durations. In forward and backward recall, responding was faster at initial and final positions than at center positions, exhibitinga bow-shaped function relative to serial position. These data were obtained in a spoken recall study in which ungrouped lists of four to six words and postcuing of recall direction were used. The pause pattern is consistent with several models of serial memory, including a distinctiveness model (Brown, Neath, & Chater, 2002) and a version of the ACT-R model augmented with a spontaneous grouping strategy (Maybery, Parmentier, & Jones, 2002). The duration pattern suggests that response articulation depends on the processing context, rather than being modular.

  7. Non-classical amine recognition evolved in a large clade of olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Tachie-Baffour, Yaw; Liu, Zhikai; Baldwin, Maude W; Kruse, Andrew C; Liberles, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic amines are important signaling molecules, and the structural basis for their recognition by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) is well understood. Amines are also potent odors, with some activating olfactory trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Here, we report that teleost TAARs evolved a new way to recognize amines in a non-classical orientation. Chemical screens de-orphaned eleven zebrafish TAARs, with agonists including serotonin, histamine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and agmatine. Receptors from different clades contact ligands through aspartates on transmembrane α-helices III (canonical Asp3.32) or V (non-canonical Asp5.42), and diamine receptors contain both aspartates. Non-classical monoamine recognition evolved in two steps: an ancestral TAAR acquired Asp5.42, gaining diamine sensitivity, and subsequently lost Asp3.32. Through this transformation, the fish olfactory system dramatically expanded its capacity to detect amines, ecologically significant aquatic odors. The evolution of a second, alternative solution for amine detection by olfactory receptors highlights the tremendous structural versatility intrinsic to GPCRs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10441.001 PMID:26519734

  8. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Rigovacca, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2014-07-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary {{R}_{A}} whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B).

  9. Non-classical nucleation theory of ordered intermetallic precipitates -- application to the Al-Li alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Poduri, R.; Chen, L.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The continuum non-classical nucleation theory of Cahn and Hilliard for isostructural decomposition has been extended to the case in which the precipitate and matrix not only have different compositions, but also have different structures. The particular example of precipitation of ordered intermetallics from a disordered matrix is considered. It is found that a critical nucleus consists of fluctuations of both composition and long-range order parameter profiles. It is shown that only when the composition of the initial disordered matrix is near the phase boundary of the disordered phase, are the composition and order parameter values inside the critical nucleus close to those of the equilibrium ordered phase, and that the critical profiles become increasingly diffuse as the composition of the disordered matrix approaches the ordering instability line. Based on the non-classical nucleation theory, the size of critical fluctuations, the critical free energy change and the nucleation rate are estimated for the specific case of the precipitation of metastable {delta}{prime} ordered phase from a disordered matrix in the Al-Li alloy.

  10. Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A.; Slater, Joshua A.; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G.; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons—the quanta of mechanical motion—from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers.

  11. Inhibition of rhotekin exhibits antitumor effects in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIZHEN; LIANG, ZHENYU; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause for cancer-related death, however, the pathogenesis mechanism is poorly understood. Although the rhotekin (RTKN) gene has been reported to encode an effector for the Rho protein that has critical roles in regulating cell growth, the role of RTKN in lung cancer has not been investigated. In clinical lung cancer patient tumor samples, we identified that the RTKN gene expression level was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to that of the adjacent normal tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of RTKN in lung cancer, we established RTKN stable knock-down A549 and SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines using lentiviral transfection of RTKN shRNA and evaluated the antitumor effects. The results showed that RTKN knock-down inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell viability, induced S phase arrest and increased cell apoptosis. In addition, RTKN knock-down inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Further analysis showed that the S phase promoting factors cyclindependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 levels were decreased in RTKN knock-down cells, and that the DNA replication initiation complex proteins Minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM)2 and MCM6 were decreased as well in RTKN knock-down cells. These results indicated that the RTKN protein was associated with lung cancer in clinic samples and exerted anticancer activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibiting cell cycle progression and the DNA replication machinery. These findings suggest that RTKN inhibition may be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26935528

  12. 45 CFR 150.439 - Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits... Hearings § 150.439 Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits. (a) Any proposed hearing exhibit... raised either in writing prior to the prehearing conference provided for in § 150.441 or at...

  13. Ranking Gene Ontology terms for predicting non-classical secretory proteins in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Protein secretion is an important biological process for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several sequence-based methods mainly rely on utilizing various types of complementary features to design accurate classifiers for predicting non-classical secretory proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) terms are increasing informative in predicting protein functions. However, the number of used GO terms is often very large. For example, there are 60,020 GO terms used in the prediction method Euk-mPLoc 2.0 for subcellular localization. This study proposes a novel approach to identify a small set of m top-ranked GO terms served as the only type of input features to design a support vector machine (SVM) based method Sec-GO to predict non-classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To evaluate the Sec-GO method, two existing methods and their used datasets are adopted for performance comparisons. The Sec-GO method using m=436 GO terms yields an independent test accuracy of 96.7% on mammalian proteins, much better than the existing method SPRED (82.2%) which uses frequencies of tri-peptides and short peptides, secondary structure, and physicochemical properties as input features of a random forest classifier. Furthermore, when applying to Gram-positive bacterial proteins, the Sec-GO with m=158 GO terms has a test accuracy of 94.5%, superior to NClassG+ (90.0%) which uses SVM with several feature types, comprising amino acid composition, di-peptides, physicochemical properties and the position specific weighting matrix. Analysis of the distribution of secretory proteins in a GO database indicates the percentage of the non-classical secretory proteins annotated by GO is larger than that of classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Of the m top-ranked GO features, the top-four GO terms are all annotated by such subcellular locations as GO:0005576 (Extracellular region). Additionally, the method Sec-GO is easily implemented and its web tool of

  14. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Prenucleation Clusters, Classical and Non-Classical Nucleation

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations of prenucleation species and multi-stage crystal nucleation processes challenge the long-established view on the thermodynamics of crystal formation. Here, we review and generalize extensions to classical nucleation theory. Going beyond the conventional implementation as has been used for more than a century now, nucleation inhibitors, precursor clusters and non-classical nucleation processes are rationalized as well by analogous concepts based on competing interface and bulk energy terms. This is illustrated by recent examples of species formed prior to/instead of crystal nucleation and multi-step nucleation processes. Much of the discussed insights were obtained from molecular simulation using advanced sampling techniques, briefly summarized herein for both nucleation-controlled and diffusion-controlled aggregate formation. PMID:25914369

  15. Model Condensation for Non-Classically Damped SYSTEMS—PART i: Static Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Z.-Q.; Jung, Y.; Selvam, R. P.

    2003-09-01

    Three condensation methods for the model reduction of non-classically damped systems are presented. One is defined in the displacement space and the other two are defined in the state space. Since the damping and inertia forces on all degrees of freedom of the full model are ignored, these algorithms are considered as the static condensation. One advantage of these condensation methods is that the explicit forms of the reduced stiffness, mass, and damping matrices can be directly obtained from the reduced model. These explicit reduced system matrices are very useful in further dynamic analyses. These approaches are compared from the assumptions, condensation matrices, computational work and the reduced system matrices. With the introduction of the generalised inverse of matrix, the method defined in the displacement space is extended and one variant is derived. Numerical examples, one three-degree-of-freedom discrete system and one floating raft isolation system, are applied to demonstrate the features of these methods.

  16. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  17. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  18. Spatial-Temporal Expression of Non-classical MHC Class I Molecules in the C57 Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiane; Shen, Yuqing; Li, Mingli; Lv, Dan; Zhang, Aifeng; Peng, Yaqin; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies clearly demonstrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in the brain plays an important functional role in neural development and plasticity. A previous study from our laboratory demonstrated the temporal and spatial expression patterns of classical MHC class I molecules in the brain of C57 mice. Studies regarding non-classical MHC class I molecules remain limited. Here we examine the expression of non-classical MHC class I molecules in mouse central nervous system (CNS) during embryonic and postnatal developmental stages using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence. We find non-classical MHC class I molecules, M3/T22/Q1, are expressed in the cerebral cortex, neuroepithelium of the lateral ventricle, neuroepithelium of aquaeductus and developing cerebellum during embryonic developmental stages. During the postnatal period from P0 to adult, non-classical MHC class I mRNAs are detected in olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebellum and some nerve nuclei. Overall, the expression patterns of non-classical MHC class I molecules are similar to those of classical MHC class I molecules in the developing mouse brain. In addition, non-classical MHC class I molecules are present in the H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) double knock-out mice where their expression levels are greatly increased within the same locations as compared to wild type mice. The elucidation and discovery of the expression profile of MHC class I molecules during development is important for supporting an enhanced understanding of their physiological and potential pathological roles within the CNS.

  19. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  20. Multiscale Geometry of the Olsen Model and Non-classical Relaxation Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian; Szmolyan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We study the Olsen model for the peroxidase-oxidase reaction. The dynamics is analyzed using a geometric decomposition based on multiple timescales. The Olsen model is four-dimensional, not in a standard form required by geometric singular perturbation theory and contains multiple small parameters. These three obstacles are the main challenges we resolve by our analysis. Scaling and the blow-up method are used to identify several subsystems. The results presented here provide a rigorous analysis for two oscillatory modes. In particular, we prove the existence of non-classical relaxation oscillations in two cases. The analysis is based on desingularization of lines of transcritical and submanifolds of fold singularities in combination with an integrable relaxation phase. In this context, our analysis also explains an assumption that has been utilized, based purely on numerical reasoning, in a previous bifurcation analysis by Desroches et al. (Discret Contin Dyn Syst S 2(4):807-827, 2009). Furthermore, the geometric decomposition we develop forms the basis to prove the existence of mixed-mode and chaotic oscillations in the Olsen model, which will be discussed in more detail in future work.

  1. A non-classical assembly pathway of Escherichia coli pore-forming toxin cytolysin A.

    PubMed

    Fahie, Monifa; Romano, Fabian B; Chisholm, Christina; Heuck, Alejandro P; Zbinden, Mark; Chen, Min

    2013-10-25

    Cytolysin A (ClyA) is an α-pore forming toxin from pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica. Here, we report that E. coli ClyA assembles into an oligomeric structure in solution in the absence of either bilayer membranes or detergents at physiological temperature. These oligomers can rearrange to create transmembrane pores when in contact with detergents or biological membranes. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements revealed that oligomers adopted an intermediate state found during the transition between monomer and transmembrane pore. These results indicate that the water-soluble oligomer represents a prepore intermediate state. Furthermore, we show that ClyA does not form transmembrane pores on E. coli lipid membranes. Because ClyA is delivered to the target host cell in an oligomeric conformation within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), our findings suggest ClyA forms a prepore oligomeric structure independently of the lipid membrane within the OMV. The proposed model for ClyA represents a non-classical pathway to attack eukaryotic host cells.

  2. Targeting Non-classical Myelin Epitopes to Treat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jintao; Baylink, David J.; Li, Chih-Huang; Watts, Douglas M.; Xu, Yi; Qin, Xuezhong; Walter, Michael H.; Tang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Qa-1 epitopes, the peptides that bind to non-classical major histocompatibility complex Ib Qa-1 molecules and are recognized by Qa-1-restricted CD8+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, have been identified in pathogenic autoimmune cells that attack myelin sheath in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis [MS]). Additionally, immunization with such epitopes ameliorates the EAE. However, identification of such epitopes requires knowledge of the pathogenic autoimmune cells which are largely unknown in MS patients. Hence, we asked whether the CD8+ Treg cells could directly target the myelin sheath to ameliorate EAE. To address this question, we analyzed Qa-1 epitopes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG that is a protein in myelin sheath). Here, we report identification of a MOG-specific Qa-1 epitope. Immunization with this epitope suppressed ongoing EAE, which was abrogated by CD8+ T cell depletion. Additionally, the epitope immunization activated the epitope-specific CD8+ T cells which specifically accumulated in the CNS-draining cervical lymph nodes. Finally, CD8+ T cells primed by the epitope immunization transferred EAE suppression. Hence, this study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism mediated by the CD8+ Treg cells. We propose that immunization with myelin-specific HLA-E epitopes (human homologues of Qa-1 epitopes) is a promising therapy for MS. PMID:27796368

  3. Ashwagandha root in the treatment of non-classical adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kalani, Amir; Bahtiyar, Gul; Sacerdote, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a well-characterised family of disorders of the adrenal cortices, resulting in varying degrees of cortisol, aldosterone and androgen deficiency or androgen excess, depending on the enzyme(s) affected and the degree of quantitative or functional enzyme deficit. Withania somnifera (WS), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is a medicinal plant that has been employed for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. Preclinical studies have shown that WS increases circulating cortisol levels and improves insulin sensitivity. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with non-classical adrenal hyperplasia due to both 3-β-ol dehydrogenase deficiency and aldosterone synthase deficiency who was self-treated with WS for 6 months. After 6 months of treatment her serum 18-OH-hydroxycorticoserone, 17-OH-pregnenolone, corticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol decreased by 31%, 66%, 69% and 55%, respectively. The biochemical improvement was accompanied by a noticeable reduction in scalp hair loss. PMID:22987912

  4. Transcription variants of SLA-7, a swine non classical MHC class I gene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Bourneuf, Emmanuelle; Vincent-Naulleau, Silvia; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2011-06-03

    In pig, very little information is available on the non classical class I (Ib) genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) i.e. SLA-6, -7 and -8. Our aim was to focus on the transcription pattern of the SLA-7 gene. RT-PCR experiments were carried out with SLA-7 specific primers targeting either the full coding sequence (CDS) from exon 1 to the 3 prime untranslated region (3UTR) or a partial CDS from exon 4 to the 3UTR. We show that the SLA-7 gene expresses a full length transcript not yet identified that refines annotation of the gene with eight exons instead of seven as initially described from the existing RefSeq RNA. These two RNAs encode molecules that differ in cytoplasmic tail length. In this study, another SLA-7 transcript variant was characterized, which encodes a protein with a shorter alpha 3 domain, as a consequence of a splicing site within exon 4. Surprisingly, a cryptic non canonical GA-AG splicing site is used to generate this transcript variant. An additional SLA-7 variant was also identified in the 3UTR with a splicing site occurring 31 nucleotides downstream to the stop codon. In conclusion, the pig SLA-7 MHC class Ib gene presents a complex transcription pattern with two transcripts encoding various molecules and transcripts that do not alter the CDS and may be subject to post-transcriptional regulation.

  5. A nanofiber assembly directed by the non-classical antiparallel β-structure from 4S-(OH) proline polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Nitin D; Sonar, Mahesh V; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2016-04-01

    The antiparallel arrangement of two strands of the non-classical β-structure, formed exclusively via cis-4S-(OH) prolyl polypeptide as established by FRET, propagates into self-assembled nanofibers upon conjugation with C12/C14/C16 hydrocarbon chains. PMID:26961970

  6. Non-classical heteroacenes: synthesis and properties of anthra[2,3-c:6,7-c']dithiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Brandon; Perepichka, Dmitrii F

    2011-12-21

    A new class of linear heteroacenes, anthra[2,3-c:6,7-c']dithiophenes, containing non-classical (non-Kekulé) thiophene in a 22-electron π-conjugated system have been prepared by electrochemical reduction. The electronic properties have been studied by DFT calculations and spectroelectrochemistry, supporting the formation of a triplet electronic structure. PMID:22042513

  7. A nanofiber assembly directed by the non-classical antiparallel β-structure from 4S-(OH) proline polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Nitin D; Sonar, Mahesh V; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2016-04-01

    The antiparallel arrangement of two strands of the non-classical β-structure, formed exclusively via cis-4S-(OH) prolyl polypeptide as established by FRET, propagates into self-assembled nanofibers upon conjugation with C12/C14/C16 hydrocarbon chains.

  8. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ˜70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ˜ 1-100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  9. Characterization of a divergent non-classical MHC class I gene in sharks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Carren; Perera, Thushara V; Ford, Heide L; Dascher, Christopher C

    2003-04-01

    Sharks are the most ancient group of vertebrates known to possess members of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene family. For this reason, sharks provide a unique opportunity to gain insight into the evolution of the vertebrate immune system through comparative analysis. Two genes encoding proteins related to the MHC class I gene family were isolated from splenic cDNA derived from spiny dogfish shark ( Squalus acanthias). The genes have been designated MhcSqac-UAA*01 and MhcSqac-UAA*NC1. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the Sqac-UAA*01 protein sequence clusters with classical MHC class I of several shark species and has structural elements common to most classical MHC class I molecules. In contrast, Sqac-UAA*NC1 is highly divergent from all vertebrate classical MHC class I proteins, including the Sqac-UAA *01 sequence and those of other shark species. Although Sqac-UAA*NC1 is clearly related to the MHC class I gene family, no orthologous genes from other species were identified due to the high degree of sequence divergence. In fact, the Sqac NC1 protein sequence is the most divergent MHC class-I-like protein identified thus far in any shark species. This high degree of divergence is similar in magnitude to some of the MHC class-I-related genes found in mammals, such as MICA or CD1. These data support the existence of a class of highly divergent non-classical MHC class I genes in the most primitive vertebrates known to possess homologues of the MHC and other components of the adaptive immune system.

  10. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ˜70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ˜ 1–100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  11. Clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Kashimada, Kenichi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ono, Makoto; Tajima, Toshihiro; Yokota, Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC21-OHD) is a mild form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency lacking apparent symptoms of androgen excess at birth. Most NC21-OHD cases are diagnosed after the onset of puberty, while a substantial number of patients are not diagnosed during childhood. Previous studies have reported ethnic differences in the prevalence of NC21-OHD. To date, the clinical features of NC21-OHD in Japanese children have not been systemically reported. Thus, we performed 3 independent analyses: retrospective analyses of newborn screening in 2 major Japanese cities (Sapporo and Niigata) and a national surveillance collecting clinical information from pediatric endocrinologists throughout the country. During the last 10 years, one case of NC21-OHD was diagnosed by newborn screening in each city, resulting in incidences of 2.0 (95% confidence interval = 0.0-5.9) and 2.1 (0.0-6.2) per 1,000,000 in Sapporo and Niigata, respectively. We collected information from 85% of the 135 Councilors of Japanese Society of Pediatric Endocrinology. Fifteen NC21-OHD patients were diagnosed during childhood, resulting in the estimated prevalence of 0.58 (0.28-1.1) per 1,000,000. Eleven patients were discovered by newborn screening, 7 patients developed hyperandrogenism symptoms (2-8 years of age, median 7), and 9 patients were treated with hydrocortisone at the time of the survey. Ten out of 13 patients showed compound heterozygosity for the P30L mutation of CYP21A2. Our study suggests that the prevalence/incidence of NC21-OHD is lower than that in Western countries, and that the age for initial onset of androgen excess symptoms varies during the prepubertal period.

  12. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy.

  13. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy. PMID:24114345

  14. Composition-structure-property relationships for non-classical ionomer cements formulated with zinc-boron germanium-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Boyd, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Non-classical ionomer glasses like those based on zinc-boron-germanium glasses are of special interest in a variety of medical applications owning to their unique combination of properties and potential therapeutic efficacy. These features may be of particular benefit with respect to the utilization of glass ionomer cements for minimally invasive dental applications such as the atruamatic restorative treatment, but also for expanded clinical applications in orthopedics and oral-maxillofacial surgery. A unique system of zinc-boron-germanium-based glasses (10 compositions in total) has been designed using a Design of Mixtures methodology. In the first instance, ionomer glasses were examined via differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and (11)B MAS NMR spectroscopy to establish fundamental composition - structure-property relationships for the unique system. Secondly, cements were synthesized based on each glass and handling characteristics (working time, Wt, and setting time, St) and compression strength were quantified to facilitate the development of both experimental and mathematical composition-structure-property relationships for the new ionomer cements. The novel glass ionomer cements were found to provide Wt, St, and compression strength in the range of 48-132 s, 206-602 s, and 16-36 MPa, respectively, depending on the ZnO/GeO2 mol fraction of the glass phase. A lower ZnO mol fraction in the glass phase provides higher glass transition temperature, higher N4 rate, and in combination with careful modulation of GeO2 mol fraction in the glass phase provides a unique approach to extending the Wt and St of glass ionomer cement without compromising (in fact enhancing) compression strength. The data presented in this work provide valuable information for the formulation of alternative glass ionomer cements for applications within and beyond the dental clinic, especially where conventional approaches to modulating working time and strength exhibit co

  15. The origin of non-classical effects in a one-dimensional superposition of coherent states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzek, V.; Knight, P. L.; Barranco, A. Vidiella

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the quantum fluctuations in a light field created by the superposition of coherent fields. We give a physical explanation (in terms of Wigner functions and phase-space interference) why the 1-D superposition of coherent states in the direction of the x-quadrature leads to the squeezing of fluctuations in the y-direction, and show that such a superposition can generate the squeezed vacuum and squeezed coherent states.

  16. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  17. Properties of epitaxial (210) iron garnet films exhibiting the magnetoelectric effect

    SciTech Connect

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Balbashov, A. M.; Lisovskii, F. V. Mansvetova, E. G.; Temiryazev, A. G.; Temiryazeva, M. P.

    2015-04-15

    The properties of epitaxial magnetic (LuBi){sub 3}(FeGa){sub 5}O{sub 12} iron garnet films grown on (210) substrates, which exhibit the magnetoelectric effect, are experimentally studied. The induced anisotropy and the behavior of the domain structure in the films are investigated in uniform and nonuniform external fields. The existing hypotheses about the nature of the magnetoelectric coupling in such films are critically analyzed.

  18. The mitogaligin protein is addressed to the nucleus via a non-classical localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Robinet, Pauline; Mollet, Lucile; Gonzalez, Patrick; Normand, Thierry; Charpentier, Stephane; Brule, Fabienne; Dubois, Martine; Legrand, Alain

    2010-01-29

    Mitogaligin, a protein encoded by galig, an internal cytotoxic gene of the galectin-3 locus, is mostly a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial targeting is due to an already identified mitochondrial localization signal. Interaction of mitogaligin with mitochondria leads to cytochrome c cytosolic leakage and ultimately to cell death. We have previously pointed out that mitogaligin can also be directed to the nucleus when the mitochondrial addressing signal is inactivated, indicating a possible dual intracellular localization of the protein. When expressed in the nucleus, mitogaligin exhibits also apoptotic properties leading to cell death. In this report, we show that nuclear addressing of mitogaligin depends on a sequence differing from classical signals containing basic, lysine or proline-tyrosine rich residues. The signal consists of a long sequence of amino acids residues based on a series of a short repetitive degenerated sequence.

  19. Lipid-Coated Cisplatin Nanoparticles Induce Neighboring Effect and Exhibit Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shutao; Wang, Yuhua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Zhenghong; Lin, C. Michael; Zhang, Yuan; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of cisplatin (CDDP) into nanoparticles (NPs) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency has been difficult due to the poor solubility of CDDP. However, this barrier has been overcome with a reverse microemulsion method appropriating CDDP’s poor solubility to our advantage promoting the synthesis of a pure cisplatin nanoparticle with a high drug loading capacity (approximately 80.8wt%). Actively targeted CDDP NPs exhibited significant accumulation in human A375M melanoma tumor cells in vivo. In addition, CDDP NPs achieved potent anti-tumor efficacy through the neighboring effect at a dose of 1 mg/kg when injected weekly via IV without inducing nephrotoxicity. The neighboring effect regards an observation made in vivo when the tumor cells that took up CDDP NPs released active drug following apoptosis. Via diffusion, surrounding cells that were previously unaffected showed intake of the released drug and their apoptosis soon followed. This observation was also made in vitro when A375M melanoma tumor cells incubated with CDDP NPs exhibited release of active drug and induced apoptosis on untreated neighboring cells. However, the neighboring effect was unique to rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Liver functional parameters and H&E staining of liver tissue in vivo failed to detect any difference between CDDP NP treated and control groups in terms of tissue health. By simultaneously promoting an increase in cytotoxicity and a lesser degree of side effects over free CDDP, CDDP NPs show great therapeutic potential with lower doses of drug while enhancing anti-cancer effectiveness. PMID:24083505

  20. New class of generalized photon-added coherent states and some of their non-classical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.; Mahmoodi, S.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we construct a new class of generalized photon added coherent states (GPACSs), |z,m{{\\rangle }_{r}} by excitations on a newly introduced family of generalized coherent states (GCSs) |z{{\\rangle }_{r}} (A Dehghani and B Mojaveri 2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 095304), obtained via generalized hypergeometric type displacement operators acting on the vacuum state of the simple harmonic oscillator. We show that these states realize resolution of the identity property through positive definite measures on the complex plane. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that the introduced states can also be interpreted as nonlinear coherent states (NLCSs), with a spacial nonlinearity function. Finally, some of their non-classical features as well as their quantum statistical properties are compared with Agarwal's photon-added coherent states (PACSs), \\left| z,m \\right\\rangle .

  1. Nuclear translocation of glutathione S-transferase {pi} is mediated by a non-classical localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakatsu, Miho; Goto, Shinji; Yoshida, Takako; Urata, Yoshishige; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is abrogated by the deletion of the last 16 amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region, indicating that residues 195-208 of GST{pi} are required for nuclear translocation. {yields} The lack of a contiguous stretch of positively charged amino acid residues within the carboxy-terminal region of GST{pi}, suggests that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is mediated by a non-classical nuclear localization signal. {yields} An in vitro transport assay shows that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is dependent on cytosolic factors and ATP. -- Abstract: Glutathione S-transferase {pi} (GST{pi}), a member of the GST family of multifunctional enzymes, is highly expressed in human placenta and involved in the protection of cellular components against electrophilic compounds or oxidative stress. We have recently found that GST{pi} is expressed in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus in some cancer cells, and that the nuclear expression of GST{pi} appears to correlate with resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Although the mitochondrial targeting signal of GST{pi} was previously identified in the amino-terminal region, the mechanism of nuclear translocation remains completely unknown. In this study, we find that the region of GST{pi}195-208 is critical for nuclear translocation, which is mediated by a novel and non-classical nuclear localization signal. In addition, using an in vitro transport assay, we demonstrate that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} depends on the cytosolic extract and ATP. Although further experiments are needed to understand in depth the precise mechanism of nuclear translocation of GST{pi}, our results may help to establish more efficient anti-cancer therapy, especially with respect to resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

  2. 45 CFR 150.439 - Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... introduce a proposed hearing exhibit following the times for submission specified in § 150.437 only if the party establishes to the satisfaction of the ALJ that it could not have produced the exhibit earlier...

  3. Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Steven B; Lacy, Ryan T; Morgan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  4. Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Steven B; Lacy, Ryan T; Morgan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring. PMID:22719728

  5. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  6. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  7. Computational design of donor-bridge-acceptor systems exhibiting pronounced quantum interference effects.

    PubMed

    Gorczak, Natalie; Renaud, Nicolas; Galan, Elena; Eelkema, Rienk; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum interference is a well-known phenomenon that dictates charge transport properties of single molecule junctions. However, reports on quantum interference in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules are scarce. This might be due to the difficulties in meeting the conditions for the presence of quantum interference in a donor-bridge-acceptor system. The electronic coupling between the donor, bridge, and acceptor moieties must be weak in order to ensure localised initial and final states for charge transfer. Yet, it must be strong enough to allow all bridge orbitals to mediate charge transfer. We present the computational route to the design of a donor-bridge-acceptor molecule that features the right balance between these contradicting requirements and exhibits pronounced interference effects.

  8. Topographic erosion by meteroid bombardment results in non-classical diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Richardson, James E.

    2016-10-01

    Here we develop a new Monte Carlo method for modeling meteoroid erosion in which local diffusivity is treated as a superposition of diffusivities whose values are determined by Poisson's distribution. We use numerical experiments to determine the effective diffusivity of a crater of a given size. We demonstrate that this Monte Carlo diffusion model can successfully explain the crater count equilibrium level observed on heavily-cratered terrains throughout the solar system. However, we find that the equilibrium level that we produce in our model is sensitive to how the local slope at the point of impact affects the final morphology of the resulting crater. Our model also explains the increase in the apparent erosion rate with increasing feature age and the increase in the apparent erosion rate with increasing feature size.

  9. Modeling of the Propagation of Seismic Waves in Non-Classical Media: Reduced Cosserat Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekova, E.; Kulesh, M.; Herman, G.; Shardakov, I.

    2006-12-01

    In rock mechanics, elastic wave propagation is usually modeled in terms of classical elasticity. There are situations, however, when rock behaviour is still elastic but cannot be described by the classical model. In particular, current effective medium theories, based on classical elasticity, do not properly describe strong dispersive or attenuative behaviour of wave propagation observed sometimes. The approach we have taken to address this problem is to introduce supplementary and independent degrees of freedom of material particles, in our case rotational ones. Various models of this kind are widely used in continuum mechanics: Cosserat theory, micropolar model of Eringen, Cosserat pseudocontinuum, reduced Cosserat continuum etc. We have considered the reduced Cosserat medium where the couple stress is zero, while the rotation vector is independent of the translational displacement. In this model, the stress depends on the rotation of a particle relatively to the background continuum of mass centers, but it does not depend on the relative rotation of two neighboring particles. This model seems to be adequate for the description of granular media, consolidated soils, and rocks with inhomogeneous microstructure. A real inhomogeneous medium is considered as effective homogeneous enriched continuum, where proper rotational dynamics of inhomogeneities are taken into account by means of rotation of a particle of the enriched continuum. We have obtained and analyzed theoretical solutions for this model describing the propagation of body waves and surface waves. We have shown both the dispersive character of these waves in elastic space and half space, and the existence of forbidden frequency zones. These results can be used for the preparation, execution, and interpretation of seismic experiments, which would allow one to determine whether (and in which situations) polar theories are important in rock mechanics, and to help with the identification of material parameters

  10. Non-Classical Creep Behavior of Fusion-Cast Alumina Refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    The compressive creep behavior of a typical 50% -/50% -alumina fusion-cast refractory block was examined as a function of temperature. Test temperatures (1450-1650oC) were chosen to correspond to those typical of service conditions, while relatively high compressive test stresses (0.6 and 1.0 MPa compared to 0.2-0.4 MPa which is typical of service) were chosen to promote exaggerated deformation and to more accurately measure the resulting creep strain. It was found that the measured creep strain responses in this alumina were a sum of (contracting) compressive creep strain and expansion strain due to time and temperature dependent microcracking. Long term, isothtermal expansion tests were also conducted, and their results allowed for the deconvolution of the compressive creep and expansion strains present in the measured creep strain test data. The analysis shows that despite complications associated with conflicting expansion and contraction effects, classical creep analysis may be used with this alumina refractory after the strains associated with the non-steady-state mechanism are considered and accounted for.

  11. Non-classical role of potential energy in adiabatic quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arnab

    2009-12-01

    Adiabatic quantum annealing is a paradigm of analog quantum computation, where a given computational job is converted to the task of finding the global minimum of some classical potential energy function and the search for the global potential minimum is performed by employing external kinetic quantum fluctuations and subsequent slow reduction (annealing) of them. In this method, the entire potential energy landscape (PEL) may be accessed simultaneously through a delocalized wave-function, in contrast to a classical search, where the searcher has to visit different points in the landscape (i.e., individual classical configurations) sequentially. Thus in such searches, the role of the potential energy might be significantly different in the two cases. Here we discuss this in the context of searching of a single isolated hole (potential minimum) in a golf-course type gradient free PEL. We show, that the quantum particle would be able to locate the hole faster if the hole is deeper, while the classical particle of course would have no scope to exploit the depth of the hole. We also discuss the effect of the underlying quantum phase transition on the adiabatic dynamics.

  12. Non-classical light generated by quantum-noise-driven cavity optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Daniel W C; Botter, Thierry; Schreppler, Sydney; Purdy, Thomas P; Brahms, Nathan; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2012-08-23

    Optomechanical systems, in which light drives and is affected by the motion of a massive object, will comprise a new framework for nonlinear quantum optics, with applications ranging from the storage and transduction of quantum information to enhanced detection sensitivity in gravitational wave detectors. However, quantum optical effects in optomechanical systems have remained obscure, because their detection requires the object’s motion to be dominated by vacuum fluctuations in the optical radiation pressure; so far, direct observations have been stymied by technical and thermal noise. Here we report an implementation of cavity optomechanics using ultracold atoms in which the collective atomic motion is dominantly driven by quantum fluctuations in radiation pressure. The back-action of this motion onto the cavity light field produces ponderomotive squeezing. We detect this quantum phenomenon by measuring sub-shot-noise optical squeezing. Furthermore, the system acts as a low-power, high-gain, nonlinear parametric amplifier for optical fluctuations, demonstrating a gain of 20 dB with a pump corresponding to an average of only seven intracavity photons. These findings may pave the way for low-power quantum optical devices, surpassing quantum limits on position and force sensing, and the control and measurement of motion in quantum gases.

  13. S100A13-C2A binary complex structure-a key component in the acidic fibroblast growth factor for the non-classical pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Sepuru K.; Rani, Sandhya G.; Kumar, Sriramoju M.; Yu Chin

    2009-03-13

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are key regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, tumor-induced angiogenesis and migration. FGFs are essential for early embryonic development, organ formation and angiogenesis. They play important roles in tumor formation, inflammation, wound healing and restenosis. The biological effects of FGFs are mediated through the activation of the four transmembrane phosphotyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) in the presence of heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and therefore require the release of FGFs into the extracellular space. However, FGF-1 lacks the signal peptide required for the releasing of these proteins through the classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi secretary pathway. Maciag et al. demonstrated that FGF-1 is exported through a non-classical release pathway involving the formation of a specific multiprotein complex [M. Landriscina, R. Soldi, C. Bagala, I. Micucci, S. Bellum, F. Tarantini, I. Prudovsky, T. Maciag, S100A13 participates in the release of fibroblast growth factor 1 in response to heat shock in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 22544-22552; C.M. Carreira, T.M. LaVallee, F. Tarantini, A. Jackson, J.T. Lathrop, B. Hampton, W.H. Burgess, T. Maciag, S100A13 is involved in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor-1 and p40 synaptotagmin-1 release in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 22224-22231; T.M. LaValle, F. Tarantini, S. Gamble, C.M. Carreira, A. Jackson, T. Maciag, Synaptotagmin-1 is required for fibroblast growth factor-1 release, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 22217-22223; C. Bagala, V. Kolev, A. Mandinova, R. Soldi, C. Mouta, I. Graziani, I, Prudovsky, T. Maciag, The alternative translation of synaptotagmin 1 mediates the non-classical release of FGF1, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 310 (2003) 1041-1047]. The protein constituents of this complex include FGF-1, S100A13 (a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein), and the p40 form of synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1). To understand the molecular events in the FGF-1 releasing

  14. Diagnosis and molecular characterization of non-classic forms of Tay-Sachs disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, R; Kok, F; Burin, M G; Sá Miranda, M C; Vasques, C; Henriques-Souza, A M M; Giugliani, R; Vainzof, Mariz; Pereira, L V

    2006-06-01

    Molecular analysis of five Brazilian families, including eight patients presenting with nonclassic Tay-Sachs disease, was performed to identify frequent causative mutations and their correlation with clinical course. Three patients were affected by the B1 subacute variant and were shown to carry the R178H mutation (the DN allele), which is also common among Portuguese patients. Two of them were compound heterozygotes, whereas the third presented with the mutation in both alleles. Since Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over two centuries, common ancestry might be the probable explanation. The fourth patient presented with a juvenile phenotype and carries the R499H mutation, which has been reported only once worldwide and is associated with residual enzyme activity, responsible for a slower clinical course. The fifth family, of an Ashkenazi Jewish background, showed an extensive intrafamilial clinical variability among three affected sibs presenting with muscle atrophy, ataxia, and psychiatric symptoms. They were first diagnosed as having atypical spinal muscular atrophy and, subsequently, spinocerebellar ataxia, but, recently, the diagnosis of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease was confirmed based on reduced plasma hexosaminidase A activity and the G269S/InsTATC1278 genotype. It is therefore highly recommended to test patients with a similar clinical history for Tay-Sachs disease. In the same family, one first cousin committed suicide at the age of 24 years, presenting with a clinical phenotype that suggested an undiagnosed case and highlighting the effect of the intrafamilial clinical variability in delaying a prompt diagnosis. It is now recognized that his parents are, in fact, a carrier couple. Additionally, another relative had been previously identified as a heterozygote in a Tay-Sachs disease screening program, but the information was not shared among the family. Since this information might anticipate diagnosis and genetic counseling, it is advisable that

  15. Left- and right-sided video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy exhibit similar effects on myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuan; Gan, Xiangfeng; Chen, Baishen; Shen, Zhuojian; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Huizhong; Xu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background Unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy features less operative trauma, improved cosmesis, and similar efficiency compared with transsternal (TS) thymectomy for treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Unilateral VATS thymectomy can be easily performed from either side of the thorax, because thymus is located in the middle of mediastinum. Nevertheless, the side that provides better outcomes remains controversial. This study presents our experience on treatments for MG and reveals the differences between the unilateral VATS thymectomy performed on each side. Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients with MG who underwent TS or VATS thymectomy on either side between January 2003 and December 2012 were enrolled in the study. Clinicopathologic data and surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed and compared among different surgical approaches. Results TS thymectomy was administered in 50 patients, whereas unilateral VATS approaches were performed on the remaining 31 patients, 15 on the left side and 16 on the right side. The VATS group exhibited a significantly shorter surgery duration (P<0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.009), shorter postoperative hospital stay (P=0.025), smaller thoracic drainage volume (P=0.033), shorter thoracic drainage duration (P=0.006), and less postoperative complications (P<0.001) compared with the TS group. However, disease remission rates did not significantly differ among the groups (P=0.988). The left-sided group exhibited considerably longer thoracic drainage duration than the right-sided group (P=0.041). Moreover, surgical time (P=0.736), intraoperative blood loss (P=0.281), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.599), thoracic drainage volume (P=0.571), postoperative complications (P=0.742) and therapeutic effect (P=1.000) did not significantly differ among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ocular type of MG is the only independent factor for clinical remission (P=0

  16. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  17. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-01

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The Id-Vg characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)90H10 FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0-60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  18. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  19. Fistular onion stalk extract exhibits anti-atherosclerotic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    HE, BENHONG; HAO, JIANJUN; SHENG, WEIWEI; XIANG, YUANCAI; ZHANG, JIEMEIA; ZHU, HAO; TIAN, JINGCHENG; ZHU, XU; FENG, YUNXIA; XIA, HAO

    2014-01-01

    Fistular onion stalk is used as a traditional herbal medicine, and its extract exhibits certain beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this study, the effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the pathological features, circulating inflammatory cytokines, local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and signaling pathway activities were examined using an in vivo model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis of the aorta was induced by loading Sprague Dawley rats with a high-fat diet and vitamin D2. Fistular onion stalk extract administration began five weeks after the induction of atherosclerosis and continued for 12 weeks. Rats treated with fistular onion stalk extract showed a significant reduction in the pathological region compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Inhibition of atherosclerosis was associated with preservation of the vascular wall and immune cell infiltration. The extract also reduced the levels of the local inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the extract downregulated the local activity of the RAAS. In addition, extract treatment inhibited several inflammatory signaling pathways by preventing phosphorylation, including the nuclear factor κB, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These data indicate that fistular onion stalk extract may be useful for the attenuation of atherosclerosis, and the mechanism includes the regulation of the local inflammatory response. PMID:25120600

  20. Airship Observations of Formaldehyde in the Po Valley as a Probe of Boundary Layer Development and Non-Classical Radical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stagnant meteorological conditions and high anthropogenic emissions make the Po Valley in Northern Italy one of Europe's most polluted regions. Understanding the processes controlling ozone production in this environment is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies. As both a source of HO2 radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. During the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls Climate Interaction Study (PEGASOS), HCHO measurements were acquired via a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FiLIF) instrument onboard a Zeppelin airship. This mission represents the first successful airborne deployment of the FiLIF instrument. With low flight speeds and vertical profiling capabilities, these Zeppelin-based observations in conjunction with other measurements may offer new insights into the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric composition within the Po Valley region. Preliminary comparisons of modeled and measured HCHO concentrations at various altitudes and VOC/NOx regimes will be presented. Analysis will focus on 1) the transition from nocturnal to daytime boundary layers, and 2) the potential role of "non-classical" radical chemistry in ozone production.

  1. Influence of crystallography upon critical nucleus shapes and kinetics of homogeneous f. c. c. -f. c. c. nucleation-II. The non-classical regime

    SciTech Connect

    Le Goues, F.K.; Aaronson, H.I.; Lee, Y.W.

    1984-10-01

    In a previous paper, the shape of the critical nucleus and its influence upon nucleation kinetics were studied at near zero supersaturation, i.e. in the classical nucleation regime, using a discrete lattice plane model of the coherent interphase boundary energy. In order to extend these studies to higher supersaturations, a discrete lattice point model, based on a formalism developed by Cook, de Fontaine and Hilliard, is employed in the present paper and applied to homogeneous nucleation of coherent f.c.c. precipitates in an f.c.c. matrix. Concentration profiles and free energies of formation of critical nuclei are calculated from this model as a function of temperature and supersaturation and compared with results obtained from the Cahn-Hilliard continuum non-classical model and the previously used discrete lattice plane classical model. As predicted in effect by Cahn and Hilliard, the three models converge at very low supersaturations, and the continuum and the discrete lattice point (but not the classical discrete lattice plane) models also do so near the spinodal. Thus the most important differences between the continuum and the discrete lattice point models develop at intermediate supersaturations. The main advantages of the discrete lattice point model are that it allows the influence of crystalline anisotropy to be taken into account, permits treatment of arbitrarily steep variations in composition and provides a more convenient milieu for the incorporation of volume strain energy, as is done in the next paper in this series.

  2. Calea zacatechichi dichloromethane extract exhibits antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Kowalczuk, A; Zielinska, M; Błażewicz, A; Fichna, J

    2015-10-01

    Calea zacatechichi Schltdl. (Asteraceae alt. Compositae) is a Mexican plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of C. zacatechichi extracts in mouse models mimicking the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Powdered C. zacatechichi herb (leaves, stems, and flowers) was extracted with methanol. Methanolic extract was filtered and evaporated giving methanolic fraction. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Methanolic and DCM (200 mg/kg, per os) extracts were screened for their effect on GI motility in several in vitro tests, and the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects were assessed using mouse models. The influence of the DCM extract on motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors was also assessed. Finally, the composition of C. zacatechichi DCM extract was qualitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. C. zacatechichi DCM extract significantly inhibited the contractility of mouse colon in vitro (IC50 = 17 ± 2 μg/ml). Administration of the DCM extract in vivo (200 mg/kg, per os) significantly prolonged the time of whole GI transit (46 ± 1 vs. 117 ± 27 min for control and DCM-treated animals, respectively; P = 0.0023), inhibited hypermotility, and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. Our findings suggest that constituents of the C. zacatechichi DCM extract exhibit antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. The extract may thus become an attractive material for isolation of compounds that may be used as a supplementary treatment for pain and diarrhea associated with IBS in the future. PMID:26068703

  3. Tricarboxylate-based Gd(III) coordination polymers exhibiting large magnetocaloric effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sui-Jun; Cao, Chen; Xie, Chen-Chao; Zheng, Teng-Fei; Tong, Xiao-Lan; Liao, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Jing-Lin; Wen, He-Rui; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-05-31

    Two Gd(III) coordination polymers with the formula [Gd(cit)(H2O)]∞ () and [Gd(nta)(H2O)2]∞ () (H4cit = citric acid, H3nta = nitrilotriacetic acid) have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Complex exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) structure based on carboxylate-bridged layers, while complex is a double-layer structure containing eight-coordinated Gd(III). Magnetic investigations reveal that weak antiferromagnetic couplings between adjacent Gd(III) ions in both and with different Weiss values result in large cryogenic magnetocaloric effects. It is notable that the maximum entropy changes (-ΔS) of and reach 31.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 32.2 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2 K for a moderate field change (ΔH = 3 T), and a remarkable -ΔS (41.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) for and 42.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ) could be obtained for ΔH = 7 T.

  4. Toward Effective Shell Modeling of Wrinkled Thin-Film Membranes Exhibiting Stress Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander; Sleight, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis has recently been applied to solar-sail membrane problems in order to model the out-of-plane deformations due to structural wrinkling. Whereas certain problems lend themselves to achieving converged nonlinear solutions that compare favorably with experimental observations, solutions to tensioned membranes exhibiting high stress concentrations have been difficult to obtain even with the best nonlinear finite element codes and advanced shell element technology. In this paper, two numerical studies are presented that pave the way to improving the modeling of this class of nonlinear problems. The studies address the issues of mesh refinement and stress-concentration alleviation, and the effects of these modeling strategies on the ability to attain converged nonlinear deformations due to wrinkling. The numerical studies demonstrate that excessive mesh refinement in the regions of stress concentration may be disadvantageous to achieving wrinkled equilibrium states, causing the nonlinear solution to lock in the membrane response mode, while totally discarding the very low-energy bending response that is necessary to cause wrinkling deformation patterns. An element-level, strain-energy density criterion is suggested for facilitating automated, adaptive mesh refinements specifically aimed at the modeling of thin-film membranes undergoing wrinkling deformations.

  5. Hemodynamic effects of high intensity interval training in COPD patients exhibiting exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Nasis, I; Kortianou, E; Vasilopoulou, Μ; Spetsioti, S; Louvaris, Z; Kaltsakas, G; Davos, C H; Zakynthinos, S; Koulouris, N G; Vogiatzis, I

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) has a significant adverse effect on cardiovascular function during exercise in COPD patients. COPD patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 11) exercise-induced DH undertook an incremental (IET) and a constant-load exercise test (CLET) sustained at 75% peak work (WRpeak) prior to and following an interval cycling exercise training regime (set at 100% WRpeak with 30-s work/30-s rest intervals) lasting for 12 weeks. Cardiac output (Q) was assessed by cardio-bio-impedance (PhysioFlow, enduro, PF-O7) to determine Q mean response time (QMRT) at onset (QMRT(ON)) and offset (QMRT(OFF)) of CLET. Post-rehabilitation only those patients exhibiting exercise-induced DH demonstrated significant reductions in QMRT(ON) (from 82.2 ± 4.3 to 61.7 ± 4.2 s) and QMRT(OFF) (from 80.5 ± 3.8 to 57.2 ± 4.9 s ). These post-rehabilitation adaptations were associated with improvements in inspiratory capacity, thereby suggesting that mitigation of the degree of exercise-induced DH improves central hemodynamic responses in COPD patients.

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 exhibits protective effects on lipid, hepatic and renal profiles in obese rat.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Trabelsi, Imen; Hamden, Khaled; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to first investigate the immuno-modulatory effects of six newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Wistar rats. Except for Lactobacillus plantarum TN8, all the other strains were noted to induce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The strains also generated low ratios of IL-10/IL-12 cytokine. Strain TN8 was, on the other hand, noted to induce an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine secretion rates and a decrease in pro-inflammatory IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production. The oral administration of TN8 improved the hepatic and urinary functions of obese rats by inducing decreases (P < 0.05) in alanine amino transferase (ALAT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, creatinine, urea, and body weight when compared to the control group of animals that underwent an increase in aspartate amino transferase (ASAT) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Overall, the findings indicate that strain TN8 exhibited a number of attractive properties that might open new promising opportunities for the improvement of various parameters related to animal health performance and the avoidance of antibiotics and drugs as promoting factors.

  7. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  8. Hydrogen sulfide exhibits cardioprotective effects by decreasing endoplasmic reticulum stress in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Luo, Jian; Wu, Zhixiong; Xiao, Ting; Zeng, Ou; Li, Lin; Li, Yan; Yang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to be the third gaseous signaling molecule with anti‑ER stress effects. Previous studies have shown that H2S acts as a potent inhibitor of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats. This study aimed to demonstrate whether H2S exhibits protective effects on the myocardium of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats by suppressing ER stress. In this study, diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ‑treated mice were divided into three groups, and subsequently treated with normal saline, 30 µmol/kg or 100 µmol/kg NaHS, i.p., respectively, for 8 weeks. The extent of myocyte hypertrophy was measured using hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections and collagen components were investigated using immunostaining. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), C/EBP‑homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase‑12 in the heart tissue of each group was detected by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that H2S could improve myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial collagen deposition in diabetic rats. In addition, it could reduce the expression of Grp78, caspase-12 and CHOP. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H2S suppresses STZ‑induced ER stress in the hearts of rats, and it may serve as a novel cardioprotective agent for DC. PMID:27222111

  9. CD95 maintains stem cell-like and non-classical EMT programs in primary human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Drachsler, M; Kleber, S; Mateos, A; Volk, K; Mohr, N; Chen, S; Cirovic, B; Tüttenberg, J; Gieffers, C; Sykora, J; Wirtz, C R; Mueller, W; Synowitz, M; Martin-Villalba, A

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive types of cancer with limited therapeutic options and unfavorable prognosis. Stemness and non-classical epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (ncEMT) features underlie the switch from normal to neoplastic states as well as resistance of tumor clones to current therapies. Therefore, identification of ligand/receptor systems maintaining this privileged state is needed to devise efficient cancer therapies. In this study, we show that the expression of CD95 associates with stemness and EMT features in GBM tumors and cells and serves as a prognostic biomarker. CD95 expression increases in tumors and with tumor relapse as compared with non-tumor tissue. Recruitment of the activating PI3K subunit, p85, to CD95 death domain is required for maintenance of EMT-related transcripts. A combination of the current GBM therapy, temozolomide, with a CD95 inhibitor dramatically abrogates tumor sphere formation. This study molecularly dissects the role of CD95 in GBM cells and contributes the rational for CD95 inhibition as a GBM therapy. PMID:27124583

  10. On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single-photon detectors

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Faraz; Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Bellei, Francesco; Dane, Andrew; Lee, Catherine; Hu, Xiaolong; Kharel, Prashanta; Marsili, Francesco; Assefa, Solomon; Berggren, Karl K.; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Photonic-integrated circuits have emerged as a scalable platform for complex quantum systems. A central goal is to integrate single-photon detectors to reduce optical losses, latency and wiring complexity associated with off-chip detectors. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are particularly attractive because of high detection efficiency, sub-50-ps jitter and nanosecond-scale reset time. However, while single detectors have been incorporated into individual waveguides, the system detection efficiency of multiple SNSPDs in one photonic circuit—required for scalable quantum photonic circuits—has been limited to <0.2%. Here we introduce a micrometer-scale flip-chip process that enables scalable integration of SNSPDs on a range of photonic circuits. Ten low-jitter detectors are integrated on one circuit with 100% device yield. With an average system detection efficiency beyond 10%, and estimated on-chip detection efficiency of 14–52% for four detectors operated simultaneously, we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first on-chip photon correlation measurements of non-classical light. PMID:25575346

  11. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class 1 proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-class...

  12. Corrigendum to "Reflection and damping properties for semi-infinite string equations with non-classical boundary conditions" [J. Sound & Vibration Vib. 336 (2014) 179-190

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaya, Tugce; van Horssen, Wim T.

    2015-03-01

    The authors regret that the following mistakes in referencing for the article "Reflection and damping properties for semi-infinite string equations with non-classical boundary conditions" ran through to the production version of this paper and therefore wish to correct this mistake in this corrigendum.

  13. Differentiation of the causal characteristics and influences of virtual reality and the effects on learning at a science exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Arlene

    Within the context of the informal science center, exhibits are the main interface for public learning. Essential to the success of a science center is how well exhibits model effective strategies for learning. Virtual Reality (VR) technology with its flexible, adaptive, multimedia, and immersive-learning capabilities is emerging for use by science centers in exhibits; however, research on learning in virtual environments at exhibits is scarce. To support the future development of VR science exhibits it is critical to investigate VR's pedagogical value and effects on science learning. Research investigated the Smoke & Mirrors VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, California. Inquiry focused on the interplay between elements of the exhibit's design, assessing the separate and interactive effects of visual imagery, moving images, sound, narration, and interactive tools to differentiate the causal characteristics and influences that enhanced and detracted from learning. Case study methodology was employed utilizing visitor observations and interviews with 14 participants. Findings indicated that realistic visual elements with text were the primary sources of content learning; however, positive results were limited to only a few participants. High cognitive load due to interactive tools; instructional design; and movement of visual images were found to be significant detracting characteristics of participant learning. Other characteristics and influences of VR were also found that directly effected learning. Research results will inform the forthcoming design of a new VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center and to the design and development of future VR exhibits at informal science centers. A prior brief mixed-methods evaluation of Smoke & Mirrors was conducted in 2003, contributing background to the study and its future implications and strategies.

  14. Simple Exhibits, Effective Learning: Presenting the United Farm Workers' Experience on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golodner, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of an online exhibit about the history of the United Farm Workers union that was created on the World Wide Web by the Walter P. Reuther Library/Archives of Labor and Urban History. Discusses Web design, hypertext links, and ease of navigation. (Author/LRW)

  15. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  16. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  17. Judgement heuristics and bias in evidence interpretation: The effects of computer generated exhibits.

    PubMed

    Norris, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of multi-media applications, trial presentation software and computer generated exhibits (CGE) has raised questions as to the potential impact of the use of presentation technology on juror decision making. A significant amount of the commentary on the manner in which CGE exerts legal influence is largely anecdotal; empirical examinations too are often devoid of established theoretical rationalisations. This paper will examine a range of established judgement heuristics (for example, the attribution error, representativeness, simulation), in order to establish their appropriate application for comprehending legal decisions. Analysis of both past cases and empirical studies will highlight the potential for heuristics and biases to be restricted or confounded by the use of CGE. The paper will conclude with some wider discussion on admissibility, access to justice, and emerging issues in the use of multi-media in court. PMID:26341308

  18. Judgement heuristics and bias in evidence interpretation: The effects of computer generated exhibits.

    PubMed

    Norris, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of multi-media applications, trial presentation software and computer generated exhibits (CGE) has raised questions as to the potential impact of the use of presentation technology on juror decision making. A significant amount of the commentary on the manner in which CGE exerts legal influence is largely anecdotal; empirical examinations too are often devoid of established theoretical rationalisations. This paper will examine a range of established judgement heuristics (for example, the attribution error, representativeness, simulation), in order to establish their appropriate application for comprehending legal decisions. Analysis of both past cases and empirical studies will highlight the potential for heuristics and biases to be restricted or confounded by the use of CGE. The paper will conclude with some wider discussion on admissibility, access to justice, and emerging issues in the use of multi-media in court.

  19. Classical and non-classical MHC I molecule manipulation by human cytomegalovirus: so many targets—but how many arrows in the quiver?

    PubMed Central

    Halenius, Anne; Gerke, Carolin; Hengel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Major mechanisms for the recognition of pathogens by immune cells have evolved to employ classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Classical MHC I molecules present antigenic peptide ligands on infected cells to CD8+ T cells, whereas a key function for non-classical MHC I molecules is to mediate inhibitory or activating stimuli in natural killer (NK) cells. The structural diversity of MHC I puts immense pressure on persisting viruses, including cytomegaloviruses. The very large coding capacity of the human cytomegalovirus allows it to express a whole arsenal of immunoevasive factors assigned to individual MHC class I targets. This review summarizes achievements from more than two decades of intense research on how human cytomegalovirus manipulates MHC I molecules and escapes elimination by the immune system. PMID:25418469

  20. An Investigation of the Life Experiences and Beliefs of High School Teachers Exhibiting Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the life experiences and beliefs of high school teachers exhibiting highly effective classroom management skills. The research for this phenomenological study utilized the narrative inquiry method of data collection. This study investigates the life experiences and beliefs of nine teachers…

  1. Implementation of a School/Home Based Model to Promote Effective Management of Problem Behaviors Exhibited by Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Fifer, Edith

    The project was designed to develop, implement, and evaluate an effective management system to modify and reduce inappropriate behaviors exhibited by preschool handicapped children. The writer (1) provided in-service training to school personnel to increase their expertise and skills in changing behavior, (2) encouraged parent education and…

  2. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zambonin, Laura; Caliceti, Cristiana; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana; Landi, Laura; Prata, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL), whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach. PMID:22792417

  3. Ni-Mn-Ga Single Crystal Exhibiting Multiple Magnetic Shape Memory Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, Oleg; Veřtát, Petr; Vronka, Marek; Kopecky, Vít; Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2016-09-01

    Both magnetically induced phase transformation and magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) effects were observed in one Ni50Mn28Ga22 single crystal sample by direct measurement of the magnetic field-induced strain. We investigated various twinning microstructures ranged from single twin interface to fine twinning and crossing twins to evaluate what controls the apparent twinning stress crucial for MIR. The main challenges for the applications of these effects are outlined.

  4. Fluoxetine Exhibits Pharmacological Effects and Trait-Based Sensitivity in a Marine Worm.

    PubMed

    Hird, Cameron M; Urbina, Mauricio A; Lewis, Ceri N; Snape, Jason R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-08-01

    Global production of pharmacologically active compounds exceeds 100 000 tons annually, a proportion of which enters aquatic environments through patient use, improper medicine disposal, and production. These compounds are designed to have mode-of-action (MoA) effects on specific biological pathways, with potential to impact nontarget species. Here, we used MoA and trait-based approaches to quantify uptake and biological effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in filter and deposit feeding marine worms (Hediste diversicolor). Worms exposed to 10 μg L(-1), accumulated fluoxetine with a body burden over 270 times greater than exposure concentrations, resulting in ∼10% increased coelomic fluid serotonin, a pharmacological effect. Observed effects included weight loss (up to 2% at 500 μg L(-1)), decreased feeding rate (68% at 500 μg L(-1)), and altered metabolism (oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and O/N from 10 μg L(-1)). Bioconcentration of fluoxetine was dependent on route of uptake, with filter feeding worms experiencing up to 130 times greater body burden ratios and increased magnitudes of effects than deposit feeders, a trait-based sensitivity likely as a consequence of fluoxetine partitioning to sediment. This study highlights how novel approaches such as MoA and trait-based methods can supplement environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. PMID:27379928

  5. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina. PMID:27609480

  6. Buformin exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects in endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Joshua; Jackson, Amanda L; Clark, Leslie H; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Jones, Hannah M; Gilliam, Timothy P; Gehrig, Paola A; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Biguanides are anti-diabetic drugs that are thought to have anti-tumorigenic effects. Most pre-clinical studies have focused on metformin for cancer treatment and prevention; however, buformin may be potentially more potent than metformin. Given this, our goal was to evaluate the effects of buformin on cell growth, adhesion and invasion in endometrial cancer cell lines. Methods: The ECC-1 and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was performed by FITC Annexin V assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Adhesion was analyzed using the laminin adhesion assay. Invasion was assessed using the transwell invasion assay. The effects of buformin on the AMPK/mTOR pathway were determined by Western immunoblotting. Results: Buformin and metformin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both endometrial cancer cell lines. IC50s were 1.4-1.6 mM for metformin and 8-150 μM for buformin. Buformin induced cell cycle G1 phase arrest in the ECC-1 cells and G2 phase arrest in the Ishikawa cells. For both ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells, treatment with buformin resulted in induction of apoptosis, reduction in adhesion and invasion, activation of AMPK and inhibition of phosphorylated-S6. Buformin potentiated the anti-proliferative effects of paclitaxel in both cell lines. Conclusion: Buformin has significant anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects in endometrial cancer cells through modulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway. IC50 values were lower for buformin than metformin, suggesting that buformin may be more potent for endometrial cancer treatment and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27398153

  7. Carbamate nerve agent prophylatics exhibit distinct toxicological effects in the zebrafish embryo model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Audrey; Wolman, Marc; Granato, Michael; Parsons, Michael; McCallion, Andrew S; Proescher, Jody; English, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of myasthenia gravis and a prophylactic pre-treatment for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Current methods for evaluating nerve agent treatments include enzymatic studies and mammalian models. Rapid whole animal screening tools for assessing the effects of nerve agent pre-treatment and post-exposure drugs represent an underdeveloped area of research. We used zebrafish as a model for acute and chronic developmental exposure to PB and two related carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, neostigmine bromide (NB) and physostigmine (PS). Lethal doses and gross morphological phenotypes resulting from exposure to sub-lethal doses of these compounds were determined. Quantitative analyses of motility impairment and AChE enzyme inhibition were used to determine optimal dosing conditions for evaluation of the effects of carbamate exposures on neuronal development; ~50% impairment of response to startle stimuli and >50% inhibition of AChE activity were observed at 80 mMPB, 20 mM NB and 0.1 mM PS. PB induced stunted somite length, but no other phenotypic effects were observed. In contrast, NB and PS induced more severe phenotypic morphological defects than PB as well as neurite outgrowth mislocalization. Additionally, NB induced mislocalization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, resulting in impaired synapse formation. Taken together, these data suggest that altered patterns of neuronal connectivity contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of carbamates and demonstrate the utility of the zebrafish model for distinguishing subtle structure-based differential effects of AChE inhibitors, which include nerve agents, pesticides and drugs.

  8. Anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids containing nanoparticles exhibiting magnetic dipole interaction.

    PubMed

    Gerth-Noritzsch, M; Borin, D Yu; Odenbach, S

    2011-08-31

    The aim of this work has been the investigation of the anisotropy of the viscosity of a ferrofluid with magnetically interacting particles which are able to form structures in an applied magnetic field. The results of the experiments show a significant deviation from the case of a fluid without strong dipolar interactions. Furthermore, we have determined the dependence of the ratio of the viscosity coefficients on shear rate providing an insight into the microstructural reasons for the observed effects. PMID:21841240

  9. Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl Exhibit Temperature Dependent Effects on Human Respiratory Cilia

    PubMed Central

    Welchering, Nils; Ochoa, Sebastian; Tian, Xin; Francis, Richard; Zahid, Maliha; Muñoz, Ricardo; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dexmedetomidine (dex) is commonly used in intensive care due to its effective sedation and analgesia with few adverse effects and minimal respiratory depression. However, we recently observed that exposing mouse epithelial respiratory cells to dex decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF), suggesting dex may pose pulmonary risk. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of dex at clinically relevant doses on CBF in human respiratory epithelia. Methods: Human nasal epithelial cilia were obtained from the inferior nasal turbinate with a rhinoprobe and placed in culture medium at 15°C and 37°C. At 5 and 30 min, video-microscopy was used to assess CBF, either without (control) or with different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 nM) of dex, fentanyl (fen), and dex + fen combination. Results: At 15°C, CBF was lower in the dex group compared to controls at 5 and 30 min. At 37°C, there was a significant increase in CBF with dex at 5 and 30 min, except for dex at 5 nM after 5 min, which showed a significant decrease. At 15°C the combination of dex + fen showed a positive interaction, causing less ciliary inhibition as expected. In contrast, no interaction between drugs was seen between dex and fen at 37°C. Conclusion: At low temperatures, dex reduces CBF in human respiratory epithelia, whereas dex increases CBF at physiologic temperature in vitro. Whether these effects translate into clinical consequences during hypothermia, as with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery will require further studies. PMID:25717467

  10. Structurally Similar Allosteric Modulators of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Exhibit Five Distinct Pharmacological Effects*

    PubMed Central

    Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Dhankher, Persis; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is associated with the binding of agonists such as acetylcholine to an extracellular site that is located at the interface between two adjacent receptor subunits. More recently, there has been considerable interest in compounds, such as positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs), that are able to modulate nAChR function by binding to distinct allosteric sites. Here we examined a series of compounds differing only in methyl substitution of a single aromatic ring. This series of compounds includes a previously described α7-selective allosteric agonist, cis-cis-4-p-tolyl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (4MP-TQS), together with all other possible combinations of methyl substitution at a phenyl ring (18 additional compounds). Studies conducted with this series of compounds have revealed five distinct pharmacological effects on α7 nAChRs. These five effects can be summarized as: 1) nondesensitizing activation (allosteric agonists), 2) potentiation associated with minimal effects on receptor desensitization (type I PAMs), 3) potentiation associated with reduced desensitization (type II PAMs), 4) noncompetitive antagonism (NAMs), and 5) compounds that have no effect on orthosteric agonist responses but block allosteric modulation (silent allosteric modulators (SAMs)). Several lines of experimental evidence are consistent with all of these compounds acting at a common, transmembrane allosteric site. Notably, all of these chemically similar compounds that have been classified as nondesensitizing allosteric agonists or as nondesensitizing (type II) PAMs are cis-cis-diastereoisomers, whereas all of the NAMs, SAMs, and type I PAMs are cis-trans-diastereoisomers. Our data illustrate the remarkable pharmacological diversity of allosteric modulators acting on nAChRs. PMID:25516597

  11. Pirfenidone exhibits cardioprotective effects by regulating myocardial fibrosis and vascular permeability in pressure-overloaded hearts.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Kiyoshi; Oka, Toru; Wang, Qi; Ishizu, Takamaru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Miwa, Keiko; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2015-08-01

    Although cardiac fibrosis causes heart failure, its molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis and examined the effects of the antifibrotic drug pirfenidone (PFD) on chronic heart failure. To understand the responsible mechanisms, we generated an in vivo pressure-overloaded heart failure model via transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and examined the effects of PFD on chronic-phase cardiac fibrosis and function. In the vehicle group, contractile dysfunction and left ventricle fibrosis progressed further from 4 to 8 wk after TAC but were prevented by PFD treatment beginning 4 wk after TAC. We isolated cardiac fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells from the left ventricles of adult male mice and investigated the cell-type-specific effects of PFD. Transforming growth factor-β induced upregulated collagen 1 expression via p38 phosphorylation and downregulated claudin 5 (Cldn5) expression in cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells, respectively; both processes were inhibited by PFD. Moreover, PFD inhibited changes in the collagen 1 and Cldn5 expression levels, resulting in reduced fibrosis and serum albumin leakage into the interstitial space during the chronic phase in TAC hearts. In conclusion, PFD inhibited cardiac fibrosis by suppressing both collagen expression and the increased vascular permeability induced by pressure overload.

  12. Erlotinib exhibits antineoplastic off-target effects in AML and MDS: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Boehrer, Simone; Adès, Lionel; Braun, Thorsten; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Grosjean, Jennifer; Fabre, Claire; Le Roux, Génèviève; Gardin, Claude; Martin, Antoine; de Botton, Stéphane; Fenaux, Pierre; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-02-15

    Erlotinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), induces differentiation, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis of EGFR-negative myeloblasts of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as in EGFR-negative cell lines representing these diseases (P39, KG-1, and HL 60). This off-target effect can be explained by inhibitory effects on JAK2. Apoptosis induction coupled to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization occurred independently from phenotypic differentiation. In apoptosis-sensitive AML cells, erlotinib caused a rapid (within less than 1 hour) nucleocytoplasmic translocation of nucleophosmin-1 (NPM-1) and p14(ARF). Apoptosis-insensitive myeloblasts failed to manifest this translocation yet became sensitive to apoptosis induction by erlotinib when NPM-1 was depleted by RNA interference. Moreover, erlotinib reduced the growth of xenografted human AML cells in vivo. Erlotinib also killed CD34(+) bone marrow blasts from MDS and AML patients while sparing normal CD34(+) progenitors. This ex vivo therapeutic effect was once more associated with the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of NPM-1 and p14(ARF). One patient afflicted with both MDS and non-small cell lung cancer manifested hematologic improvement in response to erlotinib. In summary, we here provide novel evidence in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo for the potential therapeutic efficacy of erlotinib in the treatment of high-risk MDS and AML.

  13. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  14. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  15. Hop bitter acids exhibit anti-fibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saugspier, Michael; Dorn, Christoph; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Gehrig, Manfred; Heilmann, Jörg; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Female inflorescences of the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. contain a variety of secondary metabolites with bitter acids (BA) as quantitatively dominating secondary metabolites. The use of hops in beer brewing has a long history due to the antibacterial effects of the BA and their typical bitter taste. Furthermore, hop cones are used in traditional medicine and for pharmaceutical purposes. Recent studies indicate that BA may affect activity of the transcription factor NFκB. NFκB plays a key role in the activation process of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which is the key event of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BA on HSC (activation) and their potential to inhibit molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. HSC were isolated from murine and human liver tissue and incubated with a characterized fraction of bitter acids purified from a CO(2) hop extract. At a concentration of 25μg/ml BA started to induce LDH leakage. Already at lower concentrations BA lead to a dose dependent inhibition of HSC proliferation and inhibited IκB-α-phosphorylation, nuclear p65 translocation and binding activity in a dose dependent way (up to 10μg/ml). Accordingly, the same BA-doses inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and NFκB regulated genes as MCP-1 and RANTES, but did not affect expression of genes not related to NFκB signaling. In addition to the effect on activated HSC, BA inhibited the in vitro activation process of freshly isolated HSC as evidenced by delayed expression of collagen I and α-SMA mRNA and protein. Together, these findings indicate that BA inhibit NFκB activation, and herewith the activation and development of profibrogenic phenotype of HSC. Thus, bitter acids appear as potential functional nutrients for the prevention or treatment hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  16. DIRECT AND DISTAL EFFECTS OF NONCONTINGENT JUICE ON RUMINATION EXHIBITED BY A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Kliebert, Megan L; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of the noncontingent delivery of foods and liquids at suppressing rumination, the repeated regurgitation and rechewing of partially digested food. However, it is unclear how long this reduction is maintained after caregivers terminate this procedure. The current study examined the direct and distal effects of noncontingent juice on rumination by measuring the duration of rumination during juice delivery and immediately following the termination of juice delivery. Noncontingent juice suppressed rumination, but this suppression was not maintained after delivery termination. PMID:22219547

  17. MicroRNAs-449a and -449b exhibit tumor suppressive effects in retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Alissa; Jones, Aunica; Bryar, Paul J.; Mets, Marilyn; Weinstein, Joanna; Zhang, Gang; Laurie, Nikia A.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We validate miR-449a/b expression in primary human retinoblastomas and cell lines. •Exogenous miRs-449a/b inhibited proliferation in retinoblastoma cell lines. •Exogenous miRs-449a/b increased apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. •miRs-449a/b could serve as viable therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma treatment. -- Abstract: Retinoblastoma is the most common pediatric cancer of the eye. Currently, the chemotherapeutic treatments for retinoblastoma are broad-based drugs such as vincristine, carboplatin, or etoposide. However, therapies targeted directly to aberrant signaling pathways may provide more effective therapy for this disease. The purpose of our study is to illustrate the relationship between the expressions of miRs-449a and -449b to retinoblastoma proliferation and apoptosis. We are the first to confirm an inhibitory effect of miR-449a and -449b in retinoblastoma by demonstrating significantly impaired proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells when these miRNAs are overexpressed. This study suggests that these miRNAs could serve as viable therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma treatment.

  18. Field isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae exhibit distinct cytopathic effects in ovine tracheal organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; DeBey, M C; Niyo, Y; Andrews, J J; Kaeberle, M L

    1998-02-01

    Ovine tracheal ring explants were infected with four different Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and one M. arginini field isolate and their ability to induce cytopathic effects was tested by measuring ciliary activity and intracellular calmodulin release. Infected tracheal rings showed significantly decreased ciliary activity as compared to the non-infected control rings. There were, however, marked differences between isolates in the onset and severity of the effects which correlated with their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Infected tracheal rings released more calmodulin than the non-infected controls. The amount of calmodulin released also varied between isolates, and somewhat reflected the degree of loss of ciliary activity in the corresponding rings induced by the different isolates. Light and electron microscopic examinations of infected tracheal rings revealed disorganisation and sloughing of the epithelium, and association of mycoplasmas only with the cilia. Following repeated in vitro passages, the organisms had reduced ability to inhibit ciliary activity which correlated with decreased hydrogen peroxide production. Addition of catalase to the organ cultures delayed loss of ciliary activity. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced ciliostasis in ovine tracheal ring explants which correlated with hydrogen peroxide production. Furthermore, these M. ovipneumoniae-induced injuries to respiratory epithelial cells could contribute to the role that this organism may play in sheep respiratory disease.

  19. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Nabi; Khaksari, Mehdi; Erfani, Sohaila; Rajabi, Hamid; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction through occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic exercise significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration. PMID:26487851

  20. Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Popov, Maksym; Chavez, Ferman A.

    2014-02-03

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100 nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18 GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

  1. Plasmonic copper sulfide nanocrystals exhibiting near-infrared photothermal and photodynamic therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shunhao; Riedinger, Andreas; Li, Hongbo; Fu, Changhui; Liu, Huiyu; Li, Linlin; Liu, Tianlong; Tan, Longfei; Barthel, Markus J; Pugliese, Giammarino; De Donato, Francesco; Scotto D'Abbusco, Marco; Meng, Xianwei; Manna, Liberato; Meng, Huan; Pellegrino, Teresa

    2015-02-24

    Recently, plasmonic copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted much attention as materials for photothermal therapy (PTT). Previous reports have correlated photoinduced cell death to the photothermal heat mechanism of these NCs, and no evidence of their photodynamic properties has been reported yet. Herein we have prepared physiologically stable near-infrared (NIR) plasmonic copper sulfide NCs and analyzed their photothermal and photodynamic properties, including therapeutic potential in cultured melanoma cells and a murine melanoma model. Interestingly, we observe that, besides a high PTT efficacy, these copper sulfide NCs additionally possess intrinsic NIR induced photodynamic activity, whereupon they generate high levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo acute toxic responses of copper sulfide NCs were also elicited. This study highlights a mechanism of NIR light induced cancer therapy, which could pave the way toward more effective nanotherapeutics.

  2. Long-lived crowded-litter mice exhibit lasting effects on insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Landeryou, Taylor; Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Cady, Gillian; Elghazi, Lynda; Meister, Daniel; See, Lauren; Bartke, Andrzej; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Miller, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The action of nutrients on early postnatal growth can influence mammalian aging and longevity. Recent work has demonstrated that limiting nutrient availability in the first 3 wk of life [by increasing the number of pups in the crowded-litter (CL) model] leads to extension of mean and maximal lifespan in genetically normal mice. In this study, we aimed to characterize the impact of early-life nutrient intervention on glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis in CL mice. In our study, we used mice from litters supplemented to 12 or 15 pups and compared those to control litters limited to eight pups. At weaning and then throughout adult life, CL mice are significantly leaner and consume more oxygen relative to control mice. At 6 mo of age, CL mice had low fasting leptin concentrations, and low-dose leptin injections reduced body weight and food intake more in CL female mice than in controls. At 22 mo, CL female mice also have smaller adipocytes compared with controls. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests show an increase in insulin sensitivity in 6 mo old CL male mice, and females become more insulin sensitive later in life. Furthermore, β-cell mass was significantly reduced in the CL male mice and was associated with reduction in β-cell proliferation rate in these mice. Together, these data show that early-life nutrient intervention has a significant lifelong effect on metabolic characteristics that may contribute to the increased lifespan of CL mice. PMID:24735888

  3. Silver polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanoparticles exhibit a capsular polysaccharide influenced bactericidal effect against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bibbs, Ronda K.; Harris, Rhonda D.; Peoples, Veolanda A.; Barnett, Cleon; Singh, Shree R.; Dennis, Vida A.; Coats, Mamie T.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highly adaptive nature of S. pneumoniae exemplifies the need for next generation antimicrobials designed to avoid high level resistance. Metal based nanomaterials fit this criterion. Our study examined the antimicrobial activity of gold nanospheres, silver coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone (AgPVP), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) against various serotypes of S. pneumoniae. Twenty nanometer spherical AgPVP demonstrated the highest level of killing among the tested materials. AgPVP (0.6 mg/mL) was able to kill pneumococcal serotypes 2, 3, 4, and 19F within 4 h of exposure. Detailed analysis of cultures during exposure to AgPVP showed that both the metal ions and the solid nanoparticles participate in the killing of the pneumococcus. The bactericidal effect of AgPVP was lessened in the absence of the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. Capsule negative strains, JD908 and RX1, were only susceptible to AgPVP at concentrations at least 33% higher than their respective capsule expressing counterparts. These findings suggest that mechanisms of killing used by nanomaterials are not serotype dependent and that the capsular polysaccharide participates in the inhibition. In the near future these mechanisms will be examined as targets for novel antimicrobials. PMID:25520713

  4. Sperm Hy-Liter™: an effective tool for the detection of spermatozoa in sexual assault exhibits.

    PubMed

    De Moors, Anick; Georgalis, Tina; Armstrong, Gail; Modler, Jeff; Frégeau, Chantal J

    2013-05-01

    A fluorescence-based assay specifically targeting human spermatozoa was tested and optimized for best staining results using a variety of mock sexual assault samples. Swab clippings versus whole swabs were evaluated for best sample preparation and to simplify workflow (direct application versus swab extraction). The practicality and sensitivity of Sperm Hy-Liter™ was compared to our current phase contrast microscopy protocol for searching for the presence of spermatozoa. Sperm Hy-Liter™ was more sensitive than phase contrast microscopy and was able to detect spermatozoa more effectively in actual sexual assault samples (recent [N=240] or 24 years old [N=4]) containing few spermatozoa. Correlations were drawn between the Sperm Hy-Liter™ spermatozoa counts and the AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler(®) Plus male profiles generated from the sperm cell DNA fractions of semen containing swabs and swab clippings. In addition, recovered spermatozoa from Sperm Hy-Liter™-stained slides with greater than 40 spermatozoa produced full STR male profiles in 20.3% of slides tested and partial STR male profiles in 52.8% of slides tested. The adoption of Sperm Hy-Liter™ offers a means to standardize and improve the efficiency of the microscopic screening of sexual assault evidence.

  5. Throwing and catching movements exhibit post-activation potentiation effects following fatigue.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    Many sport and exercise activities require powerful movements of the upper body. Despite their importance, there is a paucity of research examining stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) activities occurring in the upper limbs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue on throwing performance (height of throw) and biomechanical factors of the upper limbs (reactive strength index; hand contact time) using a specially constructed sledge apparatus for the upper body. Ten male subjects aged between 19 and 21 years performed a series of rebound throws (RBT) in a non-fatigued state to obtain a maximal baseline throw score. Subjects then performed a RBT fatiguing protocol on the upper body sledge followed by further RBT, at 15, 45, 120 and 300-seconds post fatigue. Markers on the subjects' limb and the sledge were analysed using Motion Analysis Corporation 3-D kinematic analysis system (200 Hz). Throwing height, contact time and reactive strength index were determined. Mean throwing height and reactive strength index showed significant decreases following fatigue and increases during recovery (p < 0.05). The results confirm the presence ofpost-activation potentiation (PAP) in RBT performance. This finding could be useful when optimising recovery periods in training or implementing complex training methods.

  6. Dual effect of spermine on mast cell secretion exhibits different calcium and temperature requirements.

    PubMed

    Vliagoftis, H; Mak, L; Boucher, W; Theoharides, T C

    1999-09-01

    Mast cells release many biologically active molecules upon stimulation by a variety of molecules such as immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific antigen, anaphylatoxins, as well as a number of cationic compounds which include drugs, kinins and neuropeptides. The effect of the naturally occurring polyamine spermine was studied because, even though it is polycationic, it has been implicated in the modulation of secretory processes in a variety of cells. In particular, it was previously shown that oxidation products of spermine inhibit mast cell secretion. High concentrations of spermine (5 x 10(-3) M) added at 37 degrees C induced mast cell secretion that had similar characteristics with that triggered by compound 48/80 (48/80). However, spermine inhibited mast cell secretion in a dose-dependent manner as long as it was added at 4-10 degrees C for at least 10 min in the absence of Ca++ before warming the cells to 37 degrees C and triggering them with 48/80. These findings were true both for purified rat peritoneal mast cells and for rat skin mast cells in situ. Addition of calcium after the cells had been warmed to 37 degrees C could not reverse this inhibition. The inhibition seen when spermine was added at 4 degrees C was, however, overcome if phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or NaF, which activate PKC and G proteins respectively, were added to mast cells at 37 degrees C together with Ca++. These results indicate that polyamines could be important modulators of the activation state of mast cells and might help further define the biochemical events involved in mast cell secretion.

  7. The effects of the interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy on the educational outcomes for a science exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappenberger, Naomi

    This dissertation examines factors which may affect the educational effectiveness of science exhibits. Exhibit effectiveness is the result of a complex interaction among exhibit features, cognitive characteristics of the museum visitor, and educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative proportions of field-dependent and field-independent visitors in the museum audience, and to ascertain if the cognitive style of visitors interacted with instructional strategies to affect the educational outcomes for a computer-based science exhibit. Cognitive style refers to the self-consistent modes of selecting and processing information that an individual employs throughout his or her perceptual and intellectual activities. It has a broad influence on many aspects of personality and behavior, including perception, memory, problem solving, interest, and even social behaviors and self-concept. As such, it constitutes essential dimensions of individual differences among museum visitors and has important implications for instructional design in the museum. The study was conducted in the spring of 1998 at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago. Two experimental treatments of a computer-based exhibit were tested in the study. The first experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-dependent visitors that limited the text and provided more structure and cueing than the baseline treatment of the computer program. The other experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-independent visitors that provided hypothesis-testing and more contextual information. Approximately two-thirds of the visitors were field-independent. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a significant interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy that affected visitors' posttest scores on a multiple-choice test of the content. Field-independent visitors out- performed the field

  8. ZLM-7 exhibits anti-angiogenic effects via impaired endothelial cell function and blockade of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Huang, Jingjia; Li, Jijia; Qin, Xiyuan; Tang, Xiaoning; Jin, Fang; Chen, Shali; Jiang, Chuanming; Zou, Zizheng; Peng, Kunjian; Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Jianting; Luo, Junli; Liu, Suyou; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer. In this study, we reported that ZLM-7, a combretastain A-4 (CA-4) derivative, exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ZLM-7 induced microtubule cytoskeletal disassembly. It decreased VEGF-induced proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation in endothelial cells, which are critical steps in angiogenesis. In vivo, ZLM-7 significantly inhibited neovascularization in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and reduced the microvessel density in tumor tissues of MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. ZLM-7 also displayed comparable antiangiogenic and anti-tumor activities associated with the lead compound CA-4, but exhibited lower toxicity compared with CA-4. The anti-angiogenic effect of ZLM-7 was exerted via blockade of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling. ZLM-7 treatment suppressed the expression and secretion of VEGF in endothelial cells and MCF-7 cells under hypoxia. Further, ZLM-7 suppressed the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling mediators including activated AKT, MEK and ERK in endothelial cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that ZLM-7 exhibits anti-angiogenic activities by impairing endothelial cell function and blocking VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling, suggesting that ZLM-7 might be a potential angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:26967559

  9. Method of growing composites of the type exhibiting the Soret effect. [improved structure of eutectic alloy crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A predetermine amount of segregation is introduced into a molten sample of a composite that exhibits the Soret effect, such amount approximating the amount of segregation resulting from directional solidification of the sample. The molten sample is then directionally solidified starting at the end opposite the end richer in the constituent that would migrate toward the cooler part of a liquid solution of the composite maintained in a temperature gradient. Since solidification commences at the end deficient in such constituent, its migration toward the interface between the solid and liquid during the solidification will compensate for the deficiency, yielding a more homogeneous product.

  10. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  11. Subtle Changes in Peptide Conformation Profoundly Affect Recognition of the Non-Classical MHC Class I Molecule HLA-E by the CD94-NKG2 Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, Hilary L; Sullivan, Lucy C; Clements, Craig S; Ely, Lauren K; Beddoe, Travis; Henderson, Kate N; Lin, Jie; Reid, Hugh H; Brooks, Andrew G; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2008-03-31

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule that binds peptides derived from the leader sequences of other HLA class I molecules. Natural killer cell recognition of these HLA-E molecules, via the CD94-NKG2 natural killer family, represents a central innate mechanism for monitoring major histocompatibility complex expression levels within a cell. The leader sequence-derived peptides bound to HLA-E exhibit very limited polymorphism, yet subtle differences affect the recognition of HLA-E by the CD94-NKG2 receptors. To better understand the basis for this peptide-specific recognition, we determined the structure of HLA-E in complex with two leader peptides, namely, HLA-Cw*07 (VMAPRALLL), which is poorly recognised by CD94-NKG2 receptors, and HLA-G*01 (VMAPRTLFL), a high-affinity ligand of CD94-NKG2 receptors. A comparison of these structures, both of which were determined to 2.5-Å resolution, revealed that allotypic variations in the bound leader sequences do not result in conformational changes in the HLA-E heavy chain, although subtle changes in the conformation of the peptide within the binding groove of HLA-E were evident. Accordingly, our data indicate that the CD94-NKG2 receptors interact with HLA-E in a manner that maximises the ability of the receptors to discriminate between subtle changes in both the sequence and conformation of peptides bound to HLA-E.

  12. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney with prominent papillary component, a non-classic morphologic variant. A histologic, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic and fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Burke, Allen P; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Richards, Stephanie M; Zou, Ying S

    2014-07-01

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare type of kidney tumor with relatively indolent behavior. Non-classic morphological variants have not been well studied and rarely been reported. We report a challenging case MTSCC with a peculiar morphology in a 42-year-old man, arising in a background of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Predominant areas with extensive papillary architecture, psammoma bodies and stromal macrophageal aggregates, reminiscent of a papillary renal cell carcinoma (papillary RCC), were intermixed with foci that transitioned into a MTSCC-like morphology exhibiting elongated tubules and a low grade spindle cell component in a background of mucinous stroma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated diffuse positivity for P504s/AMACR and vimentin in tumor cells. Focal positivity for RCC, CD10 and CK7 was also noted. Kidney-specific cadherin, cytokeratin 34betaE12 and TFE3 stains were negative in the tumor. The major differential diagnostic considerations were papillary RCC, clear cell papillary RCC, and Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. Negative FISH studies for trisomy 7 and 17 in both papillary and spindled components supported the diagnosis of MTSCC. The ultrastructural profile was not entirely indicative of the cellular origin of the tumor. Cytogenetic analysis should be performed in atypical cases of MTSCC for precise diagnosis. PMID:24702883

  13. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Exhibiting the Warburg Effect Relies on Glycolytic ATP*

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew D.; Patel, Waseema; Butt, Zohra; Adiamah, Magretta; Dakhel, Raga; Latif, Ayse; Uggenti, Carolina; Swanton, Eileithyia; Imamura, Hiromi; Siriwardena, Ajith K.; Bruce, Jason I. E.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), which is critical for maintaining a low intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), utilizes glycolytically derived ATP in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and that inhibition of glycolysis in PDAC cell lines results in ATP depletion, PMCA inhibition, and an irreversible [Ca2+]i overload. We explored whether this is a specific weakness of highly glycolytic PDAC by shifting PDAC cell (MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1) metabolism from a highly glycolytic phenotype toward mitochondrial metabolism and assessing the effects of mitochondrial versus glycolytic inhibitors on ATP depletion, PMCA inhibition, and [Ca2+]i overload. The highly glycolytic phenotype of these cells was first reversed by depriving MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells of glucose and supplementing with α-ketoisocaproate or galactose. These culture conditions resulted in a significant decrease in both glycolytic flux and proliferation rate, and conferred resistance to ATP depletion by glycolytic inhibition while sensitizing cells to mitochondrial inhibition. Moreover, in direct contrast to cells exhibiting a high glycolytic rate, glycolytic inhibition had no effect on PMCA activity and resting [Ca2+]i in α-ketoisocaproate- and galactose-cultured cells, suggesting that the glycolytic dependence of the PMCA is a specific vulnerability of PDAC cells exhibiting the Warburg phenotype. PMID:26294767

  14. A new synthetic route to a family of non-classical addition-type thermoplastics. I - Concept and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis scheme was developed for a host of nonclassical addition-type thermoplastics (ATT) that can be cured by an addition reaction, leading to a linear polymer structure. The synthesis involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated prepolymer with either a bismaleimide (BMI) or a biscitraconimide. A new polymer, designated LaRC-RP80, synthesized using this scheme, was found to exhibit several significantly improved properties over the commercial BMI, Kerimid 601, including an eight-fold increase in toughness while maintaining a high Tg, a higher (by 167 C) heat stability, and a 50-percent increase in moisture resistance. In addition, LaRC-RP80 has good hot/wet lap shear strength and processes easily at 288 C without voids in the finished product.

  15. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  16. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  17. Saraca indica bark extract shows in vitro antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and does not exhibit toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K R; Singh, R K

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy.

  18. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  19. Copper-obatoclax derivative complexes mediate DNA cleavage and exhibit anti-cancer effects in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Chen; Chang, Jung-Hua; Huang, Jui-Wen; Chen, Peter P-Y; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Shiau, Chung-Wai

    2015-02-25

    Obatoclax is an indole-pyrrole compound that induces cancer cell apoptosis through targeting the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family. Previously, we developed a series of obatoclax derivatives and studied their STAT3 inhibition-dependent activity against cancer cell lines. The obatoclax analog, prodigiosin, has been reported to mediate DNA cleavage in cancer cells by coordinating with copper complexes. To gain an understanding of copper-obatoclax complex activity, we applied obatoclax derivatives to examine their copper-mediated nuclease activity as a means to establish a basis for structure activity relationship. Replacement of the indole ring of obatoclax with furanyl, thiophenyl or Boc-indolyl rings reduced the DNA cleavage ability. The same effect was achieved through the replacement of the obatoclax pyrrolyl ring with thiazolidinedione and thioacetal. Among the compounds tested, we demonstrated that the complex of obatoclax or compound 7 with copper exhibited potent DNA strand scission which correlated with HCC cell growth inhibition.

  20. Large-area 2D periodic crystalline silicon nanodome arrays on nanoimprinted glass exhibiting photonic band structure effects.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Lockau, D; Sontheimer, T; Schubert-Bischoff, P; Rudigier-Voigt, E; Bockmeyer, M; Schmidt, F; Rech, B

    2012-04-01

    Two-dimensional silicon nanodome arrays are prepared on large areas up to 50 cm² exhibiting photonic band structure effects in the near-infrared and visible wavelength region by downscaling a recently developed fabrication method based on nanoimprint-patterned glass, high-rate electron-beam evaporation of silicon, self-organized solid phase crystallization and wet-chemical etching. The silicon nanodomes, arranged in square lattice geometry with 300 nm lattice constant, are optically characterized by angular resolved reflection measurements, allowing the partial determination of the photonic band structure. This experimentally determined band structure agrees well with the outcome of three-dimensional optical finite-element simulations. A 16% photonic bandgap is predicted for an optimized geometry of the silicon nanodome arrays. By variation of the duration of the selective etching step, the geometry as well as the optical properties of the periodic silicon nanodome arrays can be controlled systematically.

  1. Celecoxib exhibits an anti-gastric cancer effect by targeting focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guo-Hua; Xu, Wei; Shi, Yang; Wang, Li-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent cancer, which remains incurable, and therefore requires an alternative treatment method. Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that targets cyclooxygenase-2, and exhibits anticancer effects. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-GC mechanism of celecoxib using bioinformatics methods. Gene expression datasets GSE56807 (GC tissues and normal gastric tissues) and GSE54657 (celecoxib-treated and non-treated human GC epithelial AGS cells) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Two groups of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using limma package in R language. The criterion for GSE56807 was a false discovery rate of <0.05, while that for GSE54657 was P<0.01. Overlapping DEGs from the two datasets were screened out. Subsequently, pathway enrichment analysis was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software (P<0.1; gene count ≥2). In addition, the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the overlapped DEGs were obtained based on IntAct, Database of Interacting Proteins, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and Human Protein Reference Database. Finally, a PPI network was visualized using Cytoscape software. A total of 137 overlapped DEGs were obtained, and DEGs with opposite regulation directions in the two datasets were significantly enriched in focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration. Subsequently, a PPI network of overlapped DEGs was constructed. Comprehensively, a total of 8 key DEGs [cysteine and glycine rich protein 1 (CSRP1), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), myosin light chain 9 (MYL9), filamin A (FLNA), actinin alpha 1 (ACTN1), vinculin (VCL), laminin subunit gamma 2 (LAMC2) and claudin 1 (CLDN1)] were upregulated in GC tissues and downregulated in celecoxib-treated cells. In conclusion, celecoxib may exhibit anti-GC effects by suppressing the expression of CSRP1, THBS1, MYL9, FLNA, ACTN1, VCL, LAMC2 and CLDN1

  2. Celecoxib exhibits an anti-gastric cancer effect by targeting focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guo-Hua; Xu, Wei; Shi, Yang; Wang, Li-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent cancer, which remains incurable, and therefore requires an alternative treatment method. Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that targets cyclooxygenase-2, and exhibits anticancer effects. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-GC mechanism of celecoxib using bioinformatics methods. Gene expression datasets GSE56807 (GC tissues and normal gastric tissues) and GSE54657 (celecoxib-treated and non-treated human GC epithelial AGS cells) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Two groups of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using limma package in R language. The criterion for GSE56807 was a false discovery rate of <0.05, while that for GSE54657 was P<0.01. Overlapping DEGs from the two datasets were screened out. Subsequently, pathway enrichment analysis was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software (P<0.1; gene count ≥2). In addition, the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the overlapped DEGs were obtained based on IntAct, Database of Interacting Proteins, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and Human Protein Reference Database. Finally, a PPI network was visualized using Cytoscape software. A total of 137 overlapped DEGs were obtained, and DEGs with opposite regulation directions in the two datasets were significantly enriched in focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration. Subsequently, a PPI network of overlapped DEGs was constructed. Comprehensively, a total of 8 key DEGs [cysteine and glycine rich protein 1 (CSRP1), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), myosin light chain 9 (MYL9), filamin A (FLNA), actinin alpha 1 (ACTN1), vinculin (VCL), laminin subunit gamma 2 (LAMC2) and claudin 1 (CLDN1)] were upregulated in GC tissues and downregulated in celecoxib-treated cells. In conclusion, celecoxib may exhibit anti-GC effects by suppressing the expression of CSRP1, THBS1, MYL9, FLNA, ACTN1, VCL, LAMC2 and CLDN1

  3. Nanometer-size hard magnetic ferrite exhibiting high optical-transparency and nonlinear optical-magnetoelectric effect

    PubMed Central

    Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi; Namai, Asuka; Imoto, Kenta; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Tarora, Waka; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Komine, Masaya; Miyamoto, Yasuto; Nasu, Tomomichi; Oka, Syunsuke; Tokoro, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Development of nanometer-sized magnetic particles exhibiting a large coercive field (Hc) is in high demand for densification of magnetic recording. Herein, we report a single-nanosize (i.e., less than ten nanometers across) hard magnetic ferrite. This magnetic ferrite is composed of ε-Fe2O3, with a sufficiently high Hc value for magnetic recording systems and a remarkably high magnetic anisotropy constant of 7.7 × 106 erg cm−3. For example, 8.2-nm nanoparticles have an Hc value of 5.2 kOe at room temperature. A colloidal solution of these nanoparticles possesses a light orange color due to a wide band gap of 2.9 eV (430 nm), indicating a possibility of transparent magnetic pigments. Additionally, we have observed magnetization-induced second harmonic generation (MSHG). The nonlinear optical-magnetoelectric effect of the present polar magnetic nanocrystal was quite strong. These findings have been demonstrated in a simple iron oxide, which is highly significant from the viewpoints of economic cost and mass production. PMID:26439914

  4. Effect of temperature on hypoxia tolerance and its underlying biochemical mechanism in two juvenile cyprinids exhibiting distinct hypoxia sensitivities.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-09-01

    It is increasingly important to investigate the effect of temperature on hypoxia tolerance in fish species, as worldwide hypoxia worsens with increases in global warming. We selected the hypoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and the hypoxia-sensitive Chinese bream (Parabramis pekinensis) as model fish and investigated their hypoxia tolerance based on the critical oxygen tension of the routine metabolic rate (M˙O2rout) (Pcrit), aquatic surface respiration (ASRcrit) and loss of equilibrium (LOEcrit) after two weeks of acclimation at either 10, 20 or 30 °C. We also measured the tissue substrate (glycogen and glucose of muscle and liver) and lactate levels of both normoxia- and hypoxia-treated fish (post-LOE). Crucian carp exhibited significantly lower Pcrit and LOEcrit but not ASRcrit. Crucian carp possessed higher hypoxia tolerance, partially due to a higher tissue glycogen reserve, which provides cellular fuel under severe hypoxia, as well as higher lactate tolerance and clearance ability than Chinese bream. The hypoxia tolerance was maintained in crucian carp but was decreased in Chinese bream as the temperature increased. The difference between the two species is based on the greater recruitment of tissue glycogen, resulting in an increased level of cellular fuel during hypoxia in crucian carp than in Chinese bream. In addition, crucian carp possessed the greater liver lactate clearance capacity, and the smaller increase in the M˙O2rout at higher temperatures compared to Chinese bream. Furthermore, substrate shortage and decreased lactate tolerance at high temperatures in Chinese bream might also contribute to the difference in hypoxia tolerance between the two species. PMID:24853206

  5. Expression and roles of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein in 'non-classical', extra-adrenal and extra-gonadal cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Anuka, Eli; Gal, Michael; Stocco, Douglas M; Orly, Joseph

    2013-05-22

    The activity of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is indispensable and rate limiting for high output synthesis of steroid hormones in the adrenal cortex and the gonads, known as the 'classical' steroidogenic organs (StAR is not expressed in the human placenta). In addition, studies of recent years have shown that StAR is also expressed in many tissues that produce steroid hormones for local use, potentially conferring some functional advantage by acting via intracrine, autocrine or paracrine fashion. Others hypothesized that StAR might also function in non-steroidogenic roles in specific tissues. This review highlights the evidence for the presence of StAR in 17 extra-adrenal and extra-gonadal organs, cell types and malignancies. Provided is the physiological context and the rationale for searching for the presence of StAR in such cells. Since in many of the tissues the overall level of StAR is relatively low, we also reviewed the methods used for StAR detection. The gathered information suggests that a comprehensive understanding of StAR activity in 'non-classical' tissues will require the use of experimental approaches that are able to analyze StAR presence at single-cell resolution.

  6. Effects of an Informal Energy Exhibit on Knowledge and Attitudes of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, David Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the growing need for renewable energy education by looking at the design, development, and implementation of an informal energy education exhibit that was developed for placement into a regional science museum, school, and community center. This study examined several research questions related to the concept that an…

  7. The Effects of Directive and Nondirective Prompts on Noncompliant Vocal Behavior Exhibited by a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Robert T.; Lindauer, Steven E.; ichman, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Results of an analogue functional analysis indicated that noncompliant vocal behavior exhibited by a young girl with autism was maintained by negative reinforcement. Follow-up analyses suggested that the immediate escape contingency assessed in the demand condition did nor appear to maintain the behavior. Instead, noncompliant vocal behavior…

  8. Structural Basis for Dual-Inhibition Mechanism of a Non-Classical Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Horseshoe Crab in Complex with Subtilisin

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, Rajesh T.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling; Sivaraman, J.; Kursula, Petri

    2011-04-26

    Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki=1.43 nM). CrSPI has been grouped with the non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors due to its unusual cysteine distribution. Here we report the crystal structure of CrSPI-1 in complex with subtilisin at 2.6 Å resolution and the results of biophysical interaction studies. The CrSPI-1 molecule has two domains arranged in an extended conformation. These two domains act as heads that independently interact with two separate subtilisin molecules, resulting in the inhibition of subtilisin activity at a ratio of 1:2 (inhibitor to protease). Each subtilisin molecule interacts with the reactive site loop from each domain of CrSPI-1 through a standard canonical binding mode and forms a single ternary complex. In addition, we propose the substrate preferences of each domain of CrSPI-1. Domain 2 is specific towards the bacterial protease subtilisin, while domain 1 is likely to interact with the host protease, Furin. Elucidation of the structure of the CrSPI-1: subtilisin (1:2) ternary complex increases our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in the innate immune system at the molecular level and provides new strategies for immunomodulation.

  9. Structural basis for dual-inhibition mechanism of a non-classical Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor from horseshoe crab in complex with subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Rajesh T; Thangamani, Saravanan; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling; Sivaraman, J

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki = 1.43 nM). CrSPI has been grouped with the non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors due to its unusual cysteine distribution. Here we report the crystal structure of CrSPI-1 in complex with subtilisin at 2.6 Å resolution and the results of biophysical interaction studies. The CrSPI-1 molecule has two domains arranged in an extended conformation. These two domains act as heads that independently interact with two separate subtilisin molecules, resulting in the inhibition of subtilisin activity at a ratio of 1:2 (inhibitor to protease). Each subtilisin molecule interacts with the reactive site loop from each domain of CrSPI-1 through a standard canonical binding mode and forms a single ternary complex. In addition, we propose the substrate preferences of each domain of CrSPI-1. Domain 2 is specific towards the bacterial protease subtilisin, while domain 1 is likely to interact with the host protease, Furin. Elucidation of the structure of the CrSPI-1: subtilisin (1∶2) ternary complex increases our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in the innate immune system at the molecular level and provides new strategies for immunomodulation.

  10. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of the swine 433-kb genomic segment located between the non-classical and classical SLA class I gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Shigenari, Atsuko; Ando, Asako; Renard, Christine; Chardon, Patrick; Shiina, Takashi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Yasue, Hiroshi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2004-01-01

    Genome analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen ( SLA) region is needed to obtain information on the MHC genomic sequence similarities and differences between the swine and human, given the possible use of swine organs for xenotransplantation. Here, the genomic sequences of a 433-kb segment located between the non-classical and classical SLA class I gene clusters were determined and analyzed for gene organization and contents of repetitive sequences. The genomic organization and diversity of this swine non-class I gene region was compared with the orthologous region of the human leukocyte antigen ( HLA) complex. The length of the fully sequenced SLA genomic segment was 433 kb compared with 595 kb in the corresponding HLA class I region. This 162-kb difference in size between the swine and human genomic segments can be explained by indel activity, and the greater variety and density of repetitive sequences within the human MHC. Twenty-one swine genes with strong sequence similarity to the corresponding human genes were identified, with the gene order from the centromere to telomere of HCR - SPR1 - SEEK1 - CDSN - STG - DPCR1 - KIAA1885 - TFIIH - DDR - IER3 - FLOT1 - TUBB - KIAA0170 - NRM - KIAA1949 - DDX16 - FLJ13158 - MRPS18B - FB19 - ABCFI - CAT56. The human SEEK1 and DPCR1 genes are pseudogenes in swine. We conclude that the swine non-class I gene region that we have sequenced is highly conserved and therefore homologous to the corresponding region located between the HLA-C and HLA-E genes in the human.

  11. Secretory expression of a heterologous protein, Aiio-AIO6BS, in Bacillus subtilis via a non-classical secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xingliang; Yang, Yalin; Liu, Xuewei; Li, Dong; Li, Juan; Guo, Xiaoze; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-09-16

    The quenching enzyme AIO6 (AiiO-AIO6) has been reported as a feed additive preparation for application in aquaculture and biological control of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. We developed an economical strategy to express AIO6BS (AiiO-AIO6BS, codon optimized AIO6 in Bacillus subtilis) in Bacillus subtilis for facilitating its widespread application. Promoter p43 without the signal peptide was used for secretory expression of AIO6BS in B. subtilis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that AIO6BS was successfully expressed and secreted into the cell culture. Expression analysis of AIO6BS in the single or double mutant of the lytC and lytD genes for cell autolysis in B. subtilis 1A751 and cell autolysis-resistant engineered strain LM2531 derived from the wild type 168 indicated that the release of the heterologous protein AIO6BS was not simply mediated by cell lysis. Expression level of AIO6BS did not change in the mutants of B. subtilis that harbored mutations in the secA, tatAC, or ecsA genes compared with that in the parent wild type strain. These results suggested the AIO6BS protein was likely secreted via a non-classical secretion pathway. The expression analysis of the various N- or C-terminal truncated gene products indicated that AIO6BS probably acts as an export signal to direct its self-secretion across the cell membrane. PMID:27514447

  12. Kefir exhibits anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells with no significant effects on cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Nathalie; El-Hayek, Stephany; Tarras, Omayr; El-Sabban, Marwan; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Rizk, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Kefir, a fermented milk product, exhibits anti‑tumoral activity in vivo; yet its mechanism of action remains elusive. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of action of kefir on cancer cells in vitro. The current study aims at examining the effect of kefir on cell survival, proliferation, and motility of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Kefir's anti‑cancer potential was tested on CRC cell lines, Caco‑2 and HT‑29, through cytotoxicity, proliferation, and apoptotic assays. The expression of certain genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis was measured using reverse transcriptase‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and western blotting. To assess the effect of kefir on cancer metastasis, wound‑healing and time‑lapse movies, in addition to collagen‑based invasion assay, were used. The results show that cell‑free fractions of kefir exhibit an anti‑proliferative effect on Caco‑2 and HT‑29 cells. Analysis of DNA content by flow cytometry revealed the ability of kefir to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Kefir was also found to induce apoptosis, as seen by cell death ELISA. Results from RT‑PCR showed that kefir decreases the expression of transforming growth factor α (TGF‑α); and transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) in HT‑29 cells. Western blotting results revealed an upregulation in Bax:Bcl‑2 ratio, confirming the pro‑apoptotic effect of kefir, and an increase in p53 independent‑p21 expression upon kefir treatment. MMP expression was not altered by kefir treatment. Furthermore, results from time‑lapse motility movies, wound‑healing, and invasion assays showed no effect on the motility of colorectal as well as breast (MCF‑7 and MB‑MDA‑231) cancer cells upon kefir treatment. Our data suggest that kefir is able to inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in HT‑29 and Caco‑2 CRC cells, yet it does not exhibit a significant effect on the motility and invasion of these cells in vitro.

  13. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    , teachers, artists, and web designers, a smaller scale collaborative effort can result in an effective mini-exhibit. Online concept maps can present a large quantity of information in bite-size chunks, demonstrating interrelationships between pieces of information without inundating visitors. SpicyNodes uses radial mapping technology to enable visitors to learn about a topic or search for information in intuitive and organic ways. This online concept mapping tool can be used as a portal to invite exploration into topics, or as a means of displaying hierarchies of information. With nodes that contain text, audio, video, and links, interactive online concept maps especially engage visual, kinesthetic, and nonlinear learners. SpicyNodes is also useful for scientists who wish to complement papers, chapters, and books with an online interface that is especially appealing to nonlinear learners. Essentially, SpicyNodes shifts the burden of discovery from the reader to the author. For example, the author may create a nodemap on climate change with hundreds of nodes, but as visitors drill through the nodemap for information (e.g. from climate change to atmospheric gases to carbon dioxide), they see only a few nodes at a time and are not overwhelmed.

  14. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  15. Bathochromic and stabilising effects of sugar beet pectin and an isolated pectic fraction on anthocyanins exhibiting pyrogallol and catechol moieties.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, M; Carle, R; Kammerer, D R

    2012-12-15

    The formation of anthocyanin-metal chelates, exhibiting intense blue colours was monitored over a period up to 10 weeks. Evaluating normalised absorption spectra in the range of 580-700 nm and their proportion of the total area under the curve (AUC), provided information about the blue colour hue, intensity and stability. Colour stability in model solutions containing commercial sugar beet pectin or an isolated pectic polysaccharide fraction (PPF) therefrom, both being naturally enriched in aluminium and ferric ions, was assessed in a pH range of 3.6-7.0. The pectic structures stabilised anthocyanin-metal chelates, and thus blue colours by efficiently preventing complex precipitation. Highest bathochromic shifts and most intense blue colours were observed in PPF model solutions containing delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dpd-3-glc), exhibiting a pyrogallol moiety in the flavylium B-ring, compared to cyanidin- (Cyd-3-glc) and petunidin-3-glucoside (Pet-3-glc), both carrying a catechol substituted B-ring. Hue and intensity of the blue colour at pH 5.0 were only insignificantly influenced by the buffer system except for citrate and phosphate buffers, which both annihilated anthocyanin-metal chelate formation. The blue colours faded following first order kinetics. Best stabilities as deduced from storage experiments performed at 20 ± 2°C in the dark were observed for Dpd-3-glc. In contrast, Cyd-3-glc displayed shortened half-life values, whereas blue Pet-3-glc chelates decomposed rapidly. These results demonstrate that the solubilisation of anthocyanin-metal chelates by pectic structures is a promising option for developing water soluble natural blue food colourants.

  16. Classic and non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be discriminated from P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in Japanese infants by urinary steroid metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yuhei; Homma, Keiko; Fukami, Maki; Miwa, Masayuki; Ikeda, Kazushige; Ogata, Tsutomu; Murata, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We previously reported a two-step biochemical diagnosis to discriminate classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (C21OHD) from P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) by using urinary steroid metabolites: the pregnanetriolone/tetrahydrocortisone ratio (Ptl / the cortisol metabolites 5α- and 5β-tetrahydrocortisone (sum of these metabolites termed THEs), and 11β-hydroxyandrosterone (11OHAn). The objective of this study was to investigate whether both C21OHD and non-classic 21OHD (C+NC21OHD) could be biochemically differentiated from PORD. We recruited 55 infants with C21OHD, 8 with NC21OHD, 16 with PORD, 57 with transient hyper-17α-hydroxyprogesteronemia (TH17OHP), and 2,473 controls. All infants were Japanese with ages between 0–180 d. In addition to Ptl, THEs, and 11OHAn, we measured urinary tetrahydroaldosterone (THAldo) and pregnenediol (PD5). The first step: by Ptl with the age-specific cutoffs 0.06 mg/g creatinine (0–10 d of age) and 0.3 mg/g creatinine (11–180 d of age), we were able to differentiate C+NC21OHD and PORD from TH17OHP and controls (0–10 d of age: 0.065–31 vs. < 0.001–0.052, 11–180 d of age: 0.40–42 vs. < 0.001–0.086) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The second step: by the 11OHAn/THAldo or 11OHAn/PD5 ratio with a cutoff of 0.80 or 1.0, we were able to discriminate between C+NC21OHD and PORD (1.0–720 vs. 0.021–0.61 or 1.8–160 vs. 0.005–0.32, respectively) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Ptl, 11OHAn/THAldo, and 11OHAn/PD5 could differentiate between C+NC21OHD and PORD in Japanese infants. PMID:27212795

  17. Getting the point across: exploring the effects of dynamic virtual humans in an interactive museum exhibit on user perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Diego; Ferdig, Rick; Li, Jian; Lok, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    We have created “You, M.D.”, an interactive museum exhibit in which users learn about topics in public health literacy while interacting with virtual humans. You, M.D. is equipped with a weight sensor, a height sensor and a Microsoft Kinect that gather basic user information. Conceptually, You, M.D. could use this user information to dynamically select the appearance of the virtual humans in the interaction attempting to improve learning outcomes and user perception for each particular user. For this concept to be possible, a better understanding of how different elements of the visual appearance of a virtual human affects user perceptions is required. In this paper, we present the results of an initial user study with a large sample size (n =333) ran using You, M.D. The study measured users’ reactions based on the user’s gender and body-mass index (BMI) when facing virtual humans with BMI either concordant or discordant from the user’s BMI. The results of the study indicate that concordance between the users’ BMI and the virtual human’s BMI affects male and female users differently. The results also show that female users rate virtual humans as more knowledgeable than male users rate the same virtual humans.

  18. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  19. Getting the point across: exploring the effects of dynamic virtual humans in an interactive museum exhibit on user perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Diego; Ferdig, Rick; Li, Jian; Lok, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    We have created “You, M.D.”, an interactive museum exhibit in which users learn about topics in public health literacy while interacting with virtual humans. You, M.D. is equipped with a weight sensor, a height sensor and a Microsoft Kinect that gather basic user information. Conceptually, You, M.D. could use this user information to dynamically select the appearance of the virtual humans in the interaction attempting to improve learning outcomes and user perception for each particular user. For this concept to be possible, a better understanding of how different elements of the visual appearance of a virtual human affects user perceptions is required. In this paper, we present the results of an initial user study with a large sample size (n =333) ran using You, M.D. The study measured users’ reactions based on the user’s gender and body-mass index (BMI) when facing virtual humans with BMI either concordant or discordant from the user’s BMI. The results of the study indicate that concordance between the users’ BMI and the virtual human’s BMI affects male and female users differently. The results also show that female users rate virtual humans as more knowledgeable than male users rate the same virtual humans. PMID:24650991

  20. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN

    2015-01-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (P<0.05). Furthermore, the skin irritation test results indicated that the clove volatile oil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti-Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo. PMID:25780426

  1. N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endocannabinoid, exhibits antidepressant effects in the forced swim test and the tail suspension test in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Ling; Deng, Xian-Qing; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Ying-Chun; Quan, Zhe-Shan; Sun, Xian-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The antidepressant-like effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a putative endocannabinoid, was investigated in mice using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST). In TST, PEA (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) produced a statistically significant reduction in immobility (50, 32, and 34%, respectively, vs. the control group), whereas fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) reduced immobility by 38%. In FST, PEA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) produced a statistically significant reduction in immobility (15, 21, and 36%, respectively), whereas fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) reduced immobility by 18%. Moreover, PEA (20 mg/kg) did not significantly change motor activity in a spontaneous behavioral test. In conclusion, PEA (dose range of 5-40 mg/kg) administered orally reduced immobility in TST and FST, comparable to the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine, and had no effect on spontaneous activity in mice. PMID:21857095

  2. Effects of Activity Schedules on Challenging Behavior Exhibited in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lequia, Jenna; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy J.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed studies implementing activity schedules to decrease challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 18 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of activity schedules to…

  3. The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels

    PubMed Central

    Weiskirchen, Ralf; Mahli, Abdo; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed. This review summarizes present studies indicating that xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of xanthohumol or a xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis. Thus, therapeutic xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25999863

  4. Does School Board Training Encourage and Equip School Board Members to Exhibit the Behaviors of Effective Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Issaic

    2013-01-01

    This study applied 3 theoretical frameworks--Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's four frames, the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards, and effective governance characteristics--to examine the impact of the Masters in Governance (MIG) training offered by the California School Boards Association on the ability of school board…

  5. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  6. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Khan, M. A.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2014-06-01

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200°C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  7. Dimethyl Cardamonin Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effects via Interfering with the PI3K-PDK1-PKCα Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wan-Guo; He, Hao; Yao, Jing-Yun; Zhu, Yi-Xiang; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of herbal tea [flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae)] is associated with health beneficial effects against multiple diseases including diabetes, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Emerging evidences have reported that High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is considered as a key “late” proinflammatory factor by its unique secretion pattern in aforementioned diseases. Dimethyl cardamonin (2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3′,5′-dimethylchalcone, DMC) is a major ingredient of C. operculatus flower buds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DMC and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. DMC notably suppressed the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and HMGB1, and also markedly decreased their productions in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, DMC could notably reduce LPS-stimulated HMGB1 secretion and its nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation. Furthermore, DMC dose-dependently inhibited the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα). All these data demonstrated that DMC had anti-inflammatory effects through reducing both early (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and late (HMGB1) cytokines expressions via interfering with the PI3K-PDK1-PKCα signaling pathway. PMID:26535080

  8. A combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine exhibits an anti-obesity effect by inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Tatsuya; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    To develop an anti-obesity agent, we examined the combination effect of glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) and caffeine on obesity in mice. High-fat diet-induced obese KK mice were fed a low-fat diet with or without G-hesperidin, caffeine, or their combination for 2 weeks. Decreases in body weight and significantly lower adipose tissue weight were observed in the combination-fed mice but not in the G-hesperidin-fed or caffeine-fed mice. DNA microarray analysis of mouse liver suggested that the feeding of G-hesperidin + caffeine was associated with lower lipogenesis. Therefore, we examined the anti-lipogenic effect of G-hesperidin + caffeine in fasted-refed KK mice. Hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the mice fed G-hesperidin + caffeine during the refeeding period but not in the mice fed each alone. In addition, hepatic expressions of genes related to lipogenesis, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c or fatty acid synthase, were significantly lower in the mice fed G-hesperidin + caffeine compared with that in the control mice. These results suggested that G-hesperidin + caffeine is effective for controlling obesity partly by the inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:25409936

  9. A combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine exhibits an anti-obesity effect by inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Tatsuya; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    To develop an anti-obesity agent, we examined the combination effect of glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) and caffeine on obesity in mice. High-fat diet-induced obese KK mice were fed a low-fat diet with or without G-hesperidin, caffeine, or their combination for 2 weeks. Decreases in body weight and significantly lower adipose tissue weight were observed in the combination-fed mice but not in the G-hesperidin-fed or caffeine-fed mice. DNA microarray analysis of mouse liver suggested that the feeding of G-hesperidin + caffeine was associated with lower lipogenesis. Therefore, we examined the anti-lipogenic effect of G-hesperidin + caffeine in fasted-refed KK mice. Hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the mice fed G-hesperidin + caffeine during the refeeding period but not in the mice fed each alone. In addition, hepatic expressions of genes related to lipogenesis, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c or fatty acid synthase, were significantly lower in the mice fed G-hesperidin + caffeine compared with that in the control mice. These results suggested that G-hesperidin + caffeine is effective for controlling obesity partly by the inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis.

  10. One exhibition, many goals. A case study on how to combine scientific questions with stakeholder views on effective communication of risks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charriere, M. K. M.; Junier, S.; Bogaard, T.; Mostert, E.; Malet, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. This contribution will address the scientists-stakeholders interaction that was involved, the resulting exhibition, the lessons learned and the value it had for the researchers and for the other stakeholders. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France) we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). Informal meetings with local stakeholders were organized to determine what they perceived as the needs in term of risk communication and to investigate the potential to develop activities that would benefit both them and us. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. We proposed the content and this was adjusted in interaction with the stakeholders. Later local technicians and inhabitants contributed to the content of the exhibition and regional stakeholders helped with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, employees of the public library took the lead in advertising the activity, gathering participants and they helped designing the scientific survey. This survey was the key activity from a scientific point of view as it allowed us to measure the impact of this communication activity on risk awareness. Moreover, the principal scientist was present during all opening hours of the exhibition. This allowed direct and indirect contact with the visitors. The benefits of this exhibition for the community included triggering memories, encouraging exchanges, especially inter-generational, reinforcing stakeholders-to-stakeholders relationships and promote further communication on the topic. The scientific benefits are that we have an experiment that allows us to measure the impact of a communication effort, not

  11. Glutathione-Disrupted Biofilms of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Exhibit an Enhanced Antibiotic Effect and a Novel Biofilm Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Klare, William; Das, Theerthankar; Ibugo, Amaye; Buckle, Edwina; Manefield, Mike; Manos, Jim

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections result in high morbidity and mortality rates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), with premature death often occurring. These infections are complicated by the formation of biofilms in the sputum. Antibiotic therapy is stymied by antibiotic resistance of the biofilm matrix, making novel antibiofilm strategies highly desirable. Within P. aeruginosa biofilms, the redox factor pyocyanin enhances biofilm integrity by intercalating with extracellular DNA. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) reacts with pyocyanin, disrupting intercalation. This study investigated GSH disruption by assaying the physiological effects of GSH and DNase I on biofilms of clinical CF isolates grown in CF artificial sputum medium (ASMDM+). Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that 2 mM GSH, alone or combined with DNase I, significantly disrupted immature (24-h) biofilms of Australian epidemic strain (AES) isogens AES-1R and AES-1M. GSH alone greatly disrupted mature (72-h) AES-1R biofilms, resulting in significant differential expression of 587 genes, as indicated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Upregulated systems included cyclic diguanylate and pyoverdine biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, nitrate metabolism, and translational machinery. Biofilm disruption with GSH revealed a cellular physiology distinct from those of mature and dispersed biofilms. RNA-seq results were validated by biochemical and quantitative PCR assays. Biofilms of a range of CF isolates disrupted with GSH and DNase I were significantly more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and increased antibiotic effectiveness was achieved by increasing the GSH concentration. This study demonstrated that GSH, alone or with DNase I, represents an effective antibiofilm treatment when combined with appropriate antibiotics, pending in vivo studies.

  12. Glutathione-Disrupted Biofilms of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Exhibit an Enhanced Antibiotic Effect and a Novel Biofilm Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Klare, William; Das, Theerthankar; Ibugo, Amaye; Buckle, Edwina; Manefield, Mike; Manos, Jim

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections result in high morbidity and mortality rates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), with premature death often occurring. These infections are complicated by the formation of biofilms in the sputum. Antibiotic therapy is stymied by antibiotic resistance of the biofilm matrix, making novel antibiofilm strategies highly desirable. Within P. aeruginosa biofilms, the redox factor pyocyanin enhances biofilm integrity by intercalating with extracellular DNA. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) reacts with pyocyanin, disrupting intercalation. This study investigated GSH disruption by assaying the physiological effects of GSH and DNase I on biofilms of clinical CF isolates grown in CF artificial sputum medium (ASMDM+). Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that 2 mM GSH, alone or combined with DNase I, significantly disrupted immature (24-h) biofilms of Australian epidemic strain (AES) isogens AES-1R and AES-1M. GSH alone greatly disrupted mature (72-h) AES-1R biofilms, resulting in significant differential expression of 587 genes, as indicated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Upregulated systems included cyclic diguanylate and pyoverdine biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, nitrate metabolism, and translational machinery. Biofilm disruption with GSH revealed a cellular physiology distinct from those of mature and dispersed biofilms. RNA-seq results were validated by biochemical and quantitative PCR assays. Biofilms of a range of CF isolates disrupted with GSH and DNase I were significantly more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and increased antibiotic effectiveness was achieved by increasing the GSH concentration. This study demonstrated that GSH, alone or with DNase I, represents an effective antibiofilm treatment when combined with appropriate antibiotics, pending in vivo studies. PMID:27161630

  13. Phytoestrogen Bakuchiol Exhibits In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-breast Cancer Effects by Inducing S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Chen, Xueping; Liu, Chi C.; Lee, Lai S.; Man, Cornelia; Cheng, Shuk H.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogen has been proposed as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy, which has been demonstrated to promote a high risk of breast cancer. However, the effect of phytoestrogen on breast cancer development has not been fully understood. Bakuchiol is an active ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Fructus Psoraleae, the dried ripe fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae). The in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activities and anti-breast cancer effects of bakuchiol have not been well-studied. We found that bakuchiol induced the GFP expression in transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma, Tg, Chg:GFP) dose-dependently (0–1 μg/ml), demonstrating its in vivo estrogenic activity. Low dose of bakuchiol (1 μg/ml) induced the cell proliferation and ERα expression in MCF-7 cells, which could be blocked by the anti-estrogen ICI 182780, suggesting the in vitro estrogenic activity of bakuchiol. Our data indicated that high doses of bakuchiol (>2 μg/ml) inhibited breast cancer cell growth, with a stronger anti-proliferative effect than resveratrol, a widely studied analog of bakuchiol. High doses of bakuchiol (4, 7, and 10 μg/ml) were used for the further in vitro anti-breast cancer studies. Bakuchiol induced ERβ expression and suppressed ERα expression in MCF-7 cells. It also induced S phase arrest in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, which could be rescued by caffeine. Knock-down of p21 also marginally rescued S phase arrest in MCF-7 cells. The S phase arrest was accompanied by the upregulation of ATM, P-Cdc2 (Tyr15), Myt1, P-Wee1 (Ser642), p21 and Cyclin B1, suggesting that blocking of Cdc2 activation may play an important role in bakuchiol-induced S phase arrest. Furthermore, bakuchiol induced cell apoptosis and disturbed mitochondrial membrane potential in MCF-7 cells. The bakuchiol-induced apoptosis was associated with increased expression of Caspase family and Bcl-2 family proteins, suggesting that bakuchiol may induce apoptosis via intrinsic

  14. Phytoestrogen Bakuchiol Exhibits In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-breast Cancer Effects by Inducing S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Xueping; Liu, Chi C; Lee, Lai S; Man, Cornelia; Cheng, Shuk H

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogen has been proposed as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy, which has been demonstrated to promote a high risk of breast cancer. However, the effect of phytoestrogen on breast cancer development has not been fully understood. Bakuchiol is an active ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Fructus Psoraleae, the dried ripe fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae). The in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activities and anti-breast cancer effects of bakuchiol have not been well-studied. We found that bakuchiol induced the GFP expression in transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma, Tg, Chg:GFP) dose-dependently (0-1 μg/ml), demonstrating its in vivo estrogenic activity. Low dose of bakuchiol (1 μg/ml) induced the cell proliferation and ERα expression in MCF-7 cells, which could be blocked by the anti-estrogen ICI 182780, suggesting the in vitro estrogenic activity of bakuchiol. Our data indicated that high doses of bakuchiol (>2 μg/ml) inhibited breast cancer cell growth, with a stronger anti-proliferative effect than resveratrol, a widely studied analog of bakuchiol. High doses of bakuchiol (4, 7, and 10 μg/ml) were used for the further in vitro anti-breast cancer studies. Bakuchiol induced ERβ expression and suppressed ERα expression in MCF-7 cells. It also induced S phase arrest in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, which could be rescued by caffeine. Knock-down of p21 also marginally rescued S phase arrest in MCF-7 cells. The S phase arrest was accompanied by the upregulation of ATM, P-Cdc2 (Tyr15), Myt1, P-Wee1 (Ser642), p21 and Cyclin B1, suggesting that blocking of Cdc2 activation may play an important role in bakuchiol-induced S phase arrest. Furthermore, bakuchiol induced cell apoptosis and disturbed mitochondrial membrane potential in MCF-7 cells. The bakuchiol-induced apoptosis was associated with increased expression of Caspase family and Bcl-2 family proteins, suggesting that bakuchiol may induce apoptosis via intrinsic

  15. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    PubMed Central

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Khan, M. A.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200°C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm2V−1s−1, large memory window (∼16 V), low read voltages (∼−1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices. PMID:24912617

  16. Genome survey and characterization of endophytic bacteria exhibiting a beneficial effect on growth and development of poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Garafola, Craig; Monchy, Sébastien; Newman, Lee; Hoffman, Adam; Weyens, Nele; Barac, Tanja; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated a collection of 78 bacterial endophytes isolated from poplar and willow trees. As representatives for the dominant genera of endophytic gammaproteobacteria, we selected Enterobacter sp. strain 638, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R551-3, Pseudomonas putida W619, and Serratia proteamaculans 568 for genome sequencing and analysis of their plant growth-promoting effects, including root development. Derivatives of these endophytes, labeled with gfp, were also used to study the colonization of their poplar hosts. In greenhouse studies, poplar cuttings (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra DN-34) inoculated with Enterobacter sp. strain 638 repeatedly showed the highest increase in biomass production compared to cuttings of noninoculated control plants. Sequence data combined with the analysis of their metabolic properties resulted in the identification of many putative mechanisms, including carbon source utilization, that help these endophytes to thrive within a plant environment and to potentially affect the growth and development of their plant hosts. Understanding the interactions between endophytic bacteria and their host plants should ultimately result in the design of strategies for improved poplar biomass production on marginal soils as a feedstock for biofuels.

  17. The Effect of Docetaxel (Taxotere®) on Human Gastric Cancer Cells Exhibiting Low-Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Balcer-Kubiczek, Elizabeth K.; Attarpour, Mona; Wang, Jian Z.; Regine, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Low-dose radiation hypersensitivity (HRS) describes a phenomenon of excessive sensitivity to X ray doses <0.5 Gy. Docetaxel is a taxane shown to arrest cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Some previous studies suggested that HRS might result from the abrogation of the early G2 checkpoint arrest. First we tested whether HRS occurs in gastric cancer—derived cells, and whether pre-treatment of cells with low docetaxel concentrations can enhance the magnitude of HRS in gastric cancer cells. The results demonstrated HRS at ~0.3 Gy and the synergy between 0.3 Gy and docetaxel (3 nM for 24 h), and the additivity of other drug/dose combinations. The synergistic effect was associated with a significant docetaxel-induced G2 accumulation. Next, we evaluated in time-course experiments ATM kinase activity and proteins associated with the induction and maintenance of the early G2 checkpoint. The results of multi-immunoblot analysis demonstrate that HRS does not correlate with the ATM-dependent early G2 checkpoint arrest. We speculate that G2 checkpoint adaptation, a phenomenon associated with a prolonged cell cycle arrest, might be involved in HRS. Our results also suggest a new approach for the improvement the effectiveness of docetaxel-based radiotherapy using low doses per fraction. PMID:21892291

  18. Multiplex gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 exhibits desirable muscle hypertrophy without detectable off-target effects in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Jiankui; Yu, Honghao; Kou, Qifang; Lei, Anmin; Zhao, Xiaoe; Yan, Hailong; Cai, Bei; Shen, Qiaoyan; Zhou, Shiwei; Zhu, Haijing; Zhou, Guangxian; Niu, Wenzhi; Hua, Jinlian; Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xingxu; Ma, Baohua; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a flexible approach for genome engineering of genetic loci. Here, we successfully achieved precise gene targeting in sheep by co-injecting one-cell-stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and RNA guides targeting three genes (MSTN, ASIP, and BCO2). We carefully examined the sgRNAs:Cas9-mediated targeting effects in injected embryos, somatic tissues, as well as gonads via cloning and sequencing. The targeting efficiencies in these three genes were within the range of 27–33% in generated lambs, and that of simultaneously targeting the three genes was 5.6%, which demonstrated that micro-injection of zygotes is an efficient approach for generating gene-modified sheep. Interestingly, we observed that disruption of the MSTN gene resulted in the desired muscle hypertrophy that is characterized by enlarged myofibers, thereby providing the first detailed evidence supporting that gene modifications had occurred at both the genetic and morphological levels. In addition, prescreening for the off-target effect of sgRNAs was performed on fibroblasts before microinjection, to ensure that no detectable off-target mutations from founder animals existed. Our findings suggested that the CRISPR/Cas9 method can be exploited as a powerful tool for livestock improvement by simultaneously targeting multiple genes that are responsible for economically significant traits. PMID:27562433

  19. Humulus scandens exhibits immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo by suppressing CD4(+) T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinjin; Wu, Yingchun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Weiqi; Hu, Shaoping; Li, Yiming; Yang, Yifu

    2014-01-01

    Humulus scandens, rich in flavonoids, is a traditional Chinese medicine. It is widely used in China to treat tuberculosis, dysentery and chronic colitis. In this study, the major active faction of Humulus scandens (H.S) was prepared. Then, its immunosuppressive effects and underlying mechanisms on T cell activation were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that H.S significantly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharides, and mixed-lymphocyte reaction in vitro. Additionally, H.S could dramatically suppress the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production from T cells stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Flow cytometric results confirmed that H.S could suppress the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing type 1 helper T cells (Th1). Furthermore, using ovalbumin immunization-induced T cell reaction and CD4(+) T-cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, H.S the immunosuppressive effects of H.S was also demonstrated in vivo. Western blot results showed that H.S could impede the activation of both Erk1/2 and P38 in primary T cells triggered by anti-CD3/28. Collectively, the active fraction of H.S showed promising immunosuppressive activities both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25004883

  20. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, simvastatin, exhibits anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic effects in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xiugui; Han, Xiaoyun; Schointuch, Monica N.; Gilliam, Timothy P.; Gehrig, Paola A.; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. The mevalonate pathway is thought to be a potential oncogenic pathway in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor, is a widely used drug for inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol and may also have anti-tumorigenic activity. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines, primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells and in an orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse model. Simvastatin significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis, and caused cellular stress via reduction in the enzymatic activity of HMGCR and inhibition of the MAPK and mTOR pathways in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, simvastatin induced DNA damage and reduced cell adhesion and invasion. Simvastatin also exerted anti-proliferative effects on primary cell cultures of ovarian cancer. Treatment with simvastatin in an orthotopic mouse model reduced ovarian tumor growth, coincident with decreased Ki-67, HMGCR, phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated-p42/44 protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that simvastatin may have therapeutic benefit for ovarian cancer treatment and be worthy of further exploration in clinical trials. PMID:26503475

  1. Extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Flower Exhibit Antidiabetic Effects via the Inhibition of α-Glucosidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Li; Kong, Siyuan; Tan, Hongsheng; Xu, Hongxi; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assay the effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. flower extracts on hyperglycemia of diet-induced obese mice and the underlying mechanisms. Coreopsis tinctoria flower was extracted with ethanol and water, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid levels, and the constituents of the extracts were measured. For the animal experiments, C57BL/6 mice were fed with a chow diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet mixed with 0.4% (w/w) water and ethanol extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria flower for 8 weeks. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on α-glucosidase activity and the antioxidant properties were assayed in vitro. We found that the extracts blocked the increase of fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride (TG), insulin, leptin, and liver lipid levels and prevented the development of glucose tolerance impairment and insulin resistance in the C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet. The extracts inhibited α-glycosidase activity and increased oxidant activity in vitro. In conclusion, Coreopsis tinctoria flower extracts may ameliorate high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underling mechanism may be via the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Our data indicate that Coreopsis tinctoria flower could be used as a beverage supplement and a potential source of drugs for treatment of diabetics. PMID:27088095

  2. Multiplex gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 exhibits desirable muscle hypertrophy without detectable off-target effects in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Jiankui; Yu, Honghao; Kou, Qifang; Lei, Anmin; Zhao, Xiaoe; Yan, Hailong; Cai, Bei; Shen, Qiaoyan; Zhou, Shiwei; Zhu, Haijing; Zhou, Guangxian; Niu, Wenzhi; Hua, Jinlian; Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xingxu; Ma, Baohua; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a flexible approach for genome engineering of genetic loci. Here, we successfully achieved precise gene targeting in sheep by co-injecting one-cell-stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and RNA guides targeting three genes (MSTN, ASIP, and BCO2). We carefully examined the sgRNAs:Cas9-mediated targeting effects in injected embryos, somatic tissues, as well as gonads via cloning and sequencing. The targeting efficiencies in these three genes were within the range of 27-33% in generated lambs, and that of simultaneously targeting the three genes was 5.6%, which demonstrated that micro-injection of zygotes is an efficient approach for generating gene-modified sheep. Interestingly, we observed that disruption of the MSTN gene resulted in the desired muscle hypertrophy that is characterized by enlarged myofibers, thereby providing the first detailed evidence supporting that gene modifications had occurred at both the genetic and morphological levels. In addition, prescreening for the off-target effect of sgRNAs was performed on fibroblasts before microinjection, to ensure that no detectable off-target mutations from founder animals existed. Our findings suggested that the CRISPR/Cas9 method can be exploited as a powerful tool for livestock improvement by simultaneously targeting multiple genes that are responsible for economically significant traits. PMID:27562433

  3. Genome Survey and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Exhibiting a Beneficial Effect on Growth and Development of Poplar Trees ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Garafola, Craig; Monchy, Sébastien; Newman, Lee; Hoffman, Adam; Weyens, Nele; Barac, Tanja; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated a collection of 78 bacterial endophytes isolated from poplar and willow trees. As representatives for the dominant genera of endophytic gammaproteobacteria, we selected Enterobacter sp. strain 638, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R551-3, Pseudomonas putida W619, and Serratia proteamaculans 568 for genome sequencing and analysis of their plant growth-promoting effects, including root development. Derivatives of these endophytes, labeled with gfp, were also used to study the colonization of their poplar hosts. In greenhouse studies, poplar cuttings (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra DN-34) inoculated with Enterobacter sp. strain 638 repeatedly showed the highest increase in biomass production compared to cuttings of noninoculated control plants. Sequence data combined with the analysis of their metabolic properties resulted in the identification of many putative mechanisms, including carbon source utilization, that help these endophytes to thrive within a plant environment and to potentially affect the growth and development of their plant hosts. Understanding the interactions between endophytic bacteria and their host plants should ultimately result in the design of strategies for improved poplar biomass production on marginal soils as a feedstock for biofuels. PMID:19060168

  4. High-dose simvastatin exhibits enhanced lipid-lowering effects relative to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Stuart G; Grapov, Dmitry; Settergren, Magnus; D'Alexandri, Fabio Luiz; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Fiehn, Oliver; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Orešič, Matej; Pernow, John; Wheelock, Craig E

    2014-12-01

    Statins are the frontline in cholesterol reduction therapies; however, their use in combination with agents that possess complimentary mechanisms of action may achieve further reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Thirty-nine patients were treated with either 80 mg simvastatin (n=20) or 10 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe (n=19) for 6 weeks. Dosing was designed to produce comparable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reductions, while enabling assessment of potential simvastatin-associated pleiotropic effects. Baseline and post-treatment plasma were analyzed for lipid mediators (eg, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) and structural lipids by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After statistical analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures multivariate modeling, no changes were observed in lipid mediator levels, whereas global structural lipids were reduced in response to both monotherapy (R(2)Y=0.74; Q(2)=0.66; cross-validated ANOVA P=7.0×10(-8)) and combination therapy (R(2)Y=0.67; Q(2)=0.54; cross-validated ANOVA P=2.6×10(-5)). Orthogonal projections to latent structures modeling identified a subset of 12 lipids that classified the 2 treatment groups after 6 weeks (R(2)Y=0.65; Q(2)=0.61; cross-validated ANOVA P=5.4×10(-8)). Decreases in the lipid species phosphatidylcholine (15:0/18:2) and hexosyl-ceramide (d18:1/24:0) were the strongest discriminators of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reductions for both treatment groups (q<0.00005), whereas phosphatidylethanolamine (36:3e) contributed most to distinguishing treatment groups (q=0.017). Shifts in lipid composition were similar for high-dose simvastatin and simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy, but the magnitude of the reduction was linked to simvastatin dosage. Simvastatin therapy did not affect circulating levels of lipid mediators, suggesting that pleiotropic effects are not associated with eicosanoid production. Only high-dose simvastatin reduced the

  5. Luteolin exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the activity of heat shock protein 90 in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Bi, Aijing; Dong, Xiaoliang; Jiang, Yi; Rui, Bing; Liu, Jinjiao; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Septic diseases represent the prevalent complications in intensive care units. Luteolin, a plant flavonoid, has potent anti-inflammatory properties; however, the molecular mechanism beneath luteolin mediated immune modulation remains unclear. Here in vitro investigations showed that luteolin dose-dependently inhibited LPS-triggered secretion and relocation of high mobility group B-1 (HMGB1) and LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages. The mechanism analysis demonstrated that luteolin reduced the release of HMGB1 through destabilizing c-Jun and suppressed HMGB1-induced aggravation of inflammatory cascade through reducing Akt protein level. As an inhibitor of Hsp90, luteolin destabilized Hsp90 client protein c-Jun and Akt. In vivo investigations showed that luteolin effectively protected mice from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethality. In conclusion, the present study suggested that luteolin may act as a potential therapeutic reagent for treating septic diseases. PMID:24321097

  6. Identification of Yeast Mutants Exhibiting Altered Sensitivity to Valinomycin and Nigericin Demonstrate Pleiotropic Effects of Ionophores on Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid; Valachovic, Martin; Klobucnikova, Vlasta; Zeiselova, Lucia; Griac, Peter; Nosek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Ionophores such as valinomycin and nigericin are potent tools for studying the impact of ion perturbance on cellular functions. To obtain a broader picture about molecular components involved in mediating the effects of these drugs on yeast cells under respiratory growth conditions, we performed a screening of the haploid deletion mutant library covering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential genes. We identified nearly 130 genes whose absence leads either to resistance or to hypersensitivity to valinomycin and/or nigericin. The processes affected by their protein products range from mitochondrial functions through ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance to vacuolar biogenesis and stress response. Comparison of the results with independent screenings performed by our and other laboratories demonstrates that although mitochondria might represent the main target for both ionophores, cellular response to the drugs is very complex and involves an intricate network of proteins connecting mitochondria, vacuoles, and other membrane compartments. PMID:27711131

  7. Dimethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate exhibit differential effects on KEAP1, NRF2 activation, and glutathione depletion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Melanie S; Matos, Maria F; Li, Bing; Hronowski, Xiaoping; Gao, Benbo; Juhasz, Peter; Rhodes, Kenneth J; Scannevin, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (also known as gastro-resistant dimethyl fumarate), an oral therapeutic containing dimethyl fumarate (DMF) as the active ingredient, is currently approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. DMF is also a component in a distinct mixture product with 3 different salts of monoethyl fumarate (MEF), which is marketed for the treatment of psoriasis. Previous studies have provided insight into the pharmacologic properties of DMF, including modulation of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) pathway, and glutathione (GSH) modulation; however, those of MEF remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of DMF and MEF on KEAP1 modification, activation of the NRF2 pathway, and GSH conjugation. Using mass spectrometry, DMF treatment resulted in a robust modification of specific cysteine residues on KEAP1. In comparison, the overall degree of KEAP1 modification following MEF treatment was significantly less or undetectable. Consistent with KEAP1 cysteine modification, DMF treatment resulted in nuclear translocation of NRF2 and a robust transcriptional response in treated cells, as did MEF; however, the responses to MEF were of a lower magnitude or distinct compared to DMF. DMF was also shown to produce an acute concentration-dependent depletion of GSH; however, GSH levels eventually recovered and rose above baseline by 24 hours. In contrast, MEF did not cause acute reductions in GSH, but did produce an increase by 24 hours. Overall, these studies demonstrate that DMF and MEF are both pharmacologically active, but have differing degrees of activity as well as unique actions. These differences would be expected to result in divergent effects on downstream biology. PMID:25793262

  8. Distinct effects of boar seminal plasma fractions exhibiting different protein profiles on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Calvete, J J; Sanz, L; Roca, J; Martínez, E A; Vázquez, J M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different protein profiles of seminal plasma (SP) fractions affect sperm functionality in vitro. Ejaculates from three boars were separated into six fractions. The fractions differed from each other in their sperm content, in their total SP protein content, and their spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and heparin-binding protein (HBP) concentrations. Spermatozoa were mainly recovered in fraction 2 (sperm-rich fraction, >1800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml), whereas the pre-sperm fraction 1 and the post-sperm fractions 4-6 contained low numbers of spermatozoa (<500 x 10(6)/ml). Except in fraction 2, the total SP protein concentration and the concentration of both, spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and the HBPs increased with fraction order. Distinct time-dependent effects were observed on motility characteristics and membrane integrity of highly diluted boar spermatozoa upon incubation with a 10% dilution of the SP from each fraction. The highest sperm viability was recorded after exposure for 5 h to fraction 2, followed by fractions 1 and 3. The percentages of motile spermatozoa also differed significantly among fractions after 5 h of incubation. Spermatozoa incubated with SP of fractions 1-3 showed the highest percentage motility. We conclude that different SP fractions exert distinct effects on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. Fractions 1-3 appear to promote sperm survival, whereas fractions 4-6 seem to be harmful for preserving the physiological functions of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. PMID:19323794

  9. The Quorum-Quenching Metallo-gamma-lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis Exhibits a Leaving Group Thio Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Momb,J.; Thomas, P.; Breece, R.; Tierney, D.; Fast, W.

    2006-01-01

    Lactone-hydrolyzing enzymes derived from some Bacillus species are capable of disrupting quorum sensing in bacteria that use N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as intercellular signaling molecules. Despite the promise of these quorum-quenching enzymes as therapeutic and anti-biofouling agents, the ring opening mechanism and the role of metal ions in catalysis have not been elucidated. Labeling studies using {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, and the AHL lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis implicate an addition-elimination pathway for ring opening in which a solvent-derived oxygen is incorporated into the product carboxylate, identifying the alcohol as the leaving group. {sup 1}H NMR is used to show that metal binding is required to maintain proper folding. A thio effect is measured for hydrolysis of N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the corresponding thiolactone by AHL lactonase disubstituted with alternative metal ions, including Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+}. The magnitude of the thio effect on k{sub cat} values and the thiophilicity of the metal ion substitutions vary in parallel and are consistent with a kinetically significant interaction between the leaving group and the active site metal center during turnover. X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms that dicobalt substitution does not result in large structural perturbations at the active site. Finally, substitution of the dinuclear metal site with Cd{sup 2+} results in a greatly enhanced catalyst that can hydrolyze AHLs 1600-24000-fold faster than other reported quorum-quenching enzymes.

  10. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  11. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  12. Triphala exhibits anti-arthritic effect by ameliorating bone and cartilage degradation in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, Sowmiya; Rasool, MahaboobKhan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of triphala and its underlying mechanism on adjuvant-induced rat model. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the right hind paw of the Wistar albino rats. Triphala (100 mg/kg body weight [bwt]) was administered intraperitoneally (from 11th to 20th day) after the arthritis induction. Arthritis induction increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (LPO and NO), elastase, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-β, IL-17, IL-6 and MCP-1), inflammatory marker enzymes (iNOS and COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and transcription factors (NF-kB p65 and AP-1) in the paw tissues of rats. The levels of bone collagen were found to decrease with increased urinary constituents (hydroxyproline and total glycosaminoglycans) in arthritic rats. In addition, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased expression of NF-kBp65 and COX-2 in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. However, administration of triphala significantly inhibited the biochemical and molecular alterations in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats compared to indomethacin (3 mg/kg bwt) as evidenced by the radiological and histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that triphala administration ameliorate bone and cartilage degradation during rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25942351

  13. Monolayer Single-Crystal 1T'-MoTe2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition Exhibits Weak Antilocalization Effect.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Carl H; Parkin, William M; Ping, Jinglei; Gao, Zhaoli; Zhou, Yu Ren; Kim, Youngkuk; Streller, Frank; Carpick, Robert W; Rappe, Andrew M; Drndić, Marija; Kikkawa, James M; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-07-13

    Growth of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers is of interest due to their unique electrical and optical properties. Films in the 2H and 1T phases have been widely studied but monolayers of some 1T'-TMDs are predicted to be large-gap quantum spin Hall insulators, suitable for innovative transistor structures that can be switched via a topological phase transition rather than conventional carrier depletion [ Qian et al. Science 2014 , 346 , 1344 - 1347 ]. Here we detail a reproducible method for chemical vapor deposition of monolayer, single-crystal flakes of 1T'-MoTe2. Atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy confirm the composition and structure of MoTe2 flakes. Variable temperature magnetotransport shows weak antilocalization at low temperatures, an effect seen in topological insulators and evidence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Our approach provides a pathway to systematic investigation of monolayer, single-crystal 1T'-MoTe2 and implementation in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. PMID:27223343

  14. Novel isonahocol E3 exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects in endothelin-1-stimulated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shyam K; Kim, Byung-Hak; Park, Geon-Tae; Kim, Sunghwan; Hwa Jang, Kyoung; Eun Jeon, Ju; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2013-10-25

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is reported to be a potent mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factor that plays a vital role in both physiological and pathological processes. ET-1 is implicated in dermal cell proliferation and skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. ET-1, endothelin ETA receptor, and endothelin ETB receptor could be potential targets for developing specific therapeutics to treat such disorders. Here, we provide the first report that an isonahocol [2,-5-dihydroxy-3-(13-hydroxy-3,-7,-11,-15-tetramethyl-12-oxo-hexadeca-2,-6,-14-trienyl)-phenyl]- acetic acid methyl ester (isonahocol E3) from the brown algae Sargassum siliquastrum has functional antagonistic activities against ET-1 induced inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects. Isonahocol E3 significantly inhibited ET-1-induced cell proliferation, as well as inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and pro-angiogenic factors including metalloproteinases in immortalized human keratinocytes. We also found that isonahocol E3 reduced expression level of endothelin ETA receptor, and endothelin ETB receptor as well as suppressed ET-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that isonahocol E3 can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities at least by regulating the expression of ET-1 receptors and ERK signaling pathway.

  15. Novel isonahocol E(3) exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects in endothelin-1-stimulated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shyam Kishor; Kim, Byung-Hak; Park, Geon-Tae; Kim, Sunghwam; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Jeon, Ju Eun; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2013-11-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is reported to be a potent mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factor that plays a vital role in both physiological and pathological processes. ET-1 is implicated in dermal cell proliferation and skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. ET-1, endothelin ET(A) receptor, and endothelin ET(B) receptor could be potential targets for developing specific therapeutics to treat such disorders. Here, we provide the first report that an isonahocol [2,-5-hihydroxy-3-(13-hydroxy-3,-7,-11,-15-tetramethyl-12-oxo-hexadeca-2,-6,-14-trienyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester (isonahocol E(3)) from the brown algae Sargassum siliquastrum has functional antagonistic activities against ET-1 induced inflammatory and proangiogenic effects. Isonahocol E(3) significantly inhibited ET-1-induced cell proliferation, as well as inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and pro-angiogenic factors including metalloproteinases in immortalized human keratinocytes. We also found that isonahocol E(3) reduced expression level of endothelin ET(A) receptor, and endothelin ET(B) receptor as well as suppressed ET-1 induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosporylation. Taken together, our results suggest that isonahocol E(3) can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities at least by regulating the expression of ET-1 receptors and ERK signaling pathway.

  16. Humulus japonicus extract exhibits antioxidative and anti-aging effects via modulation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, BOKYUNG; CHUNG, JI WON; BAE, HA RAM; CHOI, JAE SUE; KIM, CHEOL MIN; KIM, NAM DEUK

    2015-01-01

    The perennial herb, Humulus japonicus, has been previously described as possessing potential antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the anti-aging activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of H. japonicus (HJE) was evaluated in yeast and human fibroblast cells. In addition, the antioxidant activity of HJE was analyzed using free radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the hypothesized HJE-associated extension of lifespan was investigated, and the results indicated that HJE was able to extend the lifespan of yeast cells. Further experiments demonstrated that HJE upregulated the longevity-associated proteins, sirtuin 1 and AMP-activated protein kinase, and effectively inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the antioxidative potential of the active constituents of HJE, including luteolin, luteolin 7-glycoside, quercetin and quercitrin, was evaluated and the results demonstrated that these flavonoids were able to scavenge ROS in cell-free and intracellular systems. In summary, the results revealed that HJE possessed the potential for antioxidative activity; however, further in vivo investigations are required with the aim of developing safe, high-efficacy anti-aging agents. PMID:26136899

  17. Endo-polysaccharide of Phellinus igniarius exhibited anti-tumor effect through enhancement of cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Pan, Jingzhi; Li, Xue; Zhou, Yong; Meng, Qinglong; Wang, Qi

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of PIE on tumor cells Sarcoma 180 and Hepatoma 22 in implanted mice. The monosaccharide composition of PIE was analyzed by GC. The results demonstrated that PIE monosaccharide composition was n(Xyl): n(Man): n(Fuc): n(Glc): n(Gal)=2.3: 1: 6.4: 22.1: 19.83. The oral administration of PIE characteristically inhibited the growth of S180 and H22 cells and increased the life span. The concentrations of serum IL-2 and IL-18 were significantly increased in the S180 implanted mice fed with PIE in the doses of 500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg compared with those in control (p<0.01). The concentrations of serum IL-2 were significantly increased in H22 implanted mice in the doses of 500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg compared with those in control (p<0.01). PMID:21145997

  18. Triphala exhibits anti-arthritic effect by ameliorating bone and cartilage degradation in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, Sowmiya; Rasool, MahaboobKhan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of triphala and its underlying mechanism on adjuvant-induced rat model. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the right hind paw of the Wistar albino rats. Triphala (100 mg/kg body weight [bwt]) was administered intraperitoneally (from 11th to 20th day) after the arthritis induction. Arthritis induction increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (LPO and NO), elastase, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-β, IL-17, IL-6 and MCP-1), inflammatory marker enzymes (iNOS and COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and transcription factors (NF-kB p65 and AP-1) in the paw tissues of rats. The levels of bone collagen were found to decrease with increased urinary constituents (hydroxyproline and total glycosaminoglycans) in arthritic rats. In addition, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased expression of NF-kBp65 and COX-2 in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. However, administration of triphala significantly inhibited the biochemical and molecular alterations in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats compared to indomethacin (3 mg/kg bwt) as evidenced by the radiological and histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that triphala administration ameliorate bone and cartilage degradation during rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. RGD-modifided oncolytic adenovirus exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on CAR-negative bladder cancer-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Xu, H; Shen, J; Yang, Y; Wu, S; Xiao, J; Xu, Y; Liu, X-Y; Chu, L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cell (CIC) is critical in cancer development, maintenance and recurrence. The reverse expression pattern of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and αν integrin in bladder cancer decreases the infection efficiency of adenovirus. We constructed Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified oncolytic adenovirus, carrying EGFP or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene (OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-EGFP/TRAIL), and applied them to CAR-negative bladder cancer T24 cells and cancer-initiating T24 sphere cells. OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-EGFP had enhanced infection ability and cytotoxic effect on T24 cells and T24 sphere cells, but little cytoxicity on normal urothelial SV-HUC-1 cells compared with the unmodified virus OncoAd.hTERT-EGFP. Notably, OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-TRAIL induced apoptosis in T24 cells and T24 sphere cells. Furthermore, it completely inhibited xenograft initiation established by the oncolytic adenovirus-pretreated T24 sphere cells, and significantly suppressed tumor growth by intratumoral injection. These results provided a promising therapeutic strategy for CAR-negative bladder cancer through targeting CICs. PMID:25973680

  20. Th17 Cells Exhibit Antitumor Effects in MDS Possibly through Augmenting Functions of CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaquan; Liu, Chunyan; Tao, Jinglian; Qi, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Th17 cells are a newly found subset of distinct CD4+ Th effector cells' family and are found to play an important role in cancers. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a common malignant hematological disease. Here, we showed that both the percentage and the function of Th17 cells were elevated in low-risk MDS while being decreased in high-risk MDS. Levels of upstream molecules of Th17 cells, IL-6 and IL-23, were higher in low-risk MDS but lower in high-risk MDS patients. The abnormal percentage of Th17 cells was closely related to clinical parameters including karyotype, morphologic blast percentage of bone marrow, peripheral absolute neutrophil count, and hemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, expression rates of perforin and granzyme B in BM CD3+CD8+ cells (cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL) positively correlated with levels of IL-17 but negatively correlated with BM blast percentage and could be significantly increased after stimulation with human recombinant IL-17 (rhIL-17). Our results suggested that Th17 cells might play an antitumor effect in the pathogenesis of MDS through IL-17/CTL pathway. PMID:27722177

  1. Dpp and Gbb exhibit different effective ranges in the establishment of the BMP activity gradient critical for Drosophila wing patterning.

    PubMed

    Bangi, Erdem; Wharton, Kristi

    2006-07-01

    Morphogen gradients ensure the specification of different cell fates by dividing initially unpatterned cellular fields into distinct domains of gene expression. It is becoming clear that such gradients are not always simple concentration gradients of a single morphogen; however, the underlying mechanism of generating an activity gradient is poorly understood. Our data indicate that the relative contributions of two BMP ligands, Gbb and Dpp, to patterning the wing imaginal disc along its A/P axis, change as a function of distance from the ligand source. Gbb acts over a long distance to establish BMP target gene boundaries and a variety of cell fates throughout the wing disc, while Dpp functions at a shorter range. On its own, Dpp is not sufficient to mediate the low-threshold responses at the end points of the activity gradient, a function that Gbb fulfills. Given that both ligands signal through the Tkv type I receptor to activate the same downstream effector, Mad, the difference in their effective ranges must reflect an inherent difference in the ligands themselves, influencing how they interact with other molecules. The existence of related ligands with different functional ranges may represent a conserved mechanism used in different species to generate robust long range activity gradients.

  2. Monolayer Single-Crystal 1T'-MoTe2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition Exhibits Weak Antilocalization Effect.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Carl H; Parkin, William M; Ping, Jinglei; Gao, Zhaoli; Zhou, Yu Ren; Kim, Youngkuk; Streller, Frank; Carpick, Robert W; Rappe, Andrew M; Drndić, Marija; Kikkawa, James M; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-07-13

    Growth of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers is of interest due to their unique electrical and optical properties. Films in the 2H and 1T phases have been widely studied but monolayers of some 1T'-TMDs are predicted to be large-gap quantum spin Hall insulators, suitable for innovative transistor structures that can be switched via a topological phase transition rather than conventional carrier depletion [ Qian et al. Science 2014 , 346 , 1344 - 1347 ]. Here we detail a reproducible method for chemical vapor deposition of monolayer, single-crystal flakes of 1T'-MoTe2. Atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy confirm the composition and structure of MoTe2 flakes. Variable temperature magnetotransport shows weak antilocalization at low temperatures, an effect seen in topological insulators and evidence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Our approach provides a pathway to systematic investigation of monolayer, single-crystal 1T'-MoTe2 and implementation in next-generation nanoelectronic devices.

  3. Non-classical effects of prolactin on the innate immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells: Implications during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Medina-Estrada, Ivan; Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to invade mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) causing mastitis. This event depends primarily on the α5β1 integrin in the host cell. In addition, bMECs are a target for the hormone prolactin (PRL), which can regulate β1 integrin-dependent actions related to differentiation and lactation. Previously, we demonstrated that bovine PRL (bPRL, 5 ng/ml) stimulates S. aureus internalization into bMECs. TLR2 is important during S. aureus infections, but its activation by PRL has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to determine the role of α5β1 integrin and TLR2 during S. aureus internalization into bMECs stimulated with bPRL. We demonstrated that the prolactin-stimulated internalization of S. aureus decreases in response to the blockage of α5β1 integrin (∼ 80%) and TLR2 (∼ 80%). bPRL increases the membrane abundance (MA) of α5β1 integrin (∼ 20%) and induces TLR2 MA (∼ 2-fold). S. aureus reduces the α5β1 integrin MA in bMECs treated with bPRL (∼ 75%) but induces TLR2 MA in bMECs (∼ 3-fold). Bacteria and bPRL did not modify TLR2 MA compared with the hormone alone. S. aureus induces the activation of the transcription factor AP-1, which was inhibited in bMECs treated with bPRL and infected. In general, bPRL induces both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in bMECs, which are abated in response to bacterial challenge. Interestingly, the canonical Stat-5 transcription factor was not activated in the challenged bMECs and/or treated with bPRL. Taken together, these results support novel functions of prolactin as a modulator of the innate immune response that do not involve the classical prolactin pathway.

  4. Deep Sea Water Modulates Blood Pressure and Exhibits Hypolipidemic Effects via the AMPK-ACC Pathway: An in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Chou, Pei-Yu; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Chien, Yi-Chung; Chung, Yun-Lung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2013-01-01

    Deep sea water (DSW), originally pumped from the Pacific Rim off the coast of Hualien County (Taiwan), and its mineral constituents, were concentrated by a low-temperature vacuum evaporation system to produce a hardness of approximately 400,000 mg/L of seawater mineral concentrate. The primary composition of this seawater mineral concentrate was ionic magnesium (Mg2+), which was approximately 96,000 mg/L. Referring to the human recommended daily allowance (RDA) of magnesium, we diluted the mineral concentrate to three different dosages: 0.1 × DSW (equivalent to 3.75 mg Mg2+/kg DSW); 1 × DSW (equivalent to 37.5 mg Mg2+/kg DSW); and 2 × DSW (equivalent to 75 mg Mg2+/kg DSW). Additionally, a magnesium chloride treatment was conducted for comparison with the DSW supplement. The study indicated that 0.1 × DSW, 1 × DSW and 2 × DSW decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures in spontaneous hypertensive rats in an eight-week experiment. DSW has been shown to reduce serum lipids and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. Our results demonstrated that 1 × DSW and 2 × DSW significantly suppressed the serum cholesterol levels, reduced the lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. These findings indicated that the antiatherogenic effects of DSW are associated with 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) stimulation and the consequent inhibition of phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in atherosclerotic rabbits. We hypothesize that DSW could potentially be used as drinking water because it modulates blood pressure, reduces lipids, and prevents atherogenesis. PMID:23774889

  5. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhuo; Tu, Ya; Guo, Tian-wei; Wu, Yun-chu; Yang, Xue-qin; Sun, Lan; Yang, Xin-jing; Zhang, Wen-yue; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu-hui

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and electroacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment at Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29) acupoints was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes) prior to restraint for 28 days. Open field tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at specific time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. Twenty-seven differential proteins (uncharacteristic proteins expected) were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related proteins exist

  6. In Vivo Acute on Chronic Ethanol Effects in Liver: A Mouse Model Exhibiting Exacerbated Injury, Altered Metabolic and Epigenetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Aroor, Annayya R; Restrepo, Ricardo; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-11-20

    Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease.

  7. Deep sea water modulates blood pressure and exhibits hypolipidemic effects via the AMPK-ACC pathway: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Chou, Pei-Yu; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Chien, Yi-Chung; Chung, Yun-Lung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2013-06-17

    Deep sea water (DSW), originally pumped from the Pacific Rim off the coast of Hualien County (Taiwan), and its mineral constituents, were concentrated by a low-temperature vacuum evaporation system to produce a hardness of approximately 400,000 mg/L of seawater mineral concentrate. The primary composition of this seawater mineral concentrate was ionic magnesium (Mg²⁺), which was approximately 96,000 mg/L. Referring to the human recommended daily allowance (RDA) of magnesium, we diluted the mineral concentrate to three different dosages: 0.1 × DSW (equivalent to 3.75 mg Mg²⁺/kg DSW); 1 × DSW (equivalent to 37.5 mg Mg²⁺/kg DSW); and 2 × DSW (equivalent to 75 mg Mg²⁺/kg DSW). Additionally, a magnesium chloride treatment was conducted for comparison with the DSW supplement. The study indicated that 0.1 × DSW, 1 × DSW and 2 × DSW decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures in spontaneous hypertensive rats in an eight-week experiment. DSW has been shown to reduce serum lipids and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. Our results demonstrated that 1 × DSW and 2 × DSW significantly suppressed the serum cholesterol levels, reduced the lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. These findings indicated that the antiatherogenic effects of DSW are associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) stimulation and the consequent inhibition of phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in atherosclerotic rabbits. We hypothesize that DSW could potentially be used as drinking water because it modulates blood pressure, reduces lipids, and prevents atherogenesis.

  8. Sorafenib and its derivative SC-1 exhibit antifibrotic effects through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Su, Tung-Hung; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Jao, Ping; Liu, Chen-Hua; Liu, Chun-Jen; Tai, Wei-Tien; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Yang, Hung-Chih; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Huang, Hsiang-Po; Cheng, Huei-Ru; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-06-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) had been involved in liver fibrogenesis. We aimed to explore the antifibrotic activities of sorafenib and its derivative SC-1 (devoid of Raf kinase inhibition activity) both in vivo and in vitro with special focus on the STAT3 pathway in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The clinical role of STAT3 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) was also investigated. Experimental fibrosis mouse models were established by thioacetamide injection and bile duct ligation in Balb/C mice and treated with sorafenib and SC-1. Rat and human HSCs were used for mechanistic investigations. Forty CHB patients were enrolled to quantify the hepatic phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) levels and correlated with liver fibrosis. Both sorafenib and SC-1 ameliorated liver fibrosis in vivo and promoted HSC apoptosis in vitro. p-STAT3 and downstream signals were down-regulated after sorafenib and SC-1 treatment in HSC. STAT3 overexpression in HSC enhanced cell proliferation and undermined the apoptotic effects of sorafenib and SC-1, whereas STAT3-specific inhibition promoted HSC apoptosis. Sorafenib and SC-1 activated Src-homology protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and STAT3 inhibition followed. Of particular interest, in CHB patients with advanced liver fibrosis, p-STAT3 in HSC was significantly overexpressed and positively correlated with the severity of liver fibrosis and plasma IL-6 levels. In conclusion, sorafenib and SC-1 ameliorate liver fibrosis through STAT3 inhibition in HSC and STAT3 may potentially serve as a promising fibrotic biomarker and target in liver fibrosis. SHP-1 phosphatase-directed STAT3 inhibition may represent a previously unidentified strategy for antifibrotic drug discovery.

  9. Natural Stilbenoids Isolated from Grapevine Exhibiting Inhibitory Effects against HIV-1 Integrase and Eukaryote MOS1 Transposase In Vitro Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chaignepain, Stéphane; Subra, Frederic; Munir, Soundasse; Delelis, Olivier; Lesbats, Paul; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Auge-Gouillou, Corinne; Parissi, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Polynucleotidyl transferases are enzymes involved in several DNA mobility mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Some of them such as retroviral integrases are crucial for pathogenous processes and are therefore good candidates for therapeutic approaches. To identify new therapeutic compounds and new tools for investigating the common functional features of these proteins, we addressed the inhibition properties of natural stilbenoids deriving from resveratrol on two models: the HIV-1 integrase and the eukaryote MOS-1 transposase. Two resveratrol dimers, leachianol F and G, were isolated for the first time in Vitis along with fourteen known stilbenoids: E-resveratrol, E-piceid, E-pterostilbene, E-piceatannol, (+)-E-ε-viniferin, E-ε-viniferinglucoside, E-scirpusin A, quadragularin A, ampelopsin A, pallidol, E-miyabenol C, E-vitisin B, hopeaphenol, and isohopeaphenol and were purified from stalks of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae), and moracin M from stem bark of Milliciaexelsa (Moraceae). These compounds were tested in in vitro and in vivo assays reproducing the activity of both enzymes. Several molecules presented significant inhibition on both systems. Some of the molecules were found to be active against both proteins while others were specific for one of the two models. Comparison of the differential effects of the molecules suggested that the compounds could target specific intermediate nucleocomplexes of the reactions. Additionally E-pterostilbene was found active on the early lentiviral replication steps in lentiviruses transduced cells. Consequently, in addition to representing new original lead compounds for further modelling of new active agents against HIV-1 integrase, these molecules could be good tools for identifying such reaction intermediates in DNA mobility processes. PMID:24312275

  10. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuo; Tu, Ya; Guo, Tian-Wei; Wu, Yun-Chu; Yang, Xue-Qin; Sun, Lan; Yang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Yue; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu-Hui

    2015-08-01

    The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and electroacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment at Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29) acupoints was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes) prior to restraint for 28 days. Open field tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at specific time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. Twenty-seven differential proteins (uncharacteristic proteins expected) were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related proteins exist

  11. MiR-145 regulates PAK4 via the MAPK pathway and exhibits an antitumor effect in human colon cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhili; Du, Hangxiang; Wu, Zhenqian; Gong, Jianfeng; Yan, Jun; Zheng, Qi

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 targets a putative binding site in the 3 Prime UTR of PAK4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 played an important role in inhibiting cell growth by directly targeting PAK4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 may function as tumor suppressors. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of numerous cellular events; accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play a key role in a wide range of biological functions, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer. Down-regulated expression of miR-145 has been reported in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. The molecular mechanisms underlying miR-145 and the regulation of colon carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the levels of miR-145 in human colon cancer cells using qRT-PCR and found markedly decreased levels compared to normal epithelial cells. We identified PAK4 as a novel target of miR-145 using informatics screening. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-145 targets a putative binding site in the 3 Prime UTR of PAK4 and that its abundance is inversely associated with miR-145 expression in colon cancer cells; we confirmed this relationship using the luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, restoration of miR-145 by mimics in SW620 cells significantly attenuated cell growth in vitro, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by siRNA mediated knockdown of PAK4. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-145 downregulates P-ERK expression by targeting PAK4 and leads to inhibition of tumor growth.

  12. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  13. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  14. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  15. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  16. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  17. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    One of the most offbeat exhibitions presented in the last several years was the widely celebrated Warhol-Wyeth duo show, "Portraits of Each Other", held at the Brandywine River Museum in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. Discusses their paintings and their diametrically different personalities. (Author/RK)

  18. A Novel Bufalin Derivative Exhibited Stronger Apoptosis-Inducing Effect than Bufalin in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Lower Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Feng, Li-Xing; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-Hong; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    BF211 is a synthetic molecule derived from bufalin (BF). The apoptosis-inducing effect of BF211 was stronger than that of BF while the acute toxicity of BF211 was much lower than that of BF. BF211 exhibited promising concentration-dependent anti-cancer effects in nude mice inoculated with A549 cells in vivo. The growth of A549 tumor xenografts was almost totally blocked by treatment with BF211 at 6 mg/kg. Notably, BF and BF211 exhibited differences in their binding affinity and kinetics to recombinant proteins of the α subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase. Furthermore, there was a difference in the effects of BF or BF211 on inhibiting the activity of porcine cortex Na+/K+-ATPase and in their time-dependent effects on intracellular Ca2+ levels in A549 cells. The time-dependent effects of BF or BF211 on the activation of Src, which was mediated by the Na+/K+-ATPase signalosome, in A549 cells were also different. Both BF and BF211 could induce apoptosis-related cascades, such as activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) in A549 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the effects of BF211 on apoptosis-related cascades was stronger than that of BF. The results of the present study supported the importance of binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunits in the mechanism of cardiac steroids and also suggested the possibility of developing new cardiac steroids with a stronger anti-cancer activity and lower toxicity as new anti-cancer agents. PMID:27459387

  19. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  20. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  1. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 leaving the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the exhibit site. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC, the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit, automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids and emergency and safety systems, are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  2. Glutathione reductase: Comparison of steady-state and rapid reaction primary kinetic isotope effects exhibited by the yeast, spinach, and Escherichia coli enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Vanoni, M.A.; Wong, K.K.; Ballou, D.P.; Blanchard, J.S. )

    1990-06-19

    Kinetic parameters for NADPH and NADH have been determined at pH 8.1 for spinach, yeast, and E. coli glutathione reductases. NADPH exhibited low Km values for all enzymes (3-6 microM), while the Km values for NADH were 100 times higher (approximately 400 microM). Under our experimental conditions, the percentage of maximal velocities with NADH versus those measured with NADPH were 18.4, 3.7, and 0.13% for the spinach, yeast, and E. coli enzymes, respectively. Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects were independent of GSSG concentration between Km and 15Km levels, supporting a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. For each of the three enzymes, NADPH yielded primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on Vmax only, while NADH exhibited primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on both V and V/K. The magnitude of DV/KNADH at pH 8.1 is 4.3 for the spinach enzyme, 2.7 for the yeast enzyme, and 1.6 for the E. coli glutathione reductase. The experimentally determined values of TV/KNADH of 7.4, 4.2, and 2.2 for the spinach, yeast, and E. coli glutathione reductases agree well with those calculated from the corresponding DV/KNADH using the Swain-Schaad expression. This suggests that the intrinsic primary kinetic isotope effect on NADH oxidation is fully expressed. In order to confirm this conclusion, single-turnover experiments have been performed. The measured primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on the enzyme reduction half-reaction using NADH match those measured in the steady state for each of the three glutathione reductases.

  3. Purification and partial characterization of a new mannose/glucose-specific lectin from Dialium guineense Willd seeds that exhibits toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Bari, Alfa U; Silva, Helton C; Silva, Mayara T L; Pereira Júnior, Francisco N; Cajazeiras, João B; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Leal, Rodrigo B; Teixeira, Edson H; Rocha, Bruno A M; Nascimento, Kyria S; Nagano, Celso S; Cavada, Benildo S

    2013-08-01

    A new mannose/glucose-specific lectin, named DigL, was purified from seeds of Dialium guineense by a single step using a Sepharose 4b-Mannose affinity chromatography column. DigL strongly agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by d-mannose, d-glucose, and derived sugars, especially α-methyl-d-mannopyranoside and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. DigL has been shown to be a stable protein, maintaining its hemagglutinating activity after incubation at a wide range of temperature and pH values and after incubation with EDTA. DigL is a glycoprotein composite by approximately 2.9% of carbohydrates by weight. By sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, the purified DigL exhibited an electrophoretic profile consisting of a broad band of 28-30 kDa. Analysis using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicated that purified DigL possesses a molecular average mass of 28 452 ± 2 Da and shows the presence of possible glycoforms. In addition, DigL exhibited an intermediary toxic effect on Artemia sp. nauplii, and this effect was both dependent on native structure and mediated by a carbohydrate-binding site. PMID:23784991

  4. Collective optical Kerr effect exhibited by an integrated configuration of silicon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles embedded in ion-implanted silica.

    PubMed

    Torres-Torres, C; López-Suárez, A; Can-Uc, B; Rangel-Rojo, R; Tamayo-Rivera, L; Oliver, A

    2015-07-24

    The study of the third-order optical nonlinear response exhibited by a composite containing gold nanoparticles and silicon quantum dots nucleated by ion implantation in a high-purity silica matrix is presented. The nanocomposites were explored as an integrated configuration containing two different ion-implanted distributions. The time-resolved optical Kerr gate and z-scan techniques were conducted using 80 fs pulses at a 825 nm wavelength; while the nanosecond response was investigated by a vectorial two-wave mixing method at 532 nm with 1 ns pulses. An ultrafast purely electronic nonlinearity was associated to the optical Kerr effect for the femtosecond experiments, while a thermal effect was identified as the main mechanism responsible for the nonlinear optical refraction induced by nanosecond pulses. Comparative experimental tests for examining the contribution of the Au and Si distributions to the total third-order optical response were carried out. We consider that the additional defects generated by consecutive ion irradiations in the preparation of ion-implanted samples do not notably modify the off-resonance electronic optical nonlinearities; but they do result in an important change for near-resonant nanosecond third-order optical phenomena exhibited by the closely spaced nanoparticle distributions. PMID:26135968

  5. Plumbagin exhibits an anti-proliferative effect in human osteosarcoma cells by downregulating FHL2 and interfering with Wnt/β-catenin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuan-Liang; Meng, Xiang-Qi; Ma, Long-Jun; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone constituent of Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. Plumbagin is known to exhibit proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects in cancer cells. The transcriptional co-factor four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) is a multifunctional adaptor protein that is involved in the regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and cell proliferation and differentiation, and also acts as a tumor suppressor or oncoprotein depending on the tissue microenvironment. The present study investigated the effect of plumbagin on FHL2 expression, Wnt/β-catenin signalling and its anti-proliferative activity in various human osteosarcoma cell lines, including SaOS2, MG63, HOS and U2OS. The cells were exposed to plumbagin and the expression of FHL2 was evaluated using western blot analysis. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effect of plumbagin was evaluated using a 3-(4,5 dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, since FHL2 is involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the effect of plumbagin on β-catenin and its primary target genes, including v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) and WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1), was evaluated using western blot analysis. It was observed that plumbagin suppressed the expression of FHL2 and exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity in osteosarcoma cells. It also attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signalling by downregulating β-catenin and its target genes, including c-Myc and WISP-1. In conclusion, plumbagin demonstrated anti-proliferative activity in osteosarcoma cells by downregulating FHL2 and interfering with Wnt/β-catenin signalling. PMID:27446400

  6. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  7. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  8. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  9. pH sensitive polymeric complex of cisplatin with hyaluronic acid exhibits tumor-targeted delivery and improved in vivo antitumor effect.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xuesong; Qu, Xinkai; Fang, Jun

    2015-12-30

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used anticancer drug for various solid tumors including lung cancer. However, its indiscriminate distribution causes serious adverse effects and limits its therapeutic effect. In this study, by using hyaluronic acid (HA) we synthesized a complex of CDDP (HA-CDDP), by utilizing ionic interaction between Pt(2+) of CDDP with carboxyl group of HA. The mean HA-CDDP particle size was 208.5nm in PBS according to dynamic light scattering which was also confirmed by TEM, which could exert tumor-targeting property by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The CDDP loading in this preparation was 13% (w/w), and release rate of free CDDP from the HA-CDDP complex at physiological pH (7.4) was ∼20%/day. However, in acidic pH the release was much faster, i.e., ∼95% of CDDP was released in 72h at pH 5.5. Moreover, HA-CDDP showed a 2.5-fold higher tumor accumulation than free CDDP whereas no increase of distribution was found in most normal tissues. In addition, because HA receptor CD44 is overexpressed in many tumor cells, we also observed CD44-based endocytosis of HA-CDDP in mouse lung carcinoma LCC cells. These findings together suggest that HA-CDDP may show tumor-selective cytotoxicity by taking advantage of EPR effect, weak acidic environment of tumor tissues (e.g., pH 6∼7), as well as CD44-based intracellular uptake. As expected, HA-CDDP exhibited much improved therapeutic effect than free CDDP in mouse LCC tumor model, whereas no apparent side effect was found. These findings may shed some light on the potential utility of HA for development of tumor-targeted polymeric CDDP drugs, which need further investigations. PMID:26529576

  10. Fucoidan from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects in insulin resistant mice via activating the PI3K/PKB pathway and GLUT4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiming; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhao, Yanlei; Hu, Shiwei; Shi, Di; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic properties and mechanisms of fucoidan, isolated from Cucumaria frondosa (Cf-FUC), in insulin resistant mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed regular diet or high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 19 weeks. Model animals were dietary administrated either rosiglitazone (RSG, 1 mg/kg·bw), fucoidan (Cf-FUC, 80 mg/kg·bw) or their combinations. Results showed that Cf-FUC significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in insulin-resistant mice. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Cf-FUC increased the mRNA expressions of insulin receptors (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Western blot assays demonstrated that Cf-FUC showed no effect on total protein expression but nevertheless enhanced the phosphorylation of proteins listed above and increased translocation of GLUT4 to the cell membrane. Furthermore, Cf-FUC enhanced the effects of RSG. These results indicated that Cf-FUC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating PI3K/PKB pathway and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

  11. The quetiapine active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine and the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor agonist PD149163 exhibit antidepressant-like effects on operant responding in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Todd M; Shankland, Zachary; Matazel, Katelin S; Keiser, Ashley A; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is the most common mood disorder in the United States and European Union; however, the limitations of clinically available antidepressant drugs have led researchers to pursue novel pharmacological treatments. Clinical studies have reported that monotherapy with the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine produces a rapid reduction in depressive symptoms that is apparent after 1 week of treatment, and it is possible that the active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine, which structurally resembles an antidepressant drug, produces antidepressant effects. Neuropharmacological evaluations of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 suggest antidepressant efficacy, but the effects of a NTS₁ receptor agonist in an antidepressant animal model have yet to be reported. The present study examined the antidepressant-like effects of N-desalkylquetiapine, PD14916, quetiapine, the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone, and the typical antipsychotic drug raclopride on responding in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained on a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s operant schedule, a procedure used for screening antidepressant drugs. Quetiapine, PD149163, risperidone, and imipramine exhibited antidepressant-like effects by increasing the number of reinforcers earned, decreasing the number of responses emitted, and shifting the interresponse time (IRT) distributions to the right. N-Desalkylquetiapine produced a partial antidepressant-like effect by decreasing the number of responses emitted and producing a rightward shift in the IRT distributions, but it did not significantly alter the number of reinforcers earned. Raclopride decreased reinforcers and responses. These data suggest that N-desalkylquetiapine likely contributes to quetiapine's antidepressant efficacy and identify NTS₁ receptor activation as a potential novel pharmacologic strategy for antidepressant drugs.

  12. A method to decrease the harmonic distortion in Mn-Zn ferrite/PZT and Ni-Zn ferrite/PZT layered composite rings exhibiting high magnetoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, V.; Morin, V.; Fortineau, J.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in layered composite rings subjected to circumferential AC magnetic fields and DC magnetic fields in radial, axial, or circumferential directions. Bilayer samples were obtained combining different grades of commercial Mn-Zn ferrites or Ni-Zn ferrites with commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Mn-Zn ferrites with low magnetostriction saturation ( λs<10-6 ) and low magneto-crystalline anisotropy constants show high ME capabilities when associated with PZT in ring structures. In certain conditions, these ME effects are higher than those obtained with Terfenol-D/PZT composites in the same layered ring structure. Magnetostrictive and mechanical characterizations have given results that explain these high ME performances. Nevertheless, Mn-Zn ferrite/PZT composites exhibit voltages responses with low linearity especially at high signal level. Based on the particular structure of the ME device, a method to decrease the nonlinear harmonic distortion of the ME voltages is proposed. Harmonic distortion analysis of ME voltages measured in different configurations allows us to explain the phenomenon.

  13. L-Asparaginase Isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds Exhibited Potent Anti-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Effects In-Vitro and Low Immunogenic Properties In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh A.; Elshal, Mohamed F.; Kumosani, Taha A.; Aldahlawi, Alia M.; Basbrain, Tasneem A.; Alshehri, Fauziah A.; Choudhry, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp) on the ALL cell line (Jurkat). The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources. The data demonstrated that P-Asp has an enhanced anti-proliferative effect on ALL cells as detected by the WST-8 cell viability assay kit. Cells treated with P-Asp also exhibited a higher degree of early apoptosis compared with asparaginase from Escherichia coli (L-Asp) or its pegylated form Pegasparagas (PEG-ASP) that induced higher rates of late apoptosis and necrosis as detected by an Annexin V/Propidium iodide binding assay. In-vivo experiments indicated that mice treated with P-Asp had less distinct allergenic responses than other bacterial enzyme preparations as indicated by lower serum concentrations of IgG, IgE, IgM and mMCP-1 compared with other treated groups. In conclusion, P-Asp can be considered as a promising candidate for use in the treatment of ALL. PMID:27754445

  14. Orally active opioid μ/δ dual agonist MGM-16, a derivative of the indole alkaloid mitragynine, exhibits potent antiallodynic effect on neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Narita, Minoru; Muramatsu, Naotaka; Nakayama, Terumi; Misawa, Kaori; Kitajima, Mariko; Tashima, Kimihito; Devi, Lakshmi A; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2014-03-01

    (E)-Methyl 2-((2S,3S,7aS,12bS)-3-ethyl-7a-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,7a,12b-octahydroindolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-2-yl)-3-methoxyacrylate (7-hydroxymitragynine), a main active constituent of the traditional herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, is an indole alkaloid that is structurally different from morphine. 7-Hydroxymitragynine induces a potent antinociceptive effect on mouse acute pain through μ-opioid receptors. In this study, we developed dual-acting μ- and δ-opioid agonists MGM-15 and MGM-16 from 7-hydroxymitragynine for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. MGM-16 showed a higher potency than that of 7-hydroxymitragynine and MGM-15 in in vitro and in vivo assays. MGM-16 exhibited a high affinity for μ- and δ-opioid receptors, with K(i) values of 2.1 and 7.0 nM, respectively. MGM-16 showed μ- and δ-opioid full agonistic effects in a guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) binding assay and in a functional test using electrically elicited guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens contractions. Systemic administration of MGM-16 produced antinociceptive effects in a mouse acute pain model and antiallodynic effects in a chronic pain model. The antinociceptive effect of MGM-16 was approximately 240 times more potent than that of morphine in a mouse tail-flick test, and its antiallodynic effect was approximately 100 times more potent than that of gabapentin in partial sciatic nerve-ligated mice, especially with oral administration. The antinociceptive effect of MGM-16 was completely and partially blocked by the μ-selective antagonist β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride (β-FNA) and by the δ-selective antagonist naltrindole, respectively, in a tail-flick test. The antiallodynic effect of MGM-16 was completely blocked by β-FNA and naltrindole in a neuropathic pain model. These findings suggest that MGM-16 could become a class of a compound with potential therapeutic utility for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:24345467

  15. Combined treatment with fenretinide and indomethacin induces AIF-mediated, non-classical cell death in human acute T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hojka-Osinska, Anna; Ziolo, Ewa; Rapak, Andrzej

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of fenretinide and indomethacin induces a high level of cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic pathway is caspase-independent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jurkat cells undergo AIF-mediated cell death. -- Abstract: Currently used cytotoxic drugs in cancer therapy have a similar mechanism of action and low specificity. Applied simultaneously, they show an additive effect with strong side effects. Clinical trials with the use of different agents in cancer therapy show that the use of these compounds alone is not very effective in fighting cancer. An alternative solution could be to apply a combination of these agents, because their combination has a synergistic effect on some cancer cells. Therefore, in our investigations we examined the effects of a synthetic retinoid-fenretinide when combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-indomethacin on the process of apoptosis in the acute human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat. We demonstrate that treatment with the combination of the tested compounds induces the death of cells, that is peculiar and combines features of apoptosis as well as non-apoptotic cell death. In detail we observed, cell membrane permeabilization, phosphatydylserine exposure, no oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, no caspase-3 activation, but apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. Taken together these results indicate, that Jurkat cells after treatment with a combination of fenretinide and indomethacin undergo AIF-mediated programmed cell death.

  16. It's the Way You Tell It! What Conversations of Elementary School Groups Tell Us about the Effectiveness of Animatronic Animal Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1999-01-01

    Compares the content of conversations generated by elementary school groups at animatronic animal displays in a temporary zoo exhibit and in a permanent natural-history museum exhibit. Finds that moving animal models in themselves are insufficient to induce many visitors to talk about them in other than a superficial, cursory manner. Contains 17…

  17. Lichen secondary metabolites in Flavocetraria cucullata exhibit anti-cancer effects on human cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and suppression of tumorigenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yoon, Somy; Yang, Yi; Lee, Ho-Bin; Oh, Soonok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Kim, Jong-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae; Crişan, Florin; Moon, Cheol; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2014-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms which produce distinct secondary metabolic products. In the present study, we tested the cytotoxic activity of 17 lichen species against several human cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer activity. We found that among 17 lichens species, F. cucullata exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in several human cancer cells. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the acetone extract of F. cucullata contains usnic acid, salazinic acid, Squamatic acid, Baeomycesic acid, d-protolichesterinic acid, and lichesterinic acid as subcomponents. MTT assay showed that cancer cell lines were more vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of the extract than non-cancer cell lines. Furthermore, among the identified subcomponents, usnic acid treatment had a similar cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines but with lower potency than the extract. At a lethal dose, treatment with the extract or with usnic acid greatly increased the apoptotic cell population and specifically activated the apoptotic signaling pathway; however, using sub-lethal doses, extract and usnic acid treatment decreased cancer cell motility and inhibited in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials. In these cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and phosphor-Akt, while phosphor-c-Jun and phosphor-ERK1/2 levels were only marginally affected. Overall, the anti-cancer activity of the extract is more potent than that of usnic acid alone. Taken together, F. cucullata and its subcomponent, usnic acid together with additional component, exert anti-cancer effects on human cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of EMT. PMID:25360754

  18. Taraxacum mongolicum extract exhibits a protective effect on hepatocytes and an antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus in animal and human cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Guan, Rong-Fa; Wu, Yi-Hang; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhao, Yu

    2014-04-01

    In order to validate the antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Taraxacum mongolicum (T. mongolicum), the protective effect on hepatocytes, and antiviral properties against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and HBV of T. mongolicum extract (TME) were evaluated in chemically-injured neonatal rat hepatocytes, DHBV-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that TME at 50-100 µg/ml improved D-galactosamine (D-GalN), thioacetamide (TAA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-injured rat hepatocytes, and produced protection rates of 42.2, 34.6 and 43.8% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, TME at 1-100 µg/ml markedly inhibited DHBV DNA replication. Additionally, TME at 25-100 µg/ml reduced HBsAg and HBeAg levels and produced inhibition rates of 91.39 and 91.72% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. TME markedly inhibited HBV DNA replication at 25-100 µg/ml. The results demonstrate the potent antiviral effect of T. mongolicum against HBV effect. The protective of TME effect on hepatocytes may be achieved by its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antiviral properties of TME may contribute to blocking protein synthesis steps and DNA replication. Furthermore, major components of TME were quantificationally analyzed. These data provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of TME in the treatment of hepatitis.

  19. Taraxacum mongolicum extract exhibits a protective effect on hepatocytes and an antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus in animal and human cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Guan, Rong-Fa; Wu, Yi-Hang; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhao, Yu

    2014-04-01

    In order to validate the antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Taraxacum mongolicum (T. mongolicum), the protective effect on hepatocytes, and antiviral properties against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and HBV of T. mongolicum extract (TME) were evaluated in chemically-injured neonatal rat hepatocytes, DHBV-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that TME at 50-100 µg/ml improved D-galactosamine (D-GalN), thioacetamide (TAA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-injured rat hepatocytes, and produced protection rates of 42.2, 34.6 and 43.8% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, TME at 1-100 µg/ml markedly inhibited DHBV DNA replication. Additionally, TME at 25-100 µg/ml reduced HBsAg and HBeAg levels and produced inhibition rates of 91.39 and 91.72% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. TME markedly inhibited HBV DNA replication at 25-100 µg/ml. The results demonstrate the potent antiviral effect of T. mongolicum against HBV effect. The protective of TME effect on hepatocytes may be achieved by its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antiviral properties of TME may contribute to blocking protein synthesis steps and DNA replication. Furthermore, major components of TME were quantificationally analyzed. These data provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of TME in the treatment of hepatitis. PMID:24481875

  20. Balamuthia mandrillaris exhibits metalloprotease activities.

    PubMed

    Matin, Abdul; Stins, Monique; Kim, Kwang Sik; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-06-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently identified protozoan pathogen that can cause fatal granulomatous encephalitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis remain unclear. Because proteases may play a role in the central nervous system (CNS) pathology, we used spectrophotometric, cytopathic and zymographic assays to assess protease activities of B. mandrillaris. Using two clinical isolates of B. mandrillaris (from human and baboon), we observed that B. mandrillaris exhibits protease activities. Zymographic assays revealed major protease bands of approximate molecular weights in the region of 40-50 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using gelatin as substrate. The protease bands were inhibited with 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting metallo-type proteases. The proteolytic activities were observed over a pH range of 5-11 with maximum activity at neutral pH and at 42 degrees C. Balamuthia mandrillaris proteases exhibit properties to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM), which provide structural and functional support to the brain tissue. This is shown by degradation of collagen I and III (major components of collagenous ECM), elastin (elastic fibrils of ECM), plasminogen (involved in proteolytic degradation of ECM), as well as other substrates such as casein and gelatin but not haemoglobin. However, these proteases exhibited a minimal role in B. mandrillaris-mediated host cell death in vitro using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). This was shown using broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease inhibitors, GM 6001 and GM 1489, which had no effect on B. mandrillaris-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity. This is the first demonstration that B. mandrillaris exhibits metalloproteases, which may play important role(s) in the ECM degradation and thus in CNS pathology. PMID:16706791

  1. A prototypic modified risk tobacco product exhibits reduced effects on chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of monocytes compared with a reference cigarette.

    PubMed

    van der Toorn, Marco; Frentzel, Stefan; Goedertier, Didier; Peitsch, Manuel; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Monocyte adhesion and migration to the subendothelial space represent critical steps in atherogenesis. Here, we investigated whether extracts from the aerosol of a prototypic modified risk tobacco product (pMRTP), based on heating rather than combusting tobacco, exhibited differential effects on the migratory behavior of monocytes compared with that from the reference cigarette, 3R4F. THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line, and human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) were used to investigate chemotaxis and transendothelial migration (TEM) of monocytes in conventional and impedance-based systems. THP-1 cells migrated through a monolayer of HCAECs in response to C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12), a chemokine involved in diverse cellular functions including chemotaxis and survival of stem cells. Treatment of THP-1 cells with extracts from 3R4F or pMRTP induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity (7-aminoactinomycin D), and inflammation (IL-8 and TNF-α). CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis and TEM were decreased in extract-treated THP-1 cells. Extracts from 3R4F were ~21 times more potent than those from pMRTP in all examined endpoints. Extracts from 3R4F and pMRTP induced concentration-dependent responses in assays of inflammation, cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, and TEM. Furthermore, our findings indicate that extracts from a pMRTP are significantly less cytotoxic and induce less inflammation than those from the reference cigarette, 3R4F.

  2. Facile synthesis of Cu2CoSnS4 nanoparticles exhibiting red-edge-effect: Application in hybrid photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Banavoth; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2013-10-01

    Cu2CoSnS4 (CCTS) quaternary semiconducting nanoparticles with size distribution from 20 nm to 60 nm were synthesized by one-pot low temperature time and surfactant dependent hydrothermal route. Nanoparticles were characterized structurally and optically. Excitation dependent fluorescence exhibited a dynamic stoke shift referring to the Red-Edge-Effect with peak shifting by a greater magnitude (>100 nm) towards red side, in all the samples. Hybrid devices, fabricated from CCTS nanoparticle inorganic counterparts benefitting from the conjugation of organic P3HT polymer matrix, were demonstrated for photodetection under infra-red and A.M 1.5 solar light illuminations. Faster rise and decay constants of 37 ms and 166 ms, with one order photocurrent amplification from 1.6 × 10-6 A in the dark to 6.55 × 10-5 A, upon the 18.50 mW cm-2 IR lamp illumination, make CCTS a potential candidate for photodetector and photovoltaic applications.

  3. Adults with dyslexia exhibit large effects of crowding, increased dependence on cues, and detrimental effects of distractors in visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Moores, Elisabeth; Cassim, Rizan; Talcott, Joel B

    2011-12-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are increasingly being linked to dyslexia. To date, the majority of studies have inferred functionality of attention from response times to stimuli presented for an indefinite duration. However, in paradigms that use reaction times to investigate the ability to orient attention, a delayed reaction time could also indicate difficulties in signal enhancement or noise exclusion once oriented. Thus, in order to investigate attention modulation and visual crowding effects in dyslexia, this study measured stimulus discrimination accuracy to rapidly presented displays. Adults with dyslexia (AwD) and controls discriminated the orientation of a target in an array of different numbers of - and differently spaced - vertically orientated distractors. Results showed that AwD: were disproportionately impacted by (i) close spacing and (ii) increased numbers of stimuli, (iii) did use pre-cues to modulate attention, but (iv) used cues less successfully to counter effects of increasing numbers of distractors. A greater dependence on pre-cues, larger effects of crowding and the impact of increased numbers of distractors all correlated significantly with measures of literacy. These findings extend previous studies of visual crowding of letters in dyslexia to non-complex stimuli. Overall, AwD do not use cues less, but they do use cues less successfully. We conclude that visual attention is an important factor to consider in the aetiology of dyslexia. The results challenge existing theoretical accounts of visual attention deficits, which alone are unable to comprehensively explain the pattern of findings demonstrated here.

  4. Interaction of non-classical detergents with the mitochondrial porin. A new purification procedure and characterization of the pore-forming unit.

    PubMed

    De Pinto, V; Benz, R; Palmieri, F

    1989-07-15

    The effect of different families of detergents on the solubilization and purification of the pore-forming protein (porin) of the mitochondrial outer membrane of bovine heart was investigated in detail. With Tritons, dimethylamine oxides and zwittergents, porin solubilization with respect to total mitochondrial membrane protein was more efficient with the more hydrophobic members of each series. With most detergents the protein eluted as protein-detergent micelles in the void volume of hydroxyapatite/celite columns. In contrast, the protein was bound to the column material and was eluted after the addition of salt to the elution buffer when the detergents octylglucoside, zwittergent Z-314 and lauryl(dimethyl)-amine oxide were used. The protein purified in the presence of the latter detergent had a higher pore-forming activity in lipid bilayer membranes compared to porin isolated in the presence of Triton X-100. The binding of porin to the hydroxyapatite/celite column was used to study the lipid content of the active pore-forming complex. The analysis revealed that the complex contained no phospholipid but rather five molecules of cholesterol/polypeptide chain.

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus.

  6. Effects of the η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr Ligand on the Properties Exhibited by Its Tungsten Nitrosyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Fabulyak, Diana; Baillie, Rhett A; Patrick, Brian O; Legzdins, Peter; Rosenfeld, Devon C

    2016-02-15

    Reaction of Na[η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr] with W(CO)6 in refluxing THF for 4 days generates a solution of Na[(η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(CO)3] that when treated with N-methyl-N-nitroso-p-toluenesulfonamide at ambient temperatures affords (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(CO)2 (1) that is isolable in good yield as an analytically pure orange oil. Treatment of 1 with an equimolar amount of I2 in Et2O at ambient temperatures affords (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)I2 (2) as a dark brown solid in excellent yield. Sequential treatment at low temperatures of 2 with 0.5 equiv of Mg(CH2CMe3)2 and Mg(CH2CH═CMe2)2 in Et2O produces the alkyl allyl complex, (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(η(3)-CH2CHCMe2) (3), as a thermally sensitive yellow liquid. Complex 3 may also be synthesized, albeit in low yield, in one vessel at low temperatures by reacting 1 first with 1 equiv of PCl5 and then with the binary magnesium reagents specified above. Interestingly, similar treatment of 1 in Et2O with PCl5 and only 0.5 equiv of Mg(CH2CH═CMe2)2 results in the formation of the unusual complex (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(PCl2CMe2CH═CH2)Cl2 (4), which probably is formed via a metathesis reaction of the binary magnesium reagent with (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(PCl3)Cl2. The C-D activation of C6D6 by complex 3 has been investigated and compared to that exhibited by its η(5)-C5Me5, η(5)-C5Me4H, and η(5)-C5Me4(n)Pr analogues. Kinetic analyses of the various activations have established that the presence of the η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr ligand significantly increases the rate of the reaction, an outcome that can be attributed to a combination of steric and electronic factors. In addition, mechanistic studies have established that in solution 3 loses neopentane under ambient conditions to generate exclusively the 16e η(2)-diene intermediate complex (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(η(2)-CH2═CMeCH═CH2), which then effects the subsequent C-D activations. This behavior contrasts with that exhibited by the η(5)-C5Me5 analogue of 3 which forms both η(2

  7. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training.

  8. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  9. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  10. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  11. Changes in magnetic domain structure during twin boundary motion in single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga exhibiting magnetic shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecký, V.; Fekete, L.; Perevertov, O.; Heczko, O.

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal originates from the interplay between ferromagnetic domain structure and ferroelastic twinned microstructure. Magnetic domain structure in the vicinity of single twin boundary was studied using magneto-optical indicator film and magnetic force microscopy technique. The single twin boundary of Type I was formed mechanically and an initial magnetization state in both variants were restored by local application of magnetic field (≈40 kA/m). The differently oriented variants exhibited either stripe or labyrinth magnetic domain pattern in agreement with the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the martensite. The twin boundary was then moved by compressive or tensile stress. The passage of the boundary resulted in the formation of granular or rake domains, respectively. Additionally, the specific magnetic domains pattern projected by twin boundary gradually vanished during twin boundary motion.

  12. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Titers in and Infection Effects on Potato Tuber Chemistry of Promising Germplasm Exhibiting Tolerance to Zebra Chip Disease.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Munyaneza, J E; Chen, J; Novy, R; Bester, G; Buchman, J L; Nordgaard, J; van Hest, P

    2015-12-01

    Long-term sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires development of tolerant or resistant germplasm. To this end, 283 potato varieties and breeding clones were infected with the ZC putative causal agent 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) by potato psyllid vector inoculations in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Potato germplasm was then examined for development of fresh and fried ZC symptoms. Over multiple years 29 breeding clones exhibited little to no symptoms in freshly cut tuber slices, and five exhibited little to no symptoms in fried slices. These five presumed tolerant breeding clones were chosen for further screening to determine whether the lack of physiological responses to Lso infection was the cause of observed tolerance. To this end, tuber amino acid, sugar, and phenolic levels were compared between noninfected and Lso-infected plants. The five putative tolerant clones had less dramatic shifts in host physiology following Lso infection than the susceptible Atlantic cultivar. This suggested lack of host responses to Lso infection that result in major changes in tuber biochemistry is a potential mechanism of ZC resistance. However, the susceptible Atlantic cultivar did have consistently greater Lso titers compared with two of the tolerant entries, so for these reductions in Lso pathogen progression also might be a factor. Regardless, lack of host responses could still remain one trait that could be used to aid in selection of ZC-resistant potato varieties, as other tolerant lines had infection levels consistent with susceptible Atlantic cultivar. These results also suggest that germplasm derived from relatives of cultivated potato plants are viable sources of ZC disease resistance.

  13. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Titers in and Infection Effects on Potato Tuber Chemistry of Promising Germplasm Exhibiting Tolerance to Zebra Chip Disease.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Munyaneza, J E; Chen, J; Novy, R; Bester, G; Buchman, J L; Nordgaard, J; van Hest, P

    2015-12-01

    Long-term sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires development of tolerant or resistant germplasm. To this end, 283 potato varieties and breeding clones were infected with the ZC putative causal agent 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) by potato psyllid vector inoculations in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Potato germplasm was then examined for development of fresh and fried ZC symptoms. Over multiple years 29 breeding clones exhibited little to no symptoms in freshly cut tuber slices, and five exhibited little to no symptoms in fried slices. These five presumed tolerant breeding clones were chosen for further screening to determine whether the lack of physiological responses to Lso infection was the cause of observed tolerance. To this end, tuber amino acid, sugar, and phenolic levels were compared between noninfected and Lso-infected plants. The five putative tolerant clones had less dramatic shifts in host physiology following Lso infection than the susceptible Atlantic cultivar. This suggested lack of host responses to Lso infection that result in major changes in tuber biochemistry is a potential mechanism of ZC resistance. However, the susceptible Atlantic cultivar did have consistently greater Lso titers compared with two of the tolerant entries, so for these reductions in Lso pathogen progression also might be a factor. Regardless, lack of host responses could still remain one trait that could be used to aid in selection of ZC-resistant potato varieties, as other tolerant lines had infection levels consistent with susceptible Atlantic cultivar. These results also suggest that germplasm derived from relatives of cultivated potato plants are viable sources of ZC disease resistance. PMID:26312966

  14. Effects of An Integrated Format for Reading Instruction on the Comprehension and Word-Recognition Performance of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students Who Exhibit Severe Reading Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Lavada Jacumin; Thames, Dana G.; Kazelskis, Richard

    A study examined the effectiveness of an integrated language arts instructional format for teaching reading compared with the effectiveness of the typical traditional reading program. The study investigated the effectiveness of approaches that are representative of both viewpoints of the reading process (i.e., word recognition and the construction…

  15. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... LA and Vox Populi organizations. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson At the exhibition, HIV and AIDS were topics addressed by Dr. Victoria Cargill (right), Director of Clinical Studies and Director of Minority ...

  16. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  17. Two short-acting kappa opioid receptor antagonists (zyklophin and LY2444296) exhibited different behavioral effects from the long-acting antagonist norbinaltorphimine in mouse anxiety tests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Yakovleva, Tatyana; Aldrich, Jane V; Tunis, Julia; Parry, Christopher; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2016-02-26

    Prototypical long-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) antagonists [e.g., norbinaltorphimine (norBNI)] have been reported to exert anxiolytic-like effects in several commonly used anxiety tests in rodents including the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. It remains unknown if the short-acting KOPR antagonists (e.g., zyklophin and LY2444296) have similar effects. In this study effects of zyklophin and LY2444296 (s.c.) were investigated in the NIH and EPM tests in mice 1h post-injection and compared with norBNI (i.p.) 48h post-administration. In the NIH test, zyklophin at 3 and 1mg/kg, but not 0.3mg/kg, or LY2444296 at 30mg/kg decreased the latency of palatable food consumption in novel cages, but had no effect in training cages, similar to norBNI (10mg/kg). Zyklophin at 3 or 1mg/kg increased or had a trend of increasing the amount of palatable food consumption in novel cages, with no effects in training cages, further indicating its anxiolytic-like effect, but norBNI (10mg/kg) and LY2444296 (30mg/kg) did not. In the EPM test, norBNI (10mg/kg) increased open arm time and % open arm entries or time, but zyklophin at all three doses and LY2444296 (30mg/kg) had no effects. In addition, zyklophin at 3mg/kg increased numbers of close and total arm entries on EPM, suggesting increased activity; however, norBNI and LY2444296 had no effects on close and total arm entries. Thus, all three KOPR antagonists had anxiolytic-like effects in the NIH test. However, only the long-acting one (norBNI), but not the short-acting ones (zyklophin and LY2444296), demonstrated anti-anxiety like effects in the EPM test. It remains to be investigated if the differences are due to the differences in their durations of action and/or pharmacodynamic properties.

  18. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 and the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 exhibit similar protective effects to induced barrier hyper-permeability in mice

    PubMed Central

    Laval, L; Martin, R; Natividad, JN; Chain, F; Miquel, S; de Maredsous, C Desclée; Capronnier, S; Sokol, H; Verdu, EF; van Hylckama Vlieg, JET; Bermúdez-Humarán, LG; Smokvina, T; Langella, P

    2015-01-01

    Impaired gut barrier function has been reported in a wide range of diseases and syndromes and in some functional gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, there is increasing evidence that suggests the gut microbiota tightly regulates gut barrier function and recent studies demonstrate that probiotic bacteria can enhance barrier integrity. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 on intestinal barrier function. In vitro results using a Caco-2 monolayer cells stimulated with TNF-α confirmed the anti-inflammatory nature of the strain CNCM I-3690 and pointed out a putative role for the protection of the epithelial function. Next, we tested the protective effects of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 in a mouse model of increased colonic permeability. Most importantly, we compared its performance to that of the well-known beneficial human commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prauznitzii A2-165. Increased colonic permeability was normalized by both strains to a similar degree. Modulation of apical tight junction proteins expression was then analyzed to decipher the mechanism underlying this effect. We showed that CNCM I-3690 partially restored the function of the intestinal barrier and increased the levels of tight junction proteins Occludin and E-cadherin. The results indicate L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 is as effective as the commensal anti-inflammatory bacterium F. prausnitzii to treat functional barrier abnormalities. PMID:25517879

  20. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished Cages and Battery Cages on Behavioral Exhibitions in White Leghorn Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012; and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundr...

  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 and the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 exhibit similar protective effects to induced barrier hyper-permeability in mice.

    PubMed

    Laval, L; Martin, R; Natividad, J N; Chain, F; Miquel, S; Desclée de Maredsous, C; Capronnier, S; Sokol, H; Verdu, E F; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G; Smokvina, T; Langella, P

    2015-01-01

    Impaired gut barrier function has been reported in a wide range of diseases and syndromes and in some functional gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, there is increasing evidence that suggests the gut microbiota tightly regulates gut barrier function and recent studies demonstrate that probiotic bacteria can enhance barrier integrity. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 on intestinal barrier function. In vitro results using a Caco-2 monolayer cells stimulated with TNF-α confirmed the anti-inflammatory nature of the strain CNCM I-3690 and pointed out a putative role for the protection of the epithelial function. Next, we tested the protective effects of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 in a mouse model of increased colonic permeability. Most importantly, we compared its performance to that of the well-known beneficial human commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prauznitzii A2-165. Increased colonic permeability was normalized by both strains to a similar degree. Modulation of apical tight junction proteins expression was then analyzed to decipher the mechanism underlying this effect. We showed that CNCM I-3690 partially restored the function of the intestinal barrier and increased the levels of tight junction proteins Occludin and E-cadherin. The results indicate L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 is as effective as the commensal anti-inflammatory bacterium F. prausnitzii to treat functional barrier abnormalities.

  2. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  3. Honokiol exhibits enhanced antitumor effects with chloroquine by inducing cell death and inhibiting autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoqin; Liu, Fang; Shang, Yue; Chen, Shu-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Honokiol (HNK), a potential antitumor compound, has been widely studied in recent years. It induces apoptosis and affects autophagy in cancer cells, yet the mechanism of its antitumor efficacy remains obscure. Chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, is often applied to sensitize antitumor drugs in clinical trials. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of HNK or CQ alone or in combination in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using an experimental approach, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) or sulforhodamine B (SRB) was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the agents. The expression levels of proteins were detected by western blotting. Apoptosis was examined via Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. H460 cell xenografts in nude mice were used to study the effects of HNK and/or CQ in vivo. Transfection with siRNA was applied to knock down cathepsin D. The results demonstrated the enhanced effects of HNK combined with CQ on the inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis in vitro and the reduction in growth in vivo. It was confirmed that HNK and/or CQ triggered apoptosis via a caspase-dependent manner. Furthermore, HNK significantly increased the expression of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ in the A549 and H460 cells and inhibited autophagy and induced apoptosis in a cathepsin D-involved manner. In conclusion, an enhanced antitumor effect was demonstrated following treatment with HNK combined with CQ by inhibiting autophagy and inducing apoptosis via a caspase-dependent and cathepsin D-involved manner. This combination may be a novel and useful antitumor approach for chemotherapy in NSCLC. PMID:26136140

  4. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  5. Salivary α-amylase exhibits antiproliferative effects in primary cell cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in females, frequently with fatal outcome, so that new strategies for modulating cell proliferation in the mammary tissue are urgently needed. There is some, as yet inconclusive evidence that α-amylase may constitute a novel candidate for affecting cellular growth. Methods The present investigation aimed to examine if salivary α-amylase, an enzyme well known for the metabolism of starch and recently introduced as a stress marker, is able to exert antiproliferative effects on the growth of mammary gland epithelial cells. For this purpose, primary epithelial cultures of breast tissue from two different inbred rat strains, Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis, as well as breast tumor cells of human origin were used. Treatment with human salivary α-amylase was performed once daily for 2 days followed by cell counting (trypan blue assay) to determine alterations in cell numbers. Cell senescence after α-amylase treatment was assessed by β-galactosidase assay. Endogenous α-amylase was detected in cells from F344 and Lewis by immunofluorescence. Results Salivary α-amylase treatment in vitro significantly decreased the proliferation of primary cells from F344 and Lewis rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, the sensitivity towards α-amylase was significantly higher in Lewis cells with stronger impact on cell growth after 5 and 50 U/ml compared to F344 cells. An antiproliferative effect of α-amylase was also determined in mammary tumor cells of human origin, but this effect varied depending on the donor, age, and type of the cells. Conclusions The results presented here indicate for the first time that salivary α-amylase affects cell growth in rat mammary epithelial cells and in breast tumor cells of human origin. Thus, α-amylase may be considered a novel, promising target for balancing cellular growth, which may provide an interesting tool for tumor prophylaxis and treatment. PMID:22027017

  6. Competition between potential energy minimization and number of contact points in two-dimension granular materials exhibiting Brazil-nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Widayani, Novitrian

    2015-09-01

    The granular materials phenomenon known as Brazil-nut effect is discussed in this work, where its grain configurations are constructed artificially as time-independent using 2-d disks. Single intruder with 2.6 cm diameter is introduced to granular bed consisted of 1.3 cm diameter disks. Each created configuration is designed similar to observed one in experiments and simulations. Potential energy and number of contact points between grains are observed between initial and final configurations. Contactopy parameter change is also discussed. As comparison results from real experiment and simulation are also presented.

  7. Tempol, a Membrane-Permeable Radical Scavenger, Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory and Cardioprotective Effects in the Cerulein-Induced Pancreatitis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Walczyna, Beata; Rajtar, Grażyna; Marciniak, Sebastian; Wojtak, Andrzej; Lasiecka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    To date, it remains unclear whether mild form of acute pancreatitis (AP) may cause myocardial damage which may be asymptomatic for a long time. Pathogenesis of AP-related cardiac injury may be attributed in part to ROS/RNS overproduction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress changes in both the pancreas and the heart and to estimate the protective effects of 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (tempol) at the early phase of AP. Cerulein-induced AP led to the development of acute edematous pancreatitis with a significant decrease in the level of sulfhydryl (–SH) groups (oxidation marker) both in heart and in pancreatic tissues as well as a substantial increase in plasma creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) activity (marker of the heart muscle lesion) which confirmed the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiac damage. The tempol treatment significantly reduced the intensity of inflammation and oxidative damage and decreased the morphological evidence of pancreas injury at early AP stages. Moreover, it markedly attenuated AP-induced cardiac damage revealed by normalization of the –SH group levels and CK-MB activity. On the basis of these studies, it is possible to conclude that tempol has a profound protective effect against cardiac and pancreatic damage induced by AP. PMID:26770650

  8. Wild fish from the Bay of Quinte Area of Concern contain elevated tissue concentrations of PCBs and exhibit evidence of endocrine-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D B D; McMaster, M E; Reiner, E J; Hewitt, L M; Parrott, J L; Park, B J; Brown, S B; Sherry, J P

    2014-05-01

    The Bay of Quinte (BOQ) is an Area of Concern listed under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in the BOQ AOC has led to restrictions on fish consumption by humans, which is a beneficial use impairment. Adult yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) were sampled from Trenton, Belleville, and Deseronto (reference site) in the BOQ. A suite of hormone assays and various measures of exposure and/or sublethal health effects were used to assess the health status of fish of both species and sex. Condition factor, hepatosomatic index, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, circulating steroid and thyroid hormones, thyroid activation, oocyte size distribution, spermatogenic cell stages, and plasma vitellogenin were among the endpoints that were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by location. Many of those effects corresponded with significantly (p < 0.05) greater tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at Belleville and Trenton. Hepatic extracts from brown bullhead sampled from Trenton had significantly (p < 0.05) greater binding activity to the androgen receptor and sex steroid binding protein. Taken together, these data and preliminary data from a concomitant study suggest that PCBs are likely being hydroxylated in vivo, resulting in enhanced bioactivity at endocrine receptors and measurable health responses. The present study supports the growing body of evidence that PCBs and their metabolites can affect fish thyroid and steroid hormone systems. PMID:24576942

  9. Isofraxidin exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited TNF-α production in LPS-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro via the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Xing, Wei; Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Hu, Hua; Li, Yongmei

    2012-10-01

    Isofraxidin (IF) is a Coumarin compound that can be isolated from medicinal plants, such as Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.). Nakai is widely used in Asian countries for the treatment of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour action. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of IF on inflammation and nociception. In addition, we investigated a potential novel mechanism to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of IF. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, LPS-induced mouse endotoxic shock, acetic acid-induced mice writhing and formalin-induced mouse pain models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of IF. In vitro, we examined the effects of IF inhibition on TNF-α production and the regulation of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation activity in LPS-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages. Our results demonstrated that IF can significantly decrease xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced pain. Moreover, IF greatly inhibited the production of TNF-α in the serum of LPS-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages, and it decreased phospho-p38 and ERK1/2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Overall, our data suggest that IF possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities that may be mediated through the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2.

  10. Morin, a dietary flavonoid, exhibits anti-fibrotic effect and induces apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells by suppressing canonical NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    MadanKumar, Perumal; NaveenKumar, Perumal; Devaraj, Halagowder; NiranjaliDevaraj, Sivasithamparam

    2015-03-01

    In experimental liver fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a central role and thus, induction of apoptosis of activated HSCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. The present study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the pro-apoptotic effects of morin, a dietary flavonoid, in vitro and in vivo. Culture-activated human HSCs (LX-2 cells) were treated with morin (50 μM) for 24 and 48 h, and the mechanism of cell death induced by morin was evaluated. Also, the anti-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic effect of morin in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced fibrotic rats were determined. Morin induced apoptosis in cultured LX-2 cells by preventing the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κBp65 (NF-κBp65) by inhibiting NF-κB activation via inhibition of IκBα degradation and thereby suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins and activating caspases. In fibrotic rats, morin treatment resulted in inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling and induction of apoptosis, mainly by downregulating Bcl-2, upregulating Bax and cyt c and by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane, altered nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation confirmed the induction of apoptosis by morin. Overall, morin treatment ameliorated experimental liver fibrosis, most likely through induction of apoptosis by inhibiting canonical NF-κB signaling in activated HSCs. It is therefore postulated that morin is a potential therapeutic candidate for liver fibrosis.

  11. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  12. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  13. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  14. Gracilaria edulis exhibit antiproliferative activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 without causing adverse toxic effect in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Archunan, Govindaraju; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the antiproliferative potential of various solvent extracts of Gracilaria edulis (GE) was tested against various cancer cell lines. In the A549 lung cancer cell line model, GE ethyl acetate extract (GEEA) (100 μg mL(-1)) treated group showed the maximum and significant (P < 0.05) growth inhibition at 48 h. The IC50 value was found to be 24.5 ± 19.1 μg mL(-1) at 48 h. Moreover, a low level of LDH release was observed at 48 h at various concentrations of (40, 60, 80 and 100 μg mL(-1)) GEEA extract-treated group compared to a control group. Changes in the cell morphology and echinoid spikes formation were observed at 48 h. Safety evaluation of GEEA in a non-cancerous liver cell line, PBMC and in Wistar rats positively revealed that the extract did not show any adverse toxic effects. The GEEA extract was partially purified by column chromatography and the active fraction was characterized through LC-MS analysis. Furthermore, HPLC and FT-IR analysis of the active fractions confirmed the presence of phytol, a diterpene compound with potent antiproliferative activity, which positively suggests that the red alga G. edulis contains a potent anticancer active principle.

  15. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression. PMID:26398939

  16. A porous 4-fold-interpenetrated chiral framework exhibiting vapochromism, single-crystal-to-single-crystal solvent exchange, gas sorption, and a poisoning effect.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming-Hua; Tan, Yan-Xi; He, Yan-Ping; Yin, Zheng; Chen, Qing; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a 4-fold-interpenetrated pseudodiamond metal-organic framework (MOF), Co(II)(pybz)2·2DMF [pybz = 4-(4-pyridyl)benzoate], are reported. N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) of the channels can be removed to give the porous framework, and it can also be exchanged for methanol, ethanol, benzene, and cyclohexane. It is a rare example of a stable MOF based on a single octahedral building unit. The single-crystal structures of Co(II)(pybz)2·2DMF, Co(II)(pybz)2, Co(II)(pybz)2·4MeOH, and Co(II)(pybz)2·2.5EtOH have been successfully determined. In all of them, the framework is marginally modified and contains a highly distorted and strained octahedral node of cobalt with two pyridine nitrogen atoms and two chelate carboxylate groups. In air, the crystals of Co(II)(pybz)2·2DMF readily change color from claret red to light pink. Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy indicate a change in coordination, where the carboxylate becomes monodentate and an additional two water molecules are coordinated to each cobalt atom. In a dry solvent, this transformation does not take place. Tests show that Co(II)(pybz)2 may be a more efficient drying agent than silica gel and anhydrous CuSO4. The desolvated Co(II)(pybz)2 can absorb several gases such as CO2, N2, H2, and CH4 and also vapors of methanol, ethanol, benzene, and cyclohexane. If Co(II)(pybz)2 is exposed to air and followed by reactivation, its sorption capacity is considerably reduced, which we associate with a poisoning effect. Because of the long distance between the cobalt atoms in the structure, the magnetic properties are those of a paramagnet. PMID:23398593

  17. Sclareol, a plant diterpene, exhibits potent antiproliferative effects via the induction of apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in osteosarcoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; He, Hong-Sheng; Yu, Hua-Long; Zeng, Yun; Han, Heng; He, Ning; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Shou-Jia; Xiong, Min

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of sclareol against MG63 osteosarcoma cells. A 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of cells following treatment with sclareol. The extent of cell death induced by sclareol was evaluated using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The effect of sclareol on cell cycle progression and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) was evaluated with flow cytometry using the DNA‑binding fluorescent dyes propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy was used to detect the morphological changes in the MG63 osteosarcoma cancer cells and the appearance of apoptotic bodies following sclareol treatment. The results revealed that sclareol induced dose‑ and time‑dependent growth inhibition of MG63 cancer cells with an IC50 value of 65.2 µM following a 12‑h incubation. Furthermore, sclareol induced a significant increase in the release of LDH from MG63 cell cultures, which was much more pronounced at higher doses. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that sclareol induced characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. Flow cytometry revealed that sclareol induced G1‑phase cell cycle arrest, which showed significant dose‑dependence. Additionally, sclareol induced a progressive and dose‑dependent reduction in the ΛΨm. In summary, sclareol inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cancer cells via the induction of apoptosis, which is accompanied by G1‑phase cell cycle arrest and loss of ΛΨm.

  18. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, D.J.; Guan, X.M.; Shulgin, A.T. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of various analogues of the neurotoxic amphetamine derivative, MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) on carrier-mediated, calcium-independent release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA from rat brain synaptosomes was investigated. Both enantiomers of the neurotoxic analogues MDA and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induce synaptosomal release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA in vitro. The release of 3H-5-HT induced by MDMA is partially blocked by 10(-6) M fluoxetine. The (+) enantiomers of both MDA and MDMA are more potent than the (-) enantiomers as releasers of both 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA. Eleven analogues, differing from MDA with respect to the nature and number of ring and/or side chain substituents, also show some activity in the release experiments, and are more potent as releasers of 3H-5-HT than of 3H-DA. The amphetamine derivatives {plus minus}fenfluramine, {plus minus}norfenfluramine, {plus minus}MDE, {plus minus}PCA, and d-methamphetamine are all potent releasers of 3H-5-HT and show varying degrees of activity as 3H-DA releasers. The hallucinogen DOM does not cause significant release of either 3H-monoamine. Possible long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the density of 5-HT uptake sites in rats treated with multiple doses of selected analogues using 3H-paroxetine to label 5-HT uptake sites. In the neurotoxicity study of the compounds investigated, only (+)MDA caused a significant loss of 5-HT uptake sites in comparison to saline-treated controls. These results are discussed in terms of the apparent structure-activity properties affecting 3H-monoamine release and their possible relevance to neurotoxicity in this series of MDA congeners.

  19. Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. Extract Has a High Antioxidant Capacity and Exhibits Hair Growth-promoting Effects in Male C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Choi, Joo Yeon; Park, Byung Cheol; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. (PSE) extract on mouse hair growth and to determine the mechanism of action of PSE. PSE was purchased and its antioxidant activities, such as electron donating ability, total polyphenol content, and flavonoid content were tested. Toxicity during topical treatment was determined by the CCK-8 assay, a cell viability test. Fifteen 4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to receive one of three treatments: dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), minoxidil (positive control) or PSE. Test materials were topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of each mouse daily for 3 weeks. After 21 days, we observed skin tissue hair follicle morphology and length, mast cell number, and stem cell factor (SCF) expression using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines involved in hair growth [i.e., insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] was determined by PCR. PSE was found to have very high antioxidant activity. The cell viability rate of PSE-treated mice was markedly higher than that of mice in the control group. We also observed an increase in hair follicle length, strong SCF staining, and a decrease in mast cell number in the PSE group. In addition, PSE-treated mice had higher IGF-1 and KGF expression and lower TGF-β1 expression than mice in the minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that topical application of PSE promotes hair growth by intensifying SCF, suppressing mast cell production, and increasing hair growth-promoting cytokine expression. PMID:25320710

  20. Fresh aromatic herbs containing methylchavicol did not exhibit the pro-oxidative effects of pure methylchavicol on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.

    PubMed

    Bidri, M; Conti, M; Franetich, J-F; Tefit, M; Mazier, D; Arock, M; Vouldoukis, I

    2012-09-01

    Methylchavicol (CH(3)-CV), an important aromatic constituent of different plants like tarragon and basils, has been shown to be carcinogenic by a mechanism yet unclear, although it has been reported that carcinogenicity of CH(3)-CV in rodent might be linked to its metabolic conversion into a genotoxic electrophilic metabolite generated through a two steps bioactivation pathway catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulfotransferases. The induction of carcinogenesis by certain agents has been associated with the generation of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pure methylchavicol applied on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, could promote oxidative stress and might alter the expression of procarcinogenic biomarkers such as the drug-metabolizing enzyme (CYP2E1), the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and might induce the expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and Mn-SOD that control the redox equilibrium of the cells. CH(3)-CV was shown to cause a significant induction of oxidative stress, as revealed by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) and to alter dramatically the expression of CYP2E1, iNOS and Mn-SOD, indicating that the toxic effect of CH(3)-CV could be mediated through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism. Under similar experimental conditions, the extracts from tarragon, chervil and basil did not induce such biological changes. These results provide evidence that the generation of an oxidative stress may be a significant event occurring during CH(3)-CV-induced toxicity. It also suggests that natural extracts containing different amounts of CH(3)-CV (tarragon, chervil and basil) did not elicit such toxicity and might contain compounds able to counteract this detrimental property. PMID:23020916

  1. Autoinducer-independent mutants of the LuxR transcriptional activator exhibit differential effects on the two lux promoters of Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, D M; Shadel, G S; Baldwin, T O

    1996-10-16

    The LuxR protein is a transcriptional activator which, together with a diffusible small molecule termed the autoinducer [N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homo-serine lactone], represents the primary level of regulation of the bioluminescence genes in Vibrio fischeri. LuxR, in the presence of autoinducer, activates transcription of the luxICDABEG gene cluster and both positively and negatively autoregulates transcription of the divergently oriented luxR gene, activating transcription at low levels of autoinducer, and repressing synthesis at high autoinducer concentration. Seven LuxR point mutants which activate V. fischeri lux transcription in the absence of autoinducer (LuxR*) have been characterized. The LuxR* proteins activated transcription of the bioluminescence genes to levels 1.5-40 times that achieved by wild-type LuxR without autoinducer. All of the LuxR* mutants retained responsiveness to autoinducer. However, in each case the degree of stimulation in response to autoinducer was lower than that observed for wild-type LuxR. The LuxR* proteins retained the requirement for autoinducer for autoregulation of the luxR gene. We propose that the LuxR protein exists in two conformations, an inactive form, and an active form which predominates in the presence of autoinducer. The LuxR* mutations appear to shift the equilibrium distribution of these two forms so as to increase the amount of the active form in the absence of autoinducer, while autoinducer can still convert inactive to active species. The differential effects of the LuxR* proteins at the two lux promoters suggest that LuxR stimulates PluxR transcription by a different mechanism to that used at the PluxI promoter, implying that binding of LuxR to its binding site, known to be necessary for transcriptional activation, may not be sufficient.

  2. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-10-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression. PMID:26398939

  3. Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. Extract Has a High Antioxidant Capacity and Exhibits Hair Growth-promoting Effects in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jin; Choi, Joo Yeon; Park, Byung Cheol; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. (PSE) extract on mouse hair growth and to determine the mechanism of action of PSE. PSE was purchased and its antioxidant activities, such as electron donating ability, total polyphenol content, and flavonoid content were tested. Toxicity during topical treatment was determined by the CCK-8 assay, a cell viability test. Fifteen 4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to receive one of three treatments: dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), minoxidil (positive control) or PSE. Test materials were topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of each mouse daily for 3 weeks. After 21 days, we observed skin tissue hair follicle morphology and length, mast cell number, and stem cell factor (SCF) expression using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines involved in hair growth [i.e., insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] was determined by PCR. PSE was found to have very high antioxidant activity. The cell viability rate of PSE-treated mice was markedly higher than that of mice in the control group. We also observed an increase in hair follicle length, strong SCF staining, and a decrease in mast cell number in the PSE group. In addition, PSE-treated mice had higher IGF-1 and KGF expression and lower TGF-β1 expression than mice in the minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that topical application of PSE promotes hair growth by intensifying SCF, suppressing mast cell production, and increasing hair growth-promoting cytokine expression. PMID:25320710

  4. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  5. The E = mc{sup 2} exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.; Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this DOE-supported exhibition is to demystify Einstein`s formula E = mc{sup 2} by illustrating the interchangeability of matter (m) and energy (E), c{sup 2} being the exchange rate. The exhibition has two major parts, {open_quotes}matter into energy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, plus a video to connect them. {open_quotes}Matter into energy{close_quotes} has now been completed and has been placed on the museum floor. Positrons from a {sup 22}Na source are annihilated to produce gamma rays that are caught in NaI detectors. The viewer can alter the alignment of the detectors and observe the consequences for the rates of single and coincident counts. The viewer can also observe the effects of placing absorbers in front of the counters. Prototype explanatory graphics were placed around the exhibit and those will probably be changed after we have some experience with their effectiveness. The connecting video is in the process of being produced in collaboration with Fermilab. A cloud chamber for {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, where gamma rays from a small Th source will produce observable pairs, was purchased and work to make the pairs visible has commenced.

  6. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, YueYun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  7. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  8. 17 CFR 232.102 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Regulation S-T (17 CFR 232.311(b)). (b) Amendments to all exhibits shall be filed in electronic format... designation “CE” (confirming electronic) should be placed next to the listed exhibit in the exhibit index....

  9. Making Your Trade Fair Exhibit More Productive and More Interesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Jack

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions for producing a successful exhibit booth include the following: the effectiveness of an exhibit depends on the effectiveness of the people staffing it; avoid games and unrelated giveaway items; demonstrate product in the booth; give special attention to existing customers; and make literature available only from the booth personnel.…

  10. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  11. ClimateInterpreter.org: an online sharing platform with best practices and resources on effective climate change communication, climate change exhibits, and sustainability efforts at aquariums, zoos, and science museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.; MacKenzie, S.

    2011-12-01

    Many aquariums, zoos, museums, and other informal science education (ISE) centers across the country want to connect their visitors with the important issue of climate change. Communicating climate change and the science it embodies is no easy task though, and ISE institutions are seeking creative and collaborative ways to best interpret the issue with their audiences. Some of these institutions, particularly aquariums and zoos, have live specimens on exhibit that stand to be severely impacted by climate change. Others see it as an educational and moral imperative to address such an important issue affecting the world today, especially one so close to the core mission of their institution. Regardless, informal science educators have noticed that the public is increasingly coming to them with questions related to climate change, and they want to be able to respond as effectively as they can. The Monterey Bay Aquarium is one partner in a coalition of aquariums, zoos, museums and informal science education institutions that are working together to present climate change to its visitors. These institutions hold enormous public trust as sources of sound scientific information. Whether it is through exhibitions like the Aquarium's Hot Pink Flamingos: Stories of Hope in a Changing Sea, interpretive and communication techniques to navigate challenging climate change discussions, or with sustainability planning and operational greening efforts, there is a concerted movement to improve the capacity of these institutions to respond to the issue. Ultimately, their goal is to inspire visitors in a way that positively impacts the country's discourse surrounding climate change, and helps steer our dialog toward a focus on solutions. In addition to the Hot Pink Flamingos exhibit, the Aquarium is also working with the coalition to build a website, www.climateinterpreter.org, that can serve as an online platform for sharing the experiences of what different partners have learned at

  12. Nuclear quadrupole spin-lattice relaxation in Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} single crystals doped with atoms of d or f elements. Crystal field effects in compounds exhibiting anomalous magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, V. G. Sergeev, G. S.; Asaji, Tetsuo; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kargin, Yu. F.

    2010-02-15

    The nuclear quadrupole spin-lattice relaxation was studied in the range 4.2-300 K for single crystals of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} doped with minor amounts (the tenth fractions of mol%) of paramagnetic atoms of Cr, Nd, and Gd. Unusual spin dynamic features were recently found for these crystals at room temperature: a dramatic (up to 8-fold) increase in the effective nuclear quadrupole spin-spin relaxation time T{sub 2}* occurred upon doping the pure Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} sample. Unlike T{sub 2}*, the effective spin-lattice relaxation time T{sub 1}* at room temperature differs insignificantly for both doped and pure samples. But at lower temperatures, the samples exhibit considerably different behavior of the spin-lattice relaxation with temperature, which is caused by different contributions to the relaxation process of the dopant paramagnetic atoms. The distinctive maximum in the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time for the Nd-doped crystal is shown to result from the crystal electric field effects.

  13. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8‑cineole, against certain respiratory infection‑causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry. A micro‑well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 µg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 µg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 µg/mouse) and grandisol (135 µg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 µg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 µg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can

  14. Science Education Through a Museum Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparian, Azad; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes the polywater exhibit at the Worcester Science Center in Massachusetts. Curiosity and interest are stimulated in young people by allowing them to handle the materials in the exhibit and by providing them with instructions for making polywater. (JR)

  15. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  16. Designing Art Exhibitions in an Educational Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, June; Crooks, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the multiple features of the Cerulean Gallery in Second Life, this research report showcases several exemplar exhibits created by students, artists, and museums. Located in The Educational Media Center, a Second Life teaching and social space, the Cerulean Gallery exhibits functioned as case studies that tested its effectiveness as…

  17. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  18. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  19. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  20. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  1. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shopping centers, malls, etc.) provided it is clearly established that such areas are places the general... exhibits may be forwarded to the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center via the local Navy recruiter with an information copy to the Chief of Information. The primary mission of the Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center is...

  2. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a...

  3. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a...

  4. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a...

  5. Y-doped La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites exhibiting a large magnetocaloric effect and the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, The-Long; Jung, C. U.; Lee, B. W.; Ho, T. A.; Manh, T. V.; Dang, N. T.; Thanh, T. D.

    2015-10-14

    We prepared orthorhombic La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} samples (x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) by conventional solid-state reaction and then studied their magnetic properties and magnetocaloric (MC) effect based on magnetization versus temperature and magnetic-field measurements, M(T, H). The experimental results revealed that an x increase in La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} reduced the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature (T{sub C}) from 260 K (for x = 0) to ∼126 K (for x = 0.08). Around the T{sub C}, maximum magnetic-entropy changes for a magnetic-field variation interval H = 50 kOe are about 10.7, 8.5, 7.4, and 5.8 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} for x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08, respectively, corresponding to refrigerant capacities RC = 250–280 J·kg{sup −1}. These values are comparable to those of some conventional MC materials, revealing the applicability of La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} in magnetic refrigeration. Using the Arrott method and scaling hypothesis as analyzing high-field M(H, T) data, and the universal-curve construction of the magnetic entropy change, we found a magnetic-phase separation. While the samples x = 0−0.06 exhibit a first-order magnetic phase transition, x = 0.08 exhibits the crossover of the first-to-second-order phase transformation (with its critical-exponent values close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory) and has the presence of ferromagnetic clusters even above the T{sub C}. Such the variations in the magnetism and MC effect are related to the changes in structural parameters caused by the Y substitution for La because Y doping does not change the concentration ratio of Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+}.

  6. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    PubMed Central

    YANG, CHANG; HU, DONG-HUI; FENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  7. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  8. Exhibit Development: The Importance of Process and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; McLain, B.

    2010-08-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in developing national traveling exhibitions on space science education (e.g. Electric Space, MarsQuest, Alien Earths, Giant Worlds, Asteroids, and Discover Space). It is also known for developing effective digital media programs (e.g. www.alienearths.org), education workshops for formal and informal educators, and educational films (e.g. Inspire Me: Weightless Flights of Discovery). This paper focuses on the exhibit development process, spanning conceptual planning, design development, fabrication and launch. SSI's exhibit programs also include education and outreach programming and the development of an online version of the exhibit. Examples from Giant Worlds and Asteroids will be used to illustrate these development phases especially the importance of evaluation/research in exhibit development using a logic model approach.

  9. Visitors' Use of Computer Exhibits: Findings from 5 Grueling Years of Watching Visitors Getting It Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Computer screen-based interactives can be very effective exhibits and are especially popular with children. Summarizes what museum researchers at London's Science Museum learned while testing computer-interactive exhibits. Topics include typical modes of behavior at computer exhibits, features that improve exhibit attractiveness, effective use of…

  10. Effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line

    PubMed Central

    LI, YACHAN; LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; YIN, LIANHUA; SHEN, JIANYING; KANG, JIE; DING, SHANSHAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of the Kidney-Yang deficiency (KYD) pattern of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of a certain age range by comparing the effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the KYD pattern with that of serum from postmenopausal women without osteoporosis on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line. A random selection of 30 female, postmenopausal volunteers aged 60–70 years, including 15 cases without osteoporosis and 15 cases with the KYD pattern of osteoporosis, were enrolled at the Physical Examination Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Venous blood was extracted and the serum was separated. The hFOB 1.19 cells were treated with 10% KYD pattern-serum or control serum from postmenopausal women of the same age range without osteoporosis. It was found that the KYD pattern-serum significantly decreased the cell viability, activity of alkaline phosphatase and number of calcified nodules, as well as downregulated the expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and upregulated that of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in the hFOB 1.19 cells. In addition, the present results showed that the concentrations of estradiol (E2), OPG and insulin-like factor-1 (IGF-1) in the KYD pattern-serum were lower than those in the control serum. In combination, these findings suggest that the downregulation of E2, OPG and IGF-1 in the KYD pattern-serum inhibits the OPG/RANKL system, leading to a decrease in bone formation in the hFOB 1.19 cells. This indicates that the alterations in E2, OPG and IGF-1 may account for the susceptibility of certain postmenopausal women to the KYD pattern of osteoporosis. PMID:26622445

  11. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  12. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  13. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  14. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  15. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  16. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1997. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1997 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  17. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1996. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1996 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award-winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  18. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  19. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  20. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  1. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  2. 28 CFR 5.201 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the existing or proposed activities engaged in or to be engaged in, including political activities, by... be filed as exhibit C: (1) A copy of the registrant's charter, articles of incorporation...

  3. 28 CFR 5.201 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the existing or proposed activities engaged in or to be engaged in, including political activities, by... be filed as exhibit C: (1) A copy of the registrant's charter, articles of incorporation...

  4. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public of the Navy's mission and operations. (2) To disseminate technical and scientific information. (3... naval equipment, models, devices and information and orientation material placed on public display for information purposes before audiences at conventions, conferences, seminars, demonstrations, exhibits,...

  5. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  6. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  7. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  8. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    PubMed

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  9. UO2 oxidative corrosion by non-classical diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Joanne; Chaka, Anne M.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Biwer, Craig A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bargar, John R.; Eng, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Using x-ray scattering, spectroscopy, and computational methods, we show that oxidation of the UO2 (111) surface results in a self-organized arrangement of oxygen interstitials with three-layer periodicity, producing a nanoscale oscillatory oxidation front with uranium in three oxidation states: IV, V, and VI. This complex diffusion profile is driven by the transfer of the lowest energy U5f electrons from multiple U atoms into the O2p band. Our results contrast with all previous bulk structural oxidation models and the simple exponential oxidation front expected from classical diffusion.

  10. Engineering Non-Classical Light with Non-Linear Microwaveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne; Clerk, Aashish; Blais, Alexandre

    The quest for ever increasing fidelity and scalability in measurement of superconducting qubits to be used for fault-tolerant quantum computing has recently led to the development of near quantum-limited broadband phase preserving amplifiers in the microwave regime. These devices are, however, more than just amplifiers: They are sources of high-quality, broadband two-mode squeezed light. We show how bottom-up engineering of Josephson junction embedded waveguides can be used to design novel squeezing spectra. Furthermore, the entanglement in the two-mode squeezed output field can be imprinted onto quantum systems coupled to the device's output. These broadband microwave amplifiers constitute a realization of non-linear waveguide QED, a very interesting playground for non-equilibrium many-body physics.

  11. Non-classical export of an adenovirus structural protein.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Lloyd C; Achermann, Dominik P; Keller, Stephan; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2003-06-01

    The icosahedral capsids of Adenoviruses (Ads) consist of the hexon and stabilizing proteins building the facettes, and of the vertex protein penton base (Pb) anchoring the protruding fibers. The fibers bind to the Coxsackie virus B Ad cell surface receptor (CAR) and Pb to integrins. Here we describe a novel property of the Ad2 Pb. Pb was found to leave the infected cell and, upon exit, it attached to the surrounding noninfected cells forming a radial gradient with highest Pb levels on cells adjacent to the infected cell. The producer cells remained intact until at least 30 h post infection. At this point, Pb was not recovered from the extracellular medium, suggesting that its cell-cell spread might not involve free Pb. When viral particles were released at late stages of infection, soluble Pb was found in the extracellular medium and it randomly bound to noninfected cells. Nonlytic export of Pb occurred upon transient transfection with plasmid DNA, but plasmid-encoded fiber was not exported, indicating that cell-cell spread of Pb is autonomous of infection. Pb export was not affected by Brefeldin A-induced disruption of the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that it occurred via a nonclassical mechanism. Interestingly, the coexpression of Pb and fiber leads to both Pb and fiber export, termed 'protein abduction'. We suggest that fiber abduction might support viral dissemination in infected tissues by interfering with tissue integrity.

  12. Classical vs. non-classical pathways of mineral formation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Yoreo, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent chemical analyses, microscopy studies and computer simulations suggest many minerals nucleate through aggregation of pre-nucleation clusters and grow by particle-mediated processes that involve amorphous or disordered precursors. Still other analyses, both experimental and computational, conclude that even simple mineral systems like calcium carbonate form via a barrier-free process of liquid-liquid separation, which is followed by dehydration of the ion-rich phase to form the solid products. However, careful measurements of calcite nucleation rates on a variety of ionized surfaces give results that are in complete agreement with the expectations of classical nucleation theory, in which clusters growing through ion-by-ion addition overcome a free energy barrier through the natural microscopic density fluctuations of the system. Here the challenge of integrating these seemingly disparate observations and analyses into a coherent picture of mineral formation is addressed by considering the energy barriers to calcite formation predicted by the classical theory and the changes in those barriers brought about by the introduction of interfaces and clusters, both stable and metastable. Results from a suite of in situ TEM, AFM, and optical experiments combined with simulations are used to illustrate the conclusions. The analyses show that the expected barrier to homogeneous calcite nucleation is prohibitive even at concentrations exceeding the solubility limit of amorphous calcium carbonate. However, as demonstrated by experiments on self-assembled monolayers, the introduction of surfaces that moderately decrease the interfacial energy associated with the forming nucleus can reduce the magnitude of the barrier to a level that is easily surmounted under typical laboratory conditions. In the absence of such surfaces, experiments that proceed by continually increasing supersaturation with time can easily by-pass direct nucleation of calcite and open up pathways through all other solid phases, as well as dense liquid phases associated with a spinodal. Simulations predict that this phase boundary lies within the region of the calcium carbonate - water phase diagram accessible at room temperature. AFM and TEM analyses of other mineral systems, particularly calcium phosphate, suggest cluster aggregation can play important roles both in modifying barriers and in biasing pathways towards or away from amorphous phases. Most importantly, analysis of the energetic changes shows that barriers are only reduced if the clusters are metastable relative to the free ions and that the reduction is naturally accompanied by a bias towards formation of amorphous precursors. Finally, results from in situ TEM observations of nanoparticle interactions are used to understand the mechanisms controlling particle-mediated growth following formation of primary nuclei of either crystalline phases or disordered precursors. Measurements of the particle speeds and accelerations are used to estimate the magnitude of the attractive potential that drives particle-particle aggregation.

  13. Evidence of Non-Classical Transport in Discharge Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan; Jameson, Kristina

    2006-10-01

    Measurements, simplified analyses and 2-D numerical simulations with a fluid plasma model show that classical resistivity can not fully account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in a discharge hollow cathode used as an electron source in electric propulsion. The numerical simulations show that classical resistivity yields much colder electron temperatures compared to the measured values in the orifice and near-plume regions of the cathode. Classical transport and Ohm's law also predict exceedingly high electron-ion relative drift speeds compared to the electron thermal speed, which would normally excite streaming instabilities in this plasma. Measurements with a high frequency emissive probe also capture 50-100 kHz plasma potential fluctuations in the near-plume region. It is found that the addition of anomalous resistivity based on existing growth rate formulae for such instabilities improves significantly the comparison between fluid theory and experiment. But the extent of possible deviations from the Maxwellian EEDF, possibly as a result of the micro instabilities, has not yet been quantified in this cathode.

  14. High content screening for non-classical peroxisome proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Jonathan Z; He, Qingping; Forsberg, Lawrence J; Brenman, Jay E

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous cellular organelles that perform vital functions including fatty acid beta-oxidation, plasmalogen synthesis, and detoxification of harmful oxidative species. In rodents numerous compounds that increase peroxisome biogenesis also alleviate metabolic syndrome (MetS)/type 2 diabetes (T2D) symptoms. However, compounds that increase peroxisome biogenesis in rodents largely do not increase peroxisome biogenesis in humans. We designed a novel genetically encoded high throughput screening (HTS) high content assay to identify small molecule compounds that function as peroxisome proliferators in human cells. From this assay we have confirmed that 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), a PPAR independent peroxisome proliferator and chemical chaperone, increases peroxisome proliferation in human cells and serves as a positive control for our screen. We performed a small pilot and larger 15,000 compound production screen with an overall Z′ factor of 0.74 for 384-well plate format, providing a valuable screening tool for identifying peroxisome modulator compounds. From this screen we have identified 4 existing drugs and 10 novel compounds, some with common scaffolds 1000X more potent than PBA. It is hoped that these novel compounds may serve as scaffolds for testing for efficacy in alleviating MetS/T2D symptoms both in mouse models and ultimately human disease. PMID:21132080

  15. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K.; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.; Grima, Joseph N.

    2016-02-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour.

  16. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  17. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  18. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions. PMID:19307555

  19. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LNG, evidence that an appropriate and qualified concern will properly and safely receive or deliver such LNG, including a report containing detailed engineering and design information. The Commission... Office of Energy Projects, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426; (6) Exhibit E-1. If the...

  20. 28 CFR 68.43 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhibits. 68.43 Section 68.43 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS,...

  1. Creating Cross-Cultural Exhibits in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Kazuyo; Erickson, Virginia; Ford, Viktoria

    Theory and practice of the Cross-Cultural Arts Exhibit project initiated by the Krannert Art Museum at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Illinois) is described in this paper. The project was developed based on the concept of post-museum. Instead of transmitting values and knowledge, communication in the post-museum stresses the…

  2. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required supporting equipment, such as insulation medium pressurizing or forced cooling; (iii) Cathodic protection scheme; and (iv) Type of dielectric fluid and safeguards used to limit potential spills in...) Exhibit H—System analysis data. An analysis evaluating the impact the proposed facilities will have on...

  3. 17 CFR 232.102 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pursuant to the schedule's general instructions. See Rule 311(b) of Regulation S-T (17 CFR 232.311(b)). (b... registered investment company or a business development company). (d) Each electronic filing requiring... AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Electronic Filing Requirements § 232.102 Exhibits. (a)...

  4. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  5. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relation to the project and other principal interconnected system elements, as well as power flow and loss... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  6. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... destination of the project; (ii) Design voltage rating (kV); (iii) Operating voltage rating (kV); (iv)...

  7. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-03-31

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy-its real value-and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency-its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions.

  8. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  9. Caring for Planet Earth Interactive Exhibit and School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Caring for Planet Earth program addresses concerns and misconceptions of Oklahoma youth about the environment. A school enrichment curriculum reinforces the environmental content of the exhibit at the state fair. Pre-/posttest results verify it is an effective method of educating culturally diverse audiences about environmental issues. (SK)

  10. 17 CFR 229.601 - (Item 601) Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... specific exhibit filing requirements applicable thereto. (4) If a material contract or plan of acquisition... forms 10 8-K 2 10-D 10-Q 10-K (1) Underwriting agreement X X X X X X X X (2) Plan of acquisition... into a registration statement subsequent to its effectiveness. (2) Plan of acquisition,...

  11. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    PubMed

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums.

  12. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  13. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  14. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  15. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  16. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  17. When do children exhibit a "yes" bias?

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as preference-object and knowledge-object questions pertaining to objects, and knowledge-face questions pertaining to facial expressions. Four-year-olds tended to say "yes" only to knowledge-object questions. Five-year-olds did not show any strong response tendency. Six-year-olds exhibited a nay-saying bias to knowledge-face questions. Also, 3-year-olds could indicate the correct option when asked questions with 2 response options. It suggested that 3-year-olds tended to inappropriately say "yes" to yes-no questions, although they knew the answers to the questions. The mechanism of a yes bias was discussed.

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  3. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  4. Noisy neural nets exhibiting epileptic features.

    PubMed

    Kokkinidis, M; Anninos, P

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of our previous studies of noisy neural nets we propose a model for the explanation of epileptic phenomena. Our neural net model is capable of exhibiting epileptic features if the number of spontaneously firing neurons is periodically increased beyond a certain threshold. Some alternative epileptogenic mechanisms are also discussed. The epileptic behavior of the neural net is determined by a combination of certain parameters of its phase diagram. The general features of the model are consistent with several experimental observations and explain some poorly understood clinical phenomena. The differences between normal and epileptic neural nets are explained in terms of the structural properties of the model.

  5. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  6. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  7. Phloretin exhibits an anticancer effect and enhances the anticancer ability of cisplatin on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines by regulating expression of apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijie; Wang, Ruixuan; Nan, Yandong; Li, Wangping; Wang, Qingwei; Jin, Faguang

    2016-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancer cases and the prognosis of NSCLC patients is unsatisfactory since 5-year survival rate of NSCLC is still as low as 11%. Natural compounds derived from plants with few or no side effects have been recognized as alternative or auxiliary cure for cancer patients. Phloretin is such an agent possessing various pharmacological activities; however, there is scarce information on its anticancer effects on NSCLC. It was evaluated and confirmed, in the present study, that phloretin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549, Calu-1, H838 and H520 cells in a dose-dependent manner, phloretin also suppressed the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. We further confirmed that phloretin dose-dependently suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, increased the protein expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and -9, and deregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 on gene and protein levels. Besides, evaluations revealed that phloretin enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Moreover, phloretin facilitated the effects of cisplatin on deregulation of Bcl-2, MMP-2 and -9, and upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3 and -9. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that phloretin possessed anticancer effects and enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin on NSCLC cell lines by suppressing proliferation, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting invasion and migration of the cells through regulating apoptotic pathways and MMPs. PMID:26692364

  8. Phloretin exhibits an anticancer effect and enhances the anticancer ability of cisplatin on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines by regulating expression of apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijie; Wang, Ruixuan; Nan, Yandong; Li, Wangping; Wang, Qingwei; Jin, Faguang

    2016-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancer cases and the prognosis of NSCLC patients is unsatisfactory since 5-year survival rate of NSCLC is still as low as 11%. Natural compounds derived from plants with few or no side effects have been recognized as alternative or auxiliary cure for cancer patients. Phloretin is such an agent possessing various pharmacological activities; however, there is scarce information on its anticancer effects on NSCLC. It was evaluated and confirmed, in the present study, that phloretin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549, Calu-1, H838 and H520 cells in a dose-dependent manner, phloretin also suppressed the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. We further confirmed that phloretin dose-dependently suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, increased the protein expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and -9, and deregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 on gene and protein levels. Besides, evaluations revealed that phloretin enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Moreover, phloretin facilitated the effects of cisplatin on deregulation of Bcl-2, MMP-2 and -9, and upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3 and -9. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that phloretin possessed anticancer effects and enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin on NSCLC cell lines by suppressing proliferation, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting invasion and migration of the cells through regulating apoptotic pathways and MMPs.

  9. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  10. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  11. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2016-07-12

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  12. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  13. pH-sensitive polymeric cisplatin-ion complex with styrene-maleic acid copolymer exhibits tumor-selective drug delivery and antitumor activity as a result of the enhanced permeability and retention effect.

    PubMed

    Saisyo, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Greish, Khaled; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used to treat various cancers. However, its distribution to normal tissues causes serious adverse effects. For this study, we synthesized a complex of styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and CDDP (SMA-CDDP), which formed polymeric micelles, to achieve tumor-selective drug delivery based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. SMA-CDDP is obtained by regulating the pH of the reaction solution of SMA and CDDP. The mean SMA-CDDP particle size was 102.5 nm in PBS according to electrophoretic light scattering, and the CDDP content was 20.1% (w/w). The release rate of free CDDP derivatives from the SMA-CDDP complex at physiological pH was quite slow (0.75%/day), whereas it was much faster at pH 5.5 (4.4%/day). SMA-CDDP thus had weaker in vitro toxicity at pH 7.4 but higher cytotoxicity at pH 5.5. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a 5-fold higher tumor concentration of SMA-CDDP than of free CDDP. SMA-CDDP had more effective antitumor potential but lower toxicity than did free CDDP in mice after i.v. administration. Administration of parental free CDDP at 4 mg/kg×3 caused a weight loss of more than 5%; SMA-CDDP at 60 mg/kg (CDDP equivalent)×3 caused no significant weight change but markedly suppressed S-180 tumor growth. These findings together suggested using micelles of the SMA-CDDP complex as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent because of beneficial properties-tumor-selective accumulation and relatively rapid drug release at the acidic pH of the tumor-which resulted in superior antitumor effects and fewer side effects compared with free CDDP. PMID:26674841

  14. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  15. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  16. Mixed copper-platinum complex formation could explain synergistic antiproliferative effect exhibited by binary mixtures of cisplatin and copper-1,10-phenanthroline compounds: An ESI-MS study.

    PubMed

    Pivetta, Tiziana; Lallai, Viola; Valletta, Elisa; Trudu, Federica; Isaia, Francesco; Perra, Daniela; Pinna, Elisabetta; Pani, Alessandra

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin, cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride, is a metal complex used in clinical practice for the treatment of cancer. Despite its great efficacy, it causes adverse reactions and most patients develop a resistance to cisplatin. To overcome these issues, a multi-drug therapy was introduced as a modern approach to exploit the drug synergy. A synergistic effect had been previously found when testing binary combinations of cisplatin and three copper complexes in vitro, namely, Cu(phen)(OH2)2(OClO3)2, [Cu(phen)2(OH2)](ClO4)2 and [Cu(phen)2(H2dit)](ClO4)2,(phen=1,10-phenanthroline, H2dit=imidazolidine-2-thione), against the human acute T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cell line (CCRF-CEM). In this work [Cu(phen)2(OH2)](ClO4)2 was also tested in combination with cisplatin against cisplatin-resistant sublines of CCRF-CEM (CCRF-CEM-res) and ovarian (A2780-res) cancer cell lines. The tested combinations show a synergistic effect against both the types of resistant cells. The possibility that this effect was caused by the formation of new adducts was considered and mass spectra of solutions containing cisplatin and one of the three copper complexes at a time were measured using electrospray ionisation at atmospheric-pressure mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). A mixed complex was detected and its stoichiometry was assessed on the basis of the isotopic pattern and the results of tandem mass spectrometry experiments. The formed complex was found to be [Cu(phen)(OH)μ-(Cl)2Pt(NH3)(H2O)](+).

  17. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. volatile oil exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Yanmin; Fan, Te; Zhou, Ping; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

    2013-11-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) is a medicinal herb that generally used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating allergic inflammation. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of the volatile oil from HC Thunb. on animal models of inflammation and the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema were significantly decreased by HC volatile oil. HC volatile oil showed pronounced inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and malondialdehyde production in the edematous exudates. In vitro exposure of mouse resident peritoneal macrophages to 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/mL of HC volatile oil significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to HC volatile oil had no effect on cell viability and systemic toxicity. Furthermore, HC volatile oil inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α by down-regulating LPS-stimulated iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression. Western blot analysis showed that HC volatile oil attenuated LPS-stimulated synthesis of iNOS and TNF-α protein in the macrophages, in parallel. These findings add a novel aspect to the biological profile of HC and clarify its anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID:23280586

  18. Effects of Subscale Size and Shape on Global Energy Dissipation in a Multiscale Model of a Fiber-Reinforced Composite Exhibiting Post-Peak Strain Softening Using Abaqus and FEAMAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan, J.; Bednarcyk, Brett, A.; Arnold, Steven, M.

    2012-01-01

    A mesh objective crack band model is implemented in the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics model to predict failure of a composite repeating unit cell (RUC). The micromechanics calculations are achieved using the MAC/GMC core engine within the ImMAC suite of micromechanics codes, developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The microscale RUC is linked to a macroscale Abaqus/Standard finite element model using the FEAMAC multiscale framework (included in the ImMAC suite). The effects of the relationship between the characteristic length of the finite element and the size of the microscale RUC on the total energy dissipation of the multiscale model are investigated. A simple 2-D composite square subjected to uniaxial tension is used to demonstrate the effects of scaling the dimensions of the RUC such that the length of the sides of the RUC are equal to the characteristic length of the finite element. These results are compared to simulations where the size of the RUC is fixed, independent of the element size. Simulations are carried out for a variety of mesh densities and element shapes, including square and triangular. Results indicate that a consistent size and shape must be used to yield preserve energy dissipation across the scales.

  19. Agitated Honeybees Exhibit Pessimistic Cognitive Biases

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1–3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4–8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9–11]. Recently, mammals [12–16] and birds [17–20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Video Abstract PMID:21636277

  20. Ferromagnetism exhibited by nanoparticles of noble metals.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Urmimala; Das, Barun; Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, Athinarayanan; Rao, C N R

    2011-08-22

    Gold nanoparticles with average diameters in the range 2.5-15 nm, prepared at the organic/aqueous interface by using tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) as reducing agent, exhibit ferromagnetism whereby the saturation magnetization M(S) increases with decreasing diameter and varies linearly with the fraction of surface atoms. The value of M(S) is higher when the particles are present as a film instead of as a sol. Capping with strongly interacting ligands such as alkane thiols results in a higher M(S) value, which varies with the strength of the metal-sulfur bond. Ferromagnetism is also found in Pt and Ag nanoparticles prepared as sols, and the M(S) values vary as Pt>Au>Ag. A careful study of the temperature variation of the magnetization of Au nanoparticles, along with certain other observations, suggests that small bare nanoparticles of noble metals could indeed possess ferromagnetism, albeit weak, which is accentuated in the presence of capping agents, specially alkane thiols which form strong metal-sulfur bonds.

  1. Citrus ichangensis Peel Extract Exhibits Anti-Metabolic Disorder Effects by the Inhibition of PPARγ and LXR Signaling in High-Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaobo; Fan, Shengjie; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Gaigai; Guo, Lu; Jiang, Dong; Lu, Xiong; Li, Yiming; Zhou, Zhiqin; Huang, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a common nutritional disorder associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, and certain cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of Citrus ichangensis peel extract (CIE) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a chow diet or an HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% w/w CIE for 8 weeks. We found that CIE treatment could lower blood glucose level and improve glucose tolerance. In the HF+CIE group, body weight gain, serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels, and liver triglyceride (TG) and TC concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased relative to those in the HF group. To elucidate the mechanism of CIE on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, related genes expression in liver were examined. In liver tissue, CIE significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). Moreover, CIE also decreased the expression of liver X receptor (LXR) α and β which are involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that CIE administration could alleviate obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF diet-induced obesity mice through the inhibition of PPARγ and LXR signaling. PMID:23320036

  2. Gallic Acid, an active constituent of grape seed extract, exhibits anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic effects against prostate carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjinder; Velmurugan, Balaiya; Rajamanickam, Subapriya; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Gallic acid, a natural agent present wide-range of fruits and vegetables, has been of potential interest as anti-cancer agent; herein, we evaluated its efficacy in androgen-independent DU145 and androgen-dependent-22Rv1 human prostate cancer (PCa) cells Materials and Methods Cell viability was determined by MTT and apoptosis by Annexin V-PI assays. In vivo anti-cancer efficacy was assessed by DU145 and 22Rv1 xenograft growth in nude mice given normal drinking water or one supplemented with 0.3% or 1% (w/v) gallic acid. PCNA, TUNEL and CD31 immunostaining was performed in tumor tissues for in vivo anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of gallic acid. Results Gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in both DU145 and 22Rv1 cells largely via apoptosis induction. In tumor studies, gallic acid feeding inhibited the growth of DU145 and 22Rv1 PCa xenografts in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and reduction of microvessel density in tumor xenografts from gallic acid-fed mice as compared to controls in both DU145 and 22Rv1 models Conclusion Taken together, our findings show the anti-PCa efficacy of gallic acid providing a rationale for additional studies with this naturally-occurring agent for its efficacy against PCa. PMID:19543955

  3. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-01

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species.

  4. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  5. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals.

  6. IGF-1R peptide vaccines/mimics inhibit the growth of BxPC3 and JIMT-1 cancer cells and exhibit synergistic antitumor effects with HER-1 and HER-2 peptides

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Miller, Megan J; Overholser, Jay; Donnelly, Siobhan M; Nahta, Rita; Kaumaya, Pravin TP

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a crucial role in cellular growth, proliferation, transformation, and inhibition of apoptosis. A myriad of human cancer types have been shown to overexpress IGF-1R, including breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. IGF-1R signaling interferes with numerous receptor pathways, rendering tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy, anti-hormonal therapy, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as HER-1) and v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, (ERBB2, best known as HER-2) -targeted therapies. Targeting the IGF:IGF-1R axis with innovative peptide inhibitors and vaccine antibodies thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance and to provide new avenues for individualized and combinatorial treatment strategies. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and characterized several B-cell epitopes from the IGF-1:IGF-1R axis. The chimeric peptide epitopes were highly immunogenic in outbred rabbits, eliciting high levels of peptide vaccine antibodies. The IGF-1R peptide antibodies and peptide mimics inhibited cell proliferation and receptor phosphorylation, induced apoptosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and significantly inhibited tumor growth in the transplantable BxPC-3 pancreatic and JIMT-1 breast cancer models. Our results showed that the peptides and antibodies targeting residues 56–81 and 233–251 are potential therapeutic and vaccine candidates for the treatment of IGF-1R-expressing cancers, including those that are resistant to the HER-2-targeted antibody, trastuzumab. Additionally, we found additive antitumor effects for the combination treatment of the IGF-1R 56-81 epitope with HER-1-418 and HER-2-597 epitopes. Treatment with the IGF-1R/HER-1 or IGF-1R/HER-2 combination inhibited proliferation, invasion, and receptor phosphorylation, and induced apoptosis and ADCC, to a greater degree than single agents. PMID:25941587

  7. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species.

  8. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. PMID:21387395

  9. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374....

  10. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374....

  11. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374....

  12. Classroom Use of Martial Arts Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Shane Garrett; Denn, Grant R.

    2006-10-01

    Martial arts are becoming increasingly popular, and many of the techniques used by martial artists can provide effective demonstrations to showcase basic physics concepts. Many students have martial arts experience by the time they reach the senior level of high school or college. In one conceptual physics course, seven students out of 40 had studied some form of martial arts. Teachers can use experienced students as a resource and exploit the popularity of martial arts to demonstrate some basic points in Newtonian mechanics via martial arts demonstrations. This interactive mode of learning, we have found, is very popular and highly motivational for the students. In this paper we provide some of the possible examples of effective classroom demonstrations; there are many additional examples that your students may want to introduce.

  13. Naturally segregating loci exhibit epistasis for fitness

    PubMed Central

    Monnahan, Patrick J.; Kelly, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which gene interaction or epistasis contributes to fitness variation within populations remains poorly understood, despite its importance to a myriad of evolutionary questions. Here, we report a multi-year field study estimating fitness of Mimulus guttatus genetic lines in which pairs of naturally segregating loci exist in an otherwise uniform background. An allele at QTL x5b—a locus originally mapped for its effect on flower size—positively affects survival if combined with one genotype at quantitative trait locus x10a (aa) but has negative effects when combined with the other genotypes (Aa and AA). The viability differences between genotypes parallel phenotypic differences for the time and node at which a plant flowers. Viability is negatively correlated with fecundity across genotypes, indicating antagonistic pleiotropy for fitness components. This trade-off reduces the genetic variance for total fitness relative to the individual fitness components and thus may serve to maintain variation. Additionally, we find that the effects of each locus and their interaction often vary with the environment. PMID:26246336

  14. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  15. Predicting supercontinuum pulse collisions with simulations exhibiting temporal aliasing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu; Rees, Eric J; Laurila, Toni; Jian, Shuisheng; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2010-12-15

    Interactions between supercontinuum (SC) light pulses, produced by the propagation of rapidly sequenced picosecond pump laser pulses along a photonic crystal fiber, result in spectral broadening, which we attribute to interpulse soliton collisions. This phenomenon was measured experimentally, following our observation of spectral broadening in numerical simulations that exhibit so-called "pulse wraparound" or "temporal aliasing." This occurs in simulations with narrow time grids: as early parts of the SC pulse leave the computational time domain, they "reenter" at the beginning and so interact with later parts of the evolving SC pulse. We show that this provides an effective model to predict the experimentally observed spectral changes.

  16. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  17. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Models, Exhibits, Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  18. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  19. Circularly confined microswimmers exhibit multiple global patterns.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Geometric confinement plays an important role in the dynamics of natural and synthetic microswimmers from bacterial cells to self-propelled particles in high-throughput microfluidic devices. However, little is known about the effects of geometric confinement on the emergent global patterns in such self-propelled systems. Recent experiments on bacterial cells report that, depending on the cell concentration, cells either spontaneously organize into vortical motion in thin cylindrical and spherical droplets or aggregate at the inner boundary of the droplets. Our goal in this paper is to investigate, in the context of an idealized physical model, the interplay between geometric confinement and level of flagellar activity on the emergent collective patterns. We show that decreasing flagellar activity induces a hydrodynamically triggered transition in confined microswimmers from swirling to global circulation (vortex) to boundary aggregation and clustering. These results highlight that the complex interplay between confinement, flagellar activity, and hydrodynamic flows in concentrated suspensions of microswimmers could lead to a plethora of global patterns that are difficult to predict from geometric consideration alone. PMID:25974581

  20. Electroactive Polymer Nanoparticles Exhibiting Photothermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Travis; Rodier, Bradley; Iszard, Zachary; Kilian, Alissa; Pattani, Varun; Walsh, Kyle; Weber, Katharina; Tunnell, James; Betancourt, Tania; Irvin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of electroactive polymers is demonstrated, starting with the synthesis of extended conjugation monomers using a three-step process that finishes with Negishi coupling. Negishi coupling is a cross-coupling process in which a chemical precursor is first lithiated, followed by transmetallation with ZnCl2. The resultant organozinc compound can be coupled to a dibrominated aromatic precursor to give the conjugated monomer. Polymer films can be prepared via electropolymerization of the monomer and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. Nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared via emulsion polymerization of the monomer using a two-surfactant system to yield an aqueous dispersion of the polymer NPs. The NPs are characterized using dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and UV-Vis-NIR-spectroscopy. Cytocompatibility of NPs is investigated using the cell viability assay. Finally, the NP suspensions are irradiated with a NIR laser to determine their effectiveness as potential materials for photothermal therapy (PTT). PMID:26780244

  1. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pritesh P; Leber, Regina; Nagaraj, Chandran; Leitinger, Gerd; Lehofer, Bernhard; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth; Marsh, Leigh M

    2014-01-01

    Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25045260

  2. Peer review and competition in the Art Exhibition Game

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Helbing, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of competitive incentives under peer review, we designed a novel experimental setup called the Art Exhibition Game. We present experimental evidence of how competition introduces both positive and negative effects when creative artifacts are evaluated and selected by peer review. Competition proved to be a double-edged sword: on the one hand, it fosters innovation and product diversity, but on the other hand, it also leads to more unfair reviews and to a lower level of agreement between reviewers. Moreover, an external validation of the quality of peer reviews during the laboratory experiment, based on 23,627 online evaluations on Amazon Mechanical Turk, shows that competition does not significantly increase the level of creativity. Furthermore, the higher rejection rate under competitive conditions does not improve the average quality of published contributions, because more high-quality work is also rejected. Overall, our results could explain why many ground-breaking studies in science end up in lower-tier journals. Differences and similarities between the Art Exhibition Game and scholarly peer review are discussed and the implications for the design of new incentive systems for scientists are explained. PMID:27402744

  3. Peer review and competition in the Art Exhibition Game.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Stefano; Goldstone, Robert L; Helbing, Dirk

    2016-07-26

    To investigate the effect of competitive incentives under peer review, we designed a novel experimental setup called the Art Exhibition Game. We present experimental evidence of how competition introduces both positive and negative effects when creative artifacts are evaluated and selected by peer review. Competition proved to be a double-edged sword: on the one hand, it fosters innovation and product diversity, but on the other hand, it also leads to more unfair reviews and to a lower level of agreement between reviewers. Moreover, an external validation of the quality of peer reviews during the laboratory experiment, based on 23,627 online evaluations on Amazon Mechanical Turk, shows that competition does not significantly increase the level of creativity. Furthermore, the higher rejection rate under competitive conditions does not improve the average quality of published contributions, because more high-quality work is also rejected. Overall, our results could explain why many ground-breaking studies in science end up in lower-tier journals. Differences and similarities between the Art Exhibition Game and scholarly peer review are discussed and the implications for the design of new incentive systems for scientists are explained. PMID:27402744

  4. 48 CFR 204.7105 - Contract exhibits and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... attachments. 204.7105 Section 204.7105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... 204.7105 Contract exhibits and attachments. Follow the procedures at PGI 204.7105 for use and numbering of contract exhibits and attachments....

  5. 32 CFR 705.25 - Navy Exhibit Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.25 Navy Exhibit Center. (a) The center is a... mission is to produce, transport and display U.S. Navy exhibits throughout the United States. It...

  6. Visitor Understanding of Interactive Exhibits: A Study of Family Groups in a Public Aquarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Kodi R.; Wandersee, James H.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of five interactive exhibits in the New Orleans Aquarium of the Americas. The specific research questions were: Which interactive displays in the "Living in Water" exhibits are most memorable to families?; What aspects of these displays seem to increase learning in families?; and What…

  7. 45 CFR 1160.5 - Eligibility for domestic exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.5 Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for...-owned objects; (B) Exhibitions outside of the United States of domestic-owned objects; or (C) Exhibitions in the United States of both foreign- and domestic-owned objects, with the foreign-owned...

  8. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Alighiero Boetti: Game Plan... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Alighiero Boetti: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Listing of Exhibits Appendix to Subpart A of Part 1260 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Pt. 1260, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A of Part 1260—Listing of Exhibits Exhibit...

  10. A Major Children's Educational Art Exhibit: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenk, George W.; Shrock, Sharon A.

    Results of a case study of an exhibit of art and artifacts designed for children are presented. The focus of the study was to apply the principles of instructional-message design to the evaluation of the exhibit. The exhibit, "Art Inside Out: Exploring Art and Culture through Time," was displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago. Textual elements,…

  11. 17 CFR 201.42 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that exhibit in accordance with 17 CFR 201.190. ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 201.42... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.42 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each...

  12. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 960.10 Section 960.10 Postal... JUSTICE ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 960.10 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  13. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  14. 45 CFR 13.11 - Net worth exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibits. 13.11 Section 13.11 Public... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 13.11 Net worth exhibits. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of...

  15. 49 CFR 826.22 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 826.22 Section 826.22... Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  16. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.191 Section 1.191 Agriculture... § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association, must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  17. 17 CFR 148.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 148.12... Required from Applicants § 148.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  18. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  19. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2610.202 Section 2610... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  20. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  1. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1016.202 Section 1016.202... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1016.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  2. African Past: Migrant Present. A Guide to the Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twining, Mary Arnold; Roark-Calnek, Sue

    This exhibit guide describes an exhibition of African folk arts produced by seasonal migrant farmworkers in western New York State. Workers come from the American South, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. The exhibition pieces were collected through the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center's Folk Arts Program and Creative Artists Migrant Program Services…

  3. Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions: A Survey of Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to report findings from a study that looked at a range of strategic issues faced in the development, management and maintenance of online cultural heritage exhibitions. The study examined exhibitions from different types of cultural agencies and asked questions about whether, for instance, the exhibitions are part of the…

  4. 47 CFR 1.356 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of exhibits. 1.356 Section 1.356....356 Copies of exhibits. No document or exhibit, or part thereof, shall be received as, or admitted in... offered in evidence, copies shall be furnished to other counsel unless the presiding officer...

  5. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  6. Performance-Based Assessment, Science Festival Exhibit Presentations, and Elementary Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette A.; Gerber, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the effective use of performance-based assessment for evaluating fifth- and sixth-grade student achievement as demonstrated by student exhibit presentations at a science festival. Individual evaluation scores and group negotiated evaluations were consistent. (Author/MM)

  7. 18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF THE SIXTEENTH STREET CHURCH, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Morphology development in polymer blends exhibiting strong intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.A.; Feng, Y.; Han, C.C.; Karim, A.

    1996-12-31

    He et al. measured the spinodal decomposition (SD) kinetics of a blend of poly(butyl methacrylate) with a polystyrene modified with 1.5 mol% of a hydroxy-containing comonomer that exhibited intermolecular hydrogen bonding, who studied blends. For small excursions into the spinodal region, multiple structures developed in the blend, which suggested that multiple mechanisms may be involved in the phase separation process. For most cases, however, the kinetics of phase separation followed Cahn-Hilliard theory in the early stage of spinodal decomposition and a self-similar mechanism in the later stages, similar to non-associating polymer blends such as PS/PVME. The failure to observe an effect of a specific intermolecular interaction on SD kinetics may be a consequence of the low concentration of hydroxyl groups on the polystyrene, ca. five per chain, and the weakening of the hydrogen bond at the elevated temperatures used to study phase separation where the crosslink effect of hydrogen bonding may not be significant. At elevated temperatures, the association-dissociation equilibrium shifts towards non-associated hydroxyl and ester groups. An objective of the present study was to use a polymer blend having a relatively higher degree of intermolecular association at the phase separation temperature and to investigate how physical crosslinks affect the phase separation kinetics accompanying spinodal decomposition.

  9. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased α-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (Δ56%) and cholesterol epoxide (Δ34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and α-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.

  10. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement...- and domestic-owned objects in an international exhibition. The foreign-owned objects are eligible for indemnity coverage under paragraph (a) of this section, and the domestic-owned objects may be eligible...

  11. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Edwardian Opulence: British Art at... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Edwardian... within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to...

  12. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``50th Anniversary... within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is imported pursuant to a...

  13. 78 FR 50137 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dena'inaq' Huch'ulyeshi: The Dena..., 2003, I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Dena'inaq' Huch'ulyeshi..., are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the...

  14. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Compass and Rule... within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to...

  15. 78 FR 25337 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bronze Statue of a Boxer, Hellenistic..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Bronze Statue of a Boxer... significance. The object is imported pursuant to a loan agreement with the foreign owner or custodian. I...

  16. 77 FR 18295 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective'' imported... objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also...

  17. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Transition to Christianity: Art of... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Transition to... the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan...

  18. A Critical Appraisal of State Level Science Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2007-01-01

    Science exhibitions are really great opportunities to students as well as teachers to disseminate knowledge that they have, and to experience a variety of new inventions and innovations that also need wide dissemination. The great significance of exhibition is that it fosters acquisition of different process skills leading to the development of…

  19. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  7. A Commemorative History of the George Rogers Clark Bicentennial Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Museum Society, Inc., Indianapolis.

    This pamphlet provides an illustrated narrative history of the George Rogers Clark Bicentennial Exhibit at the Indiana State Museum. George Rogers Clark was a frontier hero of the American Revolution who explored and conquered territory in Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois. The multimedia exhibit is open to the public from February 25, 1976 through…

  8. Using Museum Exhibits: An Innovation in Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Satarupa

    2015-01-01

    Museum exhibits can be a tool in experiential learning. While instructors have documented various methods of experiential learning, they have not sufficiently explored such learning from museum exhibits. Museum researchers, however, have long found a satisfying cognitive component to museum visits. This paper narrates the author's design to…

  9. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12... JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth... submit with its application a detailed exhibit showing its net worth at the time the proceeding...

  10. 10 CFR 12.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 10 CFR part 9, subpart A. ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 12.202 Section 12.202 Energy NUCLEAR... Required From Applicants § 12.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant, except a qualified...

  11. 28 CFR 24.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 24.202 Section 24.202... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 24.202 Net worth... submit with its application a detailed exhibit showing its net worth at the time the proceeding...

  12. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposed of in accordance with the Agency's regulations under the Freedom of Information Act, at 14 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1262.202 Section 1262... AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1262.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each...

  13. 15 CFR 18.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the Department's established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act (15 CFR Part 4). ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 18.12 Section 18.12... Information Required from Applicants § 18.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1512 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.1512 Section 1.1512... Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings Information Required from Applicants § 1.1512 Net... must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and...

  15. 22 CFR 134.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 134.12 Section 134.12... Information Required From Applicants § 134.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualifed tax... showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 960.4(f)) when the...

  16. 29 CFR 16.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Net worth exhibit. 16.202 Section 16.202 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 16.202 Net worth... provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any...

  17. 14 CFR 14.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 14.11 Section 14.11... IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Information Required From Applicants § 14.11 Net worth... provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any...

  18. 14 CFR 77.59 - Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits. 77.59 Section 77.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE Rules of Practice for Hearings Under Subpart D § 77.59 Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits....

  19. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...